Page 1

MORPHOGENETIC BOUNDARY


INTRODUCTION


Morphogentic Boundary is a project that looks into contemporary theories of self-organizing systems, considering the relationship to architecture and urban planning. The ultimate goal is to contribute to the existing body of research through multiple explorative inquiries and investigations. While the project is currently a work in progress, this particular segment of the work is intended to explore introductory ideas and the applicability of these ideas to the develpment of uncharted design methodologies. The project is sequenced herein as multiple studies, which are conducted through a non-linear process of development. Each exploration is done by the use of various algorithmic modeling techniques, yielding emergent phenomena at varying levels of applicability. Conclusions are drawn through the analysis of these emergent characteristics.


The application of morphogenetic studies to urbanism suggests that the urban condition might be understood as embodying similar emergent qualities that are evident in natural self organizing systems. The emergent phenomena of morphogenesis is the process that controls the organized spatial distribution of cells during the embryonic development of an organism. The work presented here explores the capacity of computationally generated emergent phenomena as a decision making tool at the urban scale. In terms of understanding the limitations of this design methodology, Neil Leach writes, "the complexity of material computation within the city far exceeds anything that we might be able to model as yet through digital computation. Nonetheless, it would seem important to address this question, and explore the potential of computational methodology for modeling urban form."

03


04


This research is a test of the aforementioned design methodology. An extreme urban condition (a US/Mexican border crossing city) is analyzed and re-evaluated through the application of and coupling of two algorithmic modeling techniques, both of which exhibit self organizing emergent characteristics. [1] The first technique uses input data from the site in order to generate a swarming particle system. [2] The second is a parametric system that relies on the particle system's natural patterns of aggregation and, through a system that resembles the negotiation of cellular boundaries, governs the redistribution of density and infrastructure on the site while shaping architectural and urban space. In this location where natural growth patterns have been halted by political division, might a self organizing system validate the shaping of a new city that facilitates a unified growth?

05

US

San Diego Tiajuana

Tecate

Mexico


06


TECATE, USA / MEXICO


I chose this atypical urban condition, as it exhibits unusual growth patterns. The hope is that it might reveal the strengths of the employed design methodologies. The intention is to explore the nature of design decisions that might be made through the consideration of algorithmic modeling techniques.


Site Location

US

Tecate, Baja California, Mexico South of California, US East of Tiajuana 2005 Census Population: 91,034

San Diego Tiajuana

Tecate

Mexico Potentials in Boundary Architecture "Borders ... constitute the very sites for both contest and emergent unity (s) over time. In other words, rather than separating boundaries, borders are dynamic membranes through which interactions and diverse transformations occur. In ecological terms, the edge is always the most lively and rich place because it is the occupants and forces of one system meet and interact with those from another. Here, there is contest and competition to be sure, but also hybridity, multiplicity, and productive exchange." James Corner - Field Operations

09


Site Condition The chosen site presents an obvious case where architecture might be introduced as a tool that responds to the aggregate patterns that emerge when two distinctly different simulation models exist within a single space. It is our goal here to explore and exploit the hidden potentials of the border condition.


Conceptual Framework for a New City [1] exhibits a retreat of population from the border, leaving a virtual wasteland of mountanous desert littered with boarder patrol activity, illegal trafficking, and hostile relations. The aura is that of panopticism, as towers rise in the space, purposefully exhibiting a whatchful eye.

[2] A border crossing city, and once a small quiet town, Tecate’s population has grown as a result of industrial activity and the export of goods. The city is situated in a valley surrounded by mountains which restrain the lateral spread of population. Also, the restraint of the political border abruptly ceases the natural growth that the city might otherwise display. [3] The border crossing is the only syner-

getic space that allows legal, non-hostile interaction of the two countries. Terry Cruz describes the space between the actual US border and the check point as a "transitional buffer zone...an ambivalent fragment of space which seems to belong neither to the US nor Mexico...This imagined place is constructed of connections, not separations; of readings, not categorizations...a formal space which cares little about formal classifications, but much more about validity and connection, for culture itself perishes in purity and isolation."

11


BOARDER CROSSING

1 3

2

12


1

3

2

13


1 3

2

14


The Border Redefined The new city will be defined and formed by [3] urban zones, reflecting the existing urban condition. Two very disparate, very different cities straddle a stark political division. The idea is to create a permeable urban surface that allows for selective passage, integration, and exchage.

[1] becomes the element of the new city that is representative of the northern (U.S.) side of the border. It may adopt many of the attributes that characterize the existing space. [2] becomes the element that is representa-

tive of the southern (Mexico) side of the border. Again, attributes that define the southern space may characterize the element. 3

[3] beomes the resultant of the two elements

when they are overlapped, and are intentionally designed to exist as a single space.

15

3


1

3

2 3


Sequence of Experimentation Topographical Analysis

[United States] An analysis of the topogra-

phy and its relationship to infrastructural growth/limitation is used to develop an algorithm that yeilds the logical bounds of a New City.

1

Cellular System

Particle System

1 3

2

2

3

Topographical Analysis

[Mexico] An analysis of the topography

and its relationship to infrastructural growth/limitation is used to develop an algorithm that yeilds the logical bounds of a New City.

Hybrid Algorithmic System

From the site analysis, outstanding conditions of the site will be applied to autonomous particles, creating a swarm-like system. This is coupled with a conceptual reconfiguration of the city's infrastructure.

[Mexico]


Vertical Extension of Site

Morphogenetic Boundary

[United States] A parametric system is

governed by the spatial data created by the particle system simulation. The new city extends vertically and horizontally within the space determined by the site analysis

1

3

2

2 3


Topographical Analysis

[United States] An analysis of the topogra-

phy and its relationship to infrastructural growth/limitation is used to develop an algorithm that yeilds the logical bounds of a New City.

1

Cellular System

Particle System

1 3

2

2

3

Topographical Analysis

[Mexico] An analysis of the topography and its relationship to infrastructural growth/limitation is used to develop an algorithm that yeilds the logical bounds of a New City.

Hybrid Algorithmic System

[Mexico]

From the site analysis, outstanding conditions of the site will be applied to autonomous particles, creating a swarm-like system. This is coupled with a conceptual reconfiguration of the city's infrastructure.


Vertical Extension of Site

Morphogenetic Boundary

[United States] A parametric system is

governed by the spatial data created by the particle system simulation. The new city extends vertically and horizontally within the space determined by the site analysis

1

3

2

2 3


TOPOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS The topographical analysis is a study of the urban forming capacity of boundaries. The political separation has a direct effect on how an urban space may take shape over time. In this study, the effect of the political separation at the US/Mexican border is compared to the effect of the topographical boundaries that limit infrastructural growth. The site topography is studied in order to find the relationship of grade changes to urban infrastructure. The study reveals a direct connnection. As shown in this section, a specific range of natural ground slope pecentage governs the shape of infrastructural patterns, as well as limits infrastructural growth. The discovery of this range of slope percentage is used in a simple algorithmic model, revealing a clear zone of potential urban growth. This zone is later used as the site for the new city.

21

ry To p ographical Bou n da


al S e p Politic

aration


23


24


Political Divider The political divider was established during the US/Mexican War (as will be discussed in greater detail in a later section). Prior to this artificial division, the two nations used the natural topography and waterways to define the division. The line that currently exists was implemented before much of the growth in population, which has led to this irregular flat edge that defines this urban space.

25


R E D I V I D L POLITICA


Topographical Boundaries Closer examination of the site reveals that the grid-like infrastructural pattern that defines much of the uban space is broken and realigned when it encounters certain changes in topography. In these locations, the infrastructural system takes on a more random shape as it negotiates the irregularities of the natural landscape.

27


TOPOGRAPHICAL BOUNDARY


This study is intended to reveal the specifics of how the topography effects the infrastructure. This is done through the development of an algorithmic model that checks the separation distance of lines of topography. The maximum and minimum separation distances are noted at locations where infrastructure has been limited. From this study, a final algorithm is developed that calculates a range of separation distances in topo lines. On the following page this is used to determine how the city might have grown, given only the limitation of the topography.

24% slope 18.5’ 75’

6% slope 18.5’

29

284’


1963’

2000’

1981.5’ 1963’

1944.5’ 1944.5’ 1926

Topographical analysis is applied to an algorithmic model

30


Topography Algorithm The algorithm that is developed from the topographical and infrastructural analysis is applied to the entire site in order to reveal macroscpic emergent patterns.

31


500

1000

2000

4000

N 32


Topographical boundaries that logically shape the sourhtern side of the boarder are also applicable to the northern side. Proof of the validity of the algorithmic system is evidenced by the fact that the existing infrstructure seems to follow the emergent pattern created.

33


500

1000

2000

4000

N 34


35


500

1000

2000

4000

N 36


2

37


3

1

500

1000

2000

4000

N 38


Topographical Boundaries Topographical boundaries justify limitations for new city.

1963’

2

1981.5’

2000’

1963’

1944.5’ 1944.5’ 1926

Conceptual Framework Topographical boundaries justify limitations for new city.

39

1

3


1

1 3

2

3

2


Site for New City Topographical boundaries justify limitations for new city.

41


42


500

1000

2000

4000

N


47


48


Topographical Analysis

[United States] An analysis of the topography and its relationship to infrastructural growth/limitation is used to develop an algorithm that yeilds the logical bounds of a New City.

1

Cellular System

Particle System

1 3

2

2

3

Topographical Analysis

[Mexico] An analysis of the topography and its relationship to infrastructural growth/limitation is used to develop an algorithm that yeilds the logical bounds of a New City.

Hybrid Algorithmic System

[Mexico]

From the site analysis, outstanding conditions of the site will be applied to autonomous particles, creating a swarm-like system. This is coupled with a conceptual reconfiguration of the city's infrastructure.


Vertical Extension of Site

Morphogenetic Boundary

[United States] A parametric system is governed by the spatial data created by the particle system simulation. The new city extends vertically and horizontally within the space determined by the site analysis

1

3

2

2 3


HYBRID SYSTEM DEVELOPMEN

51


NT

The hybrid system is comprised of the two algorithmic modeling techniques, as mentioned in the introduction. This documentation is broken into two sections: [1] The Particle System exhibits the applicability of the spatial data that might be yeilded through a simulation of particle motion. The algorithm is developed through an indepth historical analysis of the site. Population growth patterns are the major influence of the system, as particles are meant to digrammatically represent the attraction of population to economic stimulants within the city. [2] The Cellular System is a parametric system, which which reassesses the existing infrastructure and conceptually outputs its cellular equivalent. This is done in order to study the possible reconfigurations of the infrastructure based on patterns of density. In a later section, this system extends into the new city.


Particle System Data How does a city take on a particular geographical social form? It has been proven that cities grow and develp through a similar logic to that of self-organizing swarming systems. Is there data that might be extracted from the city that might be applied to computationally generated emergent systems? In the case of Tecate, the city has taken its current form due to rapid population increases that occured 150 years after the border was established. The population increases occur in response to multiple economic factors, attracting families to border cities. In this section we will explore those economic factors in order to extract data that might be used to quantify the particle system algorithm.

53


Attraction Point location.add(velcocity) velocity.add(acceleration) acceleration * (.05)

Attraction Point location.add(velcocity) velocity.add(acceleration) acceleration * (.03)

Attraction Point location.add(velcocity) velocity.add(acceleration) acceleration * (.001)

54


Shown here, 10,000 particles follow a simple rule set. Three external attraction forces pull the particles along unitized vectors at varying accelerations. Partilces leave behind trails to allow for mapping of paths and locations. Macroscopic spatial patterns become evident over the course of time. While each particle follows a simple path, the ccollective group forms complex patterns that might be perceived as spatial data. The idea is to study the behavior of such systems, based on input data. In this case, inputs include starting locations of particles, locations of attraction points, initial velocities, and acceleration values. The researcher is able to alter the numerical values of input variables in order to create various spatial patterns. Doing so offers an understanding of the behavior of the system.

55


Attraction Point location.add(velcocity) velocity.add(acceleration) acceleration * (.05)

Attraction Point location.add(velcocity) velocity.add(acceleration) acceleration * (.03)

Attraction Point location.add(velcocity) velocity.add(acceleration) acceleration * (.001)


TECATE

JA

BA

,M NIA

OR

LIF CA

ICO EX

57


The History of US/Mexican International Relations in Reference to Popuoaiton Growth at Border Cities An historical catalogue of the US/Mexico international relationship reveals many events that have contributed to populaiton growth. Ultimately, the purpose of the study is to find how historical events have contributed to the present result. Findings reveal that industustrial growth and international trade are major factors in populaiton increases in the 20th century, with the most rapid increases occuring post 1950. Note that the municipality of Tecate follows a growth trend which parrallels the growth of northern Baja California.


3.0

BA

2.5

IA RN FO

LI CA JA

TECATE

2.0

JA

BA

1.5

LI CA

2,112,140

1,177,886

NIA

R FO

1.0

Baja California Population in Millions

3.5

H UT

SO

520,165 0.5

59

2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1980

1970

1960

1950

**1940

**1930

**1921

1910

*1900

Railroad construction Mexican cheap labor replace Chinese as a result of the Chinese exclusion act. Mexican railroad workers increase.

1900

California Land Mexican freedom claims act. fighters fight for their Mexicans forced out land in California of state through violence and other means

1883-90

1861

1848 Gold is found in Mexican held Sacramento California

1890

US Mexican War (The US overtakes California and establishes the current section of the border that defines the edge of the municipality of Tecate.

1851

The city of Tecate is established

1848

US Mexico Border Mexico independent established by US from Spain and Spain (Adam-Onis Treaty)

1831-33

1819

1821

1846

1895

78,907

Copper Mining lures Americans in Arizona. Mexicans are pushed from their land

Copper, si are found and New M Texas min Mexicans continuous from their


The History of the Border

300

200

150

100

Tecate Population in Thousands

250

101,079

62,629 50

ilver, zinc in Arizona Mexico. nes salt. are sly pushed land

30,540

Mexican Revolution begins. Thousands flee across border for safety/1915 Railway between Tiajuana and Tecate opened

89,000 Mexican immigrants enter US/immigration act of 1924. Border stations established to admit Mexican workers

Bracero program allows Mexicans to work in the US mostly agricultural/1943 Tecate Brewery opened

Operation Wetback: 3.8 million people of Mexican heritage are deported from the us

Maquiladoras are Immigration act of established under 1965 limits Border industrializa- immigrants to US tion program. "Mass employment of cheap labor at the Mexican border by US companies begins"

1996

1982 1965

1964 1953

1942-43 1924

1910-15

1994

***2030

***2025

***2020

***2015

2010

2005

2000

1995

1990

1980

1970

1960

8,208 1950

**1940

**1921

1910

*1900

1895

**1930

3,087

127

*Calculated at .0800 growth **Calculated at .0705 growth ***Projected

Largest increase of maquiladoras after the devaluation of Mexican currency

NAFTA stimulates trade between US and Mexico. Massive increase in border populations

40 miles of 14 foot fence is built under Clinton to deter illegal immigration. Drugs and crime are more prevalent at the border.

60


61

Railroad construction Mexican cheap labor replace Chinese as a result of the Chinese exclusion act. Mexican railroad workers increase.

1900

California Land Mexican freedom claims act. fighters fight for their Mexicans forced out land in California of state through violence and other means

1883-90

1861

1848 Gold is found in Mexican held Sacramento California

1890

US Mexican War (The US overtakes California and establishes the current section of the border that defines the edge of the municipality of Tecate.

1851

The city of Tecate is established

1848

US Mexico Border Mexico independent established by US from Spain and Spain (Adam-Onis Treaty)

1831-33

1819

1821

1846

The History of the Border in Relationship to Tecate

Copper Mining lures Americans in Arizona. Mexicans are pushed from their land

Copper, sil are found i and New M Texas mine Mexicans a continuous from their l


lver, zinc in Arizona Mexico. es salt. are sly pushed land

Operation Wetback: 3.8 million people of Mexican heritage are deported from the us

Maquiladoras are Immigration act of established under 1965 limits Border industrializa- immigrants to US tion program. "Mass employment of cheap labor at the Mexican border by US companies begins"

1996

1965

1964 1953

Bracero program allows Mexicans to work in the US mostly agricultural/1943 Tecate Brewery opened

1982

1994 89,000 Mexican immigrants enter US/immigration act of 1924. Border stations established to admit Mexican workers

1942-43

1924

1910-15 Mexican Revolution begins. Thousands flee across border for safety/1915 Railway between Tiajuana and Tecate opened

Largest increase of maquiladoras after the devaluation of Mexican currency

NAFTA stimulates trade between US and Mexico. Massive increase in border populations

40 miles of 14 foot fence is built under Clinton to deter illegal immigration. Drugs and crime are more prevalent at the border.

62


Numerical values show the increase in population associated with the urban elements. The population increases and historical data validate the classifacation of these elements as population attractors. These locations will be used in the particle system as attraction points.

+127

+5121 +22,332

63

Railroad construction Mexican cheap labor replace Chinese as a result of the Chinese exclusion act. Mexican railroad workers increase.

1900

California Land Mexican freedom claims act. fighters fight for their Mexicans forced out land in California of state through violence and other means

1883-90

1861

1848 Gold is found in Mexican held Sacramento California

1890

US Mexican War (The US overtakes California and establishes the current section of the border that defines the edge of the municipality of Tecate.

1851

The city of Tecate is established

1848

US Mexico Border Mexico independent established by US from Spain and Spain (Adam-Onis Treaty)

1831-33

1819

1821

1846

+127

Copper Mining lures Americans in Arizona. Mexicans are pushed from their land

Copper, sil are found i and New M Texas mine Mexicans a continuous from their l


ilver, zinc in Arizona Mexico. nes salt. are sly pushed land

+5121 +22,332 +32,089

Mexican Revolution begins. Thousands flee across border for safety/1915 Railway between Tiajuana and Tecate opened

89,000 Mexican immigrants enter US/immigration act of 1924. Border stations established to admit Mexican workers

Bracero program allows Mexicans to work in the US mostly agricultural/1943 Tecate Brewery opened

Operation Wetback: 3.8 million people of Mexican heritage are deported from the us

Maquiladoras are Immigration act of established under 1965 limits Border industrializa- immigrants to US tion program. "Mass employment of cheap labor at the Mexican border by US companies begins"

1996

1982 1965

1964 1953

1942-43

1924

1910-15

1994

+2690

Largest increase of maquiladoras after the devaluation of Mexican currency

NAFTA stimulates trade between US and Mexico. Massive increase in border populations

40 miles of 14 foot fence is built under Clinton to deter illegal immigration. Drugs and crime are more prevalent at the border.

64


Population Attractors [1] Train Station [2] Maquilladora 1 [3] Tecate Brewery [4] Border Crossing [5] Maquilladora 2

Population Repeller [6] Rapid Grade Change

Bounding/Shaping Elements [7] Tecate River [8] Railroad [9] Highway [10] Border 9

65

1

2

3


4

7

8

10

5

500

1000

6

2000

4000

N 66


Population Attractors [1] Train Station [2] Maquilladora 2 [3] Tecate Brewery [4] Border Crossing [5] Maquilladora 2

Population Repeller [6] Rapid Grade Change

Bounding/Shaping Elements [7] Tecate River [8] Railroad [9] Highway [10] Border

67


500

1000

2000

4000

N 68


Particle System Concept A brief look at an example of a particle system for a city is shown. A simple algorithm reveals the reconfiguration of a grid of points (each point representing a cluster of population). The grid is reconfigured based on forces of attraction and repelling.

69


500

1000

2000

4000

N 70


Particle System Development Extracting specific elements that might describe collective, or swarming, behaviour we are able to re-exhibit the current state of existence through simulation modelling. Upon extraction and assignment of rule based behaviour to particles within the spaces, we have access to a visual dialectic representation of the city as emergent patterns become evident.

Initial Location

(-) Repel

New Location

(-) Repel

The particle acts as an abstract element that is used to represent behaviour in a visual diagrammatic display.

(+) Attraction

Boundary

71

(+) Attraction

Boundary

Loop


Location

Repel

Attraction

Attraction

Attraction

72


Particle movement is govrned by forces acting in attraction, repulsion, and limitation. Each action outputs a specific velocity while mainataining a constant acceleration. Particle acceleration values can correspond directly to the acceleration of populaiton growth. The sources are locations on the site that particles accelerate toward, representing the attraction of population to an economic hub.

Input

Action

Source Tecate Brewery Train Station

Attraction

Maquilladora 1 Maquilladora 2 Boarder Crossing

Initial Location

Repulsion

Steep Hillside1 Steep Hillside 2

Boarder

Limit

Eastern Site Booundary Western Site Booundary Southern Site Booundary

73


Velocity (min/max)

Acceleration

Output

.05 .02 0/10

.05 .05 .03

-.01 0/10

-.005

New Location

Loop (output=new input)

velocity*-1

74


Border Limit velocity = velocity*(-1)

Maquilladora 1 Attractor Acc = .05 Train Station Attractor Acc = .02

75

Tecate Brewery Attractor Acc = .05


500

Maquilladora 2 Attractor Acc = .05

Border Crossing Attractor Acc = .02

1000

2000

4000

N

Hillside 2 Repeller Acc = -.005

Hillside 1 Repeller Acc = -.01

Particle

76


77


78


79


80


82


83


84


Observation

85


86


87


88


Overlapping of frames reveals the locations of highest density

89


90


91


92


93


94


95


96


Location of high density will be used to redefine cellular system boundary


Cellular System Explorations Shown here: A physical parametric model that exhibits the behaviour of the grid-like structure of an organic cellular system. The behaviour of the network is one that exhibits the renegotiation of boundaries across the entire system at in response to external interferance. The idea is to apply this type of renegotiation to the planning of an urban infrastructure On the following pages, I exhibit multiple physical studies promoting the discussion of parametric system behaviour in response to external stimulus.


101


102


103


Cellular System Urban Application

Points represent locations of cell nuclei (one for each city block)

105


106


500

1000

2000

4000

N


109


110


Overlaying the particle shows locations of density. These locations govern the reconfiguration of the urban cellular system.


Attraction Points


Increased density at attraction points reconfigures entire system

115


500

1000

2000

4000

N 116


117


118


Topographical Analysis

[United States] An analysis of the topogra-

phy and its relationship to infrastructural growth/limitation is used to develop an algorithm that yeilds the logical bounds of a New City.

1

Cellular System

Particle System

1 3

2

2

3

Topographical Analysis

[Mexico] An analysis of the topography and its relationship to infrastructural growth/limitation is used to develop an algorithm that yeilds the logical bounds of a New City.

Hybrid Algorithmic System

[Mexico]

From the site analysis, outstanding conditions of the site will be applied to autonomous particles, creating a swarm-like system. This is coupled with a conceptual reconfiguration of the city's infrastructure.


Vertical Extension of Site

Morphogenetic Boundary

[United States] A parametric system is

governed by the spatial data created by the particle system simulation. The new city extends vertically and horizontally within the space determined by the site analysis

1

3

2

2 3


VERTICAL EXTENSION The urban infrastructural system is extended vertically within the space of the site for the new city. The vertical city follows the same rules of the conceptual reconfiguration of the existing city infrastructure. The vertical city acts as a space that tranfers density into the new city.

121


Increased density at attraction points reconfigures entire system

123


500

1000

2000

4000

N 124


Site for new city extends to meet locations of high density.

125


500

1000

2000

4000

N 126


Topographical Analysis

[United States] An analysis of the topogra-

phy and its relationship to infrastructural growth/limitation is used to develop an algorithm that yeilds the logical bounds of a New City.

1

Cellular System

Particle System

1 3

2

2

3

Topographical Analysis

[Mexico] An analysis of the topography and its relationship to infrastructural growth/limitation is used to develop an algorithm that yeilds the logical bounds of a New City.

Hybrid Algorithmic System [Mexico]

From the site analysis, outstanding conditions of the site will be applied to autonomous particles, creating a swarm-like system. This is coupled with a conceptual reconfiguration of the city's infrastructure.


Vertical Extension of Site

Morphogenetic Boundary

[United States] A parametric system is

governed by the spatial data created by the particle system simulation. The new city extends vertically and horizontally within the space determined by the site analysis

1

3

2

2 3


129


130


131


133


135


136


Bonabeau, E., Dorigo, M., Theraulaz, G., & ebrary, I. (1999). Swarm intelligence. New York: Oxford University Press. Booker, L., & ebrary, I. (2005). Perspectives on adaptation in natural and artificial systems. Oxford, England ; New York: Oxford University Press. Filion, P. (2010). Urban change on the horizon? smart growth in a recessionary context. Plan Canada, 50(1), 38-41. Fox, D. (2010). Halting urban sprawl: Smart growth in vancouver and seattle. Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, 33(1), 43-59. Islam, T. (2010). Current urban discourse: Urban transformation and gentrification in istanbul. Architectural Design (London, England), 80(1), 58-63. Johnson, Steven. Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Cities, and Software. New York, NY: Schribner, 2002. Print Kostof, S. (1991). The city shaped : Urban patterns and meanings through history. Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown and Co. Leach, Neil. "Swarm Urbanism." Architectural Design. Volume 79. No4(2009):pages 56-63.Print. Maguire, D. J., Batty, M., & Goodchild, M. F. (2005). GIS, spatial analysis, and modeling (1st ed.). Redlands, Calif.: ESRI Press. Schumacher, Patrik. "Parametricism: A New Global Style for Architecture and Design." Architectural Design. Volume 79. No4(2009):pages 14-23.Print. Siebers, Peer-Olafl. "Introduction to Multi-Agent Simulation." School of Computer Science and IT. University of Nottingham. Nottingham, UK. n.p. n.d. "Swarm Urbanism." Kokkugia.com. Kokkugia, n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2010. Tomruk, B. (2010). Medium-scale anatolian cities: Conceptual and physical routes of urban transformation. Architectural Design London, England), 80(1), 46-51

137


http://www.pnas.org/content/99/suppl.3/7280.full http://agents.felk.cvut.cz/projects/aglobe/tutorial http://www.swarm.org/index.php/Tools_for_Agent-Based_Modelling http://morphocode.com/blog/biomimetics/a-few-books-endlessforms-self-organization-autolisp-codewriting/ http://issuu.com/p.drewello/docs/multi-agent_paragen_pavilion http://issuu.com/pabloherrera/docs/scripting_handout http://researchnodes.org/doku.php?id=maya:importgeometry http://researchnodes.org/doku.php?id=cellularaggregation:sidebar http://researchnodes.org/doku.php?id=digitalcities:workshops http://blogs.cornell.edu/adaptivesystems/6_tutorial-3/ http://www.grasshopper3d.com/forum/topics/c-or-vb-for http://issuu.com/pabloherrera/docs/essentialmathematicsforcomputationaldesignbyrajaa_ http://issuu.com/pabloherrera/docs/grasshopper_vb_scripting_2 http://issuu.com/pabloherrera/docs/scripting_and_computational_geometry http://www.fcbc.com.mx/. http://www.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/mexicocifras/datos-geograficos/02/02003.pdf http://emergenturbanism.com/ http://www.sutmundo.com/

138

Morphogenetic Boundary  

Graduate Thesis Studies

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you