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Life Expectancy Ward Analysis Ward Profile: South Yardley Tackling Health Inequalities: Life Expectancy

VERSION CONTROL AND DOCUMENT GOVERNANCE Version

2

Date

May 2009

Status

Green

File location (public) Filename and path to locate this document


All maps produced with permission of Dotted Eyes & Ordance Survey Š Crown copyright 2008 licence number 100019918

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Introduction Life expectancy is one of the main indicators for health inequalities. It has been set as the overarching work stream for tackling health inequalities in Birmingham by the Health and Wellbeing Partnership (BHWP). This Ward Profile series aims to: •

Provide a detailed ward level picture of local health inequality context

Describe life expectancy trend in each target ward

Investigate into leading conditions that cause deaths locally to provide local focus for each target ward and

Suggest future area/ factors for extended research

This report is written by Birmingham Public Health Information Team, Suite 203, CIBA Building, 146, Hagley Road, Birmingham B16 9NX Author s

Jeanette Davis (Public Health Information Analyst) Chris Stephen (Public Health Information Analyst) Mohan Singh (Public Health Database Administrator/ Analyst) Iris Fermin (Head of Information and Intelligence)

Section Director

Jim McManus (Joint Director of Public Health)

Any further information

Telephone : 0121 465 2995 / 2999 Email : PHIT@benpct.nhs.uk

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Summary •

Electoral ward South Yardley is in the boundary of NHS Birmingham East and North

South Yardley accounted for 2.77% of Birmingham’s population in 2006

The age group with the largest population are children and young people [0 – 19] at 30.6%

Black and Minority Ethnicity (BME) group of (30.3%) is higher than national average (11.3%) overall but lower than Birmingham (32.7%). This group accounted for 0.83% of the total population of Birmingham in 2001.

South Yardley is the 17th Birmingham

The latest extraction for 2005/07 reflects that:

(out of 40) most deprived ward in

o Life expectancy is at 75.8 for men, 81.6 for women in the year 2005/07 o Male life expectancy has increased by 4.4%. The gap between South Yardley and England has improved by 5% (0.1 years) from 95/97 to 05/07. o Female life expectancy has increased by 4.3%. The gap between South Yardley and England has improved by 87% (1.3 years) from 95/97 to 05/07. o Infant Mortality rates have shown no improvements since 1999/2001 and remain at 7.0 per 1,000; and are lower than the most deprived areas (SOA) in Birmingham. o Circulatory diseases (32.14%), Cancers (31%) and Coronary Heart Diseases (18.49%) are the leading conditions that cause deaths in the ward.

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1

Local context: demographics and deprivation

This section describes population demographics and deprivation, and comparisons are made with South Yardley, Birmingham and England to provide a local context for life expectancy inequalities.

1.1 Age and sex distribution The population of South Yardley is estimated to be 27,979. This represents 2.77% of the population of Birmingham. There are (13,798) 49.3% male and (14,181) 50.7% female. These estimations are based on ONS Mid. Year (2006) Population By Age Group and Gender 2006 Estimates by Ward Source: Office of National Statistics

196

80+

272

286

75-79

393

413

70-74

Males

414

65-69

495

521

60-64

503

534

590

55-59

647

669

50-54

652

876

45-49

849

1050

40-44 35-39

Females

1029

1175

1035 996

30-34 25-29

1056

20-24

1049

15-19 10-14 5-9

1034 1120 1159

1017

993

1012

997

1056

1027

1240

0-4 1500

1221 1000

500

0

500

1000

1500

Data source: ONS 2006 mid year population estimates

Figure 1.1 Population by age group and gender, South Yardley 2006

Figure 1.1 illustrates: •

Children under school leaving age (i.e. age 0 - 19) represent 30.6% (8,563) of the population. Persons of retirement age (age 65+) account for 12.13% (3,339).

•

The age structure of the ward reflects that the under 19 age group is 8.55 percentage points higher than the Birmingham average; equally the 65 + age group are also above the city average at 1.49 percentage points higher.

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1.2 Ethnicity Ethnicity has some influences in terms of what diseases an individual could develop through their life. With this in mind, analysis of the ethnicity of the local population becomes a requirement in order to target vulnerable health groups. Table 1.1 shows the ethnicity distribution in the South Yardley population, compared with Birmingham and England. •

Table 1.1

The % column of table 1.1 represents the percentage of the total population that fit into that ethnic group. The N* column show the quantity of people in thousands that are from each group, for the ward, City and nationally. About a third (30.3%) of the population in South Yardley is of nonwhite ethnicity (i.e. Black and Minority Ethnicity (BME) Group. Within the BME group, Pakistanis represents 13.2%, Indian 4.1% and Black Caribbean 3.71%. The proportion of BME in South Yardley (30.3%) is nearly the proportion within Birmingham (32.7%), and nearly three times that of the average across England (11.3%). White ethnicity (69.6%) is slightly higher than local levels but lower than nationally. Ethnicity groups for South Yardley (2001), Birmingham (2006) and England (2006)

South Yardley Ethnicity groups White Asian or Asian British Black or Black British Mixed Chinese or other Total

% 69.7 22.6 4.6 2.4 0.7 100

Birmingham %

N* 19.2 6.3 1.3 0.7 0.2 27.6

N* 67.3 20.7 6.7 3.2 2.3 100

England % 88.7 5.5 2.8 1.6 1.4 100

667.0 207.9 67.0 31.8 22.9 1,106.5

N* 45,018.1 2,786.6 1,403.0 829.5 725.7 50,762.9

*population by thousand Data source: ONS population estimates by ethnic group mid 2006 for Birmingham / England. 2001 Census data for Ward

1.3 Deprivation According to Index of Multiple Deprivations (IMD) 2007 published by ONS, South Yardley is the 17th most deprived electoral ward (out of 40) in Birmingham with an overall IMD score of 34.081. Figure 1.2 shows SOAs by IMD quintile, 2007. Most of the area covered by South Yardley is in the third and fourth most deprived SOAs in Birmingham. (ref: IMD map on following page)

Ward Area 2

Area (km )

Population Density 2 (persons/km )

Population Density – Working 2 Age 16-64 (persons/km )

7.01

2989

2277

1

Ward level IMD score is calculated based on IMD score 2007 for SOAs and population weighting from SOAs to Wards in Birmingham produced by Birmingham Strategic Partnership Information Sharing Group from the Birmingham City Council.

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Figure 1.2 Super Output Areas in South Yardley by IMD quintile, 2007

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2

Life expectancy trend

Life expectancy is one of the most important forecasters for health inequalities across the population; since there is evidence that people most need them do not have access to services. This section gives an overview of life expectancy at birth in South Yardley, in terms of trend and variations in different groups and communities. Figure 2.1 shows trend of male expectancy in South Yardley from 1995/97 to 2005/07 on a 3-year basis, in comparison with Birmingham and England and shows evidence that whilst male life expectancy has increased over the ten years since 1995. Male Life Expectancy - 3 year rolling average, South Yardley, Birmingham & England 79.0

Life Expectancy (Age)

78.0 77.0 76.0 75.0 74.0 73.0 72.0 71.0 70.0

/0 6

/0 5

/0 7 20 05

20 04

20 03

/0 4 20 02

/0 2

/0 3 20 01

20 00

/0 1 19 99

/9 9

/0 0 19 98

19 97

/9 8 19 96

19 95

/9 7

69.0

Calendar Year England M ales

Birmingham M ales

South Yardley M ales

Data source: ONS

Figure 2.1 Male life expectancy for South Yardley, Birmingham and England, 1995/97 – 2005/07

Figure 2.2 shows trend of female expectancy from 1995/97 to 2005/07 on a 3year basis, in comparison with Birmingham and England and shows that since 1995 female life expectancy has been increasing.

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Female Life Expectancy - 3 year rolling average, South Yardley, Birmingham & England 83.0

Life Expectancy (Age)

82.0 81.0 80.0 79.0 78.0 77.0

/0 6

/0 5

/0 7 20 05

20 04

20 03

/0 4 20 02

/0 2

/0 3 20 01

20 00

/0 1 19 99

/0 0

/9 9

19 98

19 97

/9 8 19 96

19 95

/9 7

76.0

Calendar Year England Females

Birmingham Females

South Yardley Females

Data source: ONS

Figure 2.2 Female life expectancy for South Yardley, Birmingham and England, 1995/97 – 2005/07

As illustrated in Figure 2.1 and Figure 2.2, life expectancy for both males and females has increased over the period of time. Life expectancy in South Yardley is higher than City but lower national average. The gap for both Male/Female life expectancy between South Yardley and England has improved, with the gap for men being slightly more. • •

• •

Male life expectancy has increased by 4.4% (3.22 years, from 72.6 years in 2000 to 75.8 years in 2007). The gap of male life expectancy between South Yardley and England has improved by 0.1 year from 2 years in 1997 to 1.9 years by 2007, which means an decrease of 5%. Female life expectancy has increased by 4.3% (3.4 years, from 78.2 years in 2000 to 81.6 years by 2007). The gap of female life expectancy between South Yardley and England has improved by 1.3 year from 1.5 years to 0.2 years).

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Infant mortality In areas with high infant mortality rates, the life expectancy at birth is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is calculated as the number of newborns dying under one year of age in every 1,000 live births during the year, excluding still births. Figure 2.3 shows trends of IMR in South Yardley, Birmingham, England and the most deprived quintile (i.e. 20%) Super Output Areas (SOAs) in Birmingham (based on Lower Super Output Area level IMD score 2007), from 1999 to 2007. South Yardley Infant Mortality Rate - 3 year rolling average 14.0 12.0

Rate per 1,000

10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 1999 / 01

2000 / 02

2001 / 03

2002 / 04

2003 / 05

2004 / 06

2005 / 07

Trend Years Birmingham M ost Deprived Quintile in Bham

England South Yardley

Data source: Birmingham, West Midlands and England: National Centre for Health Outcomes Development Most deprived quintile in Birmingham: PHIT

Figure 2.3 Infant mortality rates per 1,000 births in South Yardley, Birmingham, England and the most deprived quintile in Birmingham, 1999-2007

As illustrated in Figure 2.3, in 05/07, the IMR is higher than that of England but lower than that in the most deprived quintile which is about two folds higher than England. •

From 99/01 to 05/07, the IMR initially rose but has now returned to its 99/01 figure of 7.0 per 1,000. In comparison Birmingham’s IMR has decreased. The gap between the most deprived quintile SOAs in Birmingham and South Yardley has decreased and is now only 2.8 per 1,000 below the SOAs. IMR in England has decreased smoothly from 5.6 to 4.9 (at about 0.1 per year). The gap between South Yardley and England has increased from 1.4 to 2.1 (50%), but the IMR is still lower than the most deprived quintile.

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3

Local focus

This section investigates into the leading causes of deaths locally.

3.1 Mortality rates on selected diseases Age-specific mortality rate is used to calculate life expectancy at birth. Disease specific standardised mortality rates are investigated into in this part in order to identify leading diseases that contribute to the overall mortality rates in South Yardley Table 3.1 shows directly standardized mortality rates for selected conditions during the period 2005-2007. Percentage of each disease’s rate out of the overall rate is also shown here. According to the figures, cancers, circulatory diseases, and coronary heart disease are the major killers. They make more than 81.6% of the overall DSR; this figure is higher than the Birmingham figure by 1.5 percentage points and higher than most of the PCT averages which range from between 72% to 81.6% Table 3.1

Directly Standardized Mortality Rates (DSRs) per 100,000 population for selected conditions, South Yardley, 2005-2007 % out of all causes rate*

DSR All Causes

656.31

All Cancers

194.18

31%

All Circulatory Diseases

210.94

32.14%

Coronary Heart Disease

121.33

18.49%

* Percentage of rate for the specific disease out of rate for all causes Data source: National Centre for Health Outcomes Development

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South Yardley_LE_Ward_Profile