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Life Expectancy Ward Analysis Ward Profile: Quinton Tackling Health Inequalities: Life Expectancy

VERSION CONTROL AND DOCUMENT GOVERNANCE Version

2

Date

June 2009

Status

Green

File location (public) Filename and path to locate this document


All maps produced with permission of Dotted Eyes & Ordnance Survey Š Crown copyright 2008 licence number 100019918

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Introduction Life expectancy is one of the main indicators for health inequalities. It has been set as the overarching work stream for tackling health inequalities in Birmingham by the Health and Wellbeing Partnership (BHWP). This Ward Profile series aims to: •

Provide a detailed ward level picture of local health inequality context.

Describe life expectancy trend in each target ward.

Investigate leading conditions that cause deaths locally, to provide local focus for each target ward.

Suggest future area / factors for extended research.

Authors

Jeanette Davis (Public Health Information Analyst) Chris Stephen (Public Health Information Analyst) Mohan Singh (Public Health Database Administrator/ Analyst) Iris Fermin (Head of Information and Intelligence) Jim McManus (Joint Director of Public Health)

For further information please contact the information team: Tel:

0121 465 2995 / 2999

Email:

phit@bhwp.nhs.uk

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1. Summary •

Electoral ward Quinton is within the boundary of NHS South Birmingham.

Quinton accounted for 2.31% of Birmingham’s population in 2006.

Children and young people (0-19) are the most populous group in the ward, making up 25.9% of the total population.

The percentage of Black and minority Ethnic groups in this ward is 14.4%, which is higher than the National (11.3%) but lower than the Birmingham (32.7%) average.

Quinton is the 28th (out of 40) most deprived ward in Birmingham.

The latest extraction for 2005/07 shows that: o Life expectancy is 77.3 for men and 83.5 for women over the years 2005/07. o From 1995/97 to 2005/07 male life expectancy has increased by 1.7%. However male life expectancy is now lower than the England average. o From 1995/97 to 2005/07 female life expectancy has increased by 3.5%. The gap between Quinton and England has widened by 70% (0.7 years) in the ward’s favour. o Infant Mortality Rates have risen by 24.4% since 1999/01, whilst the rate for the most deprived wards has dropped. o The leading conditions that cause deaths in the ward are Circulatory diseases (33.2%), Cancers (27.9%) and Coronary Heart Diseases (16.1%).

Lifestyle factors 2005/07 suggest that, in comparison to Birmingham as a whole the rates for residents of Quinton are: o 3.5 percentage points lower for binge drinking. o 3.2 percentage points lower for adult obesity. o 2.3 percentage points lower for adults who smoke.

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2. Local context: demographics and deprivation This section describes population demographics and deprivation in Quinton, in order to provide a local context for life expectancy inequalities. Comparisons are made with Birmingham and England.

2.1. Age and sex distribution The population of Quinton is estimated to be 23,318. This represents 2.31% of the population of Birmingham. Approximately 47.9% (11,163) are male and 52.1% are female (12,155). These estimations are based on ONS mid-year population estimates for 2006. The population pyramid (Figure 1.1) shows the age and sex distributions. Population By Age Group and Gender 2006 Estimates by Ward Source: Office of National Statistics

80+

336

212

75-79

387

361

551 Females

517

65-69 60-64

Males

496

412

70-74

578

614 692

55-59

706 677

596

50-54 651

45-49 40-44

754 858

758

896

893

35-39

734

30-34

870 653

25-29 20-24

869 864

779 743

816

15-19

755

10-14

700

725

5-9 0-4

725 758

806

1000

800

600

400

200

0

200

400

600

800

1000

Data source: ONS 2006 mid year population estimates

Figure 1.1 Population by age group and gender, Quinton 2006

Figure 1.1 illustrates: •

Children under school leaving age (i.e. age 0 - 19) represent 28.9% (6,028) of the Quinton population. Persons of retirement age (age 65+) account for 16.5% (3,848).

•

The ward has 6.8 percentage points more under 19s and 5.9 percentage points more over 65s than the city averages.

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2.2. Ethnicity Ethnicity has some influences in terms of what kind of illness an individual could develop through their life. Thus, ethnicity analysis becomes a requirement in order to target the health of vulnerable people. Table 1.1 shows the ethnicity distribution in the Quinton population, compared with Birmingham and England. •

The % column of table 1.1 represents the percentage of the total population that fit into that ethnic group. The N* column shows the quantity of people in thousands that are from each group, for the ward, city and nationally. About a seventh (14.4%) of the population belongs to non-white (BME) ethnicity groups; Pakistanis represent 0.87%, Indians 5.26% and Black Caribbeans 3.12%. The proportion of BME groups (14.4%) is higher than for England (11.3%) but lower than for Birmingham (32.7%).

Table 1.1

Ethnicity groups for Quinton (2001), Birmingham (2006) and England (2006) Quinton % N* 85.6 19.7 6.8 1.6 3.8 0.8 3.0 0.7 0.8 0.2 100 23.0

Ethnicity groups White Asian or Asian British Black or Black British Mixed Chinese or other Total

Birmingham % N* 67.3 667.0 20.7 207.9 6.7 67.0 3.2 31.8 2.3 22.9 100 1,106.5

% 88.7 5.5 2.8 1.6 1.4 100

England N* 45,018.1 2,786.6 1,403.0 829.5 725.7 50,762.9

*population by thousand Data source: ONS population estimates by ethnic group mid 2006 for Birmingham / England. 2001 Census data for Ward

2.3. Deprivation According to Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2007 published by ONS, Quinton is the 27th most deprived electoral ward (out of 40) in Birmingham with an overall IMD score of 28.251. Figure 1.2 shows SOAs by IMD quintile, 2007. The area covered by Quinton is comprised of a range of deprivation levels. Table 1.2 shows the area covered by the ward and the population density. Table 1.2

Ward Area Characteristics for Quinton 2

2

Area (KM )

Population Density (persons / km )

Population Density – Working Age 2 16-64 (persons/km )

5.247

4659

2889

1

Ward level IMD score is calculated based on IMD score 2007 for SOAs and population weighting from SOAs to Wards in Birmingham produced by Birmingham Strategic Partnership Information Sharing Group from the Birmingham City Council.

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Figure 1.2 Super Output Areas in Quinton by IMD quintile, 2007

2.4. Lifestyle Table 1.3 provides a summary of lifestyle indicators in Quinton, in comparison with Birmingham and England. Data presented here are from the synthetic estimates of healthy lifestyle behaviours produced by the NHS Information Centre. •

• •

Compared with the Birmingham average, Quinton has a lower percentage of people who binge drink (3.5 percentage points lower) and are obese (3.2 percentage points lower); additionally there are less people who smoke (2.3 percentage points lower). A smaller percentage of people eat healthily in Quinton (22.6%) than both in Birmingham (25.1%) and nationally (26.3%). Table 1.3 shows further information should be sought on why inequalities exist for healthy eating between Quinton and the Birmingham and England averages.

Table 1.3

Key figures for life style Deprivation in Quinton, Birmingham and England

Adults who smoke Binge drinking adults* Healthy eating adults** Obese adults*** * ** ***

Year 2003/05 2003/05 2003/05 2003/05

Quinton 22.6% 14.3% 22.6% 20.2%

Birmingham 24.9% 17.8% 25.1% 23.4%

England 24.1% 18.0% 26.3% 23.6%

Binge drinking: men were defined as having indulged in binge drinking if they had consumed 8 or more units of alcohol on the heaviest drinking day in the previous seven days; for women the cut-off was 6 or more units of alcohol. Healthy eating: five or more portions of fruit and vegetables on the previous day Obese: BMI > 30

Data source: Physically active adults: Active People Survey, Sport England All other indicators: Synthetic estimates of healthy life styles, NHS Information Centre

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3. Life expectancy trend There is evidence that life expectancy is one of the most important determinants for health inequalities across the population. This section gives an overview of life expectancy at birth in terms of trend and variations in different groups and communities. Figure 2.1 shows the trend in male life expectancy in Quinton from 1995/97 to 2005/07 on a 3-year basis, in comparison with Birmingham and England. Male life expectancy has increased in Quinton over this time however Quinton has progressed slower and male life expectancy is now lower than the England average. Male Life Expectancy - 3 year rolling average, Quinton, Birmingham & England 79.0

Life Expectancy (Age)

78.0 77.0 76.0 75.0 74.0 73.0 72.0 71.0

/0 6

/0 7 20 05

20 04

/0 5 20 03

/0 4

/0 2

/0 3

20 02

20 01

20 00

19 99

/0 1

/0 0

/9 9

19 98

19 97

/9 8 19 96

19 95

/9 7

70.0

Calendar Year England M ales

Birmingham M ales

Quinton M ales

Data source: ONS

Figure 2.1 Male life expectancy for Quinton, Birmingham and England, 1995/97 – 2005/07

Figure 2.2 shows the trend in female life expectancy in Quinton from 1995/97 to 2005/07 on a 3-year basis, in comparison with Birmingham and England. From 1995/97 to 2005/07 the gap between Quinton and the national average has increased in the ward’s favour.

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Female Life Expectancy - 3 year rolling average, Quinton, Birmingham & England 84.0

Life Expectancy (Age)

83.0 82.0 81.0 80.0 79.0 78.0 77.0 76.0

/0 6

/0 7 20 05

20 04

/0 5 20 03

/0 4

/0 2

/0 3

20 02

20 01

20 00

/0 1 19 99

/0 0

/9 9

19 98

19 97

/9 8 19 96

19 95

/9 7

75.0

Calendar Year England Females

Birmingham Females

Quinton Females

Data source: ONS

Figure 2.2 Female life expectancy for Quinton, Birmingham and England, 1995/97 – 2005/07

As illustrated above life expectancy for both males and females has increased from 1995/97 to 2005/07. Life expectancy in Quinton is higher than city averages for males and females. However, males are lower than the national average, whilst females are higher. •

Male life expectancy has increased by 1.7% from 76.0 years in 1995/97 to 77.3 years in 2005/07.

Male life expectancy in Quinton has switched from 1.4 years above to 0.4 years below the national average.

Female life expectancy has increased by 3.5% from 80.7 years in 1995/97 to 83.5 years in 2005/07.

The gap in female life expectancy between Quinton and England has widened from 1.0 years to 1.7 years in the ward’s favour.

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4. Infant mortality In areas with high infant mortality rates, the life expectancy at birth is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is calculated as the number of newborns dying under one year of age in every 1,000 live births during the year, excluding still births. Figure 2.3 shows trends of IMR in Quinton, Birmingham, England and the most deprived quintile (i.e. 20%) Super Output Areas (SOAs) in Birmingham (based on Lower Super Output Area level IMD score 2007), from 1999/01 to 2005/07. Quinton Infant Mortality Rate - 3 year rolling average 14.0 12.0

Rate per 1,000

10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 1999 / 01

2000 / 02

2001 / 03

2002 / 04

2003 / 05

2004 / 06

2005 / 07

Trend Years Birmingham M ost Deprived Quintile in Bham

England Quinton

Data source: Birmingham, West Midlands and England: National Centre for Health Outcomes Development Most deprived quintile in Birmingham: PHIT

Figure 2.3 Infant mortality rates per 1,000 births in Quinton, Birmingham, England and the most deprived quintile in Birmingham, 1999-2007

As illustrated in Figure 2.3, in 2005/07, the IMR in Quinton is around double that of England and is also higher than for the SOAs in the most deprived quintile in Birmingham. • •

From 1999/01 to 2005/07, the IMR in Quinton has increased by 24.4%. Whilst in comparison Birmingham’s IMR has decreased. During the same period, the IMR in England has decreased smoothly from 5.6 to 4.9 per 1,000 (at about 0.1 per 1,000 per year). The gap between Quinton and England has increased from 3.0 to 5.8 per 1,000 (93.3%) above England.

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5. Mortality rates on selected diseases Age-specific mortality rate is used to calculate life expectancy at birth. Disease specific standardised mortality rates are investigated, in order to identify leading diseases that contribute to the overall mortality rates in Quinton. Table 3.1 shows directly standardised mortality rates for selected conditions in 2005/07. Percentage of each disease’s rate out of the overall rate is also shown here. Cancers, circulatory diseases and coronary heart disease are the major killers. They make up more than 77.2% of the overall DSR. This percentage is consistent with both city and local PCT levels, which vary from 72% to 82%. Table 3.1

Directly Standardised Mortality Rates (DSRs) per 100,000 population for selected conditions, Quinton, 2005/07

All Causes

DSR 570.2

% out of all causes rate* 100.0%

All Cancers

158.8

27.9%

All Circulatory Diseases

189.5

33.2%

Coronary Heart Disease

91. 8

16.1%

* Percentage of rate for the specific disease out of rate for all causes Data source: National Centre for Health Outcomes Development

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Quinton_LE_Ward_Profile