LIGHT RESISTANCE OF NATURAL DYES MINERALS AND PIGMENTS + THEIR PROTECTION TO LIGHT

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DAVID DAMOUR

ARTIFICIAL LIGHT

SUN

NATURAL LIGHT

LIGHT SOURCES ULTRASONIC DYE EXTRACTION LIGHTFASTNESS OF NATURAL DYES PIGMENTS AND MINERALS AND THE PAINTER'S PAINTS + THEIR PROTECTION + WHICH PIGMENTS TO USE

ISBN 979-10-96990-11-5

2022 BOOK PDF

DAVID PUBLISHING DAMOUR


COPYRIGHT AND LINKS PigmentsRecettes® is an acronym that I created in 2008, it leads to my website which can be consulted at this address: https://pigmentsrecettes.com

INFORMATION Despite the 600 hours of work and the care taken to correct errors, spelling mistakes, grammatical errors and typos have crept into the book. I would like to point out that none of the photos have been retouched except for brightness when justified.

Email :

contact@pigmentsrecettes.com

Facebook

PigmentsRecipesDavid Group on Facebook

https://bit.ly/lapeinturealoeuvre Workshops and MasterClass

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http://bit.ly/PigmentsetMineraux The Painter's Pigments

https://bit.ly/LesPigments

Editorial, Book Writing, Design, Graphic Design, Photography and Illustrations 2022 David Damour This book contains approximately 130 unique and original photos and illustrations all copyright ©2022 David Damour.

28 colours for light tests April/May 2022

WARNING No liability shall be assumed by the author for any injury or damage to persons or property and no liability shall be assumed for products, suppliers, negligence or otherwise, or for the use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or recipes contained in this book.

Digital legal deposit June 2022

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PREFACE

Nature is generous, offering us plants and minerals from which we extract many active ingredients and colourings that serve humanity and art. Plants allow us to feed ourselves, to maintain a good state of health, to heal ourselves thanks to medicines, but the richness of the plant and mineral world does not stop there, it provides painters and all those who love colours with a palette of colours, each more beautiful than the next. However, to discover them, it is necessary to work at it and this is why I have immersed myself for 4 years in this universe since 2018, in order to experiment by myself with the most beautiful colours, and then to share them with you You can use all these natural dyes and pigments in your works, because the use of plants and minerals is the simplest thing: you mix with water and a little alcohol some leaves or roots, you wait a few hours (maceration), you heat (decoction) or the opposite in the microwave oven or with an ultrasonic device and you get a pure dye, then begins a work 1. improvement (addition of metal: aluminium, iron, copper, etc.) 2. adaptation of these colouring materials in order to adjust them to our needs (addition of filler to make them opaque, shade modulator, etc.) 3. the most suitable binder, taking care to rectify its pH All these additives give the dyes a liveliness and robustness.

In this book I give you the experiments I carried out between March 2018 and May 2022, I made a choice between plants and minerals, oriented exclusively towards paint and light-resistant natural dyes and how to protect the most fragile ones if necessary. Do you think that Veronese, Rubens or, closer to us, Gerhard Richter, would have painted such beautiful works if they had not been the conductor of their palette and their materials? I know not, and what better way to know them than to create them yourself. This is the driving force behind this book: "Lightfastness of painter's paints, pigments and natural dyes and their protection", because what is the point of using fugitive colours that are not lightfast and above all, to teach you how to protect those that you want to last. With this book, I hope to give painters hope, so that they can easily create their own natural, light-resistant dyes, which can then be used in their works of art. So, to "your Colours" in short, with this book, appropriate yourself without fear, a colouristic and pictorial freedom and be the craftsman of your palette, the craftsman of your creativity by trying to tame the light ;-) To Colette, for her eternal support...

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NATURAL DYES, INKS, LACQUERS AND PIGMENTS

Very dry ground pigments finely on the marble. They give subtle hues: it simply add a binder without grinding since it was done upstream and since it is at the mode not to crush its pigments!! you can put 2 iron or glass balls in a plastic bottle with the pigment and the binder and then shake. I created these pigments with plants: left the White Clover and on the right the Sage with a hint of Iron. They are all resistant to relative light exposure, as it is necessary to You should never expose your work directly to UV rays, which can damage the paint, or to the moon's rays, as they say.

Milled Pigments in Aqueous Paste for Tube

Inks

Pure Dyes Dry pigments Wet lacquers A very beautiful yellow and a very generous plant, in 30 minutes, you get the macerate with 50 grams of Helichrysum Arenarium named Immortelle des sables + 300 g of water + microwave cooking 3 X 3 minutes = 9 min at 1500 watts or ultrasonic cooking 30 minutes. On the left you have the pure dyes; in the middle you have 3 shades of pigments and on the right you have 2 wet and alkaline lacquers in a pot and 4


finally at the bottom you have the wet lacquers in a tube before they are dry.

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PROTECTION OF COLOURED MATERIALS First of all, it is important to know that only 5% of the sun's ultraviolet rays reach us. This 5% is broken down into 98% UV-A and 2% UV-B. The problem of the lightfastness of dyes and pigments has always been the greatest pitfall in painting, and few dyes are resistant to the sun's U. V. rays.V rays of the sun, after 15, 20 or even 50 years the colours end up changing, even iron oxides, cinnabar, madder, will end up losing some of their vivacity if they are exposed to direct sunlight, which is why we must put in place strategies and use encapsu- lation, This is why we must put in place strategies and use encapsulation, binders and varnishes to protect them and ensure that they are renewed, because much more than the solidity of the colouring materials, it is the solidity and quality of the binders and varnishes that must be our primary concern and in this respect I have formulated several anti-U.In this respect, I have formulated several U.V.A-B resistant binders and varnishes, I have tested them all with dyes that are not light resistant to verify the degree of protection they can provide to natural dyes and paints in general, I will give you the recipes later. In fact I discovered that light was not the only one involved, that is to say that dyes are all derived from the field of chemistry, whether natural, by plants and minerals, or synthetic in the laboratory by humans, and therefore we must take into account the pH, either acidity or alkalinity of the dyes, the chemical interactions: light, specifically UV.A (see book 1 and 2), cause the material to react, which heats up and transforms, so that the colour changes to become darker, for example with blacks, or lighter with yellows.This is a phenomenon of photo-oxidation which damages the dyes, so light is not the only culprit, it is necessary to take into account all these parameters: physical, chemical, mechanical, humidity, heat, atmospheric pressure, etc... to really understand what comes into play and why a specific dye does not resist exposure to light while another does, such as pastel and indigo for example. The use of host materials gives the most fragile materials, such as a shell, a carapace against the brutalities of acid and alkaline agents as well as UV, however, t h e incorporation of a filler makes the materials lighter, see Mayan blue for example, so care should be taken not to add too much.

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We now know that sepiolite and palygorskite are made in such a way that they enclose the co-lorant particles in tubes (channels or canulas), and thus protect them from light and sunlight (UV). These are the pigments that the Maya invented and that are called Maya pigments (see recipe book 1) Modern binders effectively protect natural pigments and enclose the pigment as if it were in a gangue so that it remains stable and unchanged for a very long time: the more unsaponifiable the binder (see glossary), the more resistant it is, even to light. It is important to know that works of art are not exposed to direct sunlight, as this would be very prejudicial. Paintings are not made, for water-based paintings and easel paintings in particular, to be exposed to hostile conditions; one only has to look at illuminations to be convinced of this. There are resins and materials called radical scavengers or an- tioxidants, which effectively protect all paint coatings, but they must be renewed, as they are consumed during their protective action. We can also use UV a b s o r b e r s (UVAs) which have the advantage of not being consumed when they exert their protective action, in fact they are not destroyed by radiation: they go from an excited state to return to their fundamental state by thermal de-excitation. Thus, it is a combination that allows a durable and effective protection of the coloured materials, moreover these materials are sold mixed. The only disadvantage is that almost all of them are solvent-based; however, there are two references such as Tinuvin® 5333- DW and Hos- tanox® for water-based paints. The most difficult thing will be to find these basic constituents in detail in order to make original varnishes, because the manufacturers do not share them!


MINERALS DYES BINDERS & CO ?

MINERALS Minerals are aggregates of one or more chemical types or mineralogical individuals, structures found in rocks that are themselves the accumulation of one or more minerals. Not all minerals can be used in paint, especially oil paint, so avoid anything schistose and bituminous. 95% of minerals can be used with water, then it depends on their refractive index. Remember to always wash minerals and earths in hot water by filtration and levigation to remove soluble salts. THE COLOURINGS Dyes are soluble in binders of any kind, whether synthetic or natural. Their size (granulometry) is very small, so they are very easy to grind, however, they often need to be mixed with a small amount of a wetting agent, such as alcohol, Ecosurf EH6 or ox gall, in order to mix them easily with the binders. If the coloured material dissolves in the liquid, it is a dye, if it does not dissolve, it is a pigment It is easy to obtain earths, ochres and minerals from nature, but often pigments are made from metals. Pigments and colorants are in the form of particles that vary greatly in size, from 0.1 micrometres to several hundred micrometres (e.g. 200 µm for some fillers). Pigments are particles added to the paint system in order to protect and modify its properties: first of all, the colour, but they are also used in the production of the paint.

also used to protect and modify the physical characteristics of the system: matt, gloss, etc. in conjunction with various inert additives such as sand, quartz, sepiolite, kaolin, etc. WHAT IS A BINDER? A binder is a vehicle, a "medium", a means" that is used to transport coloured materials: it is a solid that is solubilised to make paints: basically it is very often a mixture of a solid material (resin, gum) with a liquid material (water, oil, solvent, etc.). The binder allows the colouring materials to be bonded together to apply them, to fix them on the supports, to paint: in Roman times, "colour" meant to hide, therefore to cover and by extension "paint". WHERE DO THE PIGMENTS COME FROM? Natural pigments, which are called "inorganic", come from nature, from rocks, ochres, earths and minerals, whereas artificial or synthetical dyes come from organic chemistry, i.e. they are developed in factories or laboratories. Dyes are made from chemicals and metals in liquid or solid form, but they can also be created using heat in a furnace. THE PIGMENTS A pigment comes in powder form and is coloured by natural minerals or by natural or synthetic metal oxides: insoluble materials that are generally stable in the binders with which they are mixed.

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PIGMENTS AND COLOURS The pigment or dye has characteristics that it does not possess, and thus it is imparted the properties of the material to which it has been bound, encapsulated: it is housed in the tubes or canulae of the host structure, for example sepiolite, and is protected: The dyes are therefore more resistant to light and to acids and alkalis. This "encapsulation" can be achieved by cold miling, but ideally the pigment is heated to a temperature of 190°C for a minimum of 2 hours, to fuse with the filler. For the pigments to have good covering and colouring power in oil, the ratio should be at least 70% pigment and not more than 40% filler. I tested the encapsulation of cochineal on 50% sepiolite by cold mechanochemistry, and I made ink out of it, indeed the homogeneity is perfect, the covering power a little less, one cannot dis- sociate the load of the dye any more: the lacquered pigments are improved as regards their natural fragility with aqueous binders, they are thus less reactive, they do not bleed anymore.

Encapsulation of cochineal by mechanochemistry

My Photo Pigments June 2022 PIGMENT IMPROVEMENT The pigments can be encapsulated with atta-pulgite, just as the Maya used to do with an indigo blue pigment called "Mayan blue". Encapsulation is a technique that allows a dye to be grafted, as it were, onto a material that has a number of different properties.

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WHAT IS COLOUR Colour is a sensation generated by the brain that we describe in words: the light that strikes the cones and rods is decoded by light receptors located at the back of our eyes. On the other hand, pigments that have a "hue" are chemical materials, palpable, in powder form, they have a chemical formula, and they are affiliated with a "Colour Index": a directory of colouring materials, a universal means of distinguishing and naming all existing coloured and colouring materials for identification purposes.


MANUFACTURE OF NATURAL PIGMENT LACQUERS

Pigment lacquers that can be placed in small full jars and capped before they are completely dry, this avoids having to re-coat the dry pigment later, saving one step. The supernatant water is discarded or you can do as below, placing the lacquers in a filter in a funnel.

Lacquers drying after being purified with boiling water in a funnel

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EXTRACTION OF NATURAL DYES FROM PLANTS USING ULTRASOUND years. The best method to obtain very powerful dyes in liquid form is the Ultrasound device: I present you this electric machine which costs a few tens of euros and which makes it possible to extract like no other method can, the substantive colouring matter ;-). In fact, it is a device that has been diverted from its original purpose, which is to clean metal objects.

You can see on the left side of the screen two arrows with a + and - sign. - which allow the temperature to be raised or lowered from 10 to 80°C, but in fact the device heats up to 85-90°C without boiling. WHY ULTRASOUND EXTRACTION? Because this results in infinitely more powerful and colourful dyes, and because of this they are much more chemically resistant: this makes it possible to make inks years earlier so that they can be left on the market for 10


The colours are so beautiful, so present and so much more stable chemically and in the light, of course the shade has to change, but isn't the stability worth a little sacrifice or as I call it a little positive adaptation. With the ultrasound machine you will obtain liquid dyes with a phenomenal colouring power which will allow you to make very opaque and luminous inks and to produce pigments without fillers, but hyper charged with dye, for very luminous pigments. The arrows on the right-hand side of the device can be used to set the duration of operation, which can range from 5 to 60 minutes, but it is best not to exceed 30 minutes per session, as this will cause the device to heat up and could lead to damage. Link to buy a VEVOR ultrasonic extractor: https://amzn.to/3LmbkRH You need to take a device that is not too small, because you are adding a lot of solid plant material and if you cannot put in 800% liquid the ultrasound cannot do its work and the extraction will not work if there is not enough water for the ultrasound to show its waves on the surface, which proves that it works and extracts the dyes, i.e. 800 ml to 1 litre for 100 grams of plant material for super coextractors such as sophora for example.

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PIGMENTS AND ULTRASONICALLY EXTRACTED INKS

Ultrasonically extracted dyes to make Pigments: from left to right and top to bottom: Rosette, Cochineal, Madder, Quebracho, Oak Bark, Buckthorn, Walnut Brown, Damour Black No. 4, South American Indigo, Sophora Yellow, Birch Leaves, White Clover, Tansy, Pomegranate, Marigold, Elderflower, Myrtle, Clitoria Ternatea Blue + Indigo and Indigo Grey.

Ultrasonically extracted plant and animal ink colours April 2022 Colour chart No. 1 from left: Elder = flowers, Birch leaves, Quebracho, Solidago, Hibiscus syriacus Colour chart No. 2 from left: Pomegranate, Myrtle/Frankincense, Buckthorn bark, Clove, Red Cornflower Colour chart N°3 from left: Walnut leaves, Clove in alcohol, Red Campêche, 2 oranges and 1 violet Colour chart N°4 from left: Damour Watercolour Recipe 2022 N°136: 60 g of white Honey + 35 g of gum arabic in pieces + 8,5 g of gum tragacanth in pieces + 20 g of water. Watercolour recipe 136 tested here with Pastel, Persicaria, Indigo, Madder, Rosette, Fire Red Cochineal.

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EXTRACTION OF NATURAL DYES FROM PLANTS USING ULTRASOUND

2 LITRE ULTRASONIC DEVICE Extraction of 100 g of Sophora flower buds in 700 ml of water. Then, as the macerate is hot when it comes out of the ultrasonic apparatus, it will easily dissolve the chemical materials used to make the pigment or ink. All that is needed is to filter the juice into a large basin, then add 10% alumina sulphate and finally add either triethanolamine to make a real liquid ink that does not foam! or sodium carbonate to make a pigment, one avoids foaming the alumina macerate and so we obtain a perfectly foamless liquid, an ink, and the other gives a characteristic foamy material of the pre-pigment. The pigment is then washed with boiling water and left to dry to obtain a powdered pigment.

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BOUND LIQUID MATERIALS ARE CALLED PURE INKS AND WITHOUT BINDER THEY ARE CALLED DYES

50 inks: photo from July 2021, the inks were already one year old at that time, they are now two years old at the publication of this book and I have made the colour charts for this book with the most beautiful ones.

Manufacturing cold process of black minute ink with pure tannin with conversion of the macerate 12


just by dipping a rusty iron knife in the solute.

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MANUFACTURE OF BLACK INKS

Ink and Pigment Black from alder cones Oak leaf black and Mountain chestnut leaf black

10 vegetable blacks 14


POWDERY MATERIALS ARE CALLED PIGMENTS WITH A BINDER THEY BECOME PAINT

14 pigments August 2021

Set of 42 natural pigments in water-based pigment paste, ready to be bound.

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NATURAL PIGMENTS MADE IN 2018 WITH PLANTS AND COCHINEAL FOR MY BOOK N°3

David Damour Each row from top to bottom and from left to right: 1. Egg white 2. Oyster white, Grey-red indigo 3. White mulberry, Magenta mealybug, Red Cochineal 4.Kerria Lacca, Poppy, Garancine, Rathania. 5. Red Poppy Grey, Hollyhock Purple, Poppy Purple, Light and Dark Campêche Purple. 6.5 Pastels, Damour blue. 7. 2 Indigos, Rose Blue Hopper, Green Indigo+Chamomile Green, Treemeria-Arnica-Hibiscus, Pastel green, Iris green. 8.grey indigo, Iris blue, Alder grey + hibiscus + bramble, green earth, Pastel green-yellow, Sophora, Pomegranate, Orange of St. John's wort. 9.feverfew, verbascum, white clover, sandy immor- tel, solidago, sage + iron, Kamala, Bear berry black, Bearberry grey, Pomegranate brown, Walnut leaves, White mulberry, Hull brown, green tea brown, Grey by Rose Trémière, Gris-bleu Damour 1 and 2.

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INKS IN BOTTLES AND PIGMENTS IN POTS

Inks in bottles from 2018, the older they get the better they get for those that are water resistant!

Microwave extracted pigments: the colours are less bright and less vivid!

Inks in 2020 bottles, the older they get the better they get for those that are water resistant!

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93 PLANT PIGMENTS AND COCHINEAL

Pigments ©Damour that I shared in a OneShot until they ran out at the colour crusher https://bit.ly/PigmentsDamourChezLeBroyeurDeCouleurs 18


GRINDING OF PIGMENTS ON MARBLE TO MAKE PAINTS

Grinding of Carmin Damour mealybug on marble

Vegetable and cochineal pigments ground on marble and mixed with a malt and hop binder No. 141 to make the colour charts in this book for the light tests, in this case those on page 46

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CONSERVATION OF LACQUERS DIRECTLY IN THE TUBE

White Clover lacquer

Indigo

Hollyhock

Egg white

Madder lacquer

Pigment paste tubes: lacquered pigments, so the paints look better if they are made up to the minute and on demand, as this avoids possible interactions in the tube that do not occur in the dry film: time and pigment are saved by preparing it just at the moment of painting and it avoids having to add unnecessary additives. 20


PRE-PREPARED TUBES OF PAINT

Tubes of honey/tragacanth/tree gum paints = watercolours from book 4

Plant pigment tubes

Tubes of pure plant pigments in water: putting the lacquers directly into tubes avoids having to re-coat the material afterwards: this saves an immeasurable amount of time.

Oil paint in tube 2022 21


WHAT IS A PAINTING? Paint is the result of mixing one or morepigments with one or more binders, liquid such as water, oil, or both: an emulsion, with a gum, a resin or any other component that gives a smooth and sticky material that allows the paint to adhere to a support of any kind. WHAT IS A PAINTING? A paint is a chemical and varied system, which can be coated with several phases (polar or non-polar), arranged once the film has dried as a single phase: 1. Solid (hard and resistant) 2. Homogeneous (cannot be differentiated) 3. Discontinuous (undefinable, unmeasurable), which is called 1. a layer 2. a leaf 3. a film 4. or a coating. A PAINT IS THE RESULT OF MIXING ONE OR MORE PIGMENTS OR DYES • with a binder • a liquid or a solid such as resin (reduced to powder and previously dissolved in a solvent), a mixture of water, oil or both (emulsions), with an emulsifier and a surfactant, a gum, a glue, or with any other component as long as it is binding, therefore sticky, in order to make unctuous materials that allow them to adhere to any support or substrate whatever their nature. • Pigments, fillers and additives are particles added to the system to modify its properties. THE PROPERTIES PROVIDED BY THE PIGMENT

1. Appearance or shade 2. Protection of the substrate 3. The rheological qualities (flow) in conjunction with a filler or various inert additives such as silica or barite. 4. The shine or mattness depending on the fineness of its This can also be achieved by sprinkling on the pure binder. 5. An undeniable symbolic value. THERE ARE 3 BASIC REASONS WHY IT MAKES SENSE TO DO YOUR OWN PAINTING 1. This allows us to make materials that are adapted to our way of painting, to our way of working and above all more beautiful than those of the trade loaded with chalk or other materials, if they are not

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If they were not, they would be so expensive that no one would buy the commercial paintings. 2. This allows the paints to be crushed properly, neither too thin nor too coarse, because that is why they crack so easily afterwards: commercial paints are not suitable for making thick films, because they are too thin. 3. This makes it possible to produce paints that are free of additives, which are not necessarily necessary for the system, such as too many surfactants and other agents, which have been very fashionable since the end of the 20th century.

Tubes of Oil Paintings from 2008 WHY USE BASE MATERIALS 1. Because it teaches us so much about the properties of substances, binders and paints and how to use them, and so we can do everything without fear of failure or wondering "how to do it". 2. This may seem unnecessary, but it is far from it. In any case, I would even say that it is essential if one wishes to understand the profound nature of painting systems, because in the long run, thanks to experience, a real, empirical, almost innate understanding is established, linked to habit. 3. Theory is one thing, practice is another The latter must be the right extension of the former, if one really wants to understand and implement the precepts learned in an intelligible way, in order to paint and make materials with calculated rheological properties as well as paints that correspond to one's temperament, and above all to make all imaginable materials without the risk of them cracking. WE NOW KNOW THAT FILLERS AND OTHER POWDERED ADDITIVES 1. Reduce the cost of painting 2. Thickens the paint film 3. Increase the volume of paint 4. Provides hardness, texture and abrasion resistance 5. Controls the thixotropy of the paint film The various loads must be used according to their most salient characteristics, after having studied them (see my book N°2 I treat them all).


PREPARATION OF THE BINDER

David Damour 2022 23


BINDER NO. 141 FOR MALT AND BEER

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RESINS TO PROTECT THE DYES FROM THE SUN To protect paint films and water-based stains from the sun, resins such as Plexigum PQ 611 or Degalan® PQ 611 N (1:5 as a varnish) and Special G 1650 or GLOBALPRENE©, a styreneethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymer abbreviated SEBS (Hydrogenated Butadiene-Styrene Copolymer) with CAS No. 66070-58-4, can be used. The latter resin offers a wide range of characteristics and performances that make it ideal as an additive for paints or as a varnish resistant to UV rays, ozone and oxidation, it also protects against scratches and friction, and once dry the varnishes are completely waterproof. It is an ideal resin for making pure paints with dyes extracted with alcohol and then diluted with the resin solvent (Shellsol T odourless, turpentine, etc.) or simply used as a pure and light varnish on works of art, as it is not water-based it does not risk damaging the paper and water-based paints. SEBS resin is added to varnishes at a rate of 0.2% and to paints at a rate of 2%.

Plexigum varnish PQ 611 and turpentine 2 years old

100 g of Resin G 1650 flakes, here in a 1.5 litre pot, denotes a low denier.

G 1650 resin over marigold ink: the protected parts have resisted the sun > 31 days, the unvarnished parts have weakened

11 g Kraton G1650 resin dissolved in 63 g fresh turpentine. It can be used at 0.2-1% as a protective varnish or at 2% as an additive directly in paints and other varnishes in solvent mode.

8 g Resin G 1650 (SEBS) dissolved in 300 g shellsol T: Transparent as water, which is then added to the varnish in solvent mode

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NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC BINDERS AND RESINS THAT CAN BE USED AND TESTED TO PROTECT DYES FROM LIGHT Good acrylic binders make very good protectors as stand-alone varnishes and they also bind coloured materials, whether liquid (ink) or powder (pigment), but natural materials can also be used: we will see how these materials perform as protective varnishes. I painted a large area of paper with campêche violet and rosette, both of which are known to be fugitive, in order to test the natural binding materials as varnishes. I explain in my book N°2 and N°5 how to prepare and dissolve synthetic resins and which solvent is the most suitable, as each material has its ideal solvent. The materials are rated from 1 to 10 for their protective power, 1 being no protection and 10 being total protection. NATURAL MATERIALS THAT CAN BE USED WITH NATURAL AND VEGETABLE DYES BOTH AS A BINDER AND AS A VARNISH.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

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Tree gums = 10 Gum Adraganta = 10 Albumin = 8-10 Parchment glue = 8-10 Binder No. 141 + Albumin = 10 Shellac = 9-10 Black Oil = 3-5 Mastic resin = 3-5 Sandarac resin = 3-5 Venice Balm = 3-5 Canada Balsam = 3-5 South Tyrol Balsam = 3-5 Water emulsified wax = 3-5

SYNTHETIC MATERIALS FOR USE AS VARNISH ON PLANTS

It is essential that the dye is chemically resistant so that the resin can protect it. 1. Plextol© B500 and D 498 = 10 2. Acronal D 500 = 10 3. Primal AC 35 = 10 4. Regalrez 1126 = 10 5. G1650 Globalprene© resin = 10 6. Paraloid© B67 = 10 7. Paraloid© B82 = 10 8. Polyvinyl butyral resin (PVB) = 10 9. Plexigum PQ 611 = 10 10. PolyVinyl Acetate aqueous and solvent = 10 11. Laropal A81 = 10 12. Laropal A 101 = 10 13. Plextol K360 =7 14. Alkyd resin = 6 15. Polyurethane PU 61 = 7

Tiling on purple campêche on flamboyant paper and testing of protective varnish

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VARNISHED CAMPHEA VIOLET WITH VARIOUS MATERIALS BEFORE EXPOSURE 1 1

1818 26


CAMPHEE VIOLET VARNISHED WITH VARIOUS MATERIALS EXPOSED TO LIGHT 60 DAYS 18 BINDERS AND VARNISHES ON CAMPÊCHE VIOLET: FROM LEFT TO RIGHT AND FROM TOP TO BOTTOM Materials are rated from 1 to 10 for their protective power, with 0 being no protection and 10 being total protection. 7 out of 18 materials protected the dye, there would have been a higher percentage if the dye had not reacted with the acidity or alkalinity of some resins! It is necessary to pass several layers, but very fine even if it means adding more layers, but extremely fine: thus the gum of tree, the gum tragacanth, my beer binder N°141, the glue of parchment, the PVA, the water of glass are the great winners and great protectors of colorants, for the natural matter and the aquazol for the synthetic ones. the egg white reacted chemically and destroyed the dye, because otherwise it protects perfectly just like the balms! 1. Pure albumin: 3 layers = 0 2. Damour binder N°141 with malt: 3 layers = 9-10 3. Damour Parchment Glue: 2 coats = 7-8 4. Aquazol 500: 2 layers = 8-9 5. Sodium Silicate: 2 layers = 7-8 6. PVA with water: 2 layers = 9-10 7. Pure Alkyd: 2 layers = 2 8. Black Oil then Rubens Medium = 2 9. Pure Venice Balm: 2 coats = 2 10. Pure South Tyrol Balsam: 2 layers = 2 11. Pure Manila Copal: 2 layers = 2 12. 3 Balms: Venice + Canada + Larch = 2 13. Sandarac + Putty: 2 layers = 2 14. Alcohol shellac: 2 coats = 2 = problem chemical, as shellac normally protects well from the sun 15. Gum tragacanth: 2 layers = 8, but it whitens the dye otherwise good protection 16. Tree Gum : 2 layers = 10 17. Pure watercolour binder: 2 layers = 0 18. Water emulsified wax: 1 coat = 0 If the dye is chemically resistant, as in this case with the campêche violet, then natural binders and synthetic varnishes can provide lasting protection for dyes that do not move because of the pH of the binders and varnishes, such as the Pernambuco rosette: you just have to make sure that the dye has not moved for 60 days before you can use it in production: You have to make a large colour chart on paper, then varnish it with the chosen material and expose it to sunlight or direct light for 30 days: you can read the result directly if you have protected half of the colour chart or if you have made a high-definition photo of it.

these 2 parts at the bottom were not exposed 27


ROSETTE OF FUGACIOUS PERNAMBUCO FOR PROTECTION TESTS HERE UNEXPOSED Opposite Pernambuco Rosette in 4 layers on high quality 100% cotton satin paper Dimensions : 75 cm X 32 cm For light protection tests with varnishes and other natural binders, the recipes for which I give in my book 2 except for binder No. 141 which I formulated in March 2022 and which is a mixture of malt, hops and natural gums

Extra clear shellac on the left and right Alcohol varnish with shellac.

1

Opposite protection with various varnishes and natural binders of Pernambuco Rosette in 6 coats on pa75 cm X 32 cm satin pier Varnishes and other natural binders listed on the right-hand page: read from top to bottom 28


14and

from left to right.

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ROSETTE OF PERNAMBUCO VARNISHED WITH VARIOUS MATERIALS EXPOSED TO LIGHT FOR 40 DAYS 18 binders and varnishes on rosette You need to apply several layers, but very thin ones, even if it means adding more extremely thin layers. Materials are rated from 0 to 10 for their protective power, with 0 being no protection and 10 being total protection. 11. Shellac with Alcohol = 8 2. Polyurethane PU 61 = 0 3. Plextol© B500 = 1 layer = 0 4. Binder No. 141 + Albumin = 5 5. G.D'Arbres + G.Adragante = 5 6. Damour Parchment Glue = 5 7. Regalrez 1126 = 2 layers = 0 8. G1650 SEBS resin = 0 9. Paraloid© B67 = 0 10. Paraloid© B82 = 0 11. PolyVynilButyral resin = 0 12. Plexigum PQ 611 = 0 13. Alkyd + Sandarac + Putty = 0 14. Sandarac + Putty 2 layers = 0 We see here 30 days later that no binder or varnish could protect the rosette, except shellac, because chemically speaking the rosette is very unstable and corrodes by photo-oxidation if exposed to light and oxygen at the same time: it could keep its beautiful hue but protected from light enclosed in a book or manuscript, and bound with a non-alkaline material like tree gum and tragacanth. Shellac varnish is the only varnish that can protect unstable adhesives such as rosette, but shellac has changed the colour of the varnish since it was first applied, lowering the tone. You can see that Plextol, which usually protects the light dyes, destroyed the rosette dye here, because Plextol is alkaline, whereas with the campêche it did not have the same effect because the latter likes alkalinity, so you have to take into account exactly what pH affects the dye.

14

30


31


HOW IS LIGHT TESTING DONE? After painting the colour charts on a support the size of the window pane you are painting, you need to make the colour charts at least 8 x 12 cm. You just have to cover the said colour charts with strips of opaque white or black paper on half of the paintings, then tape them and then cover them with tape, because otherwise the sun will pass through, and so will the heat.here on the left the support has a dimension of 105 cm X 37,5 cm wide, that is to say half of a large sheet of 105 X 76 cm and the exact size of a window sash that I had. THESE TESTS ALSO ALLOW PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL STABILITY TESTS TO BE CARRIED OUT

1. Either friction and abrasion resistance = agate, teeth, pumice or natural horsetail, as all water-based paint films are burnished, as I taught you in my book pa- pier No. 4

32

2. To natural heat = sun 3. Chemical, as heat changes the pH THE EXHIBITION OF PAINTINGS

Leading painting schools and art conservation and restoration institutions suggest that paintings should ideally be displayed in dust-free environments with relatively stable temperature levels of 15-22°C and humidity levels of 45-60%. Paintings should not be subjected to light levels above 200 lux and should never be exposed to direct sunlight. Unfortunately, all of these precepts are only applicable in controlled environments such as museums!


60 PLANTS PAINTED IN OIL THAT HAVE WITHSTOOD INDIRECT LIGHT FOR MORE THAN 8 MONTHS Green = Indigo + Feverfew You can see that only the yellow one has resisted Proof that copigmentation is not effective here and that it is often on a case by case basis

Orange: Potentilla + Granada + Sophora

Le Bleu Damour N°1 is a blend of Sabdar- iffa Hibiscus Blue and Black Hip Rose Blue extracted with Ascorbic Acid

Poppy Green 1. Hibiscus Syriacus

2.Yellow

Indigo Green/Sophora

Buckthorn

3.Green

buckthorn

4.iris green 1. Elderflower 1 2. Yellow rush 3. Orange rush 4. Elderberry 2

St. John's wort Sophora 2 Sophora 3 G.Camomile 1. Hibiscus Verdaccio 2. Field elm 3. Bourdaine 4. Poppy yellow 1. Green Tea 2. Brown Bearberry 3. Brown Walnut Leaf 4. Tannic grey

1. G.Camomile 2. Immortal 3. White Clover 1. Buckthorn bark 2. Orange of Gaude 3. Rhododendron 1. Buckthorn bark

1. 2. 3. 4.

1. Solidago 2. Agrimony 1 3. Agrimony 2 4. Myrtle

1. Conc ern 2. Pomegr anate 3. Tansy

1. 2. 3. 4.

.Cascara 2.potentilla Waln Rathania 4.red ut buckthorn

4 Sophora1 1. Cabbage

Kerria lacca

Cochineal

2. 3. Poppy

4.hopper

Garance

Campêche Violet

Yellow Wood

Traveller

Heather

4 Scales

4. White Mulberry

1. Garance-Cochenille 2. Rosette 3. Pure and diluted madder

Red cab bag e

Indigo Grey Too diluted it is destroyed by light and alkalinity

Iris

4 Broom Light and Dark 1. Maya Blue 2. Damour Blue N°1 3. Clitoria.Ternatea/Indigo 4. loosestrife

Indigo Blue Grey / Chestnut Black

1. Black Damour 3 2. Chestnut Black

Damour Black 2 is a blend of Myrobalan with Hibiscus

Quebracho Yohimbe Oak Barks Fern

1. Black Damour 1 Sabdariffadit Guinea Sorrel + some iron in the form of acetate 2

1

3

Solidago Orange 2. Extra dark pomegranat e 3.1 Campêche Black 2

4. Black Damour 2

33


Brown Bearberry

"Green Earth Tint Plant" Damour = Poppy + iron

Na me s cr oss ed ou t = fle eti ng co lo ur s

34

4

1

3

2


8-MONTH LIGHT TESTS ON 120 OIL-GROUND PLANTS Of the 120 plants crushed w i t h oil, 60 have resisted light for more than 8 months: the test has been going on since the beginning of September 2021 and I will continue it until the winter of 2022. I put the picture of September 3, 2021 below and the one of June 2022, on the left page with the names of the plants that resisted (plus 6 of those that disappeared, that's what we call fugace, it's rather rare), to give you an idea and compare those that resisted. The oil actually protects the natural dyes rather well. I am quite surprised, as the yellows have held up quite well overall, as have the cochineal, ga- rance, pastel, persicaria and indigo blues, but pure, as well as the browns and blacks. The plants that did not resist are those that are well known to be fugitive and chemically unstable, such as campêche violet, rosette (pernambuco), hollyhock, poppy, hibiscus, cranberry, only one green resisted! that based on sophora and indigo or pastel, etc.. But all the important greensare protected by Rubens' oil and me- dium, painted here on special oil paper. One important thing stands out: the colours obtained from the plant evidence should not be diluted with grey indi- go, if they are to be lightfast and it is important that they are not used in the same way.

In fact, you should adopt the same attitude as with fluorescent pigments, i.e. use pigments known for their resistance to light (ochres, earths and inorganic pigments) as an undercoat, so that if the colour fades, it will find a resistant and stable pigment underneath that can take its place, since most of the time you paint in several layers and that is why I have included inorganic pigments that are resistant to light, in order to have a complete palette. For the "alla prima" paints, you should avoid the vetals, otherwise mix with pigments known for their absolute resistance, such as minerals, earths and ochres and all the inorganic pigments, see my book N°1 for the list of reliable pigments: https://pigmentsrecettes.com In any case, it allows the works painted in I don't see why we should do anything different when that's how we should exhibit our works if we want them to last: we should tell our customers when they buy them, it's the artist's responsibility, his duty to inform his buyers, fans or whatever name you give to the people who buy your works.

Nunaciers unexposed costs

35


LIGHT TESTS OF FLUORESCENT PIGMENTS BOUND TO ACRYLIC AND PAINTED FOR OVER A YEAR THEY ARE PERFECTLY LIGHTFAST

Pigment pots exposed to direct light and fluorescent acrylic paint on the sides painted in 2021, it is lightfast thanks to the synthetic binder Plextol D498 and B500, as fluorescent pigments are usually not lightfast at all

Dry Fluorescent Heather

36

Fluorescent heather


LIGHT TESTS OF FLUORESCENT PIGMENTS BOUND TO ACRYLIC AND PAINTED FOR OVER A YEAR THEY ARE PERFECTLY LIGHTFAST

Abumina and cherry gum with fluorescent yellow pigment: cherry gum effectively protects the dyes: It has been used as a paint binder for ceramics since time immemorial, it is also resistant to UVA rays and to heat of more than 80°C for 8 days (test I carried out in the workshop) but with the madness of the "all synthetic" it disappeared from the catalogues of the suppliers for artists and the worst thing is that it was passed off as unstable and useless, it and so many other very resistant natural materials which make it possible to obtain very high quality paints: it was forgotten, but certain natural materials can be as resistant as synthetic materials.

Fluorescent heather lacquer made by adding 40% of fluorescent pigment with the natural pigment 37


EGG WHITE PAINTINGS ON 640 G/M2 PAPER PAINTED IN 2021 AND EXPOSED TO INDIRECT LIGHT SINCE

36


MINERAL AND VEGETABLE PIGMENTS IN EGG WHITE EXPOSED TO INDIRECT LIGHT FOR 1 YEAR + 2 MONTHS IN DIRECT LIGHT Egg white works very well, it really protects if used in a multi-layer paint system

37


EGG WHITE PAINTINGS ON 640 G/M2 PAPER PAINTED IN 2021 FOR LIGHT TESTS

38


MINERAL AND VEGETABLE PIGMENTS IN EGG WHITE EXPOSED TO INDIRECT LIGHT FOR 1 YEAR + 2 MONTHS IN DIRECT LIGHT Egg white works well here too, but the pigment has to be chemically stable as well, which was not the case with the case of the white clover, but it is less fleeting than that, it is the camera that fails to take its colour

39


20 INORGANIC PIGMENTS WITH 20 DIFFERENT BINDERS ON CANVAS FOR LIGHT TESTING

Light ultramarine blue

Hansa Yellow

Red XSL PR 112

Titanium Orange

Cobalt Violet

Smoke Black

Cobalt Blue

Iron Black

Manganese Violet

40

BiFlair© 83

Emerald Green

Sepia

Phtalo Blue

Cobalt Yellow

White XSL

Copper Green

Bismuth Yellow

Ultramarine Red

Ploss Blue

Zirconium Red


DIRECT RESULTS 14 MONTHS OF EXPOSURE TO DIRECT LIGHT

Here all the pigments are perfectly lightfast, which is not a surprise, as all these pigments are known for their lightfastness + the binders used add to the protection. The titanium white XSL was applied too thinly, so it was damaged by rubbing, which is why you can see the reddish preparation underneath, it was not damaged by light.

41


TESTS OF EGG WHITE AND YOLK PAINTS

1234

5

6789

1. Bismuth White + Pearlescent White (Titanium XSL + Tin White + Extra Fine Mica) 2. Cobalt Yellow

3.Irgazine Orange 4.Irgazine Red 5.Badia Sienna 6.Cobalt Green PG50 7. Ultramarine blue + pearl white 8. Cobalt violet 9.burnt Cyprus earth. The rows below are the same pigment but with a little opacifier.

42


DIRECT RESULTS 14 MONTHS OF EXPOSURE TO DIRECT LIGHT

Here too, all the pigments are perfectly lightfast, which is not a surprise, as all these pigments are known for their lightfastness + the binders used which add to the protection, the egg gives very lightfast binders whether the white or the yolk is used.

43


MIXTURES OF PURE PIGMENTS BOUND WITH PARCHMENT GLUE PAINTED ON COATED CANVAS

Cobalt Yellow PY 40

Vermilion PR 106

Bismuth Yellow PY 184

Cobalt Violet PV 49

Irgalite Yellow PY 13

+

Cobalt Blue PB 28 or PB 35

Light ultramarine blue PB 29

PV 19 Quinacridone Violet

=

PB15:1 Phthalocyanine Blue epsilon shape

44

+ white+

white


DIRECT RESULTS 6 MONTHS OF EXPOSURE TO DIRECT LIGHT The pigments are perfectly lightfast, which is not a surprise, as all these pigments are known for their light stability so you have a very safe palette of beautiful, mostly natural pigments (ochres, earths, metals cobalt, manganese, iron, zinc, cerium, etc., not to mention the binders used which add to the protection, skin glues being very resistant, they deserve some consideration

45


PURE PIGMENTS BOUND WITH BEER BINDER N°141 AND PAINTED ON FELT

Ultramarine

BlueOrmuzPersian YellowPhthalocyanine Green

Perinone

Bismuth Yellow

OrangeLight PotentialRedPR 112 more diluted

XSLRougePR 112 pureOutdoor

PhthalocyanineBlueCobalt Green

46

Violet

BlueTurquoiseOutdoor Renaissance


Persian Red Ochre

from EarthBlackXSL

HormuzCalcinedShadow

47


DIRECT RESULTS (JUDGED BY EYE) OF 90 DAYS OF EXPOSURE TO DIRECT LIGHT

The whitening that can be seen is due to the binder reacting with the oxygen and not to the light, UVA! because we now know that beer binder is very lightfast, however chemically speaking it reacts with some pigments like ultramarine blue and violet, the more diluted PR 112 red, light potentilla and even Bismuth Yellow. We have here a very interesting palette with this easy to make binder with beer and plasticizers, but you have to add tree gum to avoid bleaching.

48


49


LIGHT TESTS OF 14 PLANT YELLOWS BY THE PAINTER I exposed the 14 yellows to the sun in The latter is not very resistant to watery April and May 2022. liquids. Here there is almost no binder, except for 2. Broom allows you to make several a little homemade parchment glue, so the shades and it resists light very well, films are borderline powdery for light unlike gaude, which ages badly testing. chemically speaking and loses its beauty All the Vegetables have been extracted 3. The pomegranate can be used to make with ultrasound, because this gives infiup to 7 shades that are very lightfast. nitely more powerful and colourful dyes 4. Myrtle/Grande Camomile is used to make very opaque ochre and earth and therefore they are much more tones. chemically resistant, the proof is that more that stand up very well to the light of than half of those in the colour chart have this fact. been water ground and put in tubes for more than a year, in 2021 and they are EXPOSURE TO SUNLIGHT AND LIGHT GIVES still as beautiful as ever, the others come THESE RESULTS: RATED FROM 1 TO 10 FOR from pigments that I made in 2021 and LIGHT RESISTANCE: 1 BEING THE WORST AND 10 that I ground especially to make the THE BEST RESISTANCE 1. Sophora = 9 colour charts for the tests. 2. Birch leaves = 6 PLANTS USED ON THE COLOUR CHART ON 3. St. John's wort = 7 THE LEFT PAGE 4. Immortal =8 1. Sophora 5. Broom = 8 2. Birch leaves 6. Pomegranate peel = 10 3. St. John's wort 7. Gaude =6 4. Immortal 8. Myrtle + feverfew =8 5. Broom 9. Poppy Yellow = 4 6. Pomegranate peel 10. Solidago = 3 7. Gaude 11. Tansy = 6 8. Myrtle + feverfew 12. Myrtle = 7 9. Poppy Yellow 13. White clover =2 10. Solidago 14. Pomegranate flowers =8 11. Tansy The results are to be taken with restraint, 12. Myrtle because the pigments are almost not 13. White clover bound, they have almost no binders, they 14. Pomegranate flowers are qua-simply pure, besides they speak mostly in dust. The pomegranate is the big If we had to keep only four, it would be winner and the sophora does well, all the sophora, broom, myrtle/grass chamomile others have faded. and pomegranate. All dyes are UVA sensitive, then it will be 1. Sophora gives sublime brilliant yellows up to you to bind your dyes if you want to (see page 22) which resist light well use them in production and for that I and the icing on the cake is that you advise you to use either tree gum, skin and can make up to 4 shades with sophora, parchment glue, egg, aquazol 500 and going from lemon to orange just like PVA. immortelle, but this 50


after exposure to light

51



60-DAY LIGHT TESTS OF 14 PLANT PIGMENTS AND PAINTER'S SCALE I exposed all these colour charts to the sun in April and May 2022 and protected half of them with thick white paper and very thick tape.

10. Kerria Lacca =8

Here I used a new malt-based binder N°141, so the films are more resistant and very plastic for light tests. All the Vegetables except the pastel have been ultrasonically extracted, as this gives much more powerful and colourful colours and therefore they are much more chemically resistant, the proof is that more than half of those in the colour chart have been ground with water and put in tubes since 2021 and they are still as beautiful as ever, the others come from pigments that I made in 2021 and that I have ground and bound especially to paint these charts PLANTS USED ON THE COLOUR CHART FROM LEFT TO RIGHT AND FROM TOP TO BOTTOM:

1. Pastel extracted from leaves in 2018 2. South American Indigo + Clitoria ternatea 3. Bladder Green 4. St John's Wort Green 5. Solidago Orange 6. Broom Orange 7. Chestnut Orange 8. Garance 9. Cochineal N°9 ®Damour 10. Kerria Lacca 11. Cochineal N°1 ®Damour 12. Cochineal Carmine ®Damour 13. Cherry Red Cochineal ®Damour 14. Cochineal Violet ®Damour EXPOSURE TO SUNLIGHT AND LIGHT GIVES THESE RESULTS: RATED FROM 1 TO 10 FOR LIGHT RESISTANCE: 1 BEING THE WORST AND 10 THE BEST RESISTANCE 1. Pastel extracted from leaves in 2018 = 10 2. Indigo + Clitoria ternatea = 8 3. Bladder Green = 4 4. St John's wort green =4 5. Solidago orange =5 6. Broom Orange = 9 7. Chestnut orange =7 8. Garance =8 9. Cochineal N°9 ®Damour =10 before exposure to light

51


11. Cochineal N°1 ®Damour =9 12. Cochineal Carmine ®Damour =8 13. Cherry Red Cochineal ®Damour =7 14. Cochineal Violet ®Damour =7 The red and purple scales in 13 and 14 are very lightfast, but chemically unstable, and in this case the alkali- nity has caused them to change colour. The big winner is pastel, but it has faded a bit, broom orange and No. 9 tick. Even madder did not resist UVA, it is absolutely necessary to bind all your co-lorants well, it is imperative 70% of binder for 30 of dye minimum.

52


after exposure to light

before exposure to light

53


LIGHT TESTS 14 PLANTS OF THE PAINTER I exposed all these colour charts to the sun in May 2022 and protected half of them with thick white paper and tape. Here I used a new malt-based binder N°141, so the films are more resistant and very plastic for light tests. The Vegetables are all ultrasonically extracted, as this gives infinitely more powerful and colourful dyes and as a result they are much more chemically resistant, the proof is that more than half of those in the colour chart have been crushed with water and put in tubes since 2021 and they are still as beautiful as ever, the others come from pigments that I made in 2021 PLANTS USED ON THE COLOUR CHART FROM LEFT TO RIGHT AND FROM TOP TO BOTTOM:

1.potentilla 2.chicory + titanium + iron 3. concern 4.Buckthorn 5.Buckthorn 6.Fern 7.Rathania 8.Quebracho 9.Cascara 11.mountain agrimony 12.walnut leaf brown 13.damour earth tone 14.Black Alder Cones EXPOSURE TO SUNLIGHT AND LIGHT GIVES THESE RESULTS: RATED FROM 1 TO 10 FOR LIGHT RESISTANCE: 1 BEING THE WORST AND 10 THE BEST RESISTANCE

1. Potentilla = 8 2. Chicory + Titanium + Iron = 7 3. Worry = 9 4. Buckthorn Bark = 4 5. Borage = 9-10 6. Fern = 7 7. Rathania = 9-10 8. Quebracho = 5 9. Cascara = 8 10. Field Elm = 7 11. Mountain Agrimony = 9 12. Walnut Leaf Brown = 6 13. Damour Shadow Earth Tint = 9-10 14. Black Alder Cones = 10

54

The big winner is the alder, my shade land, the Rathania and the marigold too. The walnut leaf brown didn't hold up well, to say the Damour Shadow Earth Hue faded a little bit, again due to the lack of binder! A score of 9 out of 10 is a bit of a stretch for a dye, you should know that normally we score from 1 to 8 for lightfastness, but I wanted to do something original, like my research ;-) Almost all the dyes were UVA resistant except the red buckthorn bark, I am very disappointed, but I suspect it is more a pH problem than a light problem, I would test again with binder and Paraloid varnish which protects the paints very well.


Before exposure to light

after exposure to light

before exposure to light

55


LIGHT TESTS OF 27 VEGETABLE INKS OF THE PAINTER The inks have all been extracted 2 years before, as this gives infinitely more powerful, luminous and stable dyes when they have beeninwaterfor a long time, of course for those that have resisted, but look at the colour charts on the left and you will see the beauty of the colours despite the time the dyes have been in the water: you have increased chemical and water stability as a result to make your inks with the dyes you like best. I am quite amazed at the improvement and strength of colour of the first 8 yellows and oranges, but also of the blueberry red in 14, the fern in 16, the cherry red cochineal, the clove, the buckthorn bark, the cinnamon, the blueberry and the grey/blue elderberry at pH 7.0 as well as the 3 buckthorn greens. I strongly advise you against making watercolours and cups with plant dyes, because the films that watercolours and other very thin paints give are too fleeting, because they do not protect anything at all due to their lack of consistency, gum arabic is worthless as a binder for the protection of paints and artists' dyes. Here too I added to the inks a few drops of a new binder N°141 which I formulated on a malt basis, so that the ink films are more plastic for artistic paint films. I exposed all these ink colours to the sun in April and May 2022, but before that I protected half of them with thick white paper and very strong tape. thick. PLANTS USED ON THE COLOUR CHART FROM LEFT TO RIGHT AND FROM TOP TO BOTTOM: 1. Sophora 2. Birch leaves 3. Elderberry Flowers 4. Solidago 5. Mountain Hibiscus Syriacus 6. Pomegranate 7. Aqueous Clove 8. Myrtle/Great Chamomile 9. Concern 10. Quebracho 11. Cosmos 12. Rosehip 13. Buckthorn Bark 14. Red Cornflower 15. Canelle 16. Titanium fern 17. Cochineal 18. Rosette 2022 19. Orange Camel 20. Clitoria Ternatea 21. Rhododendron 22. Buckthorn berries N°1 23. Buckthorn berries No. 2 24. Buckthorn berries N°3 25. Blueberries in Alcohol

56

26. Garden iris 27. Elderberry at pH 7.0

EXPOSURE TO SUNLIGHT AND LIGHT GIVES THESE RESULTS: RATED FROM 1 TO 10 FOR LIGHT RESISTANCE: 1 BEING THE WORST AND 10 THE BEST RESISTANCE 1. Sophora = 9 2. Birch leaves = 3 3. Elderflowers = 10 4. Solidago = 2 5. Mountain Hibiscus Syriacus = 1 6. Pomegranate = 10 7. Aqueous Clove = 7 8. Myrtle/Chamomile = 9-10 9. Worry = 9-10 10. Quebracho = 6 11. Cosmos = 1 12. Rosehip = 10 13. Buckthorn bark =10 14. Red Cornflower = 10 15. Cinnamon =3 16. Titanium fern = 4 17. Mealy bug = 8-9 18. Rosette 2022 = 1 19. Orange campêche = 10, but it has become purplish 20. Clitoria Ternatea = 0 21. Rhododendron = 0 22. Buckthorn berries N°1 = 3 23. Buckthorn berries No. 2 = 9-10 24. Buckthorn berries N°3 = 6 25. Blueberries in Alcohol = 4 26. Garden iris green/yellow = 5 27. Elderberry at pH 7.0 = 0 The big winners for these inks, which have been improved for 2 years, are elderflower, Myrtle/G. Chamomile, marigold, rose hip, which is very difficult to make, buckthorn bark, red cornflower ink, cochineal and orange campêche! The buckthorn greens have all turned yellow, their secondary dye, so the green of buckthorn berries No. 2 have turned yellow, a very nice opaque dye! proof that light reaction is good, but not chemical! Some of these inks had more of a pH problem than a light problem, I would re-test with binder and Paraloid varnish which protects paints superbly and inks need to be rectified to pH 7.8 before using them 55


56after

exposure to light


60-DAY LIGHT TESTS 22 VEGETABLE INKS OF THE PAINTER The inks have all been extracted 2 years before, (except the Oak Leaf Black 2022 + Iron), as this gives infinitely more powerful, luminous and stable dyes when they have been in water for a long time, of course for those that have resisted, but the colour charts on the left prove it: you can see the beauty of the colours in spite of the time the dyes have been in water: you also have the chemical and water stability of this fact to make your inks with the ones that you like the most Here I have also added to the inks a few drops of a binder N°141 which I formulated on a malt basis, so the ink films are more resistant and more plastic for artistic paint films. I have applied up to 3 layers for each colour chart. I exposed all these ink c o l o u r s to the sun in April and May 2022, having previously protected half of them with thick white paper and very thick tape.

6. Rathania Black = 10 7. Aloe Vera with Alcohol = 9-10 light improves it 8. Iron borage = 9-10 9. Buckthorn berries at pH 7 = 5 10. Sophora + Myrtle/Great Chamomile + Pastel +

PLANTS USED ON THE COLOUR CHART FROM LEFT TO RIGHT AND FROM TOP TO BOTTOM: 1. Camphea Violet 2. Red cabbage violet 3. Elderberry 4. Black Hopper Rose 5. Alcoholic Clove 6. Rathania Black 7. Aloe Vera with Alcohol 8. Iron Borage 9. Buckthorn berries at pH 7 10. Sophora + Myrtle/Great Chamomile + Pastel + Loosestrife = Damour Green 7 11. Birch/Grenade/Pastel/Persicaria = Green Damour 8 12. Elderberry pH 7.0 13. Black/Rose Blue 14. Chestnut leaves + Iron 15. Water Hemp Black + Iron 16. Bearberry Black + Iron 17. Alder Black + Iron 18. Oak Leaf Black 2022 + Iron 19. Welsh Black + Iron 20. Corroyer Black + Iron 21. Myrobalan Black + Iron 22. Green Tea Black + Iron

The big winners are the blacks and the browns which have not moved ;-) they are impassive, I even find that the light improves them, they are more present. A good surprise, the green N°10 is UVA resistant and very easy to make. The blacks N°20 and 22 have faded a little, it is hardly noticeable. There are only 5 dyes that really work, 2 cabbage, 3 elderberry, 4 hollyhock, 9 blackthorn berries and 12 elderberry.

Loosestrife = Damour Green 7 = 8-9

11. Birch/Grenade/Pastel/Persicaria = Green Da- mour 8=8 12. Elderberry pH 7.0 = 0 13. Black/Rose Blue black trèmière = 10 14. Chestnut leaves + Iron = 10 15. Water Hemp Black called Lycope + Iron = 10 16. Bearberry Black + Iron = 10 17. Alder Black + Iron = 10 18. Oak Leaf Black 2022 + Iron = 10 19. Welsh Black + Iron = 10 20. Corroyer Black + Iron = 9.5 21. Myrobalan Black + Iron = 10 22. Green Tea Black + Iron = 9.5

Exposure to sunlight and light gives these results: Rated from 1 to 10 for light resistance: 1 being the worst and 10 the best 1. Camphea Violet = 7 2. Red cabbage violet = 3 3. Elder = 4 4. Black Hopper Pink = 0 5. Alcoholic Clove = 8

before exposure to light

57



LIGHT TESTING OF PIGMENTS DIRECTLY IN THEIR JARS

Cochineal on the exposed side

Mealy bug on the unexposed side

unexposed side

Mealy bug on the 58


Bottom St John's wort which has changed colour Middle Purple mealybug which has suffered Top Oak bark which has resisted : here it's the only pig me nt that mak es it! wit h Myr tle/ Gra nd Cha mo mile

59


LIGHT TESTING OF PIGMENTS DIRECTLY IN THEIR JARS

Cochineal that has suffered from the light

I exposed these plant pigments and cochineal roses and reds for 60 days in their glass jar, behind a glass pane, but in direct light and sunlight: the result is obvious: few pigments do well, the dyes known to be resistant materials can suffer from exposure to direct light and UVA: there is a phenomenon of photo-oxidation well known to physicists and chemists! Moreover, here the glass jars make a magnifying glass and burn the pigments: it was just to highlight a factor that must always be taken into account and which is the addition of the binder, because if there is no binder there is no paint, but a pure coloured material and there we enter a whole other field than painting: it is always necessary to bind the coloured materials with a binder whose role is to protect paints and materials coloured: this is an immensely vast field 😉 when you consider that there are at least 50 liand 5 times more varnish, just for artistic paintings, do the math...

60


St. John's wort

Myrtle/Grande Camomile and Cochineal on the unexposed side, but the myrtle/G.Camo- mille held up well!

61


UNEXPOSED 100% NATURAL BLACKS AND BROWNS

20 BLACK AND BROWNS FROM 24 JULY 2019

14 black plants + 5 inorganic plants + 1 animal

62


RESULTS OF 20 BLACKS AND BROWNS EXPOSED TO LIGHT ~4 YEARS

1

20 20 Blacks and Browns as of June 3, 2022 Do not rely on the photo, as computer colour profiles change the colours! visually the shades are brighter. Rated from 1 to 10 for lightfastness 1 being the worst and 10 the best resistance from left to right and from top to bottom each row

1. Black Alder with iron = 10 2. Walnut Nut = 7 3. Bearberry with iron = 10 4. Black Damour N°2 = 9 5. Beech Leaf Black = 8

6. European Lycopus = 9 7. Myrobalan = 9 8. Walnut = 9 9. Iron walnut leaves = 8 10. Green Tea Black with Iron =9

Most of the Black Iron Colours have held up rather well except for Rathania Iron in 11 and Hollyhock in 13. Black green tea in 10 and Atramentum in 17 have faded a little, but this is more a problem of too alkaline a pH than of light: you should always rectify your inks with a little liquid Triethanolamine, otherwise the colours may fade: they are as if chemically burnt, and so are the supports. Ideally, the alkaline pH should not exceed 8 and the acid pH 5. Consider applying up to 4 coats for plants that you fear will not hold up as well as others. The ideal pH for an ink is 7.5.

11. Rathania in Iron = 7 12. Pure iron tannin = 10 13. Iron hollyhock = 5 14. Hibiscus + Iron = 7 15. True Sepia NBr 9 = 10

5 Black minerals last row

16. Natural Bistre NBr11 = 10 17. Atramentum = 10 18. Spinel Black PBk 26 =10 19. Smoke Black PBk 7 =10 20. Genuine Shungite PBk 6 =10

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UNEXPOSED 100% NATURAL REDS AND PURPLES

20 Reds and Violets of Plants and Cochineal ©2019 David Damour Madder, Travelling madder, garancine and cochineal Kerria lacca, Pernambuco rose, Rathania, Poppy + camphea and hollyhock violet and white mulberry rose

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RESULTS OF REDS AND PURPLES EXPOSED TO LIGHT ~4 YEARS

Results in 2022 of light exposure The entire top row was lightfast for madder and traveller madder as well as all scale insects in the first two top rows + kerria lacca at the beginning of the third row. The purple cochineal in the fourth row is too alkaline, so it is not chemically resistant, even if it is liquid, and in the bottle it becomes clove-coloured. Among the madder varieties, the overly alkaline madder turns colour, but chemically, not because of light. The rathania changes its colour to ochre. The whole bottom row, i.e. hollyhocks, pink poppies, purple campêches, pernambuco and white mulberry, are not lightfast at all. Once again, one must be very careful with the pH of the coloured materials and the binders used, which can burn and corrupt the colour tint in the long run, sometimes much more than the light itself, as above with the cochineal violet and madder N°2.

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100% NATURAL UNEXPOSED BLUES AND GREENS

White grey blue green August 2019 for natural light test

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RESULTS OF BLUES AND GREENS EXPOSED TO LIGHT ~4 YEARS

Only the oyster white and eggshell white at the top left, the blues and greys of Pastel, Persicaria and Indigo + the Damour green third from the left in the last row, stood up to the light. Secondly, it is the supports that yellow in direct light if the thickness of the paint film is not thick enough as with watercolour. The Damour green is a mixture of arnica with hibiscus Sabdariffa and black tressimeria blue, it is one of the few mixtures that held up, as co-pigmentations don't usually hold up well to light! The film was powdery and fell apart, but the parts that held up were lightfast. The alfalfa green has changed its colour to nettle green because its chlorophyll is not lightfast. Pure hollyhock blues, parsley + delphinium green, pastel and feverfew mixtures, pastel and iris greens are not lightfast at all, it is a waste of time to make them into colours for artworks and paintings exposed to even indirect light.

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100% NATURAL UNEXPOSED YELLOWS AND ORANGES

Yellow and orange August 2019 for daylight testing: All the colour charts were destroyed by the alkaline binder I had used and some of the paint films that were too powdery fell off: don't trust the results I had to redo for the yellows and oranges, but I wanted to show you why it is so important to make sure we choose the materials we use in painting and to adjust the pH of the binders to a maximum of 7.5 with plants and especially in production if we want to sell these works and thus respect our customers and fans. Moral: even to do futile or useless tests, we must always use quality paints!

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RESULTS OF YELLOW AND ORANGE EXPOSED TO LIGHT ~4 YEARS

Yellow and orange in 2022 Test results in natural light Only these dyes were partially resistant: all lost intensity, i.e. sophora, myrtle, pomegranate, country elm, immortelle, barberry, tansy, cascara, titanium fern, except for potentilla/pomegranate/sophora orange, which was totally resistant. I varnished the Kamala with Paraloid B82 varnish and as a result its colouring darkened a little, but it has lightfast for almost 4 years. Verbascum is fleeting, the pigment turns white in its pot in a few weeks: here I had retouched the colour chart with 6 coats of verbascum paint. The application of some plants is not very nice and therefore the results suffer, but with very nice films like the ones I made with egg white and you can see that the time invested in the application counts a lot. 69


EXPOSURE RESULTS OF NATURAL ORANGE DYES

Bidens in yellow and red Cosmos on the right

Lightfast orange Potentilla + Pomegranate flowers + Sophora

Coreopsis colour chart on day one

Rocou 3 days in the light. before after: this is what we call fugacious it disappears in 3 days! in direct light

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Cosmos 3 days in the light: the dye is already


THE NATURAL ORANGES OF PLANTS It's a shame, but no natural plant orange is lightfast: cosmos, annatto and co-reopsis are fleeting, cosmos a little less so than co-reopsis and annatto, which disappear completely within a few days. The only orange that is very lightfast is a mixture of potentilla with pomegranate flowers and sophora yellow and those made with titanium oxalate with broom or solidago or many other lightfast yellows such as feverfew or elderflower (see page 44 for yellows). Titanium oxalate converts all yellows to orange depending on the amount added.

Chestnut orange with titanium pigment paste for 3 years

Orange mealybug by pH: it is resistant to light, but not to acidity, unless it is extracted, bound and painted right away it is more likely to resist for a while only.

Titanium oxalate orange with gaude and chestnut on the right: the titanium makes it possible to convert shades that are not great when used pure in paint: the yellow of the chestnut is weak and the gaude does not render in paint, it is too light, too weak compared to sophora or broom, but in view of the tests only the orange of potentilla/pomegranate/sophora is really resistant. 69


100% NATURAL COLOUR LIGHT TESTS Darker dyes, those containing tannin and those to which ascorbic acid is added during the lacquering process are more resistant to light. The latter affects them less. Acid inks are more lightfast! See iris and delphinium. Indigo, cochineal and madder are not affected by light all the authors who say the opposite are wrong: my experiences prove it i n more ways than one, I have ex-elacochenille for 20 years in the light without any effect, just like the gumgutte.

2 50 n u a n - ciers painted with all the plants and animals Ihave extracted then converted to paint in 2019 and exhibited in the light of July 2020 to January 2021, to bring out a complete and solid palette: by folding the colour charts in half and exposing only one of the sides, we can see which are the more resistant: note the name of the dye and the binder on the back! Here they are pure aluminium dyes, otherwise bound with skin glue.

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For the cochineal to be resistant to light, it must not be too acidic <3 nor too alkaline >9, because otherwise a phenomenon of photo-oxidation occurs with the light, which I talk about in my book N°1

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PLANT PIGMENTS EXPOSED TO SUNLIGHT FOR 30 DAYS

Cabbage Blue related to Plextol D498, exposed more of 30 days in the harsh sun, it has not moved!

Pure cinnamon in alcohol 30 days in the sun.

Nettle bound with Plextol + 30 days in the 72

Aloe with alcohol 30 days in the sun: it does not move and its colour is brighter than walnut stain

Pure bearberry 30 days in the sun.

sun.Pure

madderdiluted to 50%, 30 days in the


sun.

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TESTING OF PLANT COLOUR CHARTS IN LIGHT

Approximately 125 100% natural pigment shades painted on paper exposed facing the light and the other side in the dark, to see the differences in hue once exposed for 6 months, between July 2020 and January 2021

Pure cochineal and lycope inks without binders and inorganic pigments (man- ganese blue, cobalt, PR112 red, bismuth yellow) bound to acrylic binders painted on paper, then exposed to light for 6 months = none moved! It is enough to to apply a pure layer of acrylic binder high quality clear varnish, such as Plextol, avoid vinyl ifnot tested.

For testing in light and sunlight, I protect half of the colour chart to be able to compare later or I fold in half and expose only one part, one half, then I unfold to see the change or not.

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RESULTS OF LIGHT EXPOSURE OF PIGMENTS This is a 5 month exhibition between July and November 2020 No need to continue the test, as we have our Most of them have already been Copigmentation and dyes that are not lightfast: All the pigments and inks that I tried to improve by mixing them published. with lightfast dyes disappeared despite everything: all the colour charts prove it, see photo and even the

copigmentation is worse than if you use the two pure dyes on their own, because they are lightfast like madder and cochineal, but not together. At the top left turmeric then gaude 98% + madder we see here that the copigmentation is not to the advantage of either of them. Bottom line in the middle from left to right: madder + hollyhock; madder + heather; madder + cochineal. First row: hibis- cus syriacus, country cosmos, mountain cosmos, mountain coreopsis (1000 m), Damour red N°2, poppy purple, titanium solidago, cochineal. You can see the folds on the paper, so you can read the result yourself, to say I'm not cheating, the results are raw: When you don't see any difference it's because the dye has resisted the light, as below.

1 year sun test of 10 blues, from left to right: light cobalt, turquoise and Saporro, ultramarine, zirconium, manganese, Prussian, phthalo, heliogenic, PB 60, bonded with 8 skin glues and 2 fish glues: no change to note

Cochineal test 1 month in the sun

Test of Pastel 6 months in the sun

1 month test in the potentilla sun

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RESULTS OF THE 6 MONTHS IN THE LIGHT EXHIBITIONS

From left to right: Gaude + Pastel, Siberian iris, Mountain delphinium 2 layers, Damour green = Black hopper + hibiscus + arnica, delphinium, gaude + camphea violet 2%, Dalhia, 4 layer black hopper. RESULTS OF THE EXHIBITIONS OF THE MOST RESISTANT PLANTS

From left to right and from top to bottom: Coreopsis, Red Cosmos, Garancine, Green earth tint made with poppy + iron, Poppy yellow, Alcohol-extracted lungwort, Alcohol-extracted nettle, Cold Ratha-nia, Madder-cochenille, Magnolia, Orange mountain cosmos. 76


RESULTS OF THE 6 MONTHS IN THE LIGHT EXHIBITIONS

From left to right: Cranberry, Campêche, Bladderwrack 2 layers, Cochineal RESULTS Rumex OF THE+EXHIBITIONS OF THE MOST N°3, Kerria lacca diluted, Cochineal N°4, Red Cochineal too acidic. RESISTANT PLANTS

From left to right and top to bottom: Rosehip, Rathania, Chilean Bramble, Blueberry Red, Cochineal No. 1, Garance-Cochenille, Cochineal No. 5, Cochineal No. 2, Buckthorn Bark, Travelling Garance, Pastel cuvée 2019, Indigo Green, Bladder Green 1 layer, St. John's Wort Orange, Kerria lacca purissime, Garance 10/2019, Goldenseal, Buckthorn Bark 2, Mountain Bidens, Germanicus Garden Iris.

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RESULTS 4 YEARS LATER FROM EXPOSURE TO NATURAL DYES

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RESULTS OF THE 4-YEAR DAYLIGHT EXPOSURES

Results of the 4 years of light exposure of the first The results can during be pigments I made different from one colour the writing of my book chart to another N°3 "dyes inks and depending on whether the pigments of plants" on the acileftdity page.and alkalinity of the co- lorant is high or low and different from one sample to another: this is why pigments are ideal, as they are normally The dyes have neutral, if they that are well suffered or disappeared manufactured and are: hollyhock, coreopsis purified with boiling is the worst of all,their it has water during disappeared 100%, in the manufacture. middle, marigold, light potentilla, dark resistant, purple hollyhock, Damour The dyes that have been lightfast for 4 blue. years are : Madder, black iron gall, dark potentilla, red and orange cochineal, myrtle yellow, pomegranate yellow marigold, alumina supersaturated marigold, black alder, pastel, black bearberry, walnut leaf brown and sophora. As for the Blueberry red, Damour blue supersaturated with alumina, and red-purple poppies will eventually disappear after a few years. The violet below the madder in the middle at the top is ultramarine violet, it is an intruder here ;-) Acid pigments resist better to light, the proof is in the cornflower red, so I added ascorbic acid during the lacquering of the ones that resisted the best and that are known to be less resistant. 77


PRODUCTION OF A PALETTE OF LIGHTFAST PLANT PIGMENTS + TESTS AND RESULTS IN PICTURES

Above I made about 25 pigments, including rosette and green with blue pea, to test for 1 month the most resistant to the sun below = results on next page...

From left to right Oyster white, pomegranate, Immortelle 1, Myrtle, broom.

From left to right Immortelle 2, Sophora, marigold, buckthorn bark, madder.

From left to right indigo violet + madder, bladder green, green = sophora + indigo, Damour grey, Damour black N°3.

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SUN EXPOSURE RESULTS OF 15 PLANT PIGMENTS VARNISHED WITH PARALOID B72 AND EXPOSED FOR ONE YEAR

From left to right: violet = indigo + madder, Immortelle 2 and Oyster white.

From left to right: bladder green, Sophora and pomegranate.

From left to right: green = sophora+indigo, Marigold and Immortelle 1.

From left to right: Damour grey, buckthorn bark and Myrtle.

I have varnished all the colour chart with Paraloid B72 and I covered the whole surface copiously and exposed it to light for 1 year and it doesn't move, as you can see. As Durer said: "I would paint several layers of lapis lazuli or other colours so that they last for eternity". You should think of using inorganic or mineral pigments known for their resistance and of the same colour in the background, so that if the layer disappears in part, it will find its sister colour in the background, which can take its place, or even lay down 3 to 4 extra thin layers, this is the trick that is applied with fluorescent pigments. cents. originally, only Da- grey was used. The black is even more beautiful after being exposed to the sun, as is often the case with plant blacks in the summer. iro n.

From left to right: Noir damour N°3, madder and broom.

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COLOUR WHEEL OF COLOURS FROM PLANTS

Delphinium Gentian pH6 Hibiscus syriacus Poppy Pastel Nettle Gentian Alfalfa Hollyhock Indigo Hibiscus Bucktho Indigos rn Cornflo Iris wer Knautia Cardon Iris Oyster white Moth er of pearl Guanine

Bearberry + Iron Poppy

Myrtle Genêstrolle Sophora Gaude Nerprun Tanaisie Solidago Chamomil e Birch

etc.

Alder Dock + Campêche Indigo + iron Campèche sulphate or other Bearberry + natural Alder plants iron Gallnuts All tannins and + natural Tannin mixture iron Walnut + iron sulphate Hickory Oak Hibiscus

Yellow wood Burdock Rhubarb Heather Nutbush Bracken

Coreopsis Cosmos Carnation Cam pêche worry Cochineal Gladiolus Poppy Garance Hibiscus Cochineal Soapwort

Cochineal Garance Hibiscus Potentilla erecta Sorghum Lichens Coloured wood willow Campêche Soft bedstraw Viperine Blackberries Cochineal pH 9 Virginia creeper Hollyhock

If, in spite of this book if you can't get the result you want, you can come to my Parisian Workshop/Lab and I will teach you the basics https://bit.ly/LesAteliersDeDavidDamour My Phone :+33 07 74 80 03 60

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS RELATED TO DYES AND PAINT ADVENTICE It grows outside its original habitat without human intervention. It grows on cultivated land independently of any seeding. ADSORPTION Not to be confused with absorption, is a surface property by which atoms or molecules of gases or liquids (adsorbates) "bind" to a solid surface (adsorbent). This phenomenon is of great importance in the evolution of many chemical reactions. ALUMINA AND ALUMINIUM Maceration, solute, juice, to which a percentage of alum or aluminium sulphate powder or solution in water between 6.5 and 20% has been added.

UNSAPONIFIABLE It is the residual part which is insoluble in water (but soluble in organic solvents) after saponification: in painting, for example, wax is saponified to make it miscible with water, but oil is also saponified to make oil-in-water emulsions and to paint with oil in water, we now say "water-soluble oil" in the broadest sense

JUS To express the result of maceration, infusion and decoction, any coloured liquid, resulting from the mixing of plants with water or another liquid, which is therefore colouring. LACQUERED AND LACQUERED With dyes, it is the action of converting the juices and macerates into pigment by chemical means by mixing the liquid dye with 10% aluminium and 3% alkali: a solid is made: the lacquer can be made separately, by mixing alumina sulphate and sodium carbonate until the mixture sets into a gel, then the dye is added to this lacquer. MACERÂT Result of the maceration to replace the word "juice" to avoid repetition.

I find this word sometimes more meaningful than the word "juice" which means everything and nothing. It has the characteristics of maceration.

BUFFER SOLUTION Speaking of a dye or a lacquer pigment that maintains roughly the same pH and hue despite the addition of a little acid or base, or dilution. In this way, the pH of an ink can be raised to make it more neutral without changing its colour. Very often when the lacquering is successful, despite the addition of acid or alkali, the lacquer, the pigment, no longer changes colour. This is due to the so-called "buffer solution" phenomenon. This phenomenon also occurs when an acid is added to a macerate, followed by an alkali and then an acid: it is as if the coloured solution were chemically stagnant. SUPER COLORANT It is a plant that naturally possesses an incredible power of colouring, in general, whatever its method of extraction, it gives very quickly and easily very coloured, overpowering macerates. 1. Black Alder = brown and black 2. Busserole = black, grey and brown 3. Campêche = orange, purple and black 4. Cochineal = red, purple, etc. 5. Coreopsis = orange 6. La Garance = red and pink 7. Pomegranate = yellow-orange 8. Hibiscus Sabdariffa = Red & Blue 9. Hibiscus Syriacus = green 10. Indigos = blue and green 11. Myrtle = yellow 12. Sophora = golden yellow 13. Buckthorn = green and yellow 14. Walnut = yellow ochre and brown 15. Carnation = yellow-orange 16. Potentilla = orange-red 17. The Primrose = blue, purple and green It makes for a very vivid palette. Indigo is more of a pigment, but I added it to the list.

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THE AUTHOR'S PAPER BOOKS

SIZE: 28 CM X 22 CM X 3 CM PAPERBACK 504 PAGES IN VERSION 4.0 OF 2022 ISBN 979-10-96990-01-6

SIZE: 28 CM X 22 CM X 3 CM PAPERBACK 504 PAGES BOOK WEIGHT: 1.8 KG ISBN 979-10-96990-10-8

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THE AUTHOR'S PAPER BOOKS

SIZE: 21 CM X 15 CM X 2.4 CM PAPERBACK 425 PAGES BOOK WEIGHT: 800 GRAMS ISBN 979-10-96990-03-0

SIZE: 28 CM X 22 CM X 3 CM PAPERBACK 504 PAGES BOOK WEIGHT: 1.8 KG ISBN 979-10-96990-04-7

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