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ผผผผผผผผผผผผ? “Two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social relationship.”

ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ Cooley (1909)  Primary groups  Secondary groups

ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ Cartwright & Zander (1960)  Planned groups  

Concocted Founded

Emergent groups  

Circumstantial Self-organizing

Arrow, McGrath, & Berdahl (2000) Concocted groups Planned VS.


Founded groups Circumstantial groups Self-organizing groups

Internal VS.


Lickel et al (2000)     

Intimacy groups Task groups Weak associations Social categories

ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ     

Interaction Interdependence Structure Goals (circumplex model of group tasks) Cohesiveness

McGrath’s Circumplex model of group  tasks 

Generating  

Planning tasks Creativity tasks

Choosing  

Intellective tasks-- ผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผ Decision-making tasks-- ผผผผผผผผผผผผผ

McGrath’s Circumplex model of group  tasks (cont.) 

Negotiating  

Cognitive conflict tasks Mixed-motive tasks

Executing  

Contests/battles/competitive tasks Performances

ผผผผผผผผผผ (Group Dynamics) ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ  ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ 

Kurt Lewin Interactionism B = f (P,E) Individualistic approach Group-oriented approach Durkheim “GROUPMIND” Allport ผผผผผผgroupmind

Lewin 

ผผผผผผผผผ Gestalt psychology ผผผผผ “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.” - ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผ - ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ Lab ผผผ

ผผผ“ผผผผผ” ผผผผผผผ -


ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผ ผผผผผ5 ผผผผ ผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ


ผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ ผผผผผผผผผผผ




Group in cross-cultural contexts; societal change; social and collective identities

Business and Industry Work motivation; productivity; team building; goal setting; focus groups Clinical/Counseling Psychology

Therapeutic change through groups; sensitivity training; self-help groups; training group; group psychotherapy


Information transmission in groups; discussion; decision making; problems in communication; networks

Criminal Justice

Organization of law enforcement agencies; gangs; jury deliberations


Classroom groups; team teaching; class composition and educational outcomes



Political Science

Leadership, intergroup and international relations; political influence; power


Personality and group behavior; problem solving; perceptions of others; motivation; conflict

Social Work

Team approaches to treatment; family counseling; group and adjustment


Self and society; influence of norms on behavior; role relations; deviance

Sports and Recreation

Team performance; effects of victory and failure; cohesion and performance


ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ.ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ  ผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผผ “Two or more individuals who are connected to one another by social rela...

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