Page 1

KEY TO THE GENUS ARGYNNIS

1 -

HWun with silver stripes; large size butterflies 2 HWun with or without silver spots but not stripes, sometime with postdiscal ocelli 3

2 -

FWun red-pink; HWun pale green with yellows or silver stripes FWun orange-yellow; HWun greenish with silver stripes

3 -

HWun deep-green without postdiscal ocelli but with several large silver spots HWun with black or brown postdiscal ocelli

4 -

HWun with large silver spots HWun without large silver spots

A. pandora A. paphia A. aglaja 4 5 6

5

HWun with a small yellow spot near the cell base, often black pupilled; black vein conspicuous A. niobe - HWun without small yellow spot near the cell base; vein black inconspicuous A. adippe 6 -

HWun brown-yellow; reddish postdiscal spots silver pupilled A. adippe f. cleodoxa HWun pale yellow with pale orange spots and black veins conspicuous A. niobe f. eris

aglaja pandora

adippe

paphia

adippe f. cleodoxa

niobe

niobe f. eris 197


KEY TO THE GENUS MELITAEA AND EUPHYDRYAS

13 -

HW submarginal band with black dots HW submarginal band without black dots

14 - -

Ups bright orange Ups dull brown orange Ups dull reddish brown

aurinia

15 -

14 15 aurinia / aurinia provincialis aurinia glaciegenita cynthia ♀

a. provincialis

a. glaciegenita

Bold black line enclosed in the postdiscal yellow band Thin black line enclosed in the yellow postdiscal band, often vestigial

LC maturna

232

intermedia

cynthia ♀

maturna intermedia


Nymphalidae

Euphydryas intermedia (Ménétriés, 1859)

Eufidriade intermedia; le Damier du chévrefeuille; Alpen-Maivogel, Geißblatt-Scheckenfalter; Ruševni postavnež; Asian Fritillary

2

1

1

1

orange bands

2

thin black line enclosed in the yellow postdiscal band A local and uncommon butterfly restricted mainly to S Alps; it occurs on subalpine sprucewood edges, subalpine scrubland and tall herb fringes.

LC

M

Lonicera caerulea 19-22 mm

3000 - nival

2500

- alpine

2000

- subalpine

1500

- montane

1000

- lowland

500

E. cynthia, E. maturna

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D uni bi tri pol

233


Nymphalidae

Erebia pluto (de Prunner, 1798) Plutone; le Moiré velouté, le Moiré des glaciers; Eis-Mohrenfalter; Triglavski rjavček; Sooty Ringlet

1

f. pluto

f. berninae

France and NW Italy

2

Ortler Alps

3

1

f. alecto=dolomitana Austria and NE Italy

2

1

f. oreas

France, Switzerland and N italy

318


Nymphalidae

Erebia pluto (de Prunner, 1798) 3

f. velocissima

f. burmanni Monte Baldo

Ortler Alps

3

f.nicholli

Brenta Alps

1 very dark and without markings 2 golden shadow and/or reddish band 3

black spots white pupilled

Festuca alpina, F. halleri, F. quadriflora, Poa minor

O

Widespread with a large number of geographical, local forms; it is typical of alpine and nival screes, moraines and rocky slopes with a sparse covering of short turf.

20-25 mm

LC

3000 - nival

2500

- alpine

2000

- subalpine

1500

- montane

1000

- lowland

500

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D uni bi tri pol

319


Nymphalidae

Lopinga achine (Scopoli, 1763) Mera dei boschi; la Bacchante; Gelbringfalter, Bacchantin; Scopolijev zlatook; Woodland Brown

1 2

1

large yellow-ringed black spots

2

white band

Brachypodium sylvaticum, B. pinnatum, Molinia arundinacea

O

Local and sporadic; it frequents deciduous woodlands edges and clearings, light, open pinewoods and scrubby grasslands.

25-27 mm

VU

3000 - nival

2500

- alpine

2000

- subalpine

1500

- montane

1000

- lowland

500

C. oedippus; A. hyperanthus

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D uni bi tri

272

pol


1

-

KEY TO THE GENUS COENONYMPHA Uns yellowish brown with white postdiscal band enclosing a complete series of large postdiscal black ocelli white pupilled and pale yellow and black ringed; Uns with a silver-grey submarginal line; Ups dark brown; ♀ with large black ocelli on HWup oedippus Different from above 2

yellow ringed

white band

oedippus 2 -

HWun ocelli in Sp4 and Sp5 displaced HWun ocelli in a regular row

dorus 3

ocelli displaced

dorus 3 -

HWun with creamy-white or white postdiscal band and large black ocelli HWun with creamy-white markings

4

Ups dark brown with submarginal orange ringed ocelli distinctive on HW; Uns orange marginal band prominent hero Ups brown with an orange area; HWup without submarginal ocelli; HWun postdiscal orange and black ringed ocelli 5

-

orange band

4 7

hero orange ringed ocelli

273


Zygaenidae

Zygaena osterodensis Reiss, 1921 le Zygène de la jarosse; Platterbsen-Widderchen

3 1

2

1 ground colour antracite 2

St 2 with concave edged

3 border narrow, prominent at apex and incospicuous at tornus

O

In the Alps it occurs in a few localities; it frequents damp meadows, shadow woodland glades and edges and scrublands.

Lathyrus vernus, Vicia cracca 14 -15,5 mm

3000 - nival

2500

- alpine

2000

- subalpine

1500

- montane

1000

- lowland

500

Z. romeo

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D uni bi tri

370

pol


Zygaenidae

Zygaena exulans (Reiner & Hohenwarth, 1792) la Zygène des Sommets; Alpen-Widderchen; Mountain Burnet

1

2

♂ 3

4

♂ 1

thorax and abdomen strongly haired

2

coloration translucent

3

♀ ground colour dusted wiyh golden scales, especially along veins

4

patagia sometimes whitish Rather widespread, but generally uncommon or rare; sometime with very local abundant colonies; occurs on alpine tundra, stony pastures, rocky slopes with a sparse covering of short turf.

M

Empetrum nigrum 13,5 - 14 mm

3000 - nival

2500

- alpine

2000

- subalpine

1500

- montane

1000

- lowland

500

Z. loti

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D uni bi tri pol

371


CARATTERI DIAGNOSTICI PER LARVE E PUPE Le illustrazioni rappresentano le larve all’ultimo stadio di sviluppo; nella breve introduzione alle famiglie e alle sottofamiglie sono indicati i caratteri più tipici e le dimensioni minime e massime raggiunte dalle larve di ultima età; per le singole specie queste misure non sono state indicate poiché sono molto variabili e dipendenti dalle condizioni climatiche, dall’abbondanza e dallo stato delle piante ospiti nonché dalla generazione; pertanto le illustrazioni non sono in scala tra loro. Per le singole specie vengono evidenziati i caratteri più significativi e importanti sia delle larve sia delle pupe o dei bozzoli pupali (nel caso delle Zigene).

dorsal area

subdorsal area

supraspiracular area

subspiracular area

Colorational areas (Erebia sp.) spine

Some common forms of setae and spines found on caterpillar

seta

chalaza

scolus

Argynnis paphia 390

verruca


FINAL INSTAR LARVAE AND PUPAE

Hesperidae

Hesperidae

Larvae are small sized, 15 to 20 mm; head nearly always distinctly larger than prothorax in profile. Carcharodus alceae

grey; head capsule black with yellow spots

Carharodus flocciferus pale-grey; head capsule black

Carcharodus boeticus

grey greenish with black dorsal line

Carcharodus lavaterae grey with yellowish stripe on supraspiracular area and black dorsal line interrupted

Muschampia proto

Spialia sertorius

dark - grey with numerous white dots

black with yellow supraspiracular stripes

Spialia orbifer brown with orange-yellow subspiracular stripe

391


FINAL INSTAR LARVAE AND PUPAE

Nymphalidae

Nymphalis polychloros black with dorsal and subspiracular areas yellowish; scoli orange-yellow, prolegs orange and head capsule black

brown with conic

knobs and dorsal keel

Euphydryas intermedia

Euphydryas maturna

resembles E. intermedia closely but yellow patch is more bright

Euphydryas aurinia

white with several orange and black patch, without knobs

black with dorsal and subspiracular areas yellow and black scoli; prolegs reddish

black with white flecks, in particular in the subspiracular area; scoli black or grey and prolegs reddish

Euphydryas aurinia glaciegenita

white with yellow and black patch, without knobs

greyish with orange point on the body; the wing cases are marked with black and orange

Euphydryas cinthia black with yellow lateral stripes

resembles E.aurinia but white patch is conspicuous

414

prolegs reddish

resembles E. aurinia


Nymphalidae

FINAL INSTAR LARVAE AND PUPAE

Melitaea phoebe black with white fleck and black scoli; head capsule, lateral stripe and prolegs reddish

Melitaea cinxia

pale-brown with very short orange knobs

black with white fleck; head and prolegs reddis

Melitaea didyma

Melitaea trivia

Melitaea deione

white with black marks, resembles Euphydryas; black knobs with yellow tips

pale-brown; dorsal scoli orange, lateral scoli orange-pink; black line around the scoli and head capsule

resembles M.didyma but ground colours is more dark and black pattern is very bold; scoli orange-brown and white

The larvae of following species are similar each other

black with white flecks conspicuous;

Melitaea diamina

pale-grey with numerous black conic knobs with red tips

scoli orange with white tips

chocolate-brown with numerous white flecks; scoli orange with white tips

pinkish with very small black marks and knobs

reddish brown with ochre and black knobs

white with black and orange knobs

415


FINAL INSTAR LARVAE AND PUPAE Hypparchia statilinus

Hypparchia fidia

Nymphalidae - Satyrinae

pale-brown, with darker green stripes on the back and sides

reddish yellow, without markings

ochreous brown, with darker stripe on the back, broadest along the middle segments

reddish yellow, without markings

darker stripes on the sides

Arethusana arethusa

Chazara briseis

ochreous and white stripes on sides and dark-brown stripes on the head

whitish, with dark-brown dorsal stripe, edged in either sides with white and brown

pale-brown, with darker stripes on the back, broadest along the middle segments

darker lines on sides, above spiracles

Brintesia circe

pale-brown, delicately mottled with darker, thiny stripe on the back

whitish and dark-brown stripes above and below spiracles

Oeneis glacialis

dark ochreous, mottled on the back, with darker dorsal stripe

darker stripes on sides, above spiracles

428


Zygaenidae - Zygaena

Zygaenidae

FINAL INSTAR LARVAE AND COCOON

Zygaena

Larvae are small sized, 13 to 20 mm; resemble the larvae of some lycaenid Butterflies; often intensely coloured with a row of black anterior, dorsal, subdorsal and lateral spots. Zygaena carniolica

cocoon ovoid; concealed amongst vegetation or exposed on stem of herbage

Zygaena occitanica

black dorsal spots weakly connected to form a narrow broken line

bright yellow spots conspicuous

Zygaena hilaris

cocoon ovoid; concealed amongst vegetation or exposed on stem of herbage

black spots small

cocoon fusiform, wrinkled; concealed amongst vegetation

Zygaena fausta black dorsal spots weakly connected to form a narrow broken line

yellow spots and white marks forming a band

prothoracic segment and anal prolegs reddish

cocoon ovoid, porcelain-like sheen; near the ground

429

Butterflies and burnets of the Alps parte 2  

A fied guide to the butterflies and burnets of the Alps