Page 1

Nausea & Vomiting: When to Call the Doctor

M

any people feel queasy while taking HIV medications or trying to adjust to new treatment regimens. Nausea tends to go away after several days or a couple of weeks for most people. For others, nausea can linger. Talk to your doctor to review your HIV treatment regimen to see what may be causing the symptoms. You might be able to have your medications or treatment regimen adjusted.

Some symptoms are more urgent. Talk to your healthcare provider as soon as possible if you: • Vomit many times in 1 day without any signs of relief. • See blood in your vomit. • Vomit your HIV medications. • Are unable to urinate for 8-12 hours. • Have a T-cell count that falls below 200. • Have other symptoms like dizziness, thirst, fever, muscle pain, diarrhea, or headache. Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art13140.html).

Conquering Sleep Problems F or people with HIV, getting enough sleep is important because it can help the body recover from illness or injury and strengthen the immune system. To find out if you’re getting enough sleep, ask yourself the following: • Is falling asleep hard for me? • Do I have too much on my mind to sleep? •W  hen I wake up during the night, can I go back to sleep?

• When I sleep all night, do I still feel tired in the morning? • Do I often wake up too early? • Does it take me more than 30 minutes to fall asleep? If the answer to any of these questions is yes, talk to your healthcare provider to get help.

Preventing Bacterial

February/March 2013

Pneumonia P

eople with HIV are at greater risk for bacterial pneumonia than those without HIV. In people with HIV, bacterial pneumonia often strikes just before other opportunistic infections arise. Fortunately, there are things you can do to prevent bacterial pneumonia.

All people with HIV who have CD4 cell counts higher than 200 cells/mm3 should receive the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV). The PPV may lose some of its ability to fight off bacterial pneumonia if CD4 cell counts fall below 200 cells/mm3. If this happens, you may need to get vaccinated again. Be sure to keep a close eye on your CD4 cell counts to stay healthy. Also, avoid using injectable drugs. There are treatments available for bacterial pneumonia, but talk to your healthcare provider to find the best ways to prevent it from happening to you.

Feature:

Improving Your

Diet &

Nutrition

Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art46433.html#bacterial).

Helpful Strategies

Many sleep problems can go away by changing your sleep habits, reducing stress, improving your diet, or exercising. If you’re having problems sleeping, try the following: •C  onsume less or no caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. •E  xercise regularly, but only in the daytime. • Don’t stay in bed tossing and turning. • Go to bed at the same time every night and get up the same time every morning.

•E  stablish a bedtime routine. •U  se the bedroom for sleeping or sex only. • Try a relaxing routine before bedtime. • Avoid heavy meals and foods and drinks high in sugar close to bedtime. • Use sleeping pills sparingly.

Making even a few small changes can help and you’ll soon find yourself feeling better. But, if you find that your sleeping problems are more serious and won’t go away, don’t delay in seeing your healthcare provider. They can direct you to doctors who specialize in sleep problems. Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art32801.html).

Also in this issue: The editorial content for this brochure was developed and created solely by the Patient Education Center. The content does not necessarily represent the opinions and/or views of our advertisers. Healthy Living With HIV is published by the Patient Education Center. Offices: 5 Commerce Way, Suite 202, Hamilton, NJ 08691; and 180 Mount Airy Road, Suite 102, Basking Ridge, NJ 07920. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is prohibited. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in Healthy Living With HIV should not be construed as an endorsement of the product or the manufacturer’s claims. Such advertising or product mentions should similarly not be construed as either influencing or controlling the editorial content of Healthy Living With HIV. The appearance of or reference to any person or entity in the editorial material (including photographs) in this brochure does not constitute an expressed or implied endorsement of the product advertised. Readers are encouraged to contact the product manufacturer with any questions about the features and/ or limitations of any product mentioned. The reader also is advised to consult appropriate medical literature and the product information currently provided by the manufacturer of each drug to verify indications, dosage, method, duration of administration, and contraindications. Copyright 2013, Patient Education Center

PEC-HL-FEB-043

Nausea & Vomiting: When to Call the Doctor Conquering Sleep Problems Preventing Bacterial Pneumonia

Visit us online at www.patientedu.org/hiv


Nausea & Vomiting: When to Call the Doctor

M

any people feel queasy while taking HIV medications or trying to adjust to new treatment regimens. Nausea tends to go away after several days or a couple of weeks for most people. For others, nausea can linger. Talk to your doctor to review your HIV treatment regimen to see what may be causing the symptoms. You might be able to have your medications or treatment regimen adjusted.

Some symptoms are more urgent. Talk to your healthcare provider as soon as possible if you: • Vomit many times in 1 day without any signs of relief. • See blood in your vomit. • Vomit your HIV medications. • Are unable to urinate for 8-12 hours. • Have a T-cell count that falls below 200. • Have other symptoms like dizziness, thirst, fever, muscle pain, diarrhea, or headache. Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art13140.html).

Conquering Sleep Problems F or people with HIV, getting enough sleep is important because it can help the body recover from illness or injury and strengthen the immune system. To find out if you’re getting enough sleep, ask yourself the following: • Is falling asleep hard for me? • Do I have too much on my mind to sleep? •W  hen I wake up during the night, can I go back to sleep?

• When I sleep all night, do I still feel tired in the morning? • Do I often wake up too early? • Does it take me more than 30 minutes to fall asleep? If the answer to any of these questions is yes, talk to your healthcare provider to get help.

Preventing Bacterial

February/March 2013

Pneumonia P

eople with HIV are at greater risk for bacterial pneumonia than those without HIV. In people with HIV, bacterial pneumonia often strikes just before other opportunistic infections arise. Fortunately, there are things you can do to prevent bacterial pneumonia.

All people with HIV who have CD4 cell counts higher than 200 cells/mm3 should receive the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV). The PPV may lose some of its ability to fight off bacterial pneumonia if CD4 cell counts fall below 200 cells/mm3. If this happens, you may need to get vaccinated again. Be sure to keep a close eye on your CD4 cell counts to stay healthy. Also, avoid using injectable drugs. There are treatments available for bacterial pneumonia, but talk to your healthcare provider to find the best ways to prevent it from happening to you.

Feature:

Improving Your

Diet &

Nutrition

Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art46433.html#bacterial).

Helpful Strategies

Many sleep problems can go away by changing your sleep habits, reducing stress, improving your diet, or exercising. If you’re having problems sleeping, try the following: •C  onsume less or no caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. •E  xercise regularly, but only in the daytime. • Don’t stay in bed tossing and turning. • Go to bed at the same time every night and get up the same time every morning.

•E  stablish a bedtime routine. •U  se the bedroom for sleeping or sex only. • Try a relaxing routine before bedtime. • Avoid heavy meals and foods and drinks high in sugar close to bedtime. • Use sleeping pills sparingly.

Making even a few small changes can help and you’ll soon find yourself feeling better. But, if you find that your sleeping problems are more serious and won’t go away, don’t delay in seeing your healthcare provider. They can direct you to doctors who specialize in sleep problems. Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art32801.html).

Also in this issue: The editorial content for this brochure was developed and created solely by the Patient Education Center. The content does not necessarily represent the opinions and/or views of our advertisers. Healthy Living With HIV is published by the Patient Education Center. Offices: 5 Commerce Way, Suite 202, Hamilton, NJ 08691; and 180 Mount Airy Road, Suite 102, Basking Ridge, NJ 07920. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is prohibited. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in Healthy Living With HIV should not be construed as an endorsement of the product or the manufacturer’s claims. Such advertising or product mentions should similarly not be construed as either influencing or controlling the editorial content of Healthy Living With HIV. The appearance of or reference to any person or entity in the editorial material (including photographs) in this brochure does not constitute an expressed or implied endorsement of the product advertised. Readers are encouraged to contact the product manufacturer with any questions about the features and/ or limitations of any product mentioned. The reader also is advised to consult appropriate medical literature and the product information currently provided by the manufacturer of each drug to verify indications, dosage, method, duration of administration, and contraindications. Copyright 2013, Patient Education Center

PEC-HL-FEB-043

Nausea & Vomiting: When to Call the Doctor Conquering Sleep Problems Preventing Bacterial Pneumonia

Visit us online at www.patientedu.org/hiv


Nausea & Vomiting: When to Call the Doctor

M

any people feel queasy while taking HIV medications or trying to adjust to new treatment regimens. Nausea tends to go away after several days or a couple of weeks for most people. For others, nausea can linger. Talk to your doctor to review your HIV treatment regimen to see what may be causing the symptoms. You might be able to have your medications or treatment regimen adjusted.

Some symptoms are more urgent. Talk to your healthcare provider as soon as possible if you: • Vomit many times in 1 day without any signs of relief. • See blood in your vomit. • Vomit your HIV medications. • Are unable to urinate for 8-12 hours. • Have a T-cell count that falls below 200. • Have other symptoms like dizziness, thirst, fever, muscle pain, diarrhea, or headache. Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art13140.html).

Conquering Sleep Problems F or people with HIV, getting enough sleep is important because it can help the body recover from illness or injury and strengthen the immune system. To find out if you’re getting enough sleep, ask yourself the following: • Is falling asleep hard for me? • Do I have too much on my mind to sleep? •W  hen I wake up during the night, can I go back to sleep?

• When I sleep all night, do I still feel tired in the morning? • Do I often wake up too early? • Does it take me more than 30 minutes to fall asleep? If the answer to any of these questions is yes, talk to your healthcare provider to get help.

Preventing Bacterial

February/March 2013

Pneumonia P

eople with HIV are at greater risk for bacterial pneumonia than those without HIV. In people with HIV, bacterial pneumonia often strikes just before other opportunistic infections arise. Fortunately, there are things you can do to prevent bacterial pneumonia.

All people with HIV who have CD4 cell counts higher than 200 cells/mm3 should receive the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV). The PPV may lose some of its ability to fight off bacterial pneumonia if CD4 cell counts fall below 200 cells/mm3. If this happens, you may need to get vaccinated again. Be sure to keep a close eye on your CD4 cell counts to stay healthy. Also, avoid using injectable drugs. There are treatments available for bacterial pneumonia, but talk to your healthcare provider to find the best ways to prevent it from happening to you.

Feature:

Improving Your

Diet &

Nutrition

Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art46433.html#bacterial).

Helpful Strategies

Many sleep problems can go away by changing your sleep habits, reducing stress, improving your diet, or exercising. If you’re having problems sleeping, try the following: •C  onsume less or no caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. •E  xercise regularly, but only in the daytime. • Don’t stay in bed tossing and turning. • Go to bed at the same time every night and get up the same time every morning.

•E  stablish a bedtime routine. •U  se the bedroom for sleeping or sex only. • Try a relaxing routine before bedtime. • Avoid heavy meals and foods and drinks high in sugar close to bedtime. • Use sleeping pills sparingly.

Making even a few small changes can help and you’ll soon find yourself feeling better. But, if you find that your sleeping problems are more serious and won’t go away, don’t delay in seeing your healthcare provider. They can direct you to doctors who specialize in sleep problems. Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art32801.html).

Also in this issue: The editorial content for this brochure was developed and created solely by the Patient Education Center. The content does not necessarily represent the opinions and/or views of our advertisers. Healthy Living With HIV is published by the Patient Education Center. Offices: 5 Commerce Way, Suite 202, Hamilton, NJ 08691; and 180 Mount Airy Road, Suite 102, Basking Ridge, NJ 07920. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is prohibited. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in Healthy Living With HIV should not be construed as an endorsement of the product or the manufacturer’s claims. Such advertising or product mentions should similarly not be construed as either influencing or controlling the editorial content of Healthy Living With HIV. The appearance of or reference to any person or entity in the editorial material (including photographs) in this brochure does not constitute an expressed or implied endorsement of the product advertised. Readers are encouraged to contact the product manufacturer with any questions about the features and/ or limitations of any product mentioned. The reader also is advised to consult appropriate medical literature and the product information currently provided by the manufacturer of each drug to verify indications, dosage, method, duration of administration, and contraindications. Copyright 2013, Patient Education Center

PEC-HL-FEB-043

Nausea & Vomiting: When to Call the Doctor Conquering Sleep Problems Preventing Bacterial Pneumonia

Visit us online at www.patientedu.org/hiv


Improving Your

Avoid Weight Loss

Diet & Nutrition It’s important to control what and how much you eat and drink when you have HIV. A healthy diet and getting the right amount of nutrients is an important part of your plan to stay well.

N

utrition is important because food gives our bodies the nutrients they need to stay healthy, grow, and work properly. Foods are made up of 6 classes of nutrients:

1) Protein: Builds muscles and a strong immune system. 2) Carbohydrates: Give you energy. 3) Fat: Gives you extra energy. 4) Vitamins: Regulate body processes. 5) Minerals: Regulate body processes and make up tissues. 6) W  ater: Gives cells shape and acts as a medium where body processes can occur.

Factor HIV Into the Equation There are no special diets or foods that will boost the immune system in people living with HIV. There are, however, things you can do to keep your immunity up. The immune system has to work very hard to fight off infections for people with HIV. This takes energy. And it may mean you’ll need to eat more food than you used to. People with advanced HIV, high viral loads, or opportunistic infections are oftentimes underweight. You should include more protein as well as extra calories in the form of carbohydrates and fats. If you are overweight, ask your doctor about resources to help you lose weight, keeping your HIV in mind.

Having good nutrition means eating the right types of foods in the right amounts so that you get these important nutrients.

Vitamins & Minerals That Affect the Immune System What it Does

Where to Get it

Keeps skin, lungs, and stomach healthy

Liver, whole eggs, milk, dark green, yellow, orange, and red vegetables and fruit

Keeps the immune and nervous systems healthy

White beans, potatoes, meat, fish, chicken, watermelon, grains, nuts, avocados, broccoli, and green leafy vegetables

Vitamin C

Helps protect the body from infection and aids in recovery

Citrus fruits, tomatoes, and potatoes

Vitamin E

Protects cells and helps fight off infection

Green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, and peanuts

Iron

Not having enough iron can cause anemia

Green leafy vegetables, whole grain breads and pastas, dried fruit, beans, red meat, chicken, liver, fish, and eggs

Selenium

Important for the immune system

Whole grains, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, peanut butter, and nuts

Zinc

Important for the immune system

Meat, fish, poultry, beans, peanuts, and milk and dairy products

Name Vitamin A and beta-carotene Vitamin B-group (B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, Folate)

Weight loss is a common problem for people with HIV. It should be taken very seriously. Losing weight can make it harder for your body to fight infections and to get well after you’re sick. People with HIV often don’t eat enough because their medications can reduce appetite, make food taste bad, or prevent the body from absorbing food in the right way. Sometimes, symptoms like a sore mouth, nausea, and vomiting can make it difficult to eat. Fatigue from keeping up with your HIV treatments may make it harder to prepare food and eat regularly. To keep your weight up, you will need to take in more protein and calories. To add protein to your diet, try to eat protein-rich foods like meats, fish, beans, dairy products, and nuts. To add calories to your diet, add carbohydrates and some extra fat to your meals. Fats are more concentrated sources of calories, but add only moderate amounts of fat to your meals. To keep your appetite up, try a little exercise, like walking or doing yoga, or eat smaller meals more often. Eating whenever your appetite is good and avoiding drinking too much right before or during meals can also help.

Get Enough Liquids Drinking enough liquids is important because they transport the nutrients you need through your body. Extra water can: reduce the side effects of medications; help flush out the medicines that have already been used by your body; help you avoid dehydration, dry mouth, and constipation; and make you feel less tired. Aim to get at least 8-10 glasses of water or other fluids a day. Try to avoid colas, coffee, tea, and alcohol.

Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins and minerals are essential to staying healthy. People with HIV may need extra vitamins and minerals to help repair and heal cells that have been damaged. Vitamins and minerals are present in many foods (see Table). Depending on your needs, your healthcare provider may recommend a vitamin and mineral supplement. These can be helpful, but they won’t beat the benefits of eating a healthy diet. Many symptoms and side effects of HIV can be helped by using or avoiding certain types of foods and drinks. There is no one “right” way to eat. Work with your healthcare provider to develop a diet plan that works for you. Your provider can also refer you to dietitians or nutritionists who can help design a good diet for you. Source: VA National HIV/AIDS Website (www.hiv.va.gov/patient/diet/single-page.asp).


Improving Your

Avoid Weight Loss

Diet & Nutrition It’s important to control what and how much you eat and drink when you have HIV. A healthy diet and getting the right amount of nutrients is an important part of your plan to stay well.

N

utrition is important because food gives our bodies the nutrients they need to stay healthy, grow, and work properly. Foods are made up of 6 classes of nutrients:

1) Protein: Builds muscles and a strong immune system. 2) Carbohydrates: Give you energy. 3) Fat: Gives you extra energy. 4) Vitamins: Regulate body processes. 5) Minerals: Regulate body processes and make up tissues. 6) W  ater: Gives cells shape and acts as a medium where body processes can occur.

Factor HIV Into the Equation There are no special diets or foods that will boost the immune system in people living with HIV. There are, however, things you can do to keep your immunity up. The immune system has to work very hard to fight off infections for people with HIV. This takes energy. And it may mean you’ll need to eat more food than you used to. People with advanced HIV, high viral loads, or opportunistic infections are oftentimes underweight. You should include more protein as well as extra calories in the form of carbohydrates and fats. If you are overweight, ask your doctor about resources to help you lose weight, keeping your HIV in mind.

Having good nutrition means eating the right types of foods in the right amounts so that you get these important nutrients.

Vitamins & Minerals That Affect the Immune System What it Does

Where to Get it

Keeps skin, lungs, and stomach healthy

Liver, whole eggs, milk, dark green, yellow, orange, and red vegetables and fruit

Keeps the immune and nervous systems healthy

White beans, potatoes, meat, fish, chicken, watermelon, grains, nuts, avocados, broccoli, and green leafy vegetables

Vitamin C

Helps protect the body from infection and aids in recovery

Citrus fruits, tomatoes, and potatoes

Vitamin E

Protects cells and helps fight off infection

Green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, and peanuts

Iron

Not having enough iron can cause anemia

Green leafy vegetables, whole grain breads and pastas, dried fruit, beans, red meat, chicken, liver, fish, and eggs

Selenium

Important for the immune system

Whole grains, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, peanut butter, and nuts

Zinc

Important for the immune system

Meat, fish, poultry, beans, peanuts, and milk and dairy products

Name Vitamin A and beta-carotene Vitamin B-group (B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, Folate)

Weight loss is a common problem for people with HIV. It should be taken very seriously. Losing weight can make it harder for your body to fight infections and to get well after you’re sick. People with HIV often don’t eat enough because their medications can reduce appetite, make food taste bad, or prevent the body from absorbing food in the right way. Sometimes, symptoms like a sore mouth, nausea, and vomiting can make it difficult to eat. Fatigue from keeping up with your HIV treatments may make it harder to prepare food and eat regularly. To keep your weight up, you will need to take in more protein and calories. To add protein to your diet, try to eat protein-rich foods like meats, fish, beans, dairy products, and nuts. To add calories to your diet, add carbohydrates and some extra fat to your meals. Fats are more concentrated sources of calories, but add only moderate amounts of fat to your meals. To keep your appetite up, try a little exercise, like walking or doing yoga, or eat smaller meals more often. Eating whenever your appetite is good and avoiding drinking too much right before or during meals can also help.

Get Enough Liquids Drinking enough liquids is important because they transport the nutrients you need through your body. Extra water can: reduce the side effects of medications; help flush out the medicines that have already been used by your body; help you avoid dehydration, dry mouth, and constipation; and make you feel less tired. Aim to get at least 8-10 glasses of water or other fluids a day. Try to avoid colas, coffee, tea, and alcohol.

Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins and minerals are essential to staying healthy. People with HIV may need extra vitamins and minerals to help repair and heal cells that have been damaged. Vitamins and minerals are present in many foods (see Table). Depending on your needs, your healthcare provider may recommend a vitamin and mineral supplement. These can be helpful, but they won’t beat the benefits of eating a healthy diet. Many symptoms and side effects of HIV can be helped by using or avoiding certain types of foods and drinks. There is no one “right” way to eat. Work with your healthcare provider to develop a diet plan that works for you. Your provider can also refer you to dietitians or nutritionists who can help design a good diet for you. Source: VA National HIV/AIDS Website (www.hiv.va.gov/patient/diet/single-page.asp).


Improving Your

Avoid Weight Loss

Diet & Nutrition It’s important to control what and how much you eat and drink when you have HIV. A healthy diet and getting the right amount of nutrients is an important part of your plan to stay well.

N

utrition is important because food gives our bodies the nutrients they need to stay healthy, grow, and work properly. Foods are made up of 6 classes of nutrients:

1) Protein: Builds muscles and a strong immune system. 2) Carbohydrates: Give you energy. 3) Fat: Gives you extra energy. 4) Vitamins: Regulate body processes. 5) Minerals: Regulate body processes and make up tissues. 6) W  ater: Gives cells shape and acts as a medium where body processes can occur.

Factor HIV Into the Equation There are no special diets or foods that will boost the immune system in people living with HIV. There are, however, things you can do to keep your immunity up. The immune system has to work very hard to fight off infections for people with HIV. This takes energy. And it may mean you’ll need to eat more food than you used to. People with advanced HIV, high viral loads, or opportunistic infections are oftentimes underweight. You should include more protein as well as extra calories in the form of carbohydrates and fats. If you are overweight, ask your doctor about resources to help you lose weight, keeping your HIV in mind.

Having good nutrition means eating the right types of foods in the right amounts so that you get these important nutrients.

Vitamins & Minerals That Affect the Immune System What it Does

Where to Get it

Keeps skin, lungs, and stomach healthy

Liver, whole eggs, milk, dark green, yellow, orange, and red vegetables and fruit

Keeps the immune and nervous systems healthy

White beans, potatoes, meat, fish, chicken, watermelon, grains, nuts, avocados, broccoli, and green leafy vegetables

Vitamin C

Helps protect the body from infection and aids in recovery

Citrus fruits, tomatoes, and potatoes

Vitamin E

Protects cells and helps fight off infection

Green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, and peanuts

Iron

Not having enough iron can cause anemia

Green leafy vegetables, whole grain breads and pastas, dried fruit, beans, red meat, chicken, liver, fish, and eggs

Selenium

Important for the immune system

Whole grains, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, peanut butter, and nuts

Zinc

Important for the immune system

Meat, fish, poultry, beans, peanuts, and milk and dairy products

Name Vitamin A and beta-carotene Vitamin B-group (B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, Folate)

Weight loss is a common problem for people with HIV. It should be taken very seriously. Losing weight can make it harder for your body to fight infections and to get well after you’re sick. People with HIV often don’t eat enough because their medications can reduce appetite, make food taste bad, or prevent the body from absorbing food in the right way. Sometimes, symptoms like a sore mouth, nausea, and vomiting can make it difficult to eat. Fatigue from keeping up with your HIV treatments may make it harder to prepare food and eat regularly. To keep your weight up, you will need to take in more protein and calories. To add protein to your diet, try to eat protein-rich foods like meats, fish, beans, dairy products, and nuts. To add calories to your diet, add carbohydrates and some extra fat to your meals. Fats are more concentrated sources of calories, but add only moderate amounts of fat to your meals. To keep your appetite up, try a little exercise, like walking or doing yoga, or eat smaller meals more often. Eating whenever your appetite is good and avoiding drinking too much right before or during meals can also help.

Get Enough Liquids Drinking enough liquids is important because they transport the nutrients you need through your body. Extra water can: reduce the side effects of medications; help flush out the medicines that have already been used by your body; help you avoid dehydration, dry mouth, and constipation; and make you feel less tired. Aim to get at least 8-10 glasses of water or other fluids a day. Try to avoid colas, coffee, tea, and alcohol.

Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins and minerals are essential to staying healthy. People with HIV may need extra vitamins and minerals to help repair and heal cells that have been damaged. Vitamins and minerals are present in many foods (see Table). Depending on your needs, your healthcare provider may recommend a vitamin and mineral supplement. These can be helpful, but they won’t beat the benefits of eating a healthy diet. Many symptoms and side effects of HIV can be helped by using or avoiding certain types of foods and drinks. There is no one “right” way to eat. Work with your healthcare provider to develop a diet plan that works for you. Your provider can also refer you to dietitians or nutritionists who can help design a good diet for you. Source: VA National HIV/AIDS Website (www.hiv.va.gov/patient/diet/single-page.asp).


Improving Your

Avoid Weight Loss

Diet & Nutrition It’s important to control what and how much you eat and drink when you have HIV. A healthy diet and getting the right amount of nutrients is an important part of your plan to stay well.

N

utrition is important because food gives our bodies the nutrients they need to stay healthy, grow, and work properly. Foods are made up of 6 classes of nutrients:

1) Protein: Builds muscles and a strong immune system. 2) Carbohydrates: Give you energy. 3) Fat: Gives you extra energy. 4) Vitamins: Regulate body processes. 5) Minerals: Regulate body processes and make up tissues. 6) W  ater: Gives cells shape and acts as a medium where body processes can occur.

Factor HIV Into the Equation There are no special diets or foods that will boost the immune system in people living with HIV. There are, however, things you can do to keep your immunity up. The immune system has to work very hard to fight off infections for people with HIV. This takes energy. And it may mean you’ll need to eat more food than you used to. People with advanced HIV, high viral loads, or opportunistic infections are oftentimes underweight. You should include more protein as well as extra calories in the form of carbohydrates and fats. If you are overweight, ask your doctor about resources to help you lose weight, keeping your HIV in mind.

Having good nutrition means eating the right types of foods in the right amounts so that you get these important nutrients.

Vitamins & Minerals That Affect the Immune System What it Does

Where to Get it

Keeps skin, lungs, and stomach healthy

Liver, whole eggs, milk, dark green, yellow, orange, and red vegetables and fruit

Keeps the immune and nervous systems healthy

White beans, potatoes, meat, fish, chicken, watermelon, grains, nuts, avocados, broccoli, and green leafy vegetables

Vitamin C

Helps protect the body from infection and aids in recovery

Citrus fruits, tomatoes, and potatoes

Vitamin E

Protects cells and helps fight off infection

Green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, and peanuts

Iron

Not having enough iron can cause anemia

Green leafy vegetables, whole grain breads and pastas, dried fruit, beans, red meat, chicken, liver, fish, and eggs

Selenium

Important for the immune system

Whole grains, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, peanut butter, and nuts

Zinc

Important for the immune system

Meat, fish, poultry, beans, peanuts, and milk and dairy products

Name Vitamin A and beta-carotene Vitamin B-group (B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, Folate)

Weight loss is a common problem for people with HIV. It should be taken very seriously. Losing weight can make it harder for your body to fight infections and to get well after you’re sick. People with HIV often don’t eat enough because their medications can reduce appetite, make food taste bad, or prevent the body from absorbing food in the right way. Sometimes, symptoms like a sore mouth, nausea, and vomiting can make it difficult to eat. Fatigue from keeping up with your HIV treatments may make it harder to prepare food and eat regularly. To keep your weight up, you will need to take in more protein and calories. To add protein to your diet, try to eat protein-rich foods like meats, fish, beans, dairy products, and nuts. To add calories to your diet, add carbohydrates and some extra fat to your meals. Fats are more concentrated sources of calories, but add only moderate amounts of fat to your meals. To keep your appetite up, try a little exercise, like walking or doing yoga, or eat smaller meals more often. Eating whenever your appetite is good and avoiding drinking too much right before or during meals can also help.

Get Enough Liquids Drinking enough liquids is important because they transport the nutrients you need through your body. Extra water can: reduce the side effects of medications; help flush out the medicines that have already been used by your body; help you avoid dehydration, dry mouth, and constipation; and make you feel less tired. Aim to get at least 8-10 glasses of water or other fluids a day. Try to avoid colas, coffee, tea, and alcohol.

Vitamins and Minerals Vitamins and minerals are essential to staying healthy. People with HIV may need extra vitamins and minerals to help repair and heal cells that have been damaged. Vitamins and minerals are present in many foods (see Table). Depending on your needs, your healthcare provider may recommend a vitamin and mineral supplement. These can be helpful, but they won’t beat the benefits of eating a healthy diet. Many symptoms and side effects of HIV can be helped by using or avoiding certain types of foods and drinks. There is no one “right” way to eat. Work with your healthcare provider to develop a diet plan that works for you. Your provider can also refer you to dietitians or nutritionists who can help design a good diet for you. Source: VA National HIV/AIDS Website (www.hiv.va.gov/patient/diet/single-page.asp).


Nausea & Vomiting: When to Call the Doctor

M

any people feel queasy while taking HIV medications or trying to adjust to new treatment regimens. Nausea tends to go away after several days or a couple of weeks for most people. For others, nausea can linger. Talk to your doctor to review your HIV treatment regimen to see what may be causing the symptoms. You might be able to have your medications or treatment regimen adjusted.

Some symptoms are more urgent. Talk to your healthcare provider as soon as possible if you: • Vomit many times in 1 day without any signs of relief. • See blood in your vomit. • Vomit your HIV medications. • Are unable to urinate for 8-12 hours. • Have a T-cell count that falls below 200. • Have other symptoms like dizziness, thirst, fever, muscle pain, diarrhea, or headache. Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art13140.html).

Conquering Sleep Problems F or people with HIV, getting enough sleep is important because it can help the body recover from illness or injury and strengthen the immune system. To find out if you’re getting enough sleep, ask yourself the following: • Is falling asleep hard for me? • Do I have too much on my mind to sleep? •W  hen I wake up during the night, can I go back to sleep?

• When I sleep all night, do I still feel tired in the morning? • Do I often wake up too early? • Does it take me more than 30 minutes to fall asleep? If the answer to any of these questions is yes, talk to your healthcare provider to get help.

Preventing Bacterial

February/March 2013

Pneumonia P

eople with HIV are at greater risk for bacterial pneumonia than those without HIV. In people with HIV, bacterial pneumonia often strikes just before other opportunistic infections arise. Fortunately, there are things you can do to prevent bacterial pneumonia.

All people with HIV who have CD4 cell counts higher than 200 cells/mm3 should receive the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV). The PPV may lose some of its ability to fight off bacterial pneumonia if CD4 cell counts fall below 200 cells/mm3. If this happens, you may need to get vaccinated again. Be sure to keep a close eye on your CD4 cell counts to stay healthy. Also, avoid using injectable drugs. There are treatments available for bacterial pneumonia, but talk to your healthcare provider to find the best ways to prevent it from happening to you.

Feature:

Improving Your

Diet &

Nutrition

Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art46433.html#bacterial).

Helpful Strategies

Many sleep problems can go away by changing your sleep habits, reducing stress, improving your diet, or exercising. If you’re having problems sleeping, try the following: •C  onsume less or no caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. •E  xercise regularly, but only in the daytime. • Don’t stay in bed tossing and turning. • Go to bed at the same time every night and get up the same time every morning.

•E  stablish a bedtime routine. •U  se the bedroom for sleeping or sex only. • Try a relaxing routine before bedtime. • Avoid heavy meals and foods and drinks high in sugar close to bedtime. • Use sleeping pills sparingly.

Making even a few small changes can help and you’ll soon find yourself feeling better. But, if you find that your sleeping problems are more serious and won’t go away, don’t delay in seeing your healthcare provider. They can direct you to doctors who specialize in sleep problems. Source: TheBody.com (www.thebody.com/content/art32801.html).

Also in this issue: The editorial content for this brochure was developed and created solely by the Patient Education Center. The content does not necessarily represent the opinions and/or views of our advertisers. Healthy Living With HIV is published by the Patient Education Center. Offices: 5 Commerce Way, Suite 202, Hamilton, NJ 08691; and 180 Mount Airy Road, Suite 102, Basking Ridge, NJ 07920. Reproduction without written permission from the publisher is prohibited. Publication of an advertisement or other product mention in Healthy Living With HIV should not be construed as an endorsement of the product or the manufacturer’s claims. Such advertising or product mentions should similarly not be construed as either influencing or controlling the editorial content of Healthy Living With HIV. The appearance of or reference to any person or entity in the editorial material (including photographs) in this brochure does not constitute an expressed or implied endorsement of the product advertised. Readers are encouraged to contact the product manufacturer with any questions about the features and/ or limitations of any product mentioned. The reader also is advised to consult appropriate medical literature and the product information currently provided by the manufacturer of each drug to verify indications, dosage, method, duration of administration, and contraindications. Copyright 2013, Patient Education Center

PEC-HL-FEB-043

Nausea & Vomiting: When to Call the Doctor Conquering Sleep Problems Preventing Bacterial Pneumonia

Visit us online at www.patientedu.org/hiv

Healthy Living With HIV: February/March 2013  

Improving Your Diet & Nutrition, Nausea & Vomiting: When to Call the Doctor, Conquering Sleep Problems, Preventing BacterialPneumonia

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