Assessment Link UNIT 30 - Advertising for Television - Phoebe French Guinness Evolution VS Freedom Finance 'Overstretched' (low budget advert) In this essay we will be looking at the persuasive strategies and the target audience of the two adverts, Guinness and Freedom Finance. The adverts both use media language effectively to control the audience in order to convince them to buy the beer product or join together with freedom finance. The narratives of the two adverts are quite different, the Guinness advert is of three middle aged men leading into a whole experience of revolution after taking a sip of their pints of Guinness. Whereas, the advert, freedom finance, is about paying off debts, you can’t wait along time to pay off debts, therefore, you can see the differences between the adverts as the Guinness adverts explains that ‘it’s the good things that come to the people who wait’. The target audience of the Guinness advert is aimed at young males from the age of 18. We can see this when humour was presented throughout the advert. The mise-en-scene in the advert used costumes, makeup and confused facial expressions when the characters were evolving into different animals. Also, the characters displayed a very ameture dance routine when seen in different habitats, such as the dessert. The advert also uses cinematography to display the humor represented in the advert. Close ups were used to illustrate the facial expressions of the character whilst reforming, the main facial expressions of the characters was baffled and in pain, this can be funny to most young people as they tend to have a dry sense of humour. All of these features in an advert can be seen as quite funny to a young age group as their sense of humour is a lot more silly than someone such as an elderly adult. Also, a males mental age is a lot lower than their actual age, again they’ll find the funny aspects to the advert hilarious. Relating back to the mise-en-scene, the performance of the characters also played an important part. The actors in the commercial portrayed a confused and painful facial expression effectively, the way the advert was acted, made it very clear to the audience what the narrative of the advert was and what humor there was to it. Whereas, the low budget advert targets an older target audience; there is very little humour displayed in the advert. The humour that is displayed in the advert is an animated foot that presents the advert, however, the foot conveys freedom, walk free today and go to freedom finance. The mise-en-scene in the advert is quite plain, the background color in the advert consists of one background color, blue. However, by having a single colored background, it made the advert simple, therefore, all the focus was put on the purpose of the advert. Using animation in an advert limits the amount of mise-enscene you can use. However, the low budget advert uses it quite creatively, the advert used animation to create props, they included different props, such as a heavy weight falling from the top screen. This helped give the audience a visual aspect of the adverts purpose, people learn in different ways - some adults will find it hard to understand verbal communication. The advert uses quite a lot of clear and bold text, the target audience may be older, but only by a bit, therefore having key words displayed can hep the audience understand a bit better. Also, having big bold text can be good for someone with bad eyesight and/or hearing; data results from the internet show that 30% of young people are experiencing hearing loss due to headphones, someone with bad hearing or death will view the subtitles, this will distract them from the main things on the screen (the subtitles are at the bottom of the screen, far away from the action that happens on the Tv), having text on the centre of the screen will allow them to see all of the elements on the screen. Also, having bold and clear text can make it easy for someone with dyslexia or bad eyesight. Someone with dyslexia may find it hard to understand different forms of communication, the text being narrowed down like it is in the advert can have a big impact on what they understood. Overall, as you age your sensory abilities are likely to decrease, having big text and images will help the viewer to understand the advert better.
In both of the adverts, persuasive strategies are reflected by the cinematography. In the Guinness advert the cinematography was used through a digital camera, whereas, in the low budget advert, the cinematography was used through a computer when animating the advert. A long shot was used throughout the low budgeted advert, this helped the viewers see all the actions in the advert, every movement is vital in the advert as everything happens for a reason, for example, a heavy weight falling from the top of the screen portrays the purpose of the advert - borrowing money to sort out any financial problems. Also, the camera shot stays in the same position throughout the advert; however, there was a lot of things going on in the advert (animated text, objects and the animated presenter), therefore, there wasn’t any room for close ups, however, close ups weren't needed as no emotions was expressed throughout the advert. The long shot was ultimately used to show the audience everything that happened in the scene, therefore, the viewer sees more of the mise-en-scene which will help them be convinced that Freedom finance is right for them. Whereas, the Guinness advert uses a range of different shots such as close ups. The close ups in the advert effectively show the facial expressions of the three men evolving, which was confused and painful. This can be seen as funny to quite a lot of people, therefore, the cinematography in the advert expressed humor which is a form of a persuasive strategy. Also, product shots were used in the advert to show the purpose of the advert and to increase the amount of customers, leaving out product shots can affect the customer increase, for example, the advert ‘Drench’ was performed at a high standard (a geeky thunderbirds character was dancing throughout the advert, which is very funny to most people who have seen the programme, however, as good as the advert was, there wasn’t an increase in the amount of customers, this was because the product ‘Drench’ was only shown once throughout the whole advert. The age group of the two age groups are from 18 - 25 years of age, this is conveyed by the editing in the two adverts. In the Guinness advert the overall duration for the advert was long. This was to help the young people remember the product, young people don’t tend to go out their way to remember things as most of them still feed off their parents, therefore, they’re not in the habit of remembering things; after a couple of hours after them watching the advert, they’re most likely to have forgotten the advert, therefore, you can see why the advert has a long durational time (due to the young age group that the advert is targeted for). The advert may be long as a whole, however, lots of short durational shots were shown. Due to the young target audience, the advert has to ensure that the individual clips are short to keep the audience interested. It is very usual for a young person to have a short attention span and lose focus easily, by having short durational clips in the advert, the audience isn’t likely to lose interest easily. In contrast, the low budget advert also uses short durational clips, the audience may be aimed at a slightly older audience, but they’re also still learning, the target audience is aimed for people who have just left home and finding it hard to pay of the debts as they’re not use to the independency. Therefore, they may be older, but they’re still learning to become adults which is why they still need short durational clips as they also are highly likely having a short attention span. Unlike the Guinness advert, the overall length of the Freedom Finance advert was short. However, this was because all there is to say in the advert is the company itself, which is loans. There’s not a lot to say about loans which is why it is short. Although it’s short, it was a lot longer than needed, this was because the advert found ways of using persuasive techniques-eg. rhetorical questions: ‘Do you pay your monthly repayments?’. Young people are mostly naive, therefore, hearing a presenter pitch their company in their side of the view will make them believe what they are hearing is completely true not matter how exaggerated the advert may be. The media language in the adverts again portray the young target audience. In both of the adverts diegetic music was played: In the Guinness advert three glasses were slammed onto the table after the three men took a sip; and in the low budgeted advert, the diegetic music came from the presenter and the sounds of objects making movements - eg. the heavy weight from the top of the screen made a large thumping sound. All of the diegetic sounds in the adverts created tension to
grab the audiences attention, a young person wouldn’t sit and watch adverts, they would talk to their peers or do other activities such as playing on their phone whilst they’re waiting for their programme to come on. In the Guinness advert the music in the background is non-diegetic and parallel, this helped express the narrative of the advert of the revolution. The tempo (speed) of the music in the background is quite fast which relates to the fast moving animals whilst they were evolving. However, the fast pace music may relate the fast speed in which the animals are moving, however, the fast pace music is quite unusual to be played when viewing revolution as the time bound for this to happen is thousands of years - ‘It’s the good things that come to the people who wait’. Whereas, in the Freedom Finance advert, the advert consisted of only diegetic music. This helped the audience focus on the main point - the presenter talking directly to the audience. The advert using only diegetic music made the advert effective as it was simple and not a lot going on and also, they'll feel engaged as the presenter is speaking directly to the audience, you can see this when he asks the audience if they have ‘paid their monthly repayment?’. Overall, the two advert using different forms of sounds to make it more appealing to the audience. The adverts both used diegetic in the advert, however, the diegetic music in the adverts had different purposes; in the Guinness advert, a few diegetic sounds were displayed to create tension to grab the audiences attention, whereas, in the Freedom Finance, the diegetic sounds were the only sounds in the advert, this made it simple and easy to understand what was going on in the advert. The persuasive strategies in the Guinness advert were a lot different to the persuasive strategies seen in the low budget advert. In the Guinness advert, Gluttony, envy and inversion was all used to convince the audience to buy Guinness. Gluttony was used whilst the product shot was introduced. Guinness is something people want, not need, therefore, it can be seen as greedy. Showing the audience a video of a glass of Guinness can be very tempting for the audience, seeing the Guinness would not only be going against someone’s weakness, it would make the viewers envious of the three men that walked in the pub that all brought a pint of Guinness. Not only are they envious of them drinking the beer, they are envious of all the changes the three men experienced -eg. jumping in and out of the sea, dancing in their habitat along with the musicetc. Since the target audience is aimed at men, you’ll find out why I think that further in the essay, you can see why the viewers could be envious of the animals as men are as wild and active as the animals in the advert. Inversion was used after seeing the whole process of revolution, you wouldn’t expect to see three casual men who have walked into a bar to evolve into a series of different animals. Whereas, the low budget advert doesn’t use much persuasive strategies, the only obvious strategy that was used, was the use of rhetorical questions. Hearing a rhetorical question gets a person to think about the question and by the way the sentence is manipulated, such as, ‘are you paying off your monthly repayments?’, It’s most likely for a person to go on along with the question and believe that they’re not paying off their monthly repayments. Overall, the two adverts were aimed at a similar audience, however, the use of media language and persuasive strategies were very differently used in the adverts. You can clearly see that the two adverts both had a different approach to advertise their product or company; however, they was both most likely to be a success; both of the adverts used the media language and persuasively appropriately, although the persuasive strategies were more obvious in the Guinness advert. Also, both of the adverts used product placement effective, therefore, there’s more of a chance of it being a success; even one the best presented adverts won’t make it if product placement isn’t shown -eg. Drench, the sales went up for bottled water, but not for drench.
Animation - Crusha
The advert ‘Crusha’ uses different techniques, such as imperative verbs, gluttony, the use of editing, cinematography -etc, to persuade an audience to buy Crusha. The advert is set in a rural background - a field of cows, and within that field is a group of cats performing instruments which is heard in the background. A while later the product Crusha repeatedly falls from the sky ‘crushing’ the surroundings. Also, the advert demonstrates the audience how to make the drink by pouring the crusha and milk into a glass, finishing with the product being put into a basket ready for the final product shot of the crusha (in all of the flavors). The advert included a lot of cinematography: the props used, the characters, the humourous performance and the scenery. The scenery was set in a rural setting, this was obvious by the amount of cows in the background; having a rural background helped convince the audience that Crusha is natural - cows produce milk naturally and the product requires milk to make the Crusha. In the Also, a medium close up focused on the product so the parents will know what to buy for their kids when they're in their local supermarket doing their weekly shop. advert, a lot of props were displayed: Crusha’s falling from the sky, this suggested that if you don’t buy Crusha, you will get crushed, a cat putting Crusha’s in a trolley was used to portray an imperative verb; put Crusha in your trolley now! Also, instruments were seen in the advert being played by cats, this helps the audience envy or look up to the cats and copy them by putting Crusha in their trolley. A long shot was used in most of the advert, however, this was because there was alot going on in the advert-eg. individual cats came forward to present their solos, the long shot enabled the audience to see the cat present their solo along with the other cats accompanying the cat, the cows and the Crusha’s. The target audience isn’t very flexible as it only targets children and teenagers, however, when youths like something, they will buy it consistently as the only money they have is spent on what they want, not what they need, unlike adults. You can tell the advert is aimed at a young audience by the use of saturated colors, stylish tune, animated cats dancing along to their music - which can be seen as funny to children due to their silly sense of humor; on the other hand, teenagers would buy the product as a ‘laugh’ or to be awkward and different. Within the young target audience, the advert aims the product at mainstreamers and reformers; once a reformer has seen the rural background, they will want to buy their kids the product as they believe the product is natural and contributing to changing the world. A mainstreamer would buy this product as it is what we call ‘junk food’, the majority of the population live off ‘junk food’ which is why a lot of people are becoming obese. The target class audience is aimed at C2, D1 and D2; lower classed people have more time to spend in their supermarket (more time to look at the products, such as Crusha), the only time the lower classed people are busy is when they are at work, where as, middle classed people are busy in their free time completing work related studies, therefore, they don’t have the time to spend a lot of their time in a supermarket, they get what they need and go. Three main persuasive strategies were used: gluttony, envy and humor. There wasn’t a lot of persuasive strategies, however, the used persuasive strategies was used very well, therefore, three persuasive strategies was enough to persuade an audience to buy the product, Crusha. Gluttony means greed, Crusha is product that buyers want, not need. Also, at the ending of the clip you can see a demonstration of how to make Crusha, this includes pouring the product into a glass, therefore, this gives the audience a chance to see the ‘glory’ inside the product. In the advert, a group of cats perform an instrument, a lot of people aren’t able to play an instrument, therefore, the audience envy’s the cats as they are only an animal that has a great talent (most people look down on animals, we are higher up in the food chain and hierarchy). By the audience envying the cats, they want to be like them, therefore, they’ll copy the cats and buy Crusha. Humor was used a lot in the advert, cats singing, playing and dancing to an instrument -etc. This isn’t seen as normal, therefore, it can be seen as funny. Also, young children don’t see the logic begind the advert, therefore, they’ll find it quite realistic and find it funnier than viewers older than children, however, teenagers, would find the advert funny for the wrong reasons, they’ll see it as silly, however, they’ll end up buying it as a joke, and to be awkward and different, if they find the drink appealing, they would buy it again. The sound in the advert is all non-diegetic: the singing and the instruments. The singing in the advert repeats the word ‘Crusha’, this was done to remind the audience the name of the drink so they will purchase the item when they are thirsty or
in the supermarket buying drinks for the household. The music played in the advert is in a fast tempo (fast speed), this was done to grab the audience’s attention, watching an advert with a fast pace background music makes the audience believe that something good is going to happen, therefore, they’ll watch to the end of the advert, this allows them to be more convinced to buy the product, also, seeing the advert for the full length will make you remember the product making it more likely for the viewer to buy it.
Iceland VS Ariel The two adverts featuring the products Ariel ‘ Pure Clean’ and Iceland’s Christmas food - Kerry Katona both persuaded their audience to fit their target audience appropriately by their use of media language and persuasive strategies. The advert Ariel Pure Clean presents a fresh, pure and relaxed theme. The narrative of the advert was of a middle classed family living their lives in a nice rural location, able to play about not getting worried whether they get their clothes dirty - no matter how muddy or filthy their clothes get, they can just wash away the dirt with ariel (they have the money). In contrast, the advert advertising food from Iceland presented a calm, relaxed and welcoming theme. However, the narrative was of two women (one of them being a famous single Mum, Kerry Katona) convincing an attractive male to stay and enjoy the fun because “it’s cold outside’. They convince the male with food: It’s too good to deny’. Unlike the ariel advert, the advert portrays a family with a low come - there’s a lot of food due to the low prices (the prices are shown in the advert, unlike the ariel advert). The cinematography in the adverts are quite similar. In the Ariel advert, the camera uses close ups on a blonde female to show her freshness and purity. Similarly, in the icelands advert the camera also uses close ups, however, they don’t use close ups on a blonde female, they use it to show the audience the food’s glory. Also, in the ariel advert, there are some panning views of the cloudy sky to portray a dreamy theme as to say to the audience that it’s a dream to live a lifestyle in the adverts location - if you buy ariel, you will live this dream. Like the ariel advert, the icelands advert uses panning shots throughout the advert to portray the atmosphere, the food and the celebrity endorsement to make the audience feel a sense of being there and to feel the same welcoming and calm feeling that the advert is presenting. The ariel advert rotates their camera on the sky to again portray a dreamy theme to make viewers want to live the lives like the people in the advert. However, in the icelands advert, there isn’t a rotational shot, but they make the camera pull back from outside the window (where there are kids building a snowman) into the house where there is a feast of food and a gathering of a family. This helped show the busy atmosphere to portray that everyone has come together, this again conveys a welcoming theme. The mise-en-scene is a bit different in the two adverts. The ariel advert includes a very bright and white background with a limited amount of colors, this helped the audience see a clear image of what was going on in the advert and to again present a pure, fresh and relaxed theme. Whereas, the icelands advert uses warm, dim and a variety of different colors. This helped to persuade the audience that there are a variety of good quality food - warm and dark colors link with wealth (the old color for royalty was a dark purple) and when something is expensive, it’s good quality. However, the advert is trying to persuade that the food is of a good quality and it’s also cheap. The scenery in the Ariel advert is very open spaced and beautiful - it’s set amongst the mountains. However, the Icelands advert is set in a crowded room full of a gathering of people celebrating. The setting in the icelands was made up of christmas decorations - it was set up to look beautiful, unlike the setting in the Ariel advert is naturally beautiful. The outfits in the two adverts were the opposite to each other; in the advert for ariel, the outfits were all quite loose and baggy. Also, the outfits were bright and white. This fitted with the narrative of the advert - ariel is pure clean, a bright color
presents cleanliness and purity. In contrast, the icelands advert uses dark colored outfits (the two females both wear the color black), they also wear tightly fitted clothes, unlike the characters in the Ariel advert. Wearing dark colored clothes helped them stand out, wearing a white or colored costume would either not contrast well or it would blend in with the background or the other actors in the advert. The props in the Ariel advert all presented a fresh theme: the lime being squashed, the icicles, the characters all dressed in bright clothes and the bright sheet at the end that the girl was twisting around in. All the props listed were all natural, this again intimates a theme of purity. The iceland advert uses a limited amount of props: decorations, food and characters. This helped the focal point stay on what the advert was advertising, food. If there was too much props, the viewer would fall into the moment if the christmas spirit not being aware of what is being advertised. The editing in the adverts both consist of short durational shots. However, the clips in the Ariel advert wasn’t as short as the clips shown in the Icelands advert, for example, a clip in the Ariel advert lasted 00:06 seconds, where as, a clips in the Iceland advert lasted 00:03 seconds. However, the longer clips in the Ariel advert helped the dreamy theme come to life. I also noticed that the speed of the clips in the Ariel advert has been slowed down a bit, this also helped create a dreamy mood to the advert - dreams are distorted and happen quite slowly, therefore, by slowing down the speed makes it look unrealistic, in my opinion, the advert is trying to express that Ariel is too good to be real. The short durational clips in the icelands advert worked quite well because there was a singing conversation between three people, therefore, the camera had to keep switching to their faces, also, it had to capture other things like the food, the children at the beginning and the atmosphere of the scene, this all narrowed down to the conclusion of two girls convincing an attractive male to stay because ‘it’s cold outside’ and that there is delicious food that’s ‘too good to deny’ and it also showed the friendly gathering of the family. Also, having short durational clips, it grabs or keeps an audiences attention, the target audience for the iceland advert is single Mums, single Mums who will be constantly running around after their young kids , however, if an advert is eye catching, they will watch the advert and sort their kids out later. The sound in the adverts were both mainly non-diegetic,. However, in the Ariel advert, some diegetic sounds were used: the lime being squished and the girl who snapped the icicle. This portrayed the dream theme as alive, the diegetic sounds signify to the audience that it’s not a dream, it’s for real, but the product is so good you’ll think it’s a dream. The non-diegetic sounds in the advert is of a soft voice over thats been played on top of a single noted soundtrack. This also helped present the advert as a dream, the advert is telling the audience that the product is so good that it’s overwhelming. Also, by having single noted songs, it’s doesn’t connect with the other elements of the advert: the slow clip speed,soft voice tone.-etc. In contrast, the icelands advert also mainly consists of non-diegetic music with diegetic music - three people singing. However, the music in the icelands had a faster tempo (speed). This helped the christmas theme of the advert come to the audience effectively all christmas songs are fast due to the happy mood of the occasion. The persuasive strategies in the adverts both used envy and gluttony. In the Ariel advert, the strategy envy was used when the viewers saw the beautiful location, the amount of free time the women has, the childrens luxury’s - a girl was sitting by a piano, and the cleanliness of the sheets, you can see a young girl spinning around in this very bright white colored sheet. Similarly, in the icelands advert, there’s every mans dream - two young women flirting: ‘bit on the side’, ‘too good to deny’ and on top of that, both their cleavages were on full display. Also, there was many close ups of the food, the cake was purposely cut so the audience could see the wonders in the cake, this could also be seen as gluttony as well as envy people are jealous of the delicious food shown in the scene, however, it’s something they want, not need, therefore, this could be seen as greedy. Gluttony is shown in the Ariel advert by all the luxuries seen in the scene: the piano, everlasting time - the women looks ageless and acts as if she has all the time in the world (the one noted music helps this become effective along with the slow speed of the clips). Also, the young girl spins around in the sheet outside not afraid to get it dirty (no stress seen), all of the following surrounded by beautiful sights, such as mountains. The target audience in both of the adverts are completely different. The Ariel advert it aimed for people in the C1 and above in the class categories, whereas, the icelands advert is aimed at people who are below D1 in the social class. We can see
that the Ariel advert is aimed at people with a middle classed and above income by the mise-en-scene: the piano, the location, the big open space and the lime (suggests they can afford to be natural). The Icelands advert is obviously aimed for single Mums who are not working, in the advert prices are seen, you didn’t see the prices in the Ariel advert because the buyers don’t care how much the product costs because they have a lot of money. Also, lots of food was seen in the scene, this suggests that the prices are so low that you can buy lots of food with it - single Mum’s can afford this. Both of the advert aim at families, this is obvious as both of the adverts consist of a family. In the Ariel advert, it showed two children, and two women, this could suggest that the male is out at work earning all of the families income. Whereas, the icelands advert shows a huge family coming together at Christmas, two women flirting with an attractive male - they don’t have a partner (single Mums). Overall, the media language used in the advert helps persuade the audience to buy the products Ariel and Christmas food. Also, different strategies were used to persuade the audience such as, persuasive strategies -eg. gluttony and envy, adverts use people’s weaknesses against them so they can buy items like chocolate cakes (as shown in the icelands advert). In my opinion, both of the adverts used appropriate techniques in order to convince the audience to buy their product by using the appropriate media language and persuasive strategies to fit the correct audience, as you can see the two adverts are completely different as the target audiences for the two adverts are opposite from each other.
Some of the shots in the Long shots were also used in the advert, this helped show the audience the different habitats the humans were in whilst evolving. This made it easy for the audience to acknowledge the changes that the characters are experiencing. in the two adverts both use effects, . In the Guinness advert, effects were used on top of the costumes and makeup to portray the narrative of revolution effectively. In contrast, in the low budget advert, a lot off effects were also used, for example, the text in the advert stretched when the word ‘stretched’ was said. This was done to keep the audience entertained, the topic of the advert is quite boring, therefore, different elements such as transitions need to be added to keep the audiences attention. Also, the word stretched so the audience can again have a better understanding of the advert, people learn in different ways. The guinness advert continues for a long time, however, this is done to get the audience to remember the advert; the next time they’re in a pub, they’ll remember the scenery of the three men slamming their glasses down, therefore, they’ll want to buy a Guinness.