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Life Expectancy Ward Analysis Ward Profile: Edgbaston Tackling Health Inequalities: Life Expectancy

VERSION CONTROL AND DOCUMENT GOVERNANCE Version

2

Date

June 2009

Status

Green

File location (public) Filename and path to locate this document


All maps produced with permission of Dotted Eyes & Ordance Survey Š Crown copyright 2008 licence number 100019918

PHIT - Edgbaston.doc

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Introduction Life expectancy is one of the main indicators for health inequalities. It has been set as the overarching work stream for tackling health inequalities in Birmingham by the Health and Wellbeing Partnership (BHWP). This Ward Profile series aims to: •

Provide a detailed ward level picture of local health inequality context.

Describe life expectancy trend in each target ward.

Investigate leading conditions that cause deaths locally, to provide local focus for each target ward.

Suggest future area / factors for extended research.

Authors

Jeanette Davis (Public Health Information Analyst) Chris Stephen (Public Health Information Analyst) Mohan Singh (Public Health Database Administrator/ Analyst) Iris Fermin (Head of Information and Intelligence) Jim McManus (Joint Director of Public Health)

For further information please contact the information team: Tel:

0121 465 2995 / 2999

Email:

phit@bhwp.nhs.uk

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1. Summary •

Electoral ward Edgbaston is within the boundary of NHS South Birmingham.

Edgbaston accounted for 2.06% of Birmingham’s population in 2006.

Children and young people (0-19) are the most populous group in the ward, making up 23.1% of the total population.

The percentage of Black and minority Ethnic groups in this ward is 31.7%, which is higher than the National (11.5%) but lower than the Birmingham (32.7%) average.

Edgbaston is the 33rd (out of 40) most deprived ward in Birmingham.

The latest extraction for 2005/07 shows that: o Life expectancy is 75.6 for men and 82.5 for women over the years 2005/07. o From 1995/97 to 2005/07, male life expectancy has increased by 1.8%. However, the deficit for Edgbaston compared with England has increased by 600% (1.8 years) from 1995/97 to 2005/07. o From 1995/97 to 2005/07, female life expectancy has increased by 4.4%. Edgbaston now has a higher life expectancy than the England average. o Infant Mortality Rates have dropped by 46.3% since 1999/01; the rate for the most deprived wards has dropped also. o The leading conditions that cause deaths in the ward are Circulatory diseases (35.8%), Cancers (26.5%) and Coronary Heart Diseases (17.6%).

Lifestyle factors for 2005/07 suggest that in comparison to Birmingham as a whole, the rates for residents of Edgbaston are: o 7.9 percentage points lower for adult obesity. o 2.8 percentage points higher for adults who smoke. o 1.8 percentage points higher for binge drinking adults.

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2. Local context: demographics and deprivation This section describes population demographics and deprivation in Edgbaston, in order to provide a local context for life expectancy inequalities. Comparisons are made with Birmingham and England.

2.1. Age and sex distribution The population of Edgbaston is estimated to be 20,786. This represents 2.06% of the population of Birmingham. Approximately 47.9% (9,956) are male and 52.1% are female (10,830). These estimations are based on ONS mid-year population estimates for 2006. The population pyramid (Figure 1.1) shows the age and sex distributions. Population By Age Group and Gender 2006 Estimates by Ward Source: Office of National Statistics

80+

226

137

75-79

283

251

65-69

393

60-64

413

Males

273

276

70-74

Females

369 404

519

55-59

502 460

430

50-54

460

45-49 40-44

486 533

565

585

672

35-39 809

30-34

625

1078

25-29 20-24

1116 2091

1695 1490

1048

15-19

369

10-14

393

345

5-9 0-4

338

402

2000

1500

1000

500

415 0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

Data source: ONS 2006 mid year population estimates

Figure 1.1 Population by age group and gender, Edgbaston 2006

Figure 1.1 illustrates: •

Children under school leaving age (i.e. age 0 - 19) represent 23.1% (4,800) of the Edgbaston population. Persons of retirement age (age 65+) account for 12.2% (2,543).

The ward has 1.0 percentage points more under 19s and 1.6 percentage points more over 65s than the city averages. It should also be noted that the ward has a higher than average proportion in the 20 – 24 age group (3,786). This is higher than any other ward in this PCT.

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2.2. Ethnicity Ethnicity has some influences in terms of what kind of illness an individual could develop through their life. Thus, ethnicity analysis becomes a requirement in order to target the health of vulnerable people. Table 1.1 shows the ethnicity distribution in the Edgbaston population, compared with Birmingham and England. •

The % column of table 1.1 represents the percentage of the total population that fit into that ethnic group. The N* column show the quantity of people in thousands that are from each group, for the ward, city and nationally. About a third (31.7%) of the population belong to non-white (BME) ethnicity groups, Pakistanis represent 4.46%, Indians 9.40% and Black Caribbeans 5.04%. The proportion of BME groups (31.7%) is nearly the same proportion as within Birmingham (32.7%), and higher than England (11.3%).

Table 1.1

Ethnicity groups for Edgbaston (2001), Birmingham (2006) and England (2006) Edgbaston % N* 68.3 14.2 16.1 3.3 7.4 1.5 3.4 0.7 4.8 1.0 100 20.7

Ethnicity groups White Asian or Asian British Black or Black British Mixed Chinese or other Total

Birmingham % N* 67.3 667.0 20.7 207.9 6.7 67.0 3.2 31.8 2.3 22.9 100 1,106.5

% 88.7 5.5 2.8 1.6 1.4 100

England N* 45,018.1 2,786.6 1,403.0 829.5 725.7 50,762.9

*population by thousand Data source: ONS population estimates by ethnic group mid 2006 for Birmingham / England. 2001 Census data for Ward

2.3. Deprivation According to Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2007 published by ONS, Edgbaston is the 33rd most deprived electoral ward (out of 40) in Birmingham with an overall IMD score of 22.571. Figure 1.2 shows SOAs in Edgbaston by IMD quintile, 2007. Most of the area covered by Edgbaston is in the least and second most deprived SOAs in Birmingham. Table 1.2 shows the area covered by the ward and population density. Table 1.2

Ward Area Characteristics for Edgbaston 2

2

Area (KM )

Population Density (persons / km )

Population Density – Working Age 162 64 (persons/km )

8.676

3499

2183

1

Ward level IMD score is calculated based on IMD score 2007 for SOAs and population weighting from SOAs to Wards in Birmingham produced by Birmingham Strategic Partnership Information Sharing Group from the Birmingham City Council.

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Figure 1.2 Super Output Areas in Edgbaston by IMD quintile, 2007

2.4. Lifestyle Table 1.3 provides a summary of lifestyle indicators in Edgbaston, in comparison with Birmingham and England. Data presented here are from the synthetic estimates of healthy lifestyle behaviours produced by the NHS Information Centre. •

• •

Compared with the Birmingham average, Edgbaston has a higher percentage of people who binge drink (1.8 percentage points higher) but a lower proportion who smoke (2.8 percentage points lower) and are obese (7.9 percentage points lower) A higher percentage of people eat healthily in Edgbaston (30.1%) than both in Birmingham (25.1%) and nationally (26.3%). Table 1.3 shows that further information should be sought on why an inequality exists for smoking between Edgbaston and the Birmingham and England averages.

Table 1.3

Key figures for life style Deprivation in Edgbaston, Birmingham and England

Adults who smoke Binge drinking adults* Healthy eating adults** Obese adults*** * ** ***

Year 2003/05 2003/05 2003/05 2003/05

Edgbaston 22.1% 19.6% 30.1% 15.5%

Birmingham 24.9% 17.8% 25.1% 23.4%

England 24.1% 18.0% 26.3% 23.6%

Binge drinking: men were defined as having indulged in binge drinking if they had consumed 8 or more units of alcohol on the heaviest drinking day in the previous seven days; for women the cut-off was 6 or more units of alcohol. Healthy eating: five or more portions of fruit and vegetables on the previous day Obese: BMI > 30

Data source: Physically active adults: Active People Survey, Sport England All other indicators: Synthetic estimates of healthy life styles, NHS Information Centre

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3. Life expectancy trend There is evidence that life expectancy is one of the most important determinants for health inequalities across the population. This section gives an overview of life expectancy at birth in terms of trend and variations in different groups and communities. Figure 2.1 shows the trend in male life expectancy in Edgbaston from 1995/97 to 2005/07 on a 3-year basis, in comparison with Birmingham and England. Male life expectancy has increased in Edgbaston over this time. However, the deficit of Edgbaston in comparison with England has increased. Male Life Expectancy - 3 year rolling average, Edgbaston, Birmingham & England 79.0

Life Expectancy (Age)

78.0 77.0 76.0 75.0 74.0 73.0 72.0 71.0

/0 7 20 05

/0 6

/0 5

20 04

20 03

/0 4 20 02

/0 2

/0 3 20 01

20 00

19 99

/0 1

/0 0

19 98

/9 9 19 97

/9 8 19 96

19 95

/9 7

70.0

Calendar Year England M ales

Birmingham M ales

Edgbaston M ales

Data source: ONS

Figure 2.1 Male life expectancy for Edgbaston, Birmingham and England, 1995/97 to 2005/07

Figure 2.2 shows the trend in female life expectancy in Edgbaston from 1995/97 to 2005/07 on a 3-year basis, in comparison with Birmingham and England. By 2007 female life expectancy in Edgbaston has increased. It may be worthwhile; to review this ward, to see why female life expectancy is higher than both the national and city averages.

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Female Life Expectancy - 3 year rolling average, Edgbaston, Birmingham & England 83.0

Life Expectancy (Age)

82.0 81.0 80.0 79.0 78.0 77.0 76.0

/0 6

/0 7 20 05

/0 5

20 04

20 03

/0 4 20 02

/0 2

/0 3 20 01

20 00

/0 0

/0 1 19 99

19 98

/9 9 19 97

/9 8 19 96

19 95

/9 7

75.0

Calendar Year England Females

Birmingham Females

Edgbaston Females

Data source: ONS

Figure 2.2 Female life expectancy for Edgbaston, Birmingham and England, 1995/97 – 2005/07

As illustrated above, life expectancy for both males and females has increased from 1995/97 to 2005/07. Life expectancy in Edgbaston is lower for men than the national rate but higher for women. The gap for both male/female life expectancy between Edgbaston and England has increased, to the detriment of male life expectancy in the ward but to the favour of female. In conclusion: •

Male life expectancy has increased by 1.8% from 74.3 years in 199597 to 75.6 years in 2005/07.

The gap in male life expectancy between Edgbaston and England has widened from 0.3 years to 2.1 years, an increase of 600%.

Female life expectancy has increased by 4.4% from 79.0 years in 1995/97 to 82.5 years in 2005/07.

The gap in female life expectancy between Edgbaston and England has switched from -0.7 years below England to 0.7 years above.

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4. Infant mortality In areas with high infant mortality rates, the life expectancy at birth is highly sensitive to the rate of death in the first few years of life. Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is calculated as the number of newborns dying under one year of age in every 1,000 live births during the year, excluding still births. Figure 2.3 shows trends of IMR in Edgbaston, Birmingham, England and the most deprived quintile (i.e. 20%) Super Output Areas (SOAs) in Birmingham (based on Lower Super Output Area level IMD score 2007), from 1999/01 to 2005/07. Edgbaston Infant Mortality Rate - 3 year rolling average 14.0

12.0

Rate per 1,000

10.0

8.0

6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 1999 / 01

2000 / 02

2001 / 03

2002 / 04

2003 / 05

2004 / 06

2005 / 07

Trend Years Birmingham M ost Deprived Quintile in Bham

England Edgbaston

Data source: Birmingham, West Midlands and England: National Centre for Health Outcomes Development Most deprived quintile in Birmingham: PHIT

Figure 2.3 Infant mortality rates per 1,000 births in Edgbaston Birmingham, England and the most deprived quintile in Birmingham, 1999/01-2005/07

As illustrated in Figure 2.3, in 2005/07, the IMR in Edgbaston is higher than in England, but lower than in Birmingham. The IMR for those in the most deprived quintile of Birmingham is higher than the Birmingham average. • •

From 1999/01 to 2005/07, the IMR in Edgbaston has dropped 46.3%. Birmingham’s IMR has also decreased. Over this time, the gap in IMR between the most deprived quintile SOAs in Birmingham and Edgbaston has increased from 0.1 to 3.7 per 1,000. During the same period, the IMR in England has decreased smoothly from 5.6 to 4.9 per 1,000 (at about 0.1 per 1,000 per year). The gap

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between Edgbaston and England has decreased from 5.9 per 1,000 above England to 1.2 per 1,000 above.

5. Mortality rates on selected diseases Age-specific mortality rate is used to calculate life expectancy at birth. Disease specific standardised mortality rates are investigated, in order to identify leading diseases that contribute to the overall mortality rates in Edgbaston Table 3.1 shows directly standardised mortality rates for selected conditions in 2005/07. Percentage of each disease’s rate out of the overall rate is also shown here. Cancers, circulatory diseases, coronary heart disease are the major killers. They make up more than 80.0% of the overall DSR. This percentage is consistent with both city and local PCT levels, which vary from 72% to 82%. Table 3.1

Directly Standardised Mortality Rates (DSRs) per 100,000 population for selected conditions, Edgbaston 2005/07

All Causes

DSR 652.1

% out of all causes rate* 100.0%

All Cancers

173.1

26.5%

All Circulatory Diseases

233.4

35.8%

Coronary Heart Disease

115.0

17.6%

* Percentage of rate for the specific disease out of rate for all causes Data source: National Centre for Health Outcomes Development

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Edgbaston_LE_Ward_Profile  

Tackling Health Inequalities: Life Expectancy Status Green Date June 2009 VERSION CONTROL AND DOCUMENT GOVERNANCE Filename and path to locat...

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