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RESEARCH REPORTS

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Table 3 Manipulation Check: Analysis of Cognition Words by Condition Discrepancya (e.g., should)

Causationb (e.g., because)

95% CI

I condition

J condition

M

Thoughts only Emotions only Emotions and thoughts Control Emotions only Thoughts only Emotions and thoughts Control Emotions and thoughts Emotions only Thoughts only Control Control Emotions only Thoughts only Emotions and thoughts a ⴱ

2.74 2.11 2.34 0.63 2.11 2.74 2.34 0.63 2.34 2.11 2.74 0.63 0.63 2.11 2.74 2.34

Partial eta squared for condition ␩2p ⫽ .56; p ⬍ .05 (two-tailed).

b

Mean difference (I ⫺ J)

95% CI

SE

Lower bound

Upper bound

Effect size (d)

0.63ⴱ 0.40ⴱ 2.11ⴱ

.20 .20 .20

0.23 0.01 1.71

1.04 0.81 2.52

0.76 0.46 3.00

⫺0.63ⴱ ⫺0.23 1.48ⴱ

.20 .20 .20

⫺1.04 ⫺0.63 1.07

⫺0.23 0.17 1.88

⫺0.76 ⫺0.31 2.78

0.23 ⫺0.41ⴱ 1.71

.20 .20 .20

⫺0.17 ⫺0.81 1.30

0.63 ⫺0.01 2.11

0.31 ⫺0.46 2.93

⫺1.48ⴱ ⫺2.11ⴱ ⫺1.71ⴱ

.20 .20 .20

⫺1.88 ⫺2.52 ⫺2.11

⫺1.07 ⫺1.71 ⫺1.30

⫺2.78 ⫺3.00 ⫺2.93

M 2.47 2.06 2.30 1.13 2.06 2.47 2.30 1.13 2.30 2.06 2.47 1.13 1.13 2.06 2.47 2.30

Mean difference (I ⫺ J)

SE

Lower bound

Upper bound

Effect size (d)

0.41ⴱ 0.17 1.34ⴱ

.16 .16 .16

0.09 ⫺0.15 1.02

0.73 0.48 1.65

0.63 0.26 2.45

⫺0.41ⴱ ⫺0.24 0.93ⴱ

.16 .16 .16

⫺0.73 ⫺0.56 0.61

⫺0.09 0.08 1.25

⫺0.63 ⫺0.42 2.06

0.24 ⫺0.17 1.17ⴱ

.16 .16 .16

⫺0.08 ⫺0.48 0.85

0.56 0.15 1.48

0.42 ⫺0.26 2.64

⫺0.93ⴱ ⫺1.34ⴱ ⫺1.17ⴱ

.16 .16 .16

⫺1.25 ⫺1.65 ⫺1.48

⫺0.61 ⫺1.02 ⫺0.85

⫺2.06 ⫺2.45 ⫺2.64

␩2p ⫽ .47.

provides empirical evidence that releasing negative emotion and engaging in sensemaking can help mitigate the negative effects of experiencing injustice on employee well-being. We also investigated whether the expressive writing intervention influences anger, retaliation intentions, or perceived resolution. Participants who wrote about their emotions and thoughts reported significantly less anger at the conclusion of the intervention relative to individuals in the emotions only condition (d ⫽ ⫺.51) but did not differ significantly from participants in the thoughts only condition (d ⫽ ⫺.05), and small effects were observed for the control condition (d ⫽ ⫺.25). Interestingly, at the

end of the intervention, individuals in the emotions only condition reported the highest level of anger among all of the conditions. Considerable debate exists in the literature regarding whether venting emotion, and in particular anger, is beneficial for decreasing negative emotions. Some writers argue that catharsis, defined as the relieving of tension by expressing emotions, can reduce anger (Freud, 1930/1979), whereas others suggest that expressing emotion can actually increase or exaggerate negative emotions (Bushman, Baumeister, & Stack, 1999; Geen & Quanty, 1977). Our results support the latter perspective—venting emotion on its own has fewer benefits in terms of reducing anger than when

Table 4 Planned Comparisons Between Conditions at the Conclusion of the Intervention: Physical Symptoms and Psychological Well-Being Physical symptoms

Psychological well-being

CIa

I condition

J condition

M

Mean difference (I ⫺ J)

Emotions only Thoughts only Control

2.31 2.60 2.57 2.51

⫺0.29 ⫺0.26 ⫺0.20

Emotions and thoughts

CIa

SE

Lower bound

Upper bound

Effect size (d)

.24 .24 .24

⫺⬁ ⫺⬁ ⫺⬁

0.11 0.14 0.21

⫺0.36 ⫺0.33 ⫺0.24

M

Mean difference (I ⫺ J)

SE

Lower bound

Upper bound

Effect size (d)

5.39 4.84 4.76 4.74

0.55ⴱⴱ 0.63ⴱⴱ 0.65ⴱⴱ

.23 .24 .24

0.17 0.24 0.25

⬁ ⬁ ⬁

0.69 0.79 0.81

Note. Means and standard errors were obtained after controlling for the pre-intervention/baseline measure and the control variables (i.e., gender, age, time lapse since unfairness, situation resolution, and negative affectivity). a A 90% unidirectional confidence interval (CI) is provided to reflect the one-tailed, directional nature of the analyses (cf. Shavelson, 1988). ⴱⴱ p ⬍ .01 (one-tailed).

Healing the Wounds of Organizational Injustice Examining the Benefits of Expressive Writing  
Healing the Wounds of Organizational Injustice Examining the Benefits of Expressive Writing  

JournalofAppliedPsychology ©2009AmericanPsychologicalAssociation 2009,Vol.94,No.2,511–523 0021-9010/09/$12.00 DOI:10.1037/a0013451 Universit...

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