Page 1

BIOLOGY

L A B O R AT O R Y E X P E R I M E N T S


About Phywe

Founded in Gรถttingen, Germany in 1913 by Dr. Gotthelf Leimbach, Phywe Systeme GmbH & Co. KG quickly advanced to one of the leading manufacturers of scientific equipment. Over this period of more than 90 years Phywe has been putting quality and innovation into its products as a fundamental requirement. As a well known international supplier in the fields of science and engineering we have made a significant impact on the market through high quality equipment. Phywe products are made in Germany and in use throughout the world in the fields of education and research, from primary schools right through to university level. Up-to-date educational systems, planning and commissioning of scientific and engineering laboratories to meet specific requirements are our daily business. As a supplier of complete, fully developed and established systems, Phywe provides teaching and learning systems for students as well as teacher demonstration experiments. The system ranges from simple, easy to operate equipment intended for student use up to coverage of highly sophisticated and specialised university equipment demands. Phywe Systeme GmbH & Co. KG has achieved a very high standard based on research and technology and through exchange of experiences with universities and high schools as well as with professors and teachers. As experienced and competent manufacturer, we would gladly assist you in the selection of the "right" experiments for your particular curricula.


Contents

Contents Page LEB 01 LEB 01.01

Nervous System

Page LEB 09

Derivation of nerve and muscle potentials by mechanical simuIation at the rear end of an earthworm

8

LEB 01.02

Derivation of nerve and muscIe potentials by mechanicaI stimulation at the front end of an earthworm

9

LEB 01.03

Derivation of nerve potentials after eIectrical stimulation of an anaesthetized earthworm

10

Respiration

LEB 09.01

Volumetric measurement of breathing in small animals

50

LEB 09.02

Measurement of the human respiratory rate

51

LEB 10

Ecology and environment

LEB 10.01

Comparison of the heat capacities of water and land

54

LEB 10.02

The Bergmann rule: Heat loss in dependence on body surface area and volume

55

LEB 10.03

The insulating effect of body coverage

56

LEB 01.04

Model experiment illustrating the deveIopment of resting potential

LEB 01.05

Neurosimulator: Membrane time constant and low-pass filtering

12

LEB 10.04

The daily course of luminosity

57

Neurosimulator: How an exciting synapse functions

13

LEB 10.05

The conductivity of various water samples

58

LEB 10.06

The pH of various water samples

59

LEB 10.07

The origin of acid rain

60

LEB 10.08

The twenty-four hour rhythm of an aquatic plant

61

LEB 01.06 LEB 02

11

Heart and Circulatory System

LEB 02.01

Human electrocardiography (ECG)

16

LEB 02.02

Phonocardiography: Cardiac and vascular sonic measurement (PCG)

17

LEB 11

LEB 02.03

Blood pressure measurement

18

LEB 11.01

LEB 02.04

Changes in the blood flow during smoking

19

LEB 03

Musculature

64

LEB 11.02

Photosynthesis (measurement of O2 pressure)

65

LEB 11.03

Transpiration of leaves

66

LEB 11.04

Glycolysis (measurement of pressure)

67

Glycolysis (measurement of temperature)

68

LEB 03.01

EIectromyography (EMG) on the upper arm

22

LEB 11.05

LEB 03.02

Muscle stretch reflex and determination of conducting veIocity

23

LEB 12

LEB 04

Auditory Sense

Plant physiology Photosynthesis (bubble counting method)

Biochemistry

LEB 12.01

Determination of the isoelectric point of an amino acid (glycine)

70

LEB 12.02

The ionic permeability of the cell membrane

71

LEB 04.01

Human merging frequency and upper hearing threshold

26

LEB 04.02

Hearing threshold and frequency differentiating threshold in humans

LEB 12.03

Determination of the Michaelis constant

72

27

LEB 12.04

Substrate inhibition of enzymes

73

Acoustic orientation in space

28

LEB 12.05

Enzyme inhibition (poisoning of enzymes)

74

LEB 12.06

The enzymatic activity of catalase

75

LEB 04.03 LEB 05

Gravitational Sense

LEB 05.01

Phototropism and geotropism

30

LEB 05.02

The effect of gravity and centrifugal force on plants

31

LEB 06

Temperature Sense

LEB 06.01

Effect of soil temperature on the germination and growth of higher plants

34

LEB 06.02

Preferential temperature in insects

35

LEB 06.03

Regulation of human body temperature

36

LEB 07

Visual Sense

LEB 07.01

Optomotor response in insects

38

LEB 07.02

Determination of the human visual field

39

LEB 07.03

Time resolving capability of the human eye

40

LEB 07.04

Test of human reaction capacity

41

LEB 07.05

Human electrooculography (EOG)

42

LEB 07.06

Additive and subtractive colour mixing and colour maskings 43

LEB 08 LEB 08.01

Behaviour Wall contact searching in mice

46

LEB 08.02

Learning and marking behaviour of mice

47

LEB 08.03

Learning performance of humans

48

1


Phywe in the University City of Göttingen –

Natural sciences have a longstanding tradition in Göttingen. More than 40 Nobel prize winners coming from all sorts of scientific disciplines and numerous university institutes successfully conduct research in practically all areas of science.

The following research institutions and university institutes are located in Göttingen: Academy of Science, several Max-Planck institutes, the German Primate Centre, the Centre of Molecular Physiology of the Brain, the Centre of Molecular Life Science – to name just a few.

We are in contact with these institutions and exchange our views with them to ensure that the latest trends and scientific innovations are always reflected in the product range of Phywe Systeme GmbH & Co. KG.

2


A Center of Natural Sciences in Germany

GÖTTINGEN is a city of teaching and research. Scientific equipment, teaching equipment and laboratory installations developed and produced in this city are famous throughout the world. Göttingen would not be what it is without its university. “Georgia Augusta” was founded in 1734 and by 1777 it was Germany‘s largest university, with 700 students. It still is one of the leading universities in Germany, with 14 faculties, significant scientific facilities and more than 30,000 students. The gracious Goose Girl (“Gänseliesel”) on the market place fountain is the most kissed girl in Germany. Why? Because every newly graduated doctor must kiss the cold beauty on her bronze mouth. That is Göttingen tradition. Doctor’s kiss for the Goose Girl

3


Laboratory Experiments Biology

LEB

The experiments in the PHYWE Publication Series “Laboratory Experiments Biology” are intended for the heads of biology laboratory courses at universities, colleges and similar institutions and also for advanced courses in high schools. All experiments are uniformly built-up and contain references such as Related topics and Principle and task to introduce the subject. O pressure) (measurement of 2 Photosynthesis

02074.00 , 160 x 130 mm 06759.93 Lab-lifting apparatus V/120 W, w refl. 06751.00 Filament lamp, 220 mains connection Lamp socket E 27, DURAN 36008.00 form, tall ml, 1000 39258.01 Glass beaker, 1 hole mm, 32/26 = d 39282.00 Rubber stopper, 1m mm, 6 = d , 4.00 tubing mm, PN29 3629 g pho- Rubber Principle and task n pressure durin = 30 mm, l = 200 increase in oxyge To Test tube, d dark. the in ht, To compare the and tubes, straig 36701.65 light, green light pressure Glass the pcs of 10 tosynthesis in white nces 40485.01 80 mm, d = 7 mm, ns for the differe mm 3 = d mm, discuss the reaso 45990.93 Glass rod, l = 200 RS232 curve rise 51, 200 g/0.01 g, 33393.00 the Balance SAS al steel procedure using 48159.04 Microspoon, speci the experimental ing bottle, 25 ml Equipment (for 30151.25 Glycerol in a dropp g 250 nate, 12150.00* 1 carbo Basic-Unit) 48498.04 Sodium hydrogen g 12151.99* 1 25 Cobra3 Basic Unit 48376.04 Tartrazine (E 102), V g 25 14510.61* 1 Power supply, 12 131), Patent blue V (E - Pressure 14602.00* 1 Software Cobra3 Aluminium foil 12103.00* 1 RS232 data cable Water-weed ® le, pressure 02043.10* 1 Measuring modu PC, Windows small case 1 02001.00 Support clamp for le 2 Basic-Unit) Support base, variab steel 02032.00 Set-up (using the Fig. 1. 500 mm, stainless 1 02043.00 ment as shown in Support rod, l = — Set up the equip 1 37715.00 Bosshead Universal clamp the Basic-Unit using p set-u tal Fig. 1: Experimen

ure Related topics r of the light, press intensity and colou Photosynthesis, measurement

Results and evaluation states full theory involved and shows graphical and numerical experimental results including error calcules.

LEB 11.2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

LEB 11.2

Photosynthesis (measurement of O2 pressure)

— Fasten the support clamp for a small case to the back of the Cobra3 Basic Unit — Connect the basic unit to the computer with the data cable — Draw the support base about 30 cm apart and hold it so with the support rod — Insert the lamp in a hole in one half of the base — Fix both the Cobra3 Basic Unit with plugged-in pressure module and the test tube on the other half — Connect the glass tube in the rubber stopper to the pressure module with the shortest possible length of rubber tubing — Fill the beaker with water and place it between the lamp and the test tube to act as a heat filter

Fig. 2: Measurement parameters (using the Basic-Unit)

Results and evaluation — A distinct rise in the pressure curve is shown in the first experiment (Fig. 3) with white light — The pressure curve rises less steeply in the second experiment (Fig. 4) with green light — No rise in the pressure curve is to be seen in the third Photosyn experiment (Fig. 5) in the dark thesis (m — Photosynthesis results in the production of O2, which easureme nt of O causes a rise in the curve. NaHCO3 is used — pressure The 2 pressure) here as CO2 provideran green solution ab sorbs the d blue-v iolet ligh gre ate st t result is according required for photo part of the red ly less O synthesis only a slig . pro ht Th rise du 2 e ction and — No ph in the pre therefore otosyn ssure there is the thesis takes pla curve ce in n no — The water-filled rise at all in the pre the dark, so tha t ssure cur beaker Fig. 4: Result with green radlight iated out ve by the lam serves to absorb the warm p th Note This exp eriment can also held me be carrie asu d out usi sensor 07 ring instrument ng the ha pre 13 nd07157.01 6.01, software pre ssure 07136.00, pressure and boss ssure 14 41 the entrie he s in the eq ad 02043.00 (Fi 6.61, data cable g. 6). In asterisk uip ment list are not req this case, which are uired. marked wit h an Fig. 5: Re sult in the dark Fig. 6: Ex perimental set-up usi ng the ha nd-held me asuring ins trument pressure

Fig. 3: Result with white light en • D-37070 Götting SYSTEME GMBH Biology • © PHYWE tory Experiments publication • Labora Phywe Series of

Picture and Equipment List guarantee time-saving and easy conducting of the experiment.

13956

113

114

13956

Procedure (using the Basic-Unit) — Call up the COBRA3 MEASURE programme in Windows — Enter PRESSURE as measuring instrument — Set the measurement parameters (see Fig. 2) and go to measurement with CONTINUE — Cut off a stem from the water-weed and place it in the test tube with the cut end upwards — Prepare 300 ml of 3% NaHCO3 solution (9 g to 300 g distilled water) and fill the test tube up with it to just under the rim — Briefly remove the tubing from the pressure module nipple, close the test tube with the rubber stopper so firmly that it does not leak, then re-connect the tubing to the pressure module. Caution! Do not allow any liquid to enter the pressure module! — Switch on the lamp and start measurement — For the second experiment, use the dyes to prepare a green solution (one spatula tip each of the yellow and the blue dye made up to 1000 ml with water) and fill the beaker with it. Prior to measurement, remove the stopper to allow the gas which has formed to escape — For the third experiment, wrap the test tube with aluminium foil so that no light at all is incident on the plant. Prior to measurement, remove the stopper to allow the gas which has formed to escape

LEB 11.2

Phywe Series of publication • Laboratory Experiments Biology • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH • D-37070 Göttingen

Example for measurement parameters for easy and safe experimentation.

Phywe Ser ies of pub lication • Laboratory Experim ents Biol ogy • © PHYWE SYSTEM E GMBH • D-3707 0 Götting en 13956

115

Experimental literature Laboratory Experiments Biology

4 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

Long Version

No. 16506.02

CD

No. 16502.42

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Laboratory Experiments Biology

LEB

The present volume which has been developed by PHYWE, complements the previously existing collection of about 50 experiments in twelve chapters as the following comprehensive Table of Contents shows. In this brochure we present the experiments in short form. The experiments can be ordered or offered completely or partially, if desired, in accordance with the Comprehensive Equipment Lists. On request, we will gladly send you detailed experimental descriptions.

You can order the experiments as follows: What you need:

 Didactically adapted descriptions of experiments – easy, direct preparation by the students is possible

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1 1

Cobra3 Universal Recorder software

14504.61

1

Bio-amplifier

65961.93

1

Stimuli generator

65962.93

1

Earthworm experiment chamber

65981.20

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 25 cm, red

07360.01

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 25 cm, blue

07360.04

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 25 cm, black

07360.05

2

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 50 cm, red

07361.01

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 50 cm, blue

07361.04

1

Crocodile clip, insulated, black

07276.05

1

Petri dish, d = 100 mm

64705.00

1

Spoon with spatula end, l = 150 mm, steel, wide

33398.00

1

Balance SAS 51, 200 g/0.01 g, RS232

45990.93

1

Graduated cylinder, 100 ml

36629.00

1

Quantity Order No.

Aluminium foil Earthworms Chloretone as anaesthetic (pharmacy or dentist: 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol)

Please specify this Order No. if you would like to order the complete experiment.

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Derivation of nerve potentials after electrical stimulation of an anaesthetized earthworm P4010311

 Comprehensive experiments – cover the entire range of classical and modern biology

 Complete equipment offering modular experimental set-up – multiple use of individual devices, cost effective and flexible

 Excellent measurement accuracy – results agree with theory

 Developed and proven by practicians – unproblematical and reliable performance

 Computer-assisted experiments – simple, rapid assessment of the results

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 5


LEB_1_2008

15.04.2008

13:58 Uhr

Seite 6

– catalogues, brochures and more… PHYSICS – CHEMISTRY – BIOLOGY The comprehensive catalogue for physics, chemistry and biology. Additionally you can find a large number of laboratory materials and an insight in our particularly successful teaching systems TESS, Cobra3 and Natural Sciences on the board. Available in German, English and Spanish.

Laboratory Experiments The experiments in the Phywe publication series “Laboratory Experiments” are intended for the heads of laboratories, colleges of advanced technology, technical colleges and similar institutions and also for advanced courses in high schools. Laboratory Experiments is also available on CD-ROM (Order No. 16502.42). Available in English. For the student system “Advanced Optics and Laser Physics” a special brochure is available in English. Special brochures Additionally there are special brochures for our particularly successful teaching systems TESS (available in German, English, French and Spanish), Cobra3 (available in German and English) and Natural Sciences on the board (available in German and English).

6


1

Nervous System Contents LEB 01.01

Derivation of nerve and muscle potentials by mechanical simuIation at the rear end of an earthworm

LEB 01.02

Derivation of nerve and muscIe potentials by mechanicaI stimulation at the front end of an earthworm

LEB 01.03

Derivation of nerve potentials after eIectrical stimulation of an anaesthetized earthworm

LEB 01.04

Model experiment illustrating the deveIopment of resting potential

LEB 01.05

Neurosimulator: Membrane time constant and low-pass filtering

LEB 01.06

Neurosimulator: How an exciting synapse functions


Nervous System

LEB 01

01.01 Derivation of nerve and muscle potentials by mechanical stimulation at the rear end of an earthworm What you can learn about  Nerve and muscle potentials  Mechanical stimulation  Biphasic action potential  Frequency modulation  Median and lateral giant nerve fibres  Conduction velocity

Principle and tasks: To work on the following themes by measuring nerve and muscle potentials: ● The course of a biphasic action potential over time ● Estimation of the conduction velocity ● Coding of the stimulant intensity as frequency modulation

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Bio-amplifier

65961.93

1

Earthworm experiment chamber

65981.20

1

Stimulus bristle, triggering

65981.21

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, red

07360.01

2

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, blue

07360.04

2

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, black

07360.05

2

Crocodile clip, insulated, black, 10 pieces

07276.15

1

Adapter BNC plug/4 mm sockets

07542.26

1

Aluminium foil Earthworms

Result with weak stimulation

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Derivation of nerve and muscle potentials by mechanical stimulation at the rear end of an earthworm P4010111

Result with moderate stimulation

8 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Nervous System

LEB 01

Derivation of nerve and muscle potentials by mechanical stimulation at the front end of an earthworm 01.02 What you can learn about  Nerve and muscle potentials  Positive feedback  Synaptic depression  Synaptic facilitation  Conduction velocity in median and lateral giant nerve fibres

Principle and tasks: To work on the following themes by measuring nerve and muscle potentials: ● The difference in sensitivity of the front and rear ends ● The facilitation effect ● Conduction velocity and fibre diameter ● Synaptic depression

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Bio-amplifier

65961.93

1

Earthworm experiment chamber

65981.20

1

Stimulus bristle, triggering

65981.21

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, red

07360.01

2

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, blue

07360.04

2

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, black

07360.05

2

Crocodile clip, insulated, black, 10 pieces

07276.15

1

Adapter BNC plug/4 mm sockets

07542.26

1

Aluminium foil Result with weak stimulation

Earthworms PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Derivation of nerve and muscle potentials by mechanical stimulation at the front end of an earthworm P4010211

Result with infrequent strong stimulation

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 9


Nervous System

LEB 01

01.03 Derivation of nerve potentials after electrical stimulation of an anaesthetized earthworm What you can learn about  Nerve and muscle potentials  Electrical stimulation  Anaesthetization of muscles  Electrical resistance of nerve fibres  Double pulse stimulation  Refractory period

Principle and tasks: To work on the following themes by measuring nerve and muscle potentials: ● The action of an anaesthetic ● The different conduction velocities of median and lateral giant fibres ● Refractory period of the median giant fibre

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Bio-amplifier

65961.93

1

Stimuli generator

65962.93

1

Earthworm experiment chamber

65981.20

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, red

07360.01

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, blue

07360.04

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, black

07360.05

2

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 500 mm, red

07361.01

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 500 mm, blue

07361.04

1

Crocodile clip, insulated, black, 10 pieces

07276.15

1

Petri dish, d = 100 mm

64705.00

1

Spoon with spatula end, l = 150 mm, steel, wide

33398.00

1

Balance SAS 51, 200 g/0.01 g, RS232

45990.93

1

Graduated cylinder, 100 ml

36629.00

1

Result with a weak stimulus

Aluminium foil Earthworms Chloretone as anaesthetic (pharmacy or dentist: 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol) PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Derivation of nerve potentials after electrical stimulation of an anaesthetized earthworm

P4010311

Result with a double pulse 6 ms

10 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Nervous System

LEB 01

Model experiment illustrating the development of resting potential 01.04 What you can learn about  Selective ion permeability of membranes  Resting potential  Diffusion potential  Asymmetry potential  Silver chloride electrodes  Ion pump

Principle and tasks: The potential difference between two electrolyte solutions of different concentrations separated by a membrane (cellophane or cation permeable) is detected by two silver chloride electrodes and measured with a mV meter. The measured and calculated values are compared.

What you need: Ussing chamber

65977.00

1

Reference electrode, silver chloride

18475.00

2

mV/pH meter, hand held

07139.00

1

Adapter BNC plug / 4 mm sockets

07542.26

1

Temperature probe Pt 1000, glass

13702.01

1

Volumetric flask, 500 ml, IGJ 19/26

36551.00

1

Volumetric flask, 1000 ml, IGJ 24/29

36552.00

1

Graduated cylinder, 100 ml

36629.00

2

Cylinder, 200 x 40 mm, 180 ml

34213.00

1

Bottle, narrow neck, plastic, 500 ml

33906.00

4

Bottle, narrow neck, plastic, 1000 ml

33907.00

6

Spoon with spatula end, 150 mm, steel

33398.00

1

Cellophane, 200 x 200 mm, 10 sheets

32987.00

1

Membrane, permeable for cations, 5 pieces

31504.02

1

Potassium chloride, 250 g

30098.25

1

Sodium chloride, 250 g

30155.25

1

Hydrochloric acid, 1 l, 0.1 mol/l

48452.70

1

Distilled water, 5 I

31246.81

2

Balance SAS 51, 200 g / 0.01 g, RS 232

45990.93

1

Model experiment illustrating the development of resting potential

P4010450

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 11


Nervous System

LEB 01

01.05 Neurosimulator: Membrane time constant and low-pass filtering What you can learn about  Time constant of nerve membrane  Intracellular potential  Low-pass characteristic

Principle and tasks: To use a nerve function model to work on the following themes: ● The time constant of the nerve membrane and intracellular potential ● The low-pass characteristic of the nerve membrane

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Neurosimulator

65963.00

1

Neurosimulator, power supply

65963.93

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 500 mm, yellow

07361.02

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Result of a single stimulation

Neurosimulator: Membrane time constant and low-pass filtering

12 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

P4010511

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Nervous System

LEB 01

Neurosimulator: How an exciting synapse functions 01.06 What you can learn about  Action potentials  Intracellular potential  Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)  Nodes of Ranvier  Minimum stimulus intensity  Frequency modulation

Principle and tasks: To use a nerve function model to work on the following themes: ● The origin of action potentials ● The transformation of stimulation intensity to action potential frequency

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Neurosimulator

65963.00

1

Neurosimulator, power supply

65963.93

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 500 mm, yellow

07361.02

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Result of a strong stimulation

Neurosimulator: How an exciting synapse functions

P4010611

Result of a weak stimulation

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 13


14


2

Heart and Circulatory System Contents LEB 02.01

Human electrocardiography (ECG)

LEB 02.02

Phonocardiography: Cardiac and vascular sonic measurement (PCG)

LEB 02.03

Blood pressure measurement

LEB 02.04

Changes in the blood flow during smoking


Heart and Circulatory System

LEB 02

02.01 Human electrocardiography (ECG) What you can learn about  Electrophysiology  Electrocardiogram according to Einthoven II  Heart rate  Quiet and strained heart  ECG segments  Atria  Ventricles  AV nodes

Principle and tasks: To record an electrocardiogram (ECG) between the left leg and the right and left arm (lead II according to Einthoven). To relate the ECG segments to the course of heart contraction (P wave, P-Q segment, QRS complex, T wave)

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Bio-amplifier

65961.93

1

Electrode collecting cable

65981.03

1

ECG electrodes, 3 pieces

65981.01

1

Potassium chloride, 250 g

30098.25

1

Connection cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, red

07360.01

1

Connection cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, blue

07360.04

1

Spoon with spatula end, l = 150 mm, steel, wide

33398.00

1

Balance SAS 51, 200 g/0.01 g, RS232

45990.93

1

Graduated cylinder, 100 ml

36629.00

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher Tempo/Kleenex Tissues Circuit diagram

Human electrocardiography (ECG) P4020111

Typical measuring results 16 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Heart and Circulatory System

LEB 02

Phonocardiography: Cardiac and vascular sonic measurement (PCG) 02.02 What you can learn about  Pulse  Throat and chest sonic measurement  Quiet and strained heart  Contraction tune  Systole  Flapping sound  Diastole

Principle and tasks: Cardiac and vascular sonic measurement at different locations of the circulatory system. Measurement of the pulse rate at different levels of athletic loading.

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Acustic measuring probe

03544.00

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Typical vascular phonometric measurement

Phonocardiography: Cardiac and vascular sonic measurement (PCG)

P4020211

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 17


Heart and Circulatory System

LEB 02

02.03 Blood pressure measurement What you can learn about  Systolic blood pressure  Diastolic blood pressure  Measuring cuff  Blood pulse waves

Principle and tasks: To prepare a plot of blood pressure measurement and to read the values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1 1

Software Cobra3 - Pressure

14510.61

1

Measuring module, pressure

12103.00

1

Blood pressure measurement set

64234.00

1

Y piece

47518.01

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Blood pressure measurement P4020311 Typical result

18 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Heart and Circulatory System

LEB 02

Changes in the blood flow during smoking 02.04 What you can learn about  Skin temperature  Heavy and moderate smokers  Occasional smokers  Non-smokers

Principle and tasks: To prepare a curve showing the change in skin temperature during smoking. To discuss different curves depending on the smoking habits of the test person.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the BASIC-UNIT) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50 * 1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

Software Cobra3 - Temperature

14503.61 * 1

1

Semiconductor temperature sensor -20...110°C

12120.00 * 1

Precision thermometer, –10...+100°C

47040.00

1

Cigarettes PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Changes in the blood flow during smoking with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

P4020411

Changes in the equipment required for use of the CHEM-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

12153.00

1

Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

14520.61

1

Immersion probe NiCr-Ni

13615.03

1

Changes in the blood flow during smoking with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

P4020440

Typical result

Experimental set-up using the CHEM-UNIT (P4020440)

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 19


20


3

Musculature Contents LEB 03.01

EIectromyography (EMG) on the upper arm

LEB 03.02

Muscle stretch reflex and determination of conducting veIocity


Musculature

LEB 03

03.01 Electromyography (EMG) on the upper arm What you can learn about  Electrophysiology  Electromyogram  Muscle contractions  Biceps  Muscle potentials  Compound action potentials

Principle and tasks: To prepare an electromyogram (EMG) from a contracting or relaxing upper arm muscle (biceps) using surface electrodes. Measurement of the frequency and the amplitude of the EMG at maximum contraction.

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Bio-amplifier

65961.93

1

EMG electrodes

65981.02

1

Electrode collecting cable

65981.03

1

Electrode cream, tube

65981.05

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, red

07360.01

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, blue

07360.04

1

Roll of adhesive tape (e.g. Elastoplast) PC, Windows® 95 or higher Attaching the electrodes

Electromyography (EMG) on the upper arm P4030111

Typical result

22 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Musculature

LEB 03

Muscle stretch reflex and determination of conducting velocity 03.02 What you can learn about  Electrophysiology  Electromyogram  Muscle stretch reflex  Achilles tendon  Reflex latency  Conduction velocity  Jendrassik effect  Facilitation

Principle and tasks: To trigger a stretch reflex in the lower leg musculature by tapping the Achilles tendon (Achilles tendon reflex). To record the compound action potential and determine the reflex latency and the conduction velocity.

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Bio-amplifier

65961.93

1

EMG electrodes

65981.02

1

Electrode collecting cable

65981.03

1

Electrode cream, tube

65981.05

1

Reflex hammer, triggering

65981.10

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, red

07360.01

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, blue

07360.04

1

Roll of adhesive tape (e.g. Elastoplast) PC, Windows® 95 or higher Attaching the electrodes

Muscle stretch reflex and determination of conducting velocity

P4030211

Typical result

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 23


24


4

Auditory Sense Contents LEB 04.01

Human merging frequency and upper hearing threshold

LEB 04.02

Hearing threshold and frequency differentiating threshold in humans

LEB 04.03

Acoustic orientation in space


Auditory Sense

LEB 04

04.01 Human merging frequency and upper hearing threshold What you can learn about  Acoustic hearing thresholds  Merging frequency  Hearing range  Sine wave generator

Principle and tasks: Determination of the merging frequency and upper acoustic threshold of test subjects of various ages.

What you need: Headphones, stereo

65974.00

1

Sine wave generator

65960.93

1

Human merging frequency and upper hearing threshold

P4040100

26 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen


Auditory Sense

LEB 04

Hearing threshold and frequency differentiating threshold in humans 04.02 What you can learn about  Hearing threshold curve  Frequency differentiation thresholds  Hearing range

Principle and tasks: 1. Determine the hearing threshold for a number of frequencies in the hearing range of humans and plot a hearing threshold curve. 2. Determine the frequency difference between two sounds of the same intensity which can just still be perceived as two different sounds (frequency differentiating threshold). Plot a curve of the frequency differentiating threshold.

What you need: Sine wave generator

65960.93

1

Headphone, stereo

65974.00

1

Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Shielded BNC cable, l = 30 cm

07542.10

1

Adapter BNC socket/4 mm plug pair

07542.27

2

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Hearing threshold and frequency differentiating threshold in humans P4040211

Frequency differentiating threshold curve

Hearing threshold curve PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 27


Auditory Sense

LEB 04

04.03 Acoustic orientation in space What you can learn about  Spatial orientation  Artificial head  Acoustic probes  Threshold angle  Travelling time difference

Principle and tasks: To localize a source of sound using an artificial head. To measure the time difference and the difference in intensity of the sound waves incident on each ear of the artificial head.

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Artificial head

65975.01

1

Measuring microphone with amplifier

03543.00

2

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Stand tube

02060.00

1

Protractor scale with pointer

08218.00

1

Tuning fork, 440 Hz, on resonance box

03427.00

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Result for 0 degrees

Acoustic orientation in space P4040311

Result for 20 degrees

28 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


5

Gravitational Sense Contents LEB 05.01

Phototropism and geotropism

LEB 05.02

The effect of gravity and centrifugal force on plants


Gravitational Sense

LEB 05

05.01 Phototropism and geotropism What you can learn about  Photoperiodism  Phototaxis  Clinostat  Negative and positive phototropic response  Geotropism  Geotaxis  Statoliths

Principle and tasks: To test the reaction of shoots, leaves and roots of higher plants to light stimuli (photoperiodism) and to stimuli caused by the earth’s field of gravity (geotropism). To measure the alignment of shoot, leaf and root of bean seedlings which sprout in a vessel standing on the ground or Iying on its side. To eliminate the effect of light or gravity by rotation in a clinostat aligned in the vertical or horizontal position.

What you need: Clinostat with electromotor 230 V

65964.93

1

Plastic beaker, 400 ml

36014.01

2

Petri dish, d = 100 mm

64705.00

1

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Right angle clamp (bosshead)

02043.00

1

Support rod, l = 250 mm, stainless

02031.00

1

Bean seedlings Potting mould Goniometer

Phototropism and geotropism P4050100

Examination of phototropism

30 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Gravitational Sense

LEB 05

The effect of gravity and centrifugal force on plants 05.02 What you can learn about  Positive geotropism of roots  Negative geotropism of shoots  Centrifugal force  Rotational speed  Statoliths

Principle and tasks: To measure the alignment of shoots and roots under the effect of centrifugal forces which are less than, equal to or greater than gravity. To raise sunflower seedlings in small beakers in a rotating drum. To set different centrifugal forces by changing the speed of rotation of the drum motor.

What you need: Strobe drum

65976.00

1

Insertion piece for strobe drum

65976.10

1

Motor with disc holder

11614.00

1

Power supply 0...12 V / 2 A

13505.93

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 750 mm, red

07362.01

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 750 mm, blue

07362.04

1

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Right-angle clamp (bosshead)

02043.00

1

Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steeI

02032.00

2

Support rod, l = 250 mm, stainless steel

02031.00

1

Glass beakers, tall, 50 ml

36001.00 10

Sunflowers seeds Potting mould Goniometer

The effect of gravity and centrifugal force on plants

P4050200

Root orientation

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 31


32


6

Temperature Sense Contents LEB 06.01

Effect of soil temperature on the germination and growth of higher plants

LEB 06.02

Prefential temperature in insects

LEB 06.03

Regulation of human body temperature


Temperature Sense

LEB 06

06.01 Effect of soil temperature on the germination and growth of higher plants What you can learn about  Plant germination  Temperature optimum/ maximum/minimum  Soil temperature  Temperature preferendum

Principle and tasks: To investigate the effect of soil temperature on the germination of garden cress (Lepidium sativum). To determine the most favourable value for the germination and growth of cress using a temperature organ.

What you need: Temperature organ

65983.93

1

Immersion thermostat C10

08492.93

1

Accessory set for thermostat

08492.01

1

Bath for thermostat

08487.02

1

Rubber tubing, di = 8 mm

39283.00

2

Lab. thermometer, -10°C...+50°C

38055.00

6

Petri dish, d = 100 mm

64705.00

5

Garden soil Cress seed (Lepidium sativum)

Effect of soil temperature on the germination and growth of higher plants

P4060100

Optimum range for germination and growth of cress (to be completed)

34 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Temperature Sense

LEB 06

Preferential temperature in insects 06.02 What you can learn about  Temperature optimum  Poikilothermic animals  Thermotaxis  Phototaxis  Thigmotaxis  Torpor  Environmental requirements  Geographical separation

Principle and tasks: To test the temperature demands of poikilothermic animals. Using their thermoreceptors the animals recognize the temperature which suits them, gather in an area at the corresponding temperature (thermotaxis) and thus show their preferred temperature. To produce a temperature gradient between approximately 45°C and 10°C using a ring shaped temperature organ. To record the positions of the individual animals.

What you need: Temperature organ

65983.93

1

Immersion thermostat C10

08492.93

1

Accessory set for thermostat

08492.01

1

Bath for thermostat

08487.02

1

Lab. thermometer, -10°C...+50°C

38055.00

6

Rubber tubing, di = 8 mm

39283.00

2

Sea sand, purified, 1 kg

30220.67

1

10-20 insects of different species Marking colour (e.g. nail varnish)

Preferential temperature in insects P4060200

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 35


Temperature Sense

LEB 06

06.03 Regulation of human body temperature What you can learn about  Body temperature regulation  Radiation  Evaporation  Skin temperature  Heating/cooling effects

Principle and tasks: To prepare curves demonstrating the regulation of body temperature. To discuss different curves depending on the conditions at the hand of the test person.

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50 * 1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 - Temperature

14503.61 * 1

Semiconductor temperature sensor, –20...110°C

12120.00 * 2

Precision thermometer, –10...+100°C

47040.00

1

Rubber bands

03920.00

1

Rubber gloves

46359.00

1

Adhesive tape Ventilator PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Regulation of human body temperature with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

P4060311

Typical result for experiment 2

Changes in the equipment required for use of the CHEM-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

12153.00

Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1 1

Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

14520.61

1

Immersion probe NiCr-Ni

13615.03

2

Regulation of human body temperature with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

P4060340

Experimental set-up using the CHEM-UNIT (P4060340)

36 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


7

Visual Sense Contents LEB 07.01

Optomotor response in insects

LEB 07.02

Determination of the human visual field

LEB 07.03

Time resolving capability of the human eye

LEB 07.04

Test of human reaction capacity

LEB 07.05

Human electrooculography (EOG)

LEB 07.06

Additive and subtractive colour mixing and colour maskings


Visual Sense

LEB 07

07.01 Optomotor response in insects What you can learn about  Optomotor response  Time resolving capability  Compound eye  Strobe drum  Pattern frequency  Left- and righthand movements of flies

Principle and tasks: Behavioural physiological measurement of the time resolving capacity of the compound eye of flies (without electrophysiological leads). To determine the ratio of right and left turns made by a fly attached to the centre of a strobe drum. The movements (optomotor response) indicate whether or not the fly can resolve the strobe pattern with the drum set at a constant speed.

What you need: Strobe drum

65976.00

1

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Right-angle clamp (bosshead)

02043.00

2

Support rod, stainless steel, l = 500 mm

02032.00

2

Support rod, stainless steel, l = 250 mm

02031.00

1

Universal clamp

37715.00

1

Motor with disk holder, 12 V

11614.00

1

Power supply, 0...12 V, 2 A

13505.93

1

Snap-cap vials, 60 ml

33623.03

1 1

Glass tube, straight, l = 80 mm

36701.65

Rubber tubing, di = 6 mm

39282.00

1

Compressed gas, CO2, 12 I

41772.06

1

Fine control valve

33499.00

1

Iron wires, 140 mm

45286.00

1

Rubber stopper, d = 27/21 mm, 1 hole

39257.01

1

Scissors, straight, pointed, l = 110 mm

64623.00

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 750 mm, red

07362.01

1 1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 750 mm, blue

07362.04

Acetone, chem. pure, 250 ml

30004.25

1

Caterpillar breeding box

64564.00

1

Fastening the fly in place

Flies Sugar cubes 10-second glue Typing or flimsy paper

Optomotor response in insects P4070100

38 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen


Visual Sense

LEB 07

Determination of the human visual field 07.02 What you can learn about  Perimeter  Visual field (for white, blue, red, green)  Field of view  Blind spot  Scotoma  Rods and cones

Principle and tasks: Determination of the visual field of the right and left eye for white, blue, red and green. Detection of any visual field deficiency (scotoma). Location of the blind spot (site of optic nerve emergence). The extent of the visual fields of both eyes and the position of the blind spot are determined with the aid of a perimeter.

What you need: Perimeter

65984.00

1

Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless

02032.00

1

Bench clamp, “PASS”

02010.00

1

Right-angle clamp

02043.00

1

Protractor scale with pointer

08218.00

1

Stand tube

02060.00

2

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Table top on rod

08060.00

1

Determination of the human visual field P4070200

Visual field of a right eye

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 39


Visual Sense

LEB 07

07.03 Time resolving capability of the human eye What you can learn about  Perimeter  Time-related resolving power  Flicker fusion frequency  Light/dark adapted eye

Principle and tasks: To determine the flashing frequency of an LED at which the impression of a continuous light just occurs. To change the direction of incidence of the light using a perimeter. To determine the flicker fusion threshold of the left and right eye in relation to the direction of incidence of light stimulus and the state of adaptation of the eyes.

What you need: Sine wave generator

65960.93

1

Stimulant light source

65985.00

1

Perimeter

65984.00

1

Right-angle clamp

02043.00

1

Table top on rod

08060.00

1

Bench clamp, “PASS”

02010.00

1

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless

02032.00

1

Stand tube

02060.00

1

Time resolving capability of the human eye P4070300

Flicker fusion frequency curve

40 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Visual Sense

LEB 07

Test of human reaction capacity 07.04 What you can learn about  Reaction capacity  Strobe drum  Control loop  Feedback reaction  Dead time  Follow-through time  Threshold frequency

Principle and tasks: Measurement of dead time in a reaction test. Analysis of the transient response. Determination of threshold frequency for stimuli. Study of the effects of noise and alcohol on reaction capacity. The test subject should follow a rectangular curve on a slowly rotating drum, using a felt-tip pen inserted into a slit.

What you need: Strobe drum

65976.00

1

Reaction test sheets

65976.02

1

Motor with disk holder, 12 V

11614.00

1

Power supply, 0...12 V, 2 A

13505.93

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 750 mm, red

07362.01

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 750 mm, blue

07362.04

1

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Plate holder

02062.00

1

Right-angle clamp (bosshead)

02043.00

2

Support rod, l = 250 mm, stainless

02031.00

1

Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless

02032.00

2

Felt-tip pen Reaction curve

Adhesive tape (transparent)

Test of human reaction capacity P4070400

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 41


Visual Sense

LEB 07

07.05 Human electrooculography (EOG) What you can learn about  Electrophysiology  Electrical field measurement  Eye movements  Dipole  Sacchades  Fixation period  Practised reader versus schoolchild  Rapid reading techniques

Principle and tasks: To record the changes in the electrical field induced by eye movements, using electrodes stuck to the skin near the eyes. To measure an electrooculogram (EOG) with a practised reader, a less practised (six year old) schoolchild and, if possible, a test person who practises a rapid reading technique. To evaluate the rapid horizontal eye movements (sacchades) and the fixation periods.

Attaching the electrodes

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1 1

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61

1

Bio-amplifier

65961.93

1

EMG electrodes

65981.02

1

Electrode collecting cable

65981.03

1

Electrode cream, tube

65981.05

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, red

07360.01

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 250 mm, blue

07360.04

1

Roll of adhesive tape (e.g. Elastoplast) PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Human electrooculography (EOG)

Typical result

P4070511

42 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Visual Sense

LEB 07

Additive and subtractive colour mixing and colour maskings 07.06 What you can learn about  Additive colour mixing  Subtractive colour mixing  Complementary colour  Colour saturation  White masking  Black masking

Principle and tasks: Production of mixed colours and white light by superimposed projection (additive mixing) of red, blue and green light. Brightening of a colour spot (white masking) or its surroundings (black masking) by means of white light.

What you need: Three colour lamp

13760.00

1

Set of colour filters

13760.01

1

Brightness adjuster

13760.93

1

Negative hole diaphragm, d = 20 mm

17556.00

1

Circular diaphragm, with hole, d = 20 mm

09816.01

1

Screen, metal, 300 x 300 mm

08062.00

1

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Barrel base ”PASS”

02006.55

1

Additive and subtractive colour mixing and colour maskings

P4070600

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 43


44


8

Behaviour Contents LEB 08.01

Wall contact searching in mice

LEB 08.02

Learning and marking behaviour of mice

LEB 08.03

Learning performance of humans


Behaviour

LEB 08

08.01 Wall contact searching in mice What you can learn about  Behaviour of mice  Search for wall contact  Distribution of staying places  Random distribution  Percentage deviation

Principle and tasks: To record the amount of time spent by mice on a platform with and without walls divided into 49 squares numbered in sequence. To compare the recorded distribution of staying places with the calculated random distribution. To calculate the percentage deviation.

What you need: Platform for behaviour observation

65991.00

1

White mice

Wall contact searching in mice P4080100

46 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen


Behaviour

LEB 08

Learning and marking behaviour of mice 08.02 What you can learn about  Y-Labyrinth  High labyrinth  Operative conditioning  Learning  Curve  Marking behaviour

Principle and tasks: To test the learning process in a simple Y-Iabyrinth (train to the left and right) and on a complicated high labyrinth. To measure the time taken to cross the maze and the number of errors in relation to previous experience and scent marking. To draw learning curves for different labyrinths and animals.

What you need: High labyrinth

65992.00

1

Y-Labyrinth

65993.00

1

White mice Food

Learning and marking behaviour of mice P4080200

High labyrinth

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 47


Behaviour

LEB 08

08.03 Learning performance of humans What you can learn about  Finger labyrinth  Learning behaviour  Learning curve  Short term memory  Medium term memory

Principle and tasks: The blindfolded test subject has to find the way to the finish with a felt-tip pen in the slits of a finger labyrinth. Success and error are checked by placing a sheet of paper underneath. The learning curves for two different test objectives are drawn: to cross the maze with the least number of errors and as quickly as possible.

What you need: Finger labyrinth

65990.00

1

Stop watch, interruption type

03076.01

1

Blindfold or opaque glasses Selection of coloured felt-tip pens

Learning performance of humans P4080300

48 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen


9

Respiration Contents LEB 09.01

Volumetric measurement of breathing in small animals

LEB 09.02

Measurement of the human respiratory rate


Respiration

LEB 09

09.01 Volumetric measurement of breathing in small animals What you can learn about  Oxygen consumption  Volumetric measurement  Respirometer  Carbon dioxide consumption  Compensation vessel  Q10 value

Principle and tasks: Measure the oxygen consumption of insects in relation to ambient temperature and body weight. Volumetric measurement of the oxygen consumption of an animal enclosed in a temperature-controlled spirometer. Absorption of the exhaled carbon dioxide using concentrated potassium hydroxide solution.

What you need: Respirometer, compact model

65998.00

1

Immersion thermostat TC10

08492.93

1

Bath for thermostat, 6 l,

08487.02

1

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Support rod, l = 250 mm, stainless

02031.00

2

Right-angle clamp (bosshead)

02043.00

1

Balance SAS 51, 200 g / 0.01 g, RS232

45990.93

1

Volumetric pipette, 10 ml

36578.00

1

Pipettor

36592.00

1

Tweezers, straight, pointed, 120 mm

64607.00

1

Glass beads, d = 6 mm, 850 pieces

36756.25

1

Silicone High Vacuum Grease, 100 g

31863.10

1

Potassium hydroxide sol., 30%, 500 ml

48209.50

1

Mealworms and meal beetles Ink solution

Volumetric measurement of breathing in small animals

P4090100

Respirometer

50 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen


Respiration

LEB 09

Measurement of the human respiratory rate 09.02 What you can learn about  Respiratory frequency  Chest pressure measurement  Breathing in resting position  In slight and strong exertion  Eupnea  Diaphragmatic and thoracic respiration

Principle and tasks: The number of inhalations per unit time is dependent on many factors, such as the capacity of the lungs, health condition and activity. The respiratory frequencies before and after bodily exertion are to be measured and compared.

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 - Pressure

14510.61

1

Measuring module, pressure

12103.00

1

Blood pressure measurement set

64234.00

1

Y piece

47518.01

1

Additionally required: Kidney protective belt (motor cycle accessory) PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Result (at rest)

Measurement of the human respiratory rate with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

P4090211

Result (during slight exertion)

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 51


52


10

Ecology and environment Contents

LEB 10.01

Comparison of the heat capacities of water and land

LEB 10.02

The Bergmann rule: Heat loss in dependence on body surface area and volume

LEB 10.03

The insulating effect of body coverage

LEB 10.04

The daily course of luminosity

LEB 10.05

The conductivity of various water samples

LEB 10.06

The pH of various water samples

LEB 10.07

The origin of acid rain

LEB 10.08

The twenty-four hour rhythm of an aquatic plant


Ecology and environment

LEB 10

10.01 Comparison of the heat capacities of water and land What you can learn about  Heat capacity  Heat radiation  Origin of climatic fluctuations  Generation of onshore and offshore winds

Principle and tasks: To prepare comparison curves showing the different heat capacities of water and land. To interpret data on climate and to explain how onshore and offshore winds originate.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the BASIC-UNIT) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50 * 1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

Software Cobra3 - Temperature

14503.61 * 1

1

Semiconductor temperature sensor, -20...110°C

12120.00 * 2

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Bosshead

02043.00

1

Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel

02032.00

1

Filament lamp, 220 V/120 W, with reflector

06759.93

1

Lamp socket E 27, with reflector

06751.01

1

Plastic dish, 230 x 150 mm

47490.04

2

Precision thermometer, –10...+100°C

47040.00

1

Sea sand, purified

30220.67

1

Typical result

Polystyrene foam PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Comparison of the heat capacities of water and land with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT P4100111 Changes in the equipment required for use of the CHEM-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

12153.00

Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1 1

Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

14520.61

1

Immersion probe NiCr-Ni

13615.03

2

Comparison of the heat capacities of water and land with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT P4100140

Experimental set-up using the CHEM-UNIT (P4100140)

54 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Ecology and environment

LEB 10

The Bergmann rule: Heat loss in dependence on body surface area and volume 10.02 What you can learn about  Bergman rule, heat loss  Larger versus smaller animals  Colder versus warmer regions of the world

Principle and tasks: To prepare a graph which demonstrates the different heat losses with different volumes and body surface areas. To interpret data on the settling of warm and cold regions by larger or smaller animals.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the BASIC-UNIT) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50 * 1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

Software Cobra3 - Temperature

14503.61 * 1

1

Semiconductor temperature sensor -20...110°C

12120.00 * 2

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Universal clamp

37715.00

2

Bosshead

02043.00

2

Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel

02032.00

1

Flask, round-bottom, 100 ml, IGJ 19/26

35841.01

1

Long-neck round-bottom flask, 500 ml, PN 29

36348.00

1

Rubber stopper, d = 22/17 mm, 1 hole

39255.01

1

Rubber stopper, d = 32/26 mm, 1 hole

39258.01

1

Precision thermometer, –10...+100°C

47040.00

1

Typical result

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

The Bergmann rule: Heat loss in dependence on body surface area and volume with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT P4100211 Changes in the equipment required for use of the CHEM-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

12153.00

1

Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

14520.61

1

Immersion probe NiCr-Ni

13615.03

2

The Bergmann rule: Heat loss in dependence on body surface area and volume with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT P4100240 Experimental set-up using the CHEM-UNIT (P4100240)

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 55


Ecology and environment

LEB 10

10.03 The insulating effect of body coverage What you can learn about  Insulating effect  Body coverage  Coat of animals  Fur  Wool  Feathers

Principle and tasks: To prepare curves showing the insulating effect of various body coverage’s. To discuss the reasons of different isolating characteristics.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the BASIC-UNIT) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50 * 1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

Software Cobra3 - Temperature

14503.61 * 1

1

Semiconductor temperature sensor -20...110°C

12120.00 * 2

Snap-cap vials, 45 ml, pack of 10

33622.03

1

Precision thermometer, –10...+100°C

47040.00

1

Leatherwool (fur), wool, feathers etc. Polystyrene foam PC, Windows® 95 or higher

The insulating effect of body coverage with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

P4100311

Typical result

Changes in the equipment required for use of the CHEM-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

12153.00

1

Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

14520.61

1

Immersion probe NiCr-Ni

13615.03

2

The insulating effect of body coverage with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

P4100340

Experimental set-up using the CHEM-UNIT (P4100340)

56 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Ecology and environment

LEB 10

The daily course of luminosity 10.04 What you can learn about  Long-term measurement  Course of luminosity  Seasonal influences  Geographical location  Cloudiness  Fog

Principle and tasks: In a 24-hour long-term measurement the course of luminosity is recorded in the immediate vicinity of a window. The dependence on the season, the geographical location and the current degree of cloudiness, fog etc. has to be discussed.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the BASIC-UNIT) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50 * 1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

Software Cobra3 Universal Recorder

14504.61 * 1

1

Photodiode in plug-in box

39119.01

Support for two electrodes

45284.01

1 1

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 500 mm, red

07361.01

1

Connecting cord, 32 A, l = 500 mm, blue

07361.04

1

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

The daily course of luminosity with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

P4100411

Typical measuring result

Changes in the equipment required for use of the CHEM-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

12153.00

1

Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

14520.61

1

The daily course of luminosity with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

P4100440

Experimental set-up using the CHEM-UNIT (P4100440)

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 57


Ecology and environment

LEB 10

10.05 The conductivity of various water samples What you can learn about  Conductivity of water samples  Rainwater  Drinking water  Aquarium water  River water  Mineral water  Electrolytes  Waste water  Eluvation  Contamination by inorganic salts  Horizontal/vertical zones

Principle and tasks: To determine the conductivity of various water samples. To discuss the reasons for the differences in conductivity.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the CHEM-UNIT) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

12153.00 * 1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

14520.61 * 1

Conductivity-temperature electrode

13701.01 * 1

Wash bottle, 500 ml

33931.00

1

Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 50 ml

36001.00

1

Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 150 ml

36003.00

7

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel

02032.00

1

Right angle clamp (bosshead)

02043.00

1

Universal clamp

37715.00

1

Calibration solution, 1413 mS/cm, (25°C)

47070.02

1

Distilled water, 5 l

31246.81

1

Display of the measured conductivity values

Water samples: Rainwater, drinking water, aquarium water, river water, mineral water (2 different sorts) PC, Windows® 95 or higher

The conductivity of various water samples with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

P4100540

Changes in the materials required for use of the BASIC-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

Software Cobra3 conductivity

14508.61

1

Measuring module conductivity

12108.00

1

Conductivity probe, glass shaft, l = 12 cm

18151.02

1

Temperature sensor, semiconductor type

12120.00

1

The conductivity of various water samples with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT 58 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

1

Experimental set-up using the BASIC-UNIT (P4100511)

P4100511 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Ecology and environment

LEB 10

The pH of various water samples 10.06 What you can learn about  pH of water samples  Demineralised water  Aquarium water  Rainwater  Lake water  River water  Drinking water  Mineral water  Seasonal and daily fluctuations  Buffering effect  Poisoning effect for animals

Principle and tasks: To determine the pH-values of various water samples. To discuss the reasons for the differences in pHvalue.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the CHEM-UNIT) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT Power supply, 12 V Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole

12153.00 * 1 12151.99 1 14602.00 1

Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT pH electrode, gel-filled, BNC Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, Teflon Wash bottle, 500 ml Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 50 ml Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 150 ml Support base, variable Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel Right angle clamp (bosshead) Double electrode holder Buffer solution pH 4.01, 460 ml Buffer solution pH 10.01, 1000 ml Distilled water, 5 l Water samples: Aquarium water, rainwater, lake water, river water, drinking water, mineral water PC, Windows® 95 or higher

14520.61 * 46265.15 * 13615.05 * 33931.00 36001.00 36003.00 02001.00 02032.00 02043.00 45284.10 46270.11 46272.12 31246.81

The pH of various water samples with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

1 1 1 1 2 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Display of the measured pH values

P4100640

Changes in the materials required for use of the BASIC-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB Software Cobra3 pH/potential Measuring module pH/potential pH Electrode, plastic, gel-filled Temperature sensor, semiconductor type

12150.50 14509.61 12101.00 18450.00 12120.00

1 1 1 1 1 Experimental set-up using the BASIC-UNIT (P4100611)

The pH of various water samples with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

P4100611

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 59


Ecology and environment

LEB 10

10.07 The origin of acid rain What you can learn about  Acid rain  Anthropogenic air pollution  Damage to forests  Acidification of soil and water  Gaseous and aerosol emissions

Principle and tasks: In this experiment, acid rain is to be artificially prepared by passing gases such as SO2, NO2 and CO2 through water, and the drop in pH resulting from the formation of acid then recorded.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the CHEM-UNIT) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT 12153.00 * Power supply, 12 V 12151.99 Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole 14602.00 Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT 14520.61 * pH electrode, gel-filled, BNC 46265.15 * Support base, variable 02001.00 Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel 02032.00 Right angle clamp (bosshead) 02043.00 Universal clamp 37715.00 Test tube, DURAN, GL 25/12, 20 x 110 mm 37651.15 Graduated pipette, AR-glass, class B, 5 ml 36599.00 Wash bottle, 500 ml 33931.00 Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 50 ml 36001.00 Pasteur pipettes, PE, 1 ml, pack of 500 36615.00 Test tube rack for 12 tubes, wood 37686.10 Test tube, DURAN, with hose connection, PN 19 36330.00 Rubber stopper, d = 22/17 mm, without hole 39255.00 Rubber stopper, d = 22/17 mm, 1 hole 39255.01 Dropping funnel with stopcock, 50 ml, AR-glass 36869.00 Spoon with spatula end, l = 150 mm, steel, wide 33398.00 Buffer solution pH 4.01, 460 ml 46270.11 Buffer solution pH 10.01, 1000 ml 46272.12 Sodium carbonate, 250 g 30154.25 Sodium pyrosulphite, 250 g 30152.25 Sodium nitrite, 250 g 30161.25 Hydrochloric acid standard solution, 1 mol/l, 1000 ml 48454.70 Dropping bottle, plastic, 50 ml 33920.00 Glycerol 99%, 100 ml 30084.10 Distilled water, 5 l 31246.81 Fume cupboard or fume hood PC, Windows® 95 or higher

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Curve of pH against time for SO2

The origin of acid rain with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT P4100740 Changes in the materials required for use of the BASIC-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150.50 1 Software Cobra3 pH/potential 14509.61 1 Measuring module pH/potential 12101.00 1 pH Electrode, plastic, gel-filled 18450.00 1

Experimental set-up using the BASIC-UNIT (P4100711)

The origin of acid rain with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT P4100711 60 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Ecology and environment

LEB 10

The twenty-four hour rhythm of an aquatic plant 10.08 What you can learn about  Photosynthesis  Daylight reaction  Dark reaction  Diurnal rhythm  Nocturnal rhythm  pH measurement  Carbon dioxide consumption and production

Principle and tasks: Plants produce oxygen by photosynthesis under the influence of light (during the day). Carbon dioxide is hereby consumed. In the dark (at night), however, they consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide. This day and night rhythm in an aquatic plant has to be followed over a longer period by pH measurements.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the CHEM-UNIT) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT Power supply, 12 V Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT pH electrode, gel-filled, BNC Filament lamp with reflector, 230 V/120 W Lamp socket E27, with reflector Support base variable Wash bottle, 500 ml Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 50 ml Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 600 ml Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 2000 ml Erlenmeyer flask, DURAN, 500 ml, PN 29 Rubber stopper, d = 32/30 mm, 1 hole, 14 mm Supporting block, 57 mm Aquarium, 400 x 250 x 250 mm Compressed gas in pressure bottle, oxygen Fine control valve for pressure bottles Diffuser Rubber tubing, di = 4 mm Balance SAS 51, 200 g / 0.01 g, RS232 Spoon with spatula end, l = 150 mm, steel, wide Glass rod, d = 7 mm, l = 300 mm Buffer solution pH 4.01, 460 ml Buffer solution pH 10.01, 1000 ml Hydrochloric acid standard solution, 0.1 mol/l, 1000 ml Sodium carbonate, 250 g Distilled water, 5 l Waterweed (Elodea), approx. 4 medium size plants PC, Windows® 95 or higher

The twenty-four hour rhythm of an aquatic plant with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

12153.00 12151.99 14602.00 14520.61 46265.15 06759.93 06751.01 02001.00 33931.00 36001.00 36006.00 36010.00 36421.00 39258.20 02073.00 64559.00 41772.05 33499.00 64567.00 39280.00 45990.93 33398.00 40485.05 46270.11 46272.12 48452.70 30154.25 31246.81

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1

Curve of pH against time for the reaction of waterweed in daylight

Curve of pH against time for the reaction of waterweed in the dark

P4100840

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 61


62

1


11

Plant physiology Contents

LEB 11.01

Photosynthesis (bubble counting method)

LEB 11.02

Photosynthesis (measurement of O2 pressure)

LEB 11.03

Transpiration of leaves

LEB 11.04

Glycolysis (measurement of pressure)

LEB 11.05

Glycolysis (measurement of temperature)


Plant physiology

LEB 11

11.01 Photosynthesis (bubble counting method) What you can learn about  Dependence of photosynthesis on light and carbon dioxide content  Oxygen bubble counting  Lux measurement

Principle and tasks: To measure the dependence of photosynthesis on light by counting the oxygen bubbles given off by an aquatic plant. To investigate the influence of the carbon dioxide content of the water on the rate of photosynthesis.

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 - Lux

14507.61

1

Photodiode in plug-in box

39119.01

1

Support for two electrodes

45284.01

1

Connecting cord, 500 mm, red

07361.01

1

Connecting cord, 500 mm, blue

07361.04

1

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Lab-lifting apparatus, 160 x 130 mm

02074.00

1

Filament lamp, 220 V/120 W, with reflector

06759.93

1

Lamp socket E 27, with reflector

06751.01

1

Glass beaker, 1000 ml, tall form, DURAN

36008.00

1

Glass beaker, 250 ml, tall form, DURAN

36004.00

1

Rubber tubing, di = 6 mm, 1 m

39282.00

1

Result

Sparkling mineral water Water-weed PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Photosynthesis (bubble counting method) with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

64 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

P4110111

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Plant physiology

LEB 11

Photosynthesis (measurement of O2 pressure) 11.02 What you can learn about  Photosynthesis  Intensity and colour of the light  Pressure measurement

Principle and tasks: To compare the increase in oxygen pressure during photosynthesis in white light, green light and in the dark.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the BASIC-UNIT) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150.50 Power supply, 12 V 12151.99 Software Cobra3 - Pressure 14510.61 Measuring module, pressure 12103.00 Support clamp for small case 02043.10 Support base, variable 02001.00 Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel 02032.00 Bosshead 02043.00 Universal clamp 37715.00 Lab-lifting apparatus, 160 x 130 mm 02074.00 Filament lamp, 220 V/120 W, with reflector 06759.93 Lamp socket E 27, with reflector 06751.01 Glass beaker, 1000 ml, tall form, DURAN 36008.00 Rubber stopper, d = 32/26 mm, 1 hole 39258.01 Rubber tubing, di = 6 mm, 1 m 39282.00 Test tube, d = 30 mm, l = 200 mm, PN29 36294.00 Glass tubes, straight, 80 mm, d = 7 mm 36701.65 Glass rod, l = 200 mm, d = 3 mm 40485.01 Balance SAS 51, 200 g/0.01 g, RS232 45990.93 Microspoon, special steel 33393.00 Glycerol, 99%, 100 ml 30084.10 Dropping bottle, plastic, 50 ml 33920.00 Sodium hydrogen carbonate, 250 g 30151.25 Tartrazine (E 102), 25 g 48498.04 Patent blue V (E 131), 25 g 48376.04 Aluminium foil Water-weed PC, Windows® 95 or higher

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Result with white light

Result in the dark

Photosynthesis (measurement of O2 pressure) with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

P4110211

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 65


Plant physiology

LEB 11

11.03 Transpiration of leaves What you can learn about  Transpiration  Water and nutrients transport  Influence of wind  Temperature  Humidity and type of leaves

Principle and tasks: To prepare diagrams to illustrate the transpiration of plants. To discuss the reasons of the pressure decrease.

What you need: Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50

1

Support clamp for small case

02043.10

1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

1

Software Cobra3 - Pressure

14510.61

1

Measuring module, pressure

12103.00

1

Support base, variable

02001.00

1

Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless

02032.00

3

Bosshead

02043.00

1

Universal clamp

37715.00

1

Test tube, 200 x 30 mm, side arm, PN 29

36331.00

1

Rubber stopper, d = 32/26 mm, 1 hole

39258.09

1

Rubber tubing, di = 6 mm, 1 m

39282.00

1

Glass beaker, 1000 ml, short form, DURAN

36017.00

1

Tripod, ring dia 100 mm, h = 180 mm

33299.00

1

Wire gauze, 120 x 120 mm

33287.03

1

Bunsen burner, natural gas

32165.05

1

Safety gas tubing, 1 m

39281.10

1

Tubing clip, d = 8...12 mm

40996.01

2

Rubber bands, 50 off

03920.00

1

Hot/cold air blower, 1700 W

04030.93

1

Result in still air

PC, Windows® 95 or higher Plastic bag Knife Flesh-leaved plant

Transpiration of leaves with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT P4110311

66 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Plant physiology

LEB 11

Glycolysis (measurement of pressure) 11.04 What you can learn about  Glycolysis, yeast fermentation of sugar  CO2 pressure measurement  Influence of temperature and pH

Principle and tasks: To identify glycolysis by measuring the production of CO2 and plotting graphs. To investigate the influence of temperature and pH on metabolic activity.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the BASIC-UNIT) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150.50 Power supply, 12 V 12151.99 Software Cobra3 - Pressure 14510.61 Measuring module, pressure 12103.00 Support clamp for small case 02043.10 Magnetic stirrer, mini 47334.93 Magnetic stirrer bar, l = 50 mm 46299.03 Glass beaker, 1000 ml, short form, DURAN 36017.00 Glass beaker, 250 ml, tall form, DURAN 36004.00 Graduated pipette, 10 ml 36600.00 Erlenmeyer flask, narrow neck, PN 29 36424.00 Rubber stopper, d = 32/26 mm, 1 hole 39258.01 Glass tubes, straight, 80 mm, d = 7 mm 36701.65 Rubber tubing, di = 6 mm, 1 m 39282.00 Bunsen burner, natural gas 32165.05 Safety gas tubing, 1 m 39281.10 Tubing clip, d = 8...12 mm 40996.01 Tripod, ring dia 100 mm, h = 180 mm 33299.00 Wire gauze, 120 x 120 mm 33287.03 Glass rod, l = 200 mm, d = 3 mm 40485.01 Support base, variable 02001.00 Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel 02032.00 Bosshead 02043.00 Universal clamp 37715.00 Balance SAS 51, 200 g/0.01 g, RS232 45990.93 Precision thermometer, –10...+100°C 47040.00 Buffer solution, pH 10.01, 1000 ml 46272.12 Buffer solution, pH 4.01, 460 ml 46270.11 Glycerol, 99%, 100 ml 30084.10 Dropping bottle, plastic, 50 ml 33920.00 Grape juice Fresh baker’s yeast Ice cubes PC, Windows® 95 or higher

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Result at room temperature

Result in iced water

Glycolysis (measurement of pressure) with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

P4110411

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 67


Plant physiology

LEB 11

11.05 Glycolysis (measurement of temperature) What you can learn about  Glycolysis  Yeast fermentation of sugar  Temperature measurement  Respiration energy

Principle and tasks: To depict the increase in temperature, which results, when yeast cells ferment sugar. To compare the temperature curves of the solutions with and without yeast.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the BASIC-UNIT) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB

12150.50 * 1

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

Software Cobra3 - Temperature

14503.61 * 1

1

Semiconductor temperature sensor -20...110°C

12120.00 * 2

Precision thermometer, –10...+100°C

47040.00

1

Balance, SAS 51, 200 g/0.01 g, RS232

45990.93

1

Thermos flask, 0.5 l

64841.00

2

Rubber stopper, d = 41/34 mm, 2 holes

39261.02

2

Glass beaker, 1000 ml, short form, DURAN

36017.00

1

Fresh baker’s yeast Refined sugar, crystalline Typical result

PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Glycolysis (measurement of temperature) with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

P4110511

Changes in the equipment required for use of the CHEM-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT 12153.00 1 Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole

14602.00

1

Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

14520.61

1

Immersion probe NiCr-Ni

13615.03

2

Glycolysis (measurement of temperature) with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

P4110540

Experimental set-up using the CHEM-UNIT (P4110540)

68 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


12

Biochemistry Contents

LEB 12.01

Determination of the isoelectric point of an amino acid (glycine)

LEB 12.02

The ionic permeability of the cell membrane

LEB 12.03

Determination of the Michaelis constant

LEB 12.04

Substrate inhibition of enzymes

LEB 12.05

Enzyme inhibition (poisoning of enzymes)

LEB 12.06

The enzymatic activity of catalase


Biochemistry

LEB 12

12.01 Determination of the isoelectric point of an amino acid (glycine) What you can learn about  Isoelectric point  Acidic anions  Basic cations  Zwitterions  Equivalence (inflection) points  pKs value  Titration  Motor piston burette

Principle and tasks: Amino acid molecules carry both acid and amino groups. They can therefore form both acidic anions and basic cations. The pH at which these two types of ions are both present in the same concentration is called the isoelectric point. This point is to be determined by recording the titration curve for the amino acid glycine.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the CHEM-UNIT) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT 12153.00 * Power supply, 12 V 12151.99 Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole 14602.00 Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT 14520.61 * pH electrode, gel-filled, BNC 46265.15 * Immersion probe NiCr-Ni, Teflon 13615.05 * Cable, CHEM-UNIT / motor piston burette 36501.01 * Motor piston burette, universal type, 50 ml 36499.93 Magnetic stirrer mini, plastic (ABS) 47334.93 Magnetic stirring rod, cylindrical, l = 30 mm 46299.02 Volumetric pipette, 50 ml 36581.00 Rubber stopper, 14/18, 1 hole, d = 7 mm 39254.01 Safety pipettor Flip 36592.00 Wash bottle, 500 ml 33931.00 Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 250 ml 36004.00 Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 50 ml 36001.00 Volumetric flask, 500 ml 36551.00 Funnel, glass, d = 55 mm 34457.00 Spoon with spatula end, l = 150 mm, steel, wide 33398.00 Balance SAS 51, 200 g / 0.01 g, RS232 45990.93 Buffer solution pH 4.01, 460 ml 46270.11 Buffer solution pH 10.01, 1000 ml 46272.12 Sodium hydroxide standard solution, 1 mol/l, 1 l 48329.70 Hydrochloric acid standard solution, 1 mol/l, 1 l 48454.70 Glycine, 100 g 31341.10 Distilled water, 5 l 31246.81 PC, Windows® 95 or higher

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Titration curve for hydrochloric acid glycine solution against 1 mol/l NaOH

Determination of the isoelectric point of an amino acid (glycine) with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT P4120140 Changes in the equipment required for use of the BASIC-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150.50 1 Software Cobra3 pH/potential 14509.61 1 Measuring module pH/potential 12101.00 1 pH Electrode, plastic, gel-filled 18450.00 1 Temperature sensor, semiconductor type 12120.00 1 Cable, BASIC-UNIT / motor piston burette 36501.03 1

Experimental set-up using the BASIC-UNIT (P4120111)

Determination of the isoelectric point of an amino acid (glycine) with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT P4120111 70 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Biochemistry

LEB 12

The ionic permeability of the cell membrane 12.02 What you can learn about  Ionic permeability  Artificial cell membrane  Dialysis tube  H+ ions  OH- ions  Osmotic processes

Principle and tasks: The cell membrane controls the transport of nutrients and water into the cell, and of waste products and water out of the cell. This can take place passively, e.g. on the basis of osmotic processes (differences in concentration), as well as actively. In this experiment, the selective permeability of an artificial cell membrane (dialysis tube) for H+ and OH- ions is to be examined.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the CHEM-UNIT) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT Power supply, 12 V Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT pH electrode, gel-filled, BNC Magnetic stirrer mini, plastic (ABS) Magnetic stirring rod, cylindrical, l = 30 mm Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel Support base, variable Right angle clamp (bosshead) Universal clamp Cylinder, Boro 3, glass base, 25 ml Funnel, glass, d = 55 mm Wash bottle, 500 ml Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 250 ml Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 50 ml Dialysis tubing, d = 24 mm, 1 m Dialysis clips, pack of 2 Disposable gloves, medium, Latex, pack of 100 Buffer solution pH 4.01, 460 ml Buffer solution pH 10.01, 1000 ml Hydrochloric acid standard solution, 1 mol/l, 1000 ml Sodium hydroxide standard solution, 1 mol/l, 1000 ml Distilled water, 5 l PC, Windows® 95 or higher

The ionic permeability of the cell membrane with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

12153.00 * 12151.99 14602.00 14520.61 * 46265.15 * 47334.93 46299.02 02032.00 02001.00 02043.00 37715.00 36627.00 34457.00 33931.00 36004.00 36001.00 64208.00 64209.00 46359.00 46270.11 46272.12 48454.70 48329.70 31246.81

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

pH curve for the emergence of H+ ions

P4120240

Changes in the equipment required for use of the BASIC-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB Software Cobra3 pH/potential Measuring module pH/potential pH Electrode, plastic, gel-filled

The ionic permeability of the cell membrane with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

12150.50 14509.61 12101.00 18450.00

1 1 1 1

pH curve for the emergence of OH- ions

P4120211

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 71


Biochemistry

LEB 12

12.03 Determination of the Michaelis constant What you can learn about  Michaelis constant  Enzymatic hydrolysis of urea  Conductivity measurement  Bodenstein principle  Enzyme-substrate complex  Lineweaver-Burk plot

Principle and tasks: The enzymatic hydrolysis of urea in aqueous solution liberates carbon dioxide and ammonia. The ions of these compounds increase the conductivity of the solution. Conductivity measurements can be used to determine the rate of hydrolysis of urea by the enzyme urease at various substrate concentrations. The Michaelis constant can then be calculated from these values.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the CHEM-UNIT) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT Power supply, 12 V Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT Conductivity-temperature electrode Magnetic stirrer mini, plastic (ABS) Magnetic stirring rod, cylindrical, l = 30 mm Magnetic bar separator made of PTFE Balance SAS 51, 200 g / 0.01 g, RS232 Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel Support base, variable Right angle clamp (bosshead) Universal clamp Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 100 ml Erlenmeyer flask, Duran, 100 ml, PN 19 Rubber stopper, d = 22/17, without hole Volumetric pipette, 20 ml Safety pipettor Flip Microliter syringe, 100 ml Pasteur pipettes, l = 145 mm Rubber caps Spoon with spatula end, l = 150 mm, steel, micro Wash bottle, 500 ml Urea, 250 g Urease solution in 50% glycerine, 1000 U/ml, 10 ml Distilled water, 5 l Paper tissues PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Determination of the Michaelis constant with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

12153.00 * 12151.99 14602.00 14520.61 * 13701.01 * 47334.93 46299.02 35680.03 45990.93 02032.00 02001.00 02043.00 37715.00 36002.00 36418.00 39255.00 36579.00 36592.00 02606.00 36590.00 39275.03 33393.00 33931.00 30086.25 31924.03 31246.81

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 6 6 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

The rate of enzymolysis in dependence on the substrate concentration

P4120340

Changes in the equipment required for use of the BASIC-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB Software Cobra3 conductivity Measuring module conductivity Conductivity probe, glass shaft, l = 12 cm Temperature sensor, semiconductor type

Determination of the Michaelis constant with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT 72 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

12150.50 14508.61 12108.00 18151.02 12120.00

1 1 1 1 1

Lineweaver-Burk plot

P4120311 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Biochemistry

LEB 12

Substrate inhibition of enzymes 12.04 What you can learn about  Substrate inhibition  Enzymolysis of urea  Conductivity-time plot  Reaction velocity of enzymatic hydrolysis

Principle and tasks: The enzymatic hydrolysis of urea in aqueous solution liberates carbon dioxide and ammonia. The ions of these compounds increase the conductivity of the solution. Conductivity measurements enable the rate of hydrolysis of urea by the enzyme urease to be determined at various substrate concentrations. Inhibition of the enzyme by the substrate occurs at excessive substrate concentrations.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the CHEM-UNIT) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT 12153.00 * Power supply, 12 V 12151.99 Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole 14602.00 Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT 14520.61 * Conductivity-temperature electrode 13701.01 * Magnetic stirrer mini, plastic (ABS) 47334.93 Magnetic stirring rod, cylindrical, l = 30 mm 46299.02 Magnetic bar separator made of PTFE 35680.03 Balance SAS 51, 200 g / 0.01 g, RS232 45990.93 Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel 02032.00 Support base, variable 02001.00 Right angle clamp (bosshead) 02043.00 Universal clamp 37715.00 Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 100 ml 36002.00 Beaker, low form, 250 ml, plastic 36013.01 Erlenmeyer flask, Duran, 100 ml, PN 19 36418.00 Rubber stopper, d = 22/17, without hole 39255.00 Volumetric pipette, 20 ml 36579.00 Safety pipettor Flip 36592.00 Microliter syringe, 100 ml 02606.00 Pasteur pipettes, l = 145 mm 36590.00 Rubber caps 39275.03 Spoon with spatula end, l = 150 mm, steel, micro 33393.00 Wash bottle, 500 ml 33931.00 Urea, 250 g 30086.25 Urease solution in 50% glycerine, 1000 U/ml, 10 ml 31924.03 Distilled water, 5 l 31246.81 Paper tissues PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Substrate inhibition of enzymes with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 8 1 7 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Conductivity-time plot for the hydrolysis of urea with urease

P4120440

Changes in the equipment required for use of the BASIC-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB Software Cobra3 conductivity Measuring module conductivity Conductivity probe, glass shaft, l = 12 cm Temperature sensor, semiconductor type

Substrate inhibition of enzymes with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT

12150.50 14508.61 12108.00 18151.02 12120.00

1 1 1 1 1

The velocity of enzymolysis in dependence on the concentration

P4120411

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 73


Biochemistry

LEB 12

12.05 Enzyme inhibition (poisoning of enzymes) What you can learn about  Poisoning of enzymes  Enzymatic hydrolysis of urea  Silver nitrate inhibition of urease  Conductivity measurement

Principle and tasks: The enzymatic hydrolysis of urea in aqueous solution liberates carbon dioxide and ammonia. The ions of these compounds increase the conductivity of the solution. Conductivity measurements enable the rate of hydrolysis of urea by the enzyme urease to be determined. The addition of an appropriate inhibitor poisons the enzyme, so that it no longer converts substrate.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the CHEM-UNIT) Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT 12153.00 * Power supply, 12 V 12151.99 Data cable, plug/socket, 9 pole 14602.00 Software Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT 14520.61 * Conductivity-temperature electrode 13701.01 * Magnetic stirrer mini, plastic (ABS) 47334.93 Magnetic stirring rod, cylindrical, l = 30 mm 46299.02 Magnetic bar separator made of PTFE 35680.03 Balance SAS 51, 200 g / 0.01 g, RS232 45990.93 Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel 02032.00 Support base, variable 02001.00 Right angle clamp (bosshead) 02043.00 Universal clamp 37715.00 Beaker, DURAN, tall form, 100 ml 36002.00 Beaker, low form, 250 ml, plastic 36013.01 Volumetric pipette, 1 ml 36575.00 Volumetric pipette, 20 ml 36579.00 Safety pipettor Flip 36592.00 Microliter syringe, 100 ml 02606.00 Pasteur pipettes, l = 145 mm 36590.00 Rubber caps 39275.03 Spoon with spatula end, l = 150 mm, steel, micro 33393.00 Wash bottle, 500 ml 33931.00 Urea, 250 g 30086.25 Urease solution in 50% glycerine, 1000 U/ml, 10 ml 31924.03 Silver nitrate, 15 g 30222.00 Distilled water, 5 l 31246.81 PC, Windows® 95 or higher

Enzyme inhibition (poisoning of enzymes) with Cobra3 CHEM-UNIT

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

P4120540

Changes in the equipment required for use of the BASIC-UNIT: (Instead of * above-mentioned) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150.50 1 Software Cobra3 conductivity 14508.61 1 Measuring module conductivity 12108.00 1 Conductivity probe, glass shaft, l = 12 cm 18151.02 1 Temperature sensor, semiconductor type 12120.00 1

Enzyme inhibition (poisoning of enzymes) with Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT 74 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

Conductivity-time plot for the hydrolysis of urea with urease before and after poisoning

Experimental set-up using the BASIC-UNIT (P4120540)

P4120511 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Biochemistry

LEB 12

The enzymatic activity of catalase 12.06 What you can learn about  Enzyme catalase  Decomposition of H2O2  Poisonous by-product of cell respiration  Influence of temperature and pH

Principle and tasks: To examine the enzymatic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, a cell respiratory poison, in the liver. To investigate the influence of temperature and pH on the metabolic activity.

What you need: Equipment (for the experimental procedure using the BASIC-UNIT) Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB 12150.50 Power supply, 12 V 12151.99 Software Cobra3 - Pressure 14510.61 Measuring module, pressure 12103.00 Support clamp for small case 02043.10 Support base, variable 02001.00 Support rod, l = 500 mm, stainless steel 02032.00 Bosshead 02043.00 Universal clamp 37715.00 Magnetic stirrer, mini 47334.93 Magnetic stirrer bar, l = 50 mm 46299.03 Erlenmeyer flask, narrow neck, PN 29 36424.00 Rubber stopper, d = 32/26 mm, 1 hole 39258.01 Glass tubes, straight, 80 mm, d = 7 mm, 10 pieces 36701.65 39282.00 Rubber tubing, di = 6 mm, 1 m Graduated cylinder, 100 ml 36629.00 Mortar with pestle, 150 ml, porcelain 32604.00 Strainer, fine mesh, d = 60 mm 40968.00 Graduated pipette, 1 ml 36595.00 Graduated pipette, 10 ml 36600.00 Glass beaker, 250 ml, tall form, DURAN 36004.00 Tripod, ring d = 100 mm, h = 180 mm 33299.00 Wire gauze, 120 x 120 ml 33287.03 Bunsen burner, natural gas 32165.05 Safety gas tubing, 1 m 39281.10 Tubing clip, d = 8...12 mm 40996.01 Test tube, 100 mm, d = 12 mm, FIOLAX, 100 pieces 36307.10 Glycerol, 99%, 100 ml 30084.10 Dropping bottle, plastic, 50 ml 33920.00 Hydrogen peroxide, 30%, 250 ml 31710.25 Hydrochloric acid, 1 molar, 500 ml 48454.50 Sodium hydroxide, 1 molar, 500 ml 48329.50 Ice cubes, Chicken liver or pig liver Distilled water PC, Windows® 95 or higher

The enzymatic activity of catalase

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

Normal result

Result when acidic

P4120611

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 75


Handbooks Computer assisted Experiments with Cobra3 Physics, Chemistry / Biology Cobra3 Chemistry/Biology • No. 01320.02 61 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref. No. 25423

Cobra3 Physics • No. 01310.02 84 described Experiments Please ask for a complete equipment list Ref. No. 25422 1. Mechanics 1.1 (13301) Frequency of a spring pendulum 1.2 (13302) Frequency of a thread pendulum 1.3 (13369) Free fall with a screen 1.4 (13370) The path-time law for free fall with the falling sphere apparatus 1.5 (13371) Uniform, linear, unaccelerated motion 1.6 (13372) Force-free, linear motion 1.7 (13373) Uniformly accelerated, linear motion, Newton`s 2nd law 1.8 (13374) The elastic collision 1.9 (13375) The inelastic collision 1.10 (13376) Frequency of a thread pendulum 1.11 (13377) Pendulum oscillationsvariable g pendulum 1.12 (13378) The harmonic oscillation of helical springs-parallel and series connection of spring 1.13 (13379) Dependence of the oscillation period of a leaf spring on the pendulum length & pendulum mass 1.14 (13380) Moment of inertia of different bodies:disc,solid and hollow cylinder - Steiner`s law 1.15 (13381) Uniform rotary motion 1.16 (13382) Uniform, accelerated rotational motion, moment of inertia 2. Acoustics 2.1 (13360) Measurement of frequency of tuning forks, detuning of tuning forks 2.2 (13361) Investigation of the natural oscillation of columns of air 2.3 (13362) Measurement of the speed of sound in air 2.4 (13363) Measurement of the speed of sound in diffent gases 2.5 (13364) Measurement of the speed in metal rods 2.6 (13365) Acoustical Doppler effect 2.7 (13615) Investigation of beats 2.8 (13619) Influence of damping on the spectrum of the characteristic oscillations of air columns 2.9 (13620) Characteristic oscillations in cavity resonators - Hemholtz's resonators 2.10 (13621) Tone analysis

2.11 (13622) Oscillations in metal plates 2.12 (13623) Speech analysis 2.13 (13628) Signal filtration - elimination of background noises 2.14 (13629) Determination of the speed of sound in air - travel time measurement between two microphones 2.15 (13630) Acoustic spacial orientation 3. Thermodynamics 3.1 (13491) Specific heat capacity of water 3.2 (13492) Specific evaporation heat of water 3.3 (13493) Specific heat capacity of liquids 3.4 (13494) Specific heat capacity of solid bodies 3.5 (13495) Specific condensation heat of water 3.6 (13496) Specific melting heat of ice 3.7 (13497) Specific dissolution heat of salts 3.8 (13498) Specific heat value of fuels 3.9 (13499) Volume expansion of gases 3.10 (13500) Gay-Lussas Law 3.11 (13501) Amontons Law 3.12 (13502) Boyle's and Mariotte's Law 3.13 (13641) Gay-Lussac's law 3.14 (13642) Charles' (Amontons') law variant A 3.15 (13643) Charles' (Amontons') law variant B 3.16 (13644) Boyle and Mariotte's law 4 Electricity 4.1 (13303) Ohm's Law 4.2 (13304) Temperature dependence of the resistance of pure metals 4.3 (13305) Characteristics of semi-conductor diodes 4.4 (13306) Collector current-collector voltage characteristic of an NPN-transistor 4.5 (13307) Second order conductors 4.6 (13308) Switch-on current of a incandescent bulb 4.7 (13309) Measurement of the work and power of an incandescent bulb 4.8 (13310) Switch-on behaviour of a capacitance 4.9 (13311) Switch-on behaviour of an inductivity 4.10 (13312) Induction impulse

76 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

4.11 (13313) Generation of an alternating current, rectification and filtration 4.12 (13314) Efficiency of motor and generator 4.13 (13366) Measurement of the rebound time of a switch 4.14 (13367) Current-voltage characteristic of a solar cell 4.15 (13611) Single-valued and multiplevalued Fourier spectra 4.16 (13612) Analysis of simple and composite sinusoidal signals 4.17 (13613) Spectral analysis of different signal forms - sinusoidal, rectangular, triangular signals 4.18 (13614) Spectral analysis of periodic spike pulses 4.19 (13616) Determination of the non-linear distortion factor from the Fourier spectrum of distorted sinusoidal oscillations 4.20 (13617) The Fourier spectrum of rectified, non-smoothed alternating currents 4.21 (13618) Investigation of the characteristic oscillations of air columns 4.22 (13624) Coupled electrical resonant circuits 4.23 (13625) Forced oscillations of a non-linear electrical series resonance circuit - chaotic oscillation 4.24 (13626) Analysis of Fourier series 4.25 (13627) High-pass, low-pass, bandpass filters 4.26 (13631) Switch rebound 4.27 (13632) Phase relationships in a series resonant circuit 4.28 (13633) Free damped oscillation 5. Optics 5.1 (13315) Dependence of the luminous intensity on the distance 6. Physical Structure of Matter 6.1 (13368) Franck-Hertz Experiment 6.2 (13634) Range of alpha particles in the air 6.3 (13635) Mean range of beta radiation in air 6.4 (13636) Absorption of electrons (or positrons) in thin layers of matter 6.5 (13637) The quantal flux of gamma radiation in air 6.6 (13638) Absorption of gamma quanta (or electrons) as a function of material density 6.7 (13639) Law of radioactive decay 6.8 (13640) Radioactive equilibrium

1. Food Chemistry 1.1 (13705) The manual titration of citric acid 1.2 (13706) The automatic titration of ordinary vinegar 1.3 (13707) Determination of the phosporic acid content of a soft drink 1.4 (13708) The pH and degree of acidity of coffee 1.5 (13709) Determination of the content of fruit acid in juices and wine 1.6 (13710) Titration curves of fresh milk and sour milk 1.7 (13711) Changes in pH during the aging of milk (souring) 1.8 (13712) The buffering properties of foods 1.9 (13713) Determination of the calcium carbonate content of egg shell 1.10 (13714) Determination of the common salt content of meat broth 1.11 (13715) Chloride in mineral water 2 Ecology and Environment 2.1 (13701) The conductivity of various water samples 2.2 (13702) The pH of various water samples 2.3 (13703) The origin of acid rain 2.4 (13704) The twenty-four hour rhythm of an aquatic plant 2.5 (13509) Comparison of the heat capacities of water and land 2.6 (13510) The Bergman rule: heat loss in dependence on body surface area and volume 2.7 (13511) The isolating effect of body coverage 2.8 (13325) Daily course of luminosity 2.9 (13325) Daily course of luminosity 3. Biochemistry 3.1 (13696) Determination of the isoelectric point of an amino acid (glycine) 3.2 (13697) The ionic permeability of the cell membrane 3.3 (13698) Determination of the Michaelis constant 3.4 (13699) Substrate inhibition of enzymes 3.5 (13700) Enzyme inhibition (poisoning of enzymes) 4. Neurophysiology 4.1 (13600) Neuro-simulator (membrane time constant and low-pass filtering) 4.2 (13601) Neuro-simulator (how an exciting synapse functions) 4.3 (13602) Mechanical stimulation of the rear end of an earthworm 4.4 (13603) Mechanical stimulation of the front end of an earthworm 4.5 (13604) Electrical stimulation of an anaesthesized earthworm

5. Human Physiology 5.1 (13326) Cardiac and vasular sonic measurement (Phonocardiography) 5.2 (13327) Electrocardiography 5.3 (13327) Electrocardiography 5.4 (13503) Electromyography 5.5 (13605) Muscle stretch reflex and determination of conducting velocity 5.6 (13504) Electro-oculography 5.7 (13326) Cardiac and vascular sonic measurement (Phonocardiography) 5.8 (13606) Acoustic orientation in space 5.9 (13607) The enzymatic activity of catalase 5.10 (13505) Blood pressure measurement 5.11 (13506) Measurement of the respiratory rate 5.12 (13507) Changes in the blood flow during smoking 5.13 (13508) Regulation of body temperature 6. Plant Physiology 6.1 (13608) Photosynthesis (bubble-counting method) 6.2 (13513) Photosynthesis (measurement of oxygen pressure) 6.3 (13512) Transpiration of leaves 6.4 (13609) Glycolysis (measurement of pressure) 6.5 (13514) Glycolysis (measurement of temperature 6.6 (13515) Calorimetry of foods 7. Electrochemistry 7.1 (13318) Electrolysis of copper sulphate solutions 7.2 (13319) The electrochemical series of metals 7.3 (13320) Electric potential of a concentration element 8. Chemical equilibrium 8.1 Chromatographic separation processes: gas chromatography

(13321)

9. Gas laws 9.1 (13499) Volume expansion of gases (with Software Pressure) 9.2 (13500) Gay-Lussas Law (with Software Pressure) 9.3 (13501) Amontons Law (with Software Pressure) 9.4 (13502) Boyle's and Mariotte's Law (with Software Pressure) 9.5 (13641) Gay-Lussac's law (with Software Gas Laws) 9.6 (13642) Charles' (Amontons') law - variant A (with Software Gas Laws) 9.7 (13643) Charles' (Amontons') law - variant B (with Software Gas Laws) 9.8 (13644) Boyle and Mariotte's law (with Software Gas Laws)

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · D - 37070 Göttingen


Index

A

Colour saturation

43

Complementary colour

43

Conducting veIocity

23

F

23

Conductivity

58

Facilitation

Acidic anions

70

Conductivity of water samples

58

Acid rain

60

Acoustic hearing thresholds Acoustic orientation

Achilles tendon reflex

Action potential

23

Insulating effect

Feedback reaction

41

Intracellular potential

Field of view

39

Ionic permeability

71

26

Finger labyrinth

48

Isoelectric point

70

28

Fixation period

42

Flapping sound

17

Flicker fusion frequency

40

Frequency differentiation

27

8, 9, 10, 13

Additive colour mixing

43

Air pollution

60

Aquarium water

I

58, 59

Artificial cell membrane

71

Atria

16

AV nodes

16

D Daily course of luminosity

57

Dark reaction

61

Daylight reaction

61

Dead time

41

Dialysis tube

71

Diaphragmatic respiration

51

Diastole

B

17, 18

Diffusion potential

11

Diurnal rhythm

61

Drinking water

58, 59

Frequency modulation

8

35

Geotaxis

30

Geotropism

30, 31 34

Germination

Behaviour of mice

46

Glycolysis

Bergman rule

55

Gravity

31

Growth

34

Black masking

43

Blind spot

39

Blood flow

19

Blood pressure measurement

18

Blood pulse waves

18

Bodenstein principle

72

Body temperature

36

Breathing

50

Bubble counting method

64

Buffering effect

59

C

E Earthworm experiment chamber

16

ECG segments

16

H

Electrical stimulation

10

H+

Electrocardiogram

16

Hearing range

26, 27

Hearing threshold

26, 27

Electrophysiology Electrolytes Electromyogram

16, 22, 23, 42 58 22, 23

54

48

Learning performance

48

Low pass filtering

12

Luminosity

57

Lux measurement

64

M Marking behaviour

12

Merging frequency

26

Michaelis constant

72

EMG

22

High labyrinth

47

Enzyme

73

Human body temperature

Enzyme inhibition

74

Human electrocardiography (ECG)

16

Human electrooculography (EOG)

42

Human eye

40

Human merging frequency

26

Human reaction capacity

41

Human respiratory rate

51

N

42

Eupnea

51

Centrifugal force

31

Evaporation

36

Clinostat

30

Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) 13

Mineral water Motor piston burette Muscle Muscle contractions Muscle potential Muscle stretch reflex

Exciting synapse

13

Human visual field

39

Nerve

Eye movements

42

Humidity

66

Neurosimulator

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen

11, 71

Membrane time constant

54

36

47

Membrane

Heat radiation

EOG

43

Heat capacity

Learning curve

42

71

Colour mixing

16

47, 48 48

Electrooculography

75

43

Heart rate

59

Learning behaviour

55

Cell membrane

Colour masking

71

47, 48

Learning

Heat loss

72, 73 74, 75

23

Lake water

22

Catalase

67

ions

Jendrassik effect

EIectromyography

54

CO2 pressure measurement

67, 68

ECG

Enzyme reaction

Capacities

8 9, 10

J Labyrinth

Geographical separation

70

8, 9, 10 16, 22, 23, 42

12, 13

L

G

Basic cations

Bio-amplifier

56

Nocturnal rhythm

58, 59 70 8 22 8, 9, 10, 22 23

8 12, 13, 16 61

Laboratory Experiments, Biology 77


Index

O

Q

O2 pressure

65

-

Q10 value

OH ions

71

Operative conditioning

47

Optomotor response

38

Orientation

28

R

Osmotic processes

71

Rainwater

Oxygen bubble counting

64

Rapid reading techniques

P PCG

17

Perimeter

39, 40

Permeability

71

pH

59, 61

50

34, 35

Waste water

Temperature preferendum

34, 35

Water

35

Thigmotaxis

35

42

Thoracic respiration

51

Reaction capacity

41

Threshold

Reflex

23

Threshold frequency

Reflex latency

23

Time resolving capability

Refractory period

10

Titration

70

Respiration energy

68

Torpor

35

Respiratory frequency

51

Transpiration

66

Transpiration of leaves

66

Twenty-four hour rhythm

61

58, 59

Respiratory rate

50, 51

Respirometer

50

Resting potential

11 61

pH of water samples

59

River water

Phonocardiography (PCG)

17

Photoperiodism

30

Photosynthesis

61, 64, 65

58, 59

Phototropism

30

S

pKs value

70

Sacchades

42

Plant germination

34

Scotoma

39

Platform for behaviour observation

46

Sine wave generator

Preferential temperature

35

Skin temperature

Pressure

67

Smoking

19

Pressure measurement

65

Soil temperature

34

Pulse

17

Spatial orientation

28

Ventricles

16

Visual field

39

30, 31 10 31, 38, 41

Subtractive colour mixing

43

58 58, 59 43

47

Z

11

19, 36

73

Systole

Y-Labyrinth

72, 73, 74

V

11, 71

Substrate inhibition

Synaptic facilitation

38, 40

26, 27, 40

Stimuli generator

Synaptic depression

41

46

Y

U Ussing chamber

Statoliths

Strobe drum

26, 27

White masking

Zwitterions

Urease

Selective permeability

Wall contact searching

Temperature organ

Thermotaxis

Rhythm

78 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

68

36

61

30, 35

Temperature

Temperature regulation

pH measurement

Phototaxis

W

T

9 9 17, 18

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG 路 D - 37070 G枚ttingen

70


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– catalogues, brochures and more… PHYSICS – CHEMISTRY – BIOLOGY The comprehensive catalogue for physics, chemistry and biology. Additionally you can find a large number of laboratory materials and an insight in our particularly successful teaching systems TESS, Cobra3 and Natural Sciences on the board. Available in German, English and Spanish.

Laboratory Experiments The experiments in the Phywe publication series “Laboratory Experiments” are intended for the heads of laboratories, colleges of advanced technology, technical colleges and similar institutions and also for advanced courses in high schools. Laboratory Experiments is also available on CD-ROM (Order No. 16502.42). Available in English. For the student system “Advanced Optics and Laser Physics” a special brochure is available in English. Special brochures Additionally there are special brochures for our particularly successful teaching systems TESS (available in German, English, French and Spanish), Cobra3 (available in German and English) and Natural Sciences on the board (available in German and English).


PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG Robert-Bosch-Breite 10 D-37079 Gรถttingen Germany

phone: ++49/551/604-0 fax: ++49/551/604-115 e-mail: int.sales @ phywe.com internet: www.phywe.com

We reserve all rights concerning errors, translation, partial reproduction and photocopies.

05.08.05

Order No. 16507.02 2nd edition

Biologické pokusy  

Biologické pokusy

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