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Pigeon Disease and Treatment Protocol An Ebook written

by Dr. Ockert Botha

ŠCopyright notice: All work in this Pigeon Disease and Treatment Protocol Ebook belongs to Dr. Ockert Botha and is under protection of international copyright law and any violation thereof will lead to prosecution in federal court. Š Copyright belongs to Dr. Ockert Botha. 2012. All rights reserved.


Introduction The love of pigeons and particularly racing pigeons has been one of my passions since my earliest memories. I dreamt of making pigeon medicines and operating on cats and dogs like other boys dream of becoming racing car drivers or playing for the Springbok rugby team. My father was a tremendous inspiration to me and furthered my love of pigeons, chemistry and veterinary science. During my studies at the Faculty of Veterinary Science of Onderstepoort, I realized that there was a tremendous need for well researched pigeon medications and supplements. The rest of my thirty years as veterinarian was dedicated amongst others to the continuous research of pigeon diseases and the safest and most effective medicines for these diseases. I have shared my knowledge to pigeon fanciers and veterinarians by lecturing all over the world and writing numerous articles in pigeon magazines. More than 15 years ago I published a substantially shortened version of this book. Only 1000 copies were printed and were sold out within a few weeks. Whilst actively involved in my small animal practice and as owner of Medpet I never had the time to update and improve upon the first publication. When I semi- retired from practice and sold my shares in Medpet, I finally had more time to dedicate to the writing of the much expanded second version of “Diseases of Pigeons and Treatment Protocols�. This new edition includes the newest findings and research in pigeon diseases and medication and now includes full length explanatory articles on some of the diseases. It also includes line drawings of some of the diseases done by my wife Sanna Botha. I would like to thank my wife Sanna (the founder and CEO of Aviomed) for encouraging and supporting me in the writing of this book. If she was not prepared to accompany and support me on my lecture tours and visits overseas I would not have gained the invaluable experience and knowledge that these visits afforded me. I would also like to thank the thousands of pigeon fanciers that I have met all over the world that has shared so much of their practical knowledge with me. In particular I would also like to thank my fellow pigeon veterinarians (of which there are so few) all over the world that has been a constant source of knowledge and inspiration to me. I hope that you enjoy this book and that it may play a role in ensuring that your pigeons stay healthy and perform exceptionally well. Ockert Botha (January 2010) Š Copyright belongs to Dr. Ockert Botha. 2012. All rights reserved.


Index External Parasites Feather lice Pigeon fly (Jockey) Red Mite Nasal and Tracheal Mites Other Mites

Internal Parasites Roundworms Hairworms Tapeworms Lungworms

Page 1-5 1 2 3 4 5 6-10 6 7 9 10

Editorial: Ivermectin the wonder drug?

11-14

Protozoal Diseases Trichomoniasis (Crop Canker)

15-24 15

Editorial: Crop Canker – The danger of resistant strains

17-20

Slimy Droppings Coccidiosis Pigeon Malaria (Pseudo malaria) Avian Malaria

21 21 23 24

Bacterial Diseases

25-48 25

Paratyphoid Editorial: Paratyphoid – Prevention is better than cure!

27-31

E. Coli (Colibacillosis) Muscle and Wing Disease

31 32

© Copyright belongs to Dr. Ockert Botha. 2012. All rights reserved.


Editorial: Muscle and Wing disease in pigeons

34-35

Ulcerative Enteritis

36

Editorial: The role of Prebiotics in animal nutrition

37-39

Ornithosis (One Eye Cold) Mycoplasmosis (Slime in the throat) Orniplasmosis

39 40 42

Editorial: Asemhalings siektes in duiwe

44-48

Viral Diseases

49-54 49 50

Paramyxovirus Pox Virus Young Bird Disease Adenovirus/E. Coli Herpes Virus Avian Influenza Virus

Yeasts and Fungi Aspergillosis Thrush

Toxins and Chemical Poisonings Mycotoxicosis Heavy metal and other toxins Insecticide Poisonings Chemotherapeutic (Medicine) Poisonings

Nutritional Diseases Calcium Deficiency Other Nutritional Deficiencies Editorial: Natuurlike Prestasie Stimulante

52 53 54 54-56 54 55 57-60 57 58 59 59 61-65 61 62 63-65

Š Copyright belongs to Dr. Ockert Botha. 2012. All rights reserved.

51


External Parasites Feather lice Cause Mallophaga species

Feather Lice

Symptoms Small black lice can be seen on feathers next to shaft Constant feather preening Mites do not cause any disease but is a sign of poor husbandry

Transmission Direct contact from pigeon to pigeon From parents to babies

Diagnosis Visual examination of feathers – may need to use magnifying glass.

Prevention Regular dipping or spraying Prevent stray pigeons in loft Fumigate lofts in beginning of season with Avio-Fumigone

Treatments available Karbadust or other pigeon dusting compounds Pyrethrin or Pyrethroid sprays

Recommended treatment Spray all pigeons in loft every 8 weeks with Secticide or Avian Insect Liquidator

Š Copyright belongs to Dr. Ockert Botha. 2012. All rights reserved.


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Pigeon fly (Jockey) Cause Pseudolyncia fly

Pigeon Flies

Symptoms Restlessness Stamping of feet Fast moving fly may bee seen moving between feathers Carrier of Pigeon Malaria causing poor racing performance

Transmission Direct contact from pigeon to pigeon The fly lays live larvae in organic material such as compost heaps or dirty nesting pans Often transmitted in racing baskets

Diagnosis Visual examination of pigeons

Prevention Clean nesting pans and breeding loft regularly Prevent compost heaps close to pigeon lofts Prevent stray pigeons from entering lofts Be careful of poorly managed deep litter system Spray all pigeons in loft every 8 weeks with Secticide or Avian Insect Liquidator Be sure to also spray the breeding loft and nesting pans

Treatments available Karbadust or other pigeon dusting compounds Pyrethrin or Pyrethroid sprays

Recommended treatment Spray all pigeons in loft every 8 weeks with Secticide spray or Avian Insect Liquidator

Š Copyright belongs to Dr. Ockert Botha. 2012. All rights reserved.


-2-

Red mite Cause Dermanysus species

Red Mite

Symptoms Pigeons become restless especially during the evenings Heavy infestations may cause anemia in babies In severe cases babies may even die

Transmission Adult mites hide in cracks and crevices in loft during daylight The mites move on to pigeons in the evening The mites feed on pigeons sucking blood during the evening They breed in the loft off the pigeons

Diagnosis Place cotton wool balls in the loft after dark Examine the cotton wool balls after first light to see the small pin head sized red mites

Prevention Regular effective disinfection of lofts with a pyrethrin containing spray is recommended Eight weekly fogging is highly effective as the product will reach into cracks and crevices Apply Avio- Ekto/Endo drops to back of the necks off all pigeons every 8 weeks

Treatments available Many products commercially available for treating aviaries Never use products containing organophosphates or chlorinated hydrocarbons Make sure products used are safe for pigeons Ivermectin spot on drops will effectively kill the blood sucking mites to reduce infestation

Recommended treatment Fumigate every 8 weeks with Avio-Fumigone or spray lofts well with Secticide Apply Avio- Ekto/Endo drops to back of the neck of all pigeons in loft every 8 weeks

Š Copyright belongs to Dr. Ockert Botha. 2012. All rights reserved.


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© Copyright belongs to Dr. Ockert Botha. 2012. All rights reserved.

Pigeon Disease and Treatment Protocols  

Pigeon Disease and Treatment Protocols by Dr. Ockert Botha

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