Klaus Friedeberger: recent paintings

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Acknowledgements I am especially grateful to Klaus and Julie Friedeberger for their wholehearted support of this project. I also wish to thank Stephen Coppel, Curator of the Modern Collection, Prints and Drawings, British Museum, for much enthusiastic encouragement, and for providing an enlightening insight into Friedeberger’s art in the preface to this catalogue. I would also like to thank Patsy Moffett and the Design Studio, Aberystwyth University for help in designing the catalogue, and Robert Meyrick, Head of the School of Art, for facilitating its production. Lastly, thank you to Neil Holland for hanging the exhibition.

The School of Art Press, Aberystwyth, 2009

Design: Simon Pierse and Patsy Moffett Photography: Julie Friedeberger, Michael Jones, Andy Keate and Simon Pierse Paintings © Klaus Friedeberger 2009 Preface © Stephen Coppel 2009 Introduction © Simon Pierse 2009

All rights reserved. The authors’ moral rights have been asserted.

1SBN 978 1 899095 28 5

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Contents Preface

5

Introduction

9

Catalogue of paintings

18

Bibliography

39

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings Klaus Friedeberger in his Blackheath studio, September 2009. Photo: Simon Pierse.

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Klaus Friedeberger is an artist for whom

refugees from Germany and Austria. After

painting is all about paint. For him

his release from the internment camps and

the purpose of painting is neither the

subsequent work in the Australian army

depiction of the external world nor the

labour corps he trained to be a painter

expression of a preconceived subject or

at the East Sydney Technical College.

motif. Instead it is the properties of paint

Friedeberger spent ten years in Australia,

itself, its textures, tonalities and the marks

a key period of his artistic and intellectual

made with paint, whether by the brush,

formation, before returning to Europe in

the palette knife or by other hand-held

1950 where he settled in London.

implements like a blade or comb, that

Preface

Preface

This exhibition focuses on his paintings

interest him. For more than forty years

produced since 1992, the year of his large

Friedeberger has explored the boundaries

retrospective at Woodlands Art Gallery at

of paint within the narrow compass of tones represented by white, grey and black. The absence of colour is deliberate. Up until the mid-1960s his paintings were rich and intense in colour and were principally

Blackheath, near to where he has lived since the early 1960s. It provides a counterpoint to the historical exhibition held at England & Co Gallery in London in 2007 which had concentrated on his earlier manner, the

concerned with the theme of children at

initially figurative and then more abstract

play. Friedeberger wanted to rid himself

colour saturated paintings from the 1940s

of what he regarded as the distractions of

to the mid-1960s. Friedeberger’s mark

colour and ostensible subject matter. By

making is expressive and gestural but is

this strategy he wanted to focus on the

quite different from the earlier tachiste

materiality of paint to the exclusion of

painters like Pierre Soulages and Hans

other considerations. This stripping down to a painterly essence is what distinguishes Friedeberger’s work.

Hartung in that it is fundamentally painterly rather than graphic and does not pretend to be spontaneous. Friedeberger’s tonal

Friedeberger was born in Berlin in 1922 but

paintings are the result of a constant

came to England as a teenager to escape

working and reworking of the canvas; a

persecution in Germany. In 1940 he was

process in which the paint is scraped down

deported to Australia as an ‘enemy alien’ on

and reapplied in a protracted and often

the infamous Dunera prison ship together

tortuous dialogue conducted between the

with 2,700 detainees, nearly all Jewish

painter and his medium, over the course of

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

many months.The placing of the painterly

alone’ i. Beckett’s emphasis on aloneness

marks is carefully considered in relation to

and silence finds a visual correspondence

the tones, and changes and adjustments

in Friedeberger’s paintings with their

are made accordingly. From 1994 metallic

suggestion of amorphousness, of forms

paints in gold, silver and copper have begun

emerging and dissolving, of engulfing black

to appear in his canvases, sometimes just

voids and sudden breaks of light. Looking

peeping through as accents in the overall

at these paintings with titles like From under

monochromatic tones of greys, whites and

black (1996), White/black, grey below (1998),

blacks, and more occasionally asserting

Surging black (2002) or Halted grey (2008),

themselves more forcefully as in Gold/copper,

one feels a sense of an emptying out, of

grey inside (1999), where the bold mark of a

being suspended within a formless void,

gold bar restrains the greys from escaping.

and yet, as in Beckett, from under this grey

With their restricted range and their concern with the material presence of the work, Friedeberger’s paintings and parallel works on paper evince a philosophy that is essentially existentialist. In this respect they can be said to be almost visual analogues of similar ideas

blanket there glimmers the possibility of some way through. As Beckett concludes in The Unnamable, ‘where I am, I don’t know, I’ll never know, in the silence you don’t know, you must go on, I can’t go on, I’ll go on’.ii Stephen Coppel

expressed in the writings of Samuel Beckett, whose novels, shorter pieces and plays have been read and reread by Friedeberger for most of his life. A constant refrain in Beckett’s world is the omnipresence of white, grey and black just as they are in Friedeberger’s pictorial equivalents. As Beckett puts it in The Unnamable, the final volume of his great

i Samuel

Beckett, Molloy, Malone Dies, The Unnamable: A Trilogy, Paris: The Olympia Press, Traveller’s Companion Series (No. 71), 1959, p. 417. ii Ibid, p. 579.

trilogy published in 1959, ‘Whether all grow black, or all grow bright, or all remain grey, it is grey we need, to begin with, because of what it is, and of what it can do, made of bright and black, able to shed the former, or the latter, and be the latter or the former

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Preface

Halted grey, 2008, oil on canvas, 40 x 40 inches / 101.5 x 101.5 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Light spatial, 1992, oil on canvas, 40 x 36 inches / 101.5 x 91.5 cm

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Introduction

In black and white:

the achromatic paintings of Klaus Friedeberger When an ar tist uses strong or vivid colour in painting, we can slip all too easily into using words such as ‘exuberant’ or ‘expressionistic’ to describe the work.

a number of painters and photographers in Britain

In the past, colour was considered somewhat

with a suggestion of renewed hope for the future,

differently: as an adornment, or as something used to

Friedeberger’s images hint at something darker: the

add variety and richness to painting. In early fifteenth-

cruel and aggressive side of human nature manifested

century Italy, painters were sometimes contracted to

in childhood games. At the same time Friedeberger, as

use particular colours in their commissions for wealthy

a member of the Australian Artists’ Association, was

patrons. Then as now, ultramarine was the most costly

exhibiting in group-exhibitions at the Imperial Institute,

of all pigments, more expensive even than gold-leaf

helping to create a new awareness of Australian

– another adornment to painting – so it was that the

contemporary painting in Britain that would reach

materials an artist used were often more costly than

its height with Bryan Robertson’s Recent Australian

his time and labour. In 1435 the Renaissance humanist

Painting exhibition at the Whitechapel Gallery in June

Leon Battista Alberti wrote: ‘There is surely no doubt

1961. Although Friedeberger was not selected for this

that abundance and variety of colours are a great help

exhibition, his style of painting during this period is

to the grace and praise of painting. But I would like the

congruent with the way that Australian painting was

instructed to believe that the entire highest work and

being projected to a London audience. Robertson

art consists in knowing how to use black and white,

wrote of the sensuality and plasticity of Australian

during the mid to late-1950s exploring themes of children playing. But whereas Joan Eardley’s paintings of Glasgow street kids and Roger Mayne’s photographs of street life in Southam Street, West London belie the gloom of an impoverished post-war Britain

and it is wise to give all one’s study and diligence to

Child playing with a carton, 1960, oil on canvas, 21 x 24.5 inches / 53.5 x 62 cm

knowing well how to use the two of them …’.i Klaus Friedeberger is an artist who has spent the last forty years using black and white, to the extent that he has gained an assured mastery over his medium. Until the mid-1960s he had used intense colour with varying degrees of impasto, painting semi-abstract figure compositions of children at play on a grand scale. The subject and the high-pitched colour went hand in hand, he explains; Friedeberger was amongst 9 12708 insides.indd 9

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

painting, its freshness, urgency, vividly developed tactile

Arezzo. In Florence in 1960, he had met Julie Klorman,

quality, high tonal contrast and ‘shrill, sweetness and

his future wife, in the Brancacci Chapel, and persuaded

brilliance of

colour’.ii

Paradoxically in a review of a

two-man show at the Bear Lane Gallery in Oxford,

Sunday mass was being held and a scaffold was up in

George Butcher, whilst acknowledging that ‘the

the church, but sitting quietly in the choir they were

expressionist idiom remains alien to “our more bashful

able to admire the restraint and formal elements of

taste”’, wrote that Friedeberger had ‘evolved a variety

design in Piero’s frescoes. In 1948, Bernard Berenson

of expressionism that can be thought of

Fighting children (‘white’), 1966, oil on canvas, 40 x 50 inches / 101.5 x 127 cm

her to take the train to Arezzo the following day.

as “British.”’ iii

had famously described Piero as ‘ineloquent art’:

“It was nice to be noticed”, Friedeberger recalls, “but I

figures that have no compelling communication to

didn’t think it made any sense. It was a red herring”, he

make, they simply exist amidst time and space, often

concludes, “since it’s not in the nature of British art to

within the geometric framework of an architectural

be expressionistic.”

setting.v It is the flatness in Piero’s work that is most

Today it seems evident that Friedeberger’s painting

appealing to the modern eye, and Spencer drew the

is neither ‘Australian’ nor ‘British’, except in terms of his adopted nationality, and that, if his painting has any particular allegiance, it is to the traditions of European painting, particularly Spanish and Italian painting. In Australia the artist had felt very keenly the need to escape to Europe to see old master paintings at first hand. Disembarking in Genoa in 1950, he spent several months touring the galleries of Rome, Florence, Basel and Paris, just looking at paintings. One of his main objectives was to see Grünewald’s Isenheim altarpiece, which had been an influence since childhood when he had seen reproductions in a book whilst still at school. He finally arrived in London some two months later, where he soon found work as a graphic designer and began painting and exhibiting.

parallel with Friedeberger’s ‘design and stylization of forms’ at a time when Piero’s work was enjoying increasing popularity in Britain. But Friedeberger is skeptical about this or any particular influence on his

In July 1963, Friedeberger held his first one-man show

work. “You see things and you take them in”, he says,

at Annely Juda’s newly opened Hamilton Galleries.

“but once you grow up – become fifty – you are

In the catalogue introduction, Charles Spencer, in

influenced by what you have done before. You can

an astute comment, identified an antecedent for

only learn from yourself.”

Friedeberger’s painting in the ‘disciplined art of Piero della Francesca’.iv Like many other artists, Friedeberger had visited Piero’s famous fresco cycle in

By the early-1960s the colour in Friedeberger’s painting had reached saturation point. “I don’t know exactly why”, he says. “Someone wrote something

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greys below a black (1993-4) a black form advances,

[1955] and that spurred me on to greater and greater

hovering above a deep space, created by dancing grey

colour. But eventually I wanted to get away from the

forms behind.The more we look at this painting, the

tyranny of colour, which just became a trademark, and

greater the sense of space becomes, so that the black

you just did it because you did it. I couldn’t go any

shape begins to float like a hang-glider’s parachute in the

further.” At a 1967 exhibition at Hamilton Galleries,

air above. Leaning forms, strong and strident diagonals

Friedeberger exhibited three achromatic paintings:

are common elements in Friedeberger’s paintings, but

Child’s head 1 & 2 and Children fighting, that marked a

horizontals are rare, perhaps because of the human

transition in his painting practice. “I hated looking for

imperative to see a horizon line, which makes White,

new subjects … I felt that I had run out of childhood

black, and tones in grey space (1995-8) read seductively

experiences and I started on other ideas for paintings.

like a landscape by Fred Williams. Clump (1997) is a

I became more non-representational in my work and

crumpled assemblage of achromatic brush marks that

colour didn’t go with it.” Friedeberger’s move towards

reveals the same preoccupation with space, whilst Silver

non-representational painting came at a time of

space (1995-6) uses the sheen of metallic paint to create

transition in British art: a rapid shift towards hard-edge

a spatial foil against which to hold a form in suspension.

abstraction and colour field painting. But as figurative

The form itself – somewhat paradoxically – is partly

elements were suppressed and colour was gradually

flat, whilst partly giving the illusion of three-dimensional

excised from his palette, Friedeberger’s paintings took

form, having a tangible sense of volume, illuminated (or

on a whole new sense of light and space. “Form and

so it appears) from the top left. Many of the forms that

ground is what I was after”, he says. “When I was

Friedeberger paints are articulated and modeled through

younger I read about the way that people looked

a use of directional light that is consistent with the position

at pictures … I saw they had this thing about not

of the windows in the top-floor studio of his house in

making a hole in the picture. The picture plane was

Blackheath, where he has painted since 1964. Definitively

a shibboleth. These paintings are anti this idea - I am

then, the achromatic paintings are studio paintings, and it

trying to make my paintings ‘spatial’.”

is through works such as Within a bounded space (1994)

In Friedeberger’s achromatic work there is an abiding preoccupation with the construction of a shallow and

Introduction

about the pictures in the Imperial Institute exhibition

that we are allowed to share, both figuratively and literally, the painter’s own interior space.

carefully controlled pictorial space, and the creation of

In Light, spatial (1992), where light and space are

forms within and against it. Depth of space is relatively

explored for their own sake, Friedeberger’s painting

rare in his work and forms are either flattened, or three-

takes on a sublime, ethereal and transcendent quality,

dimensionality is suppressed altogether. An implied sense

whilst Silver/black and a white space (2004) can be

of movement is sometimes evident, as in the strangely

read in terms of a space illuminated by a shaft of

organic A black coming out from clustered greys (2006-

light – a kind of space-frame inhabited by a hovering

7), or the wonderfully potent Surging black (2002) that

silver and black form. When I tell Klaus that it reminds

thrusts upwards and outwards from the canvas. In Spatial

me of a detail in Piero’s Senigallia Madonna, in which

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

sunlight penetrates glass to illuminate an inner room, (adding that it is a motif borrowed from Flemish art and symbolic of Virgin birth), he looks doubtful. But a little later on he tells me of his admiration for Goya’s late masterpiece The Junta of the Philippines Francisco de Goya y Lucientes, The Last Communion of Saint José de Calasanz, 1819, oil on canvas, 250 x 180 cm. Church of the Escuelas Pias de San Antón, Madrid

in the Musée Goya, Castres, in southwest France,

it out in Madrid so that I could see it again.” Discernible in the bunched and clustered forms of Dark Still life (with copper) (2007-8) is another discrete bow of homage to Spanish painting, this time to the blanched, languishing cardoons of Juan Sánchez Cotán,

where Goya transformed the uninspiring subject of a board meeting into a huge painting about space and a patch of sunlight. “The main thing remains those little smudges of people apart from the King himself.

made after a visit to the Prado in 2004 that re-kindled Friedeberger’s interest in Spanish still-life. He had

Piero della Francesca, The Senigallia Madonna (detail), c.1460-1475, tempera on wood, 61 x 53.5 cm. Galleria Nazionale, Urbino

discovered Cotán whilst reading Norman Bryson’s Looking at the Overlooked. vi “It’s an interesting book, but I don’t always agree with it and I do get misled when I read it. I got bit obsessed with these still-lifes It certainly is staggering, it fills the end of a wall. … That one and The Last Communion of Saint José de Calasanz are the two best paintings in the world. When I saw this painting [Last Communion] in Paris I was completely hung up by this back. We had to seek

and then tried to paint some – made up some. I tried to do in my painting what it says in the book the paintings do and of course it does nothing of the sort.” Over the centuries pictorial language changes but a painter’s concerns do not: Cotán uses game,

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Introduction

Silver / Black and a White space, 2004, oil on canvas, 64 x 32 inches 162.5 x 81cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Dark still life (with copper), 2007-8, oil on canvas, 50 x 50 inches / 127 x 127 cm

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and he once favoured a Cremnitz White made by

lit obliquely from above, whilst Friedeberger does

Old Holland, until it was deleted because of its high

the same with bands of black, white, grey and copper

lead content. Now he uses Roberson’s in a tin or

.

Introduction

vegetables and fruit to articulate a shallow dark space,

Rowney’s Artists’ Flake White (no longer available in Britain), draining it on blotting paper to draw out the excess oil, sometimes using titanium white in the final stages of a painting because it is brighter and bluer. Around Friedeberger’s studio are swatches of mixes of blacks and whites, all based on various types and brands of pigment and all slightly different. They live alongside postcards, pinned up for inspiration or as an aide-memoire. Amongst them are reproductions of Caravaggio’s Supper at Emmaus and Titian’s wonderful late Flaying of Marsyas, where the principle subject

Since 1999 Friedeberger has used silver, gold and copper highlights in conjunction with the whites and greys in his paintings. Grey and silver have a natural affinity and together they interplay to create juxtapositions of pictorial space and reflected flatness in some of his recent canvases. In Small silver and gold painting (c. 2000), Gold/copper, grey inside (1999) and Silver space (1995-6) the metallic paint acts as a foil, not to project forms forward in the way that the painted faces of trecento angels can glow against a background of burnished gold leaf, but to create a soft shimmer that accentuates both the flatness of the picture plane and the impastoed surface of paint upon it.

is depicted hanging upside down from a tree. It is a

Juan Sánchez Cotán, Still-Life with game, vegetables and fruit, 1602, oil on canvas, 68 x 89 cm. Museo del Prado, Madrid

somewhat disturbing painting, not least because the inversion of the main figure disrupts our reading of the whole painting. Elsewhere Millet’s The Gleaners and Mantegna’s Death of the Virgin have been turned upside down to suppress the figurative and to reveal the abstract structure of the composition. An early Rembrandt gets the same treatment so that the clothing is reduced to a calligraphic pattern of black and white. Friedeberger explains: “I turn them upside down because sometimes, when I get very hung up on something, it gives me a different perspective on things … I no longer have any preconceived idea. Millet’s Gleaners becomes a very interesting painting

Over the past forty years, Friedeberger’s use of black

when held upside down with all those pendulous

and white has given him an unrivaled knowledge of

lumps hanging down.” It is also possible to see how

the varying properties of particular pigments and

the artist has worked with mirrored fragments of

brands of paint. Trained in tonal painting, Friedeberger

photocopied photograph, developing gouache studies

has always been adept at mixing coloured greys, but

into the kinetically charged painting Halted grey (2008).

when it occurred to him to make greys using only

“I just use them abstractly as tones … the fact that

black and white it proved to be a challenge that kept

a painting comes from somewhere is of course true.

him going for years. Ivory black is his black of choice

You start with something and you don’t know what 15

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

it is about, but you don’t want the end product to

the past forty years, Friedeberger has freed himself

be overshadowed by the process that created it. Of

to concentrate on structure, space and light in an

course, one has to start with something, but it doesn’t

extensive body of work that is both rich and sensual

matter once you have worked on it for a while.”

– with many of these paintings being presented to

When I ask Klaus to talk about the contemporary painters that interest him he mentions Sean Scully, and Fiona Rae whose exhibitions he always goes to see. “I admire the freedom of the work, and I think

the public here for the first time. I can think of few painters who have achieved so much and by such disciplined means. Simon Pierse

wouldn’t it be nice to do something like that! I look at her because it shakes me loose. Her sense of colour is lovely. I can’t do it, but it gives me a kick – you want to shake it up a bit.” But, he confesses, “It’s so off-putting to read about painters.”

i Leon

According to an apocryphal legend, the philosopher Democritus blinded himself so that his eyes should no longer distract his thoughts, enabling his mind to concentrate on abstract things, ‘like shuttered windows overlooking a street.’ vii Klaus Friedeberger’s renouncement of what he has called ‘the tyranny of colour’ might strike us as a deliberate shunning of aesthetic pleasure: an ascetic retreat into the world of black, grey and white. It turns out that the reverse is true. In eliminating colour from his palette over

Battista Alberti, On Painting, Book II, 46. See Creighton E. Gilbert, Italian Art 1400-1500, Sources and Documents, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1992, p. 67 ii Bryan Robertson, preface to Recent Australian Painting, Whitechapel Gallery, London, June- July 1961, p. 8. iii George Butcher, ‘Klaus Friedeberger’, Guardian, 12 January 1963. The reference to the ‘more bashful taste’ of the British is attributed to Sir Philip Hendy, director of the National Gallery, 1946-67. iv Charles S. Spencer, Klaus Friedeberger, Paintings, Hamilton Galleries, London, August 1963. v Bernard Berenson, Piero della Francesca or The Ineloquent in Art, London: Chapman & Hall, 1954. vi Norman Bryson, Looking at the Overlooked: Four Essays on Still Life Painting, London: Reaktion Books, 2001. vii See Plutarch, On Curiosity, 12, 521d.

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Introduction

A wall of images in Klaus Friedeberger’s studio, January 2009. Photograph: Simon Pierse

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Light grey with colours, 1993, oil on canvas, 16 x 16 inches / 40.5 x 40.5 cm

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Catalogue of paintings

Small Painting, 1994, oil on canvas, 16 x 16 inches / 40.5 x 40.5 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Spatial greys below a black, 1993-4, oil on canvas, 55 x 55 inches / 140 x 140 cm

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Catalogue of paintings

Within a bounded space, 1994, oil on canvas, 50 x 50 inches / 127 x 127 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Segmented white, 1994, oil on canvas, 40 x 40 inches / 101.5 x 101.5 cm

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Catalogue of paintings

White/black conformation, 1994, oil on canvas, 18 x 18 inches / 45.5 x 45.5 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Silver space, 1995-6, oil on canvas, 18 x 18 inches / 45.5 x 45.5 cm

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Catalogue of paintings

From under black, 1996, oil on canvas, 40 x 40 inches / 101.5 x 101.5 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

White, black and tones in grey space, 1995-8, oil on canvas, 54 x 54 inches / 137 x 137 cm

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Catalogue of paintings

Clump, 1997, oil on canvas, 50 x 50 inches / 127 x 127 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Leaning grey, 1996, oil on canvas, 50 x 50 inches / 127 x 127 cm

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Catalogue of paintings

White/black, grey below, 1998, oil on canvas, 50 x 50 inches / 127 x 127 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Gold/Copper, grey inside, 1999, oil on canvas, 42 x 42 inches / 106.5 x 106.5 cm

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Catalogue of paintings

Small silver and gold painting, c. 2000, acrylic on canvas, 16 x 16 inches / 40.5 x 40.5 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Diagonal silver/black and a white, c. 2000, oil on canvas, 40 x 40 inches / 101.5 x 101.5 cm

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Catalogue of paintings

Surging black, 2002, oil on canvas, 50 x 50 inches / 127 x 127 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Splayed black, 2003-4, oil on canvas, 52 x 47 inches / 132 x 119 cm

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Catalogue of paintings

Multilayered, 2007-8, oil on canvas, 54 x 54 inches / 137 x 137 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

White with gold, 2003, oil on canvas, 29 x 29 inches / 73.5 x 73.5 cm

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Catalogue of paintings

Light still life (with gold), 2007, oil on canvas, 42 x 42 inches / 106.5 x 106.5 cm

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Double bar, 2008, oil on canvas, 40 x 36 inches / 101.5 x 91.5 cm

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Exhibition catalogues

Books

Other sources and works of reference

Art without epoch: an exhibition of Overseas

Magdalene Keaney, ‘Art in the Internment

The Dictionary of Art, Jane Turner (ed.), (34

Loan works exhibited by The Contemporary

Camps’, in Roger Butler (ed.), Émigré Artists

volumes), London: Macmillan Publishers,

Art Society of NSW, foreword by Paul

in Australia 1930-1960, Canberra: National

1996, later Oxford University Press and

Haefliger, Sydney: The Contemporary Art

Gallery of Australia, 1997.

Grove Art Online.

Society of New South Wales, 1951.

Bruce James, Australian Surrealism: the

David Buckman, Dictionary of Artists in

Klaus Friedeberger, Paintings, essay by

Agapitos/Wilson Collection, Roseville NSW:

Britain since 1945, (2 volumes), Bristol: Art

Charles S. Spencer, London: Hamilton

Beagle Press, 2003.

Dictionaries Ltd., 2006.

Galleries, 1963.

Norbert Lynton, John McDonald and Guy

Alan McCulloch, Susan McCulloch, Emily

Masterpieces of the avantgarde: three decades

Warren, Searching for Gaia, the Art of Guy

McCulloch Childs, The new McCulloch’s

of contemporary art, London: Annely Juda Fine

Warren, South Yarra, Melbourne: Macmillan

encyclopedia of Australian Art, Fitzroy,

Art / Juda Rowan Gallery, 1985.

Art Publishing, 2003.

Vic.: Aus Art Editions in association with

Surrealism: revolution by night, curated by

Terence Maloon, ‘Tuckson and Tradition’ in

Miegunyah Press, 2006.

Michael Lloyd, Ted Gott and Christopher

Terence Maloon, Daniel Thomas, Renée

Rick Curnow, Surrealism on the Couch: A

Chapman, Canberra: National Gallery of

Free and Geoffrey Legge, Tony Tuckson,

psychoanalyst looks at Surrealism, (transcript

Australia, 1993.

Sydney: Craftsman House for Watters

of a talk at the exhibition of Australian

Painting Forever: Tony Tuckson, curated by

Gallery, 2006.

Surrealism, Adelaide Art Gallery, 2003),

Tim Fisher, with essay by Terence Maloon,

South Australian Branch of the Australian

Canberra: National Gallery of Australia, 2000.

Psychoanalytical Society. http://www.

Select bibliography

Select bibliography

aipsych.org.au/articles/aip9-surrealism.html

Klaus Friedeberger: Works 1940-1970, with essay by Stephen Coppel, London: England

Letters from Klaus Friedeberger with

& Co, 2008.

exhibition catalogues and photographs in the Ursula Hoff Papers, University

Lines of fire: armed forces to art school, curated

of Melbourne Archives. http://www.

by Deborah Beck and Katie Dyer, Darlinghurst,

lib.unimelb.edu.au/collections/archives/

NSW: National Art School, 2008.

collections/pdfs/ursulahoff.pdf

Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings, with essay by Simon Pierse and preface by Stephen Coppel, Aberystwyth: School of Art Press, 2009.

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Klaus Friedeberger: Recent Paintings

Klaus Friedeberger. Photograph: Simon Pierse, September 2009

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