The Philippines and France: Discovery, Rediscovery

Page 1

THE DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PHILIPPINES AND FRANCE DID NOT MERELY BEGIN OVER 70 YEARS AGO.

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THE PHILIPPINES AND FRANCE: DISCOVERY, REDISCOVERY © 2019 by the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in France Copyright for the various illustrations and documents rest with the institutions or individuals concerned.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by information storage and retrieval system without permission by the respective copyright holder.

AILEEN S. MENDIOLA-RAU Editor

MAY TOBIAS PAPA Book Design

This book was printed and bound in APRIL 2019 by Imprimerie Chirat - Saint Just la Pendue 42540 - FRANCE

ISBN No. 978-2-9564741-1-1

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THE PHILIPPINES AND FRANCE: DISCOVERY, REDISCOVERY

Celebrating 70 Years of Philippines–France Relations

2019

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

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Message by Ambassador Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro Message by Ambassador Nicolas Galey

Part

1

The Unknown and Known: Maps, Myths, Early Contacts, and Initial Cooperation I

INITIAL FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH THE ISLES PHILIPPINES From the Atlas Vallard (1547) to d'Anville's 18th Century Maps: Cartographers and Sailors

3

II

COOPERATION AND DREAMS From César de Bourayne (1807) to the Basilan Adventure (1844-1845)

20

III

THE PHILIPPINES' FIRST PARTNERSHIP WITH FRANCE The 'Chasseurs Tagals' (Tagal Rangers) and the French Conquest of Cochinchina (1858-1863)

39

Part

2 rance

José Rizal and the Filipino Elite in F JOSÉ RIZAL AND FRANCE The Pendulum of a Cultural Encounter

61

II

RIZAL'S NETWORKS IN FRANCE

71

III

RIZAL AFTER RIZAL IN FRANCE

81

IV

RETRACING JOSÉ RIZAL'S FOOTSTEPS IN FRANCE

90

Part

I

3

The Making of Bilateral Political Relations: 1824-1947 I

THE PREMISE: THE FIRST WESTERN CONSULATE AND FRENCH CONSULS IN THE PHILIPPINES 1824 AND 1836 AND BEYOND

141

II

TREATY OF PARIS AND THE FILIPINO DIPLOMATS IN PARIS

151

III

THE INDOCHINESE STAKE AND THE 1947 TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN THE PHILIPPINES AND FRANCE

169

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IV

MANILA AND THE END OF FRENCH INDOCHINA

177

V

SEATO, THE PHILIPPINES, AND FRANCE

180

Part

4

Nurturing Friendship: 1947-2017 I

THE ROAD TO FRIENDSHIP The Signing of the Philippines-France Treaty of Friendship

II

STEADY GROWTH IN THE RELATIONS

205

III

FRENCH AND PHILIPPINE RELATIONS (2012-2017) by Ambassador Christian Lechervy

242

the value added by france in the sustainable socioeconomic development in the philippines by Mr. Anton T. Huang, Chairman of the Philippines-France Business Council

264

IV

Part

195

5

Cooperation in the Global Arena: Shaping a More Just and Equitable World I

THE "SPIRIT OF PARIS" AS INSPIRATION FOR UNESCO

273

II

THE PHILIPPINES AT UNESCO 2015-2017

275

III

A CONSTITUTION FOR THE RIGHTS OF ALL

281

IV

JOINTLY FACING THE CHALLENGE OF OUR TIMES: CLIMATE CHANGE

286

v

AREAS OF CONTINUING COOPERATION

289

Part

6

Crossing Cultures: Filling Gaps and Bridging People I

GUSTAVE EIFFEL AND THE PHILIPPINES

295

II

PHILIPPINES AND PARIS EXPOSITIONS

315

III

INSPIRATION BEHIND THE NOTES OF THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ANTHEM

324

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IV

FRENCH INFLUENCES IN THE 1898 MALOLOS BANQUET

326

v

40 YEARS OF FRIENDSHIP IN BRITTANY: PAINTER MACARIO VITALIS IN PLESTIN-LES-GRÈVES by Mayor Christian Jeffroy and Ms. Jeanne Eliet (Translated into English by Ms. Laetitia Groszman)

333

VI

VITALIS AND THE PHILIPPINE EMBASSY

343

vII

PHILIPPINE ARTIFACTS AND ARTWORKS SHOWCASED IN HISTORIC EXHIBITION AT THE MUSÉE DU QUAI BRANLY

347

ART AND ENVIRONMENT: CAPTURING LIFE'S PERPETUAL FLUX Sculptor Impy Pilapil in Neuilly-sur-Seine

351

PHILIPPINE-FRENCH COOPERATION IN PREHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY by Omar Ochoa, PhD

356

UNIVERSITY EXCHANGES BETWEEN FRANCE AND THE PHILIPPINES by Fr. Pierre de Charentenay, SJ

360

T   HE TEACHING OF THE FILIPINO LANGUAGE TO FRENCH NATIONALS by Prof. Elisabeth Luquin

362

SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A COOPERATIVE PLATFORM BETWEEN THE PHILIPPINES AND FRANCE

364

T   RACING THE HISTORY OF THE FILIPINO DIASPORA IN FRANCE

367

Epilogue: OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE FUTURE

377

List of Agreements

381

Bibliography

391

Acknowledgements

411

Project Team

418

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

XIII

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It is

P write of it of

MA. THERESA P. LAZARO Ambassador of the Republic of the Philippines to France and Monaco Permanent Delegate to UNESCO

22

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It is evident that there is a dearth of published materials that chronicle Philippines-France relations from the pre-Hispanic times to the present. It is with this gap in mind that the Philippine Embassy in Paris has undertaken to write and publish this book about the history of Philippines-France relations and to launch it in time for the celebration of the 70th year of the establishment of diplomatic relations. The book begins with French perceptions of the Philippines from the 15th century onwards by way of cartographic works with French and Philippine history set as a backdrop. Thereafter, it continues with the progression of discussions on the life and works of Philippine National hero, Dr. José Rizal, as well as other Philippine reformists, intellectuals and ilustrados who lived in France in the late 19th century. The Philippine Revolution of 1896 provided the platform for the role of the Filipino diplomatic mission in Paris during the negotiations on the Treaty of Paris of 1898, and the eventual establishment of formal diplomatic ties on 26  June 1947. The book will also explore the myriad facets of diplomatic bilateral cooperation over the past 70 years which is intertwined with the Philippines and French interactions in the global multilateral arena. It is the hope of the Philippine Embassy in Paris that this well-researched book will serve as reference material for the future students, academicians as well as historians on Philippine–France relations. It is indeed the documentation of events of the two countries which will provide a better understanding between its peoples, though distant in terms of distance, but affectionate towards each other in terms of people-to-people relations. I wish to acknowledge Minister and Consul General Aileen S. Mendiola-Rau, who shepherded the completion of this book with the assistance of various Philippine and French institutions and personalities. Together, Philippines and France can face the challenges of the next seven decades by understanding each other, collaborating and creating synergies towards a better world.

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Je salue la réalisation de cet ouvrage dense et ambitieux qui met en lumière les liens développés entre la France et les Philippines depuis le XVème siècle jusqu’à nos jours. Ses différents chapitres illustrent la profondeur historique et la diversité des relations tissées entre nos deux pays dans tous les domaines, tant sur le plan institutionnel que sur celui des échanges intellectuels et humains. Sa lecture permet de mieux mesurer l’ancienneté des contacts entre Français et Philippins à l’époque des grands navigateurs comme durant la période coloniale française en Indochine. L’ouvrage montre aussi combien, au XIXème siècle, les jeunes intellectuels philippins épris de liberté ont été inspirés par les idées et les idéaux hérités des Révolutions de 1789 et de 1848. Ainsi José Rizal, héros national, et premier des « Illustrados » a-t-il, lors de son séjour à Paris, forgé les fondements de la revendication nationale et démocratique philippine. Aujourd’hui, la relation franco-philippine, portée par cet héritage humaniste commun, est caractérisée à la fois par de fortes affinités culturelles et un attachement partagé aux valeurs de l’État de droit, du multilatéralisme et du droit international. Cet attachement se manifeste concrètement face aux grands défis contemporains que constituent les questions environnementales et climatiques ainsi que la consolidation d’un développement humain durable. Dans ces domaines, la France et les Philippines ont démontré leur capacité à se mobiliser pour agir ensemble et faire progresser des causes essentielles. Un véritable partenariat s’est ainsi noué entre nos deux pays sur la question du dérèglement climatique, symbolisé par le lancement conjoint de « l’Appel de Manille à l’action pour le climat » à l’occasion de la visite d’État du président François Hollande aux Philippines en février 2015. Et c’est à cette occasion qu’est née « France-Philippines United Action » (FP- UA), initialement créée pour coordonner l’aide française au lendemain du terrible typhon Haiyan en novembre  2013. Cette fondation - la première du genre portée par une

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NICOLAS GALEY

Ambassadeur de France aux Philippines, en Micronésie, aux Îles Marshall et à Palau, en résidence à Manille

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Chambre de Commerce et d’Industrie française - symbolise aujourd’hui la solidarité des entreprises françaises présentes aux Philippines et continue, cinq ans après la catastrophe, à agir pour inscrire son action dans la durée. Parallèlement, l’Agence française de développement conduit, fréquemment en partenariat avec l’Union Européenne, les agences de l’ONU ou la Banque asiatique de développement, des actions qui contribuent concrètement à la modernisation et au développement des Philippines. Au-delà des échanges d’État à État initiés dès 1824 entre nos deux pays, les relations entre la France et les Philippines bénéficient d’une dynamique forte dans de nombreux secteurs. Nos relations économiques et commerciales ont connu une progression spectaculaire au cours des dernières années, favorisée par une croissance philippine parmi les plus élevées d’Asie. Nos deux peuples partagent en outre la passion du cinéma, de la musique et de la danse, ainsi que de la cuisine. Ce patrimoine culturel commun nourrit une coopération diversifiée qui a vocation à s’élargir encore à la faveur du développement des technologies de l’information et de la communication. Les échanges entre nos deux sociétés civiles n’ont par ailleurs jamais été aussi denses. L’intérêt des Français pour les Philippines est fort, comme l’a démontré la grande affluence dont a bénéficié l’exposition du musée du Quai Branly à Paris consacrée, en 2013, à « l’Archipel des échanges ». De nombreux chercheurs français anthropologues,  archéologues,  sociologues,  linguistes, océanographes, biologistes ou encore vulcanologues - consacrent leurs travaux aux Philippines. Dans ce contexte, et alors que se développent les communautés philippine de France et française des Philippines, la promotion de la francophonie aux Philippines, portée notamment par le Lycée français de Manille ainsi que les Alliances françaises de Manille et de Cebu, est plus que jamais une priorité. C’est un facteur-clé pour le développement de nos échanges d’étudiants et de chercheurs. Après plus de soixante-dix ans d’une relation franco-philippine qui n’a cessé de se densifier, je forme le vœu que nos deux pays continuent d’agir ensemble sur le plan institutionnel et que nos deux peuples approfondissent encore les liens amicaux et fraternels qui nous unissent depuis des siècles. Les échanges universitaires qui s’accroissent comme l’implication active de jeunes Français dans des actions de développement aux Philippines montrent que la relève est assurée et que les héritiers de Rizal et de 1789 sont toujours plus nombreux à se rencontrer et à partager pour relever les défis de ce siècle.

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1 THE UNKNOWN AND KNOWN: MAPS, MYTHS, EARLY CONTACTS, AND INITIAL COOPERATION

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2

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I

INITIAL FRENCH ENCOUNTER WITH THE ISLES PHILIPPINES From the Atlas Vallard (1547) to d’Anville's 18th Century Maps: Cartographers and Sailors

Centuries before the formal establishment of its diplomatic relations

with the Philippines in 1947, as early as a few decades after the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama’s successful circumnavigation of Africa, and more than half a century even before the British1 sailed the world, France had long already been engaged in developing trade opportunities with the New World and the Far East. The ports of Normandy were the first in France to engage in long distance oceanic trade due to their strategic location along the Atlantic coast and mouth of the river Seine, as well as their long-standing tradition of trade with Portugal, the Netherlands and Britain. France’s King Francis I ordered the construction of the port of Le Havre2 in 1517. His decision defied the Treaty of Tordesillas signed in 1494 that divided lands “discovered” by European explorers between the Portuguese and Spanish crowns along the meridian between the Cape Verde Islands and the West Indies. When Ferdinand Magellan set off for the Far East, his crew included seventeen Frenchmen. Unfortunately, none of them completed the circumnavigation. Throughout this period, the old ports of Dieppe in Normandy gained prominence, thanks to the business activities of Jean Ango,3 who was then the wealthiest French ship owner with a fleet of twenty-one ships. Three of the ships in his fleet were Spanish caravels captured from the command of conquistador Hernán Cortés. The vessels were transporting treasures of the last Aztec emperor Cuauhtémoc, en route to the Spanish King and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, when Ango’s Captain Jean  Fleury intercepted them. 3

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Apart from funding numerous voyages to the New World, Aztec gold enabled several expeditions to East Asia. Jean and Raoul Parmentier4 were the first Frenchmen to pass the Cape of Good Hope and reach Southeast Asia by their own means. The brothers died in 1529 along the western coast of Sumatra. Portolan navigational charts and itineraries (roteiros in Portuguese) —navigational maps highly prized by traders, admirals, and most importantly, kings—were strategic items regarded as state secrets by both ship owners and political authorities. When France was at war with Spain between 1521 and 1559, French navigators obtained data from privateers licensed to attack enemy ships, Portuguese travelers, and tavern gossip5 to create the first French portolan charts6 in the port town of Dieppe. The first three quarters of the 16th century witnessed the height of the French school of cartography. Taking into account the number and scope of dissemination of maps and charts, France ranked only after Portugal and Germany in terms of importance in cartography. To date, around fifteen 16th century maps survived. Except for those made by Oronce Fine, professor at the prestigious and then newly founded Collège de France in Paris, cartographers from Normandy produced most of the French world maps. Jean Mallard of Rouen and Guillaume Le Testu of Le Havre were two of the renowned cartographers from the Normandy region.

A.

The appearance of the Philippine archipelago in French cartography The first French portolan chart that depicted the west coast of Borneo and parts of Mindanao’s south coast, including what could be interpreted as Palawan’s east coast, was drawn by Nicolas Desliens in 1541 (Figure 1). Although with a less accurate sketching than Deslien’s, Jean Roze7 of Dieppe mentioned—for the first time—the toponyms of Mindanao, Negros, and Sulu, in his 1542 atlas8 (Figure 2) which was dedicated to King Henry VIII of Britain, one of the main rivals of King Francis I. Due to the difficulties of communication and the resilience of the Ptolemaic imago mundi,9 French knowledge of Southeast Asia did not progress in a consistent manner. Guillaume Brouscon’s 1543 map, omitted the Philippines entirely, as did Jean Cossin’s10 1570 atlas. In 4

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Figure 1. Nicolas Desliens, Planisphère, 1541, extract. The North being at the bottom of the map (following ancient Arabic cartography).

Figure 2. Jean Roze, Boke of Idrography [Book of Hydrography], 1542-46 (f. 9v°-101), extract. Here the North is shown at the bottom of the map. Toponyms mentioned in the legend are written on the map. 5

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Figure 3. Extract of Atlas Vallard (1547). According to the original map, the North is at the bottom of the map.

1547, the beautifully illustrated Atlas Vallard,11 attributed to French navigator and cartographer Nicolas Vallard (Figure 3) included to the north of Borneo, a quadrangular island with several toponyms including ‘Balanpecan’ (Balambangan?), located next to a huge island called the Archipelago of San Lazaro—the name given by Magellan. The Atlas Vallard did not use the appellative ‘Filipinas’ given by Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos in 1544 to Samar or Leyte to honor the Crown Prince of Spain, the future Philip II. On the other hand, Pierre Desceliers’ nautical planispheres of 1546 and 1550,12 dedicated to King Henry II and the heads of the French army and navy,13 mentioned Mindanao, Sulu, and parts of Visayas. The ports of Normandy declined after 1570 and ceded their prominence to the ports of Brittany and La Rochelle, which then dominated oceanic trade. As a result, Paris became the center of French nautical science. Closer to the royal court and to intellectual Parisian networks, the French cartographers improved their knowledge of the Philippine archipelago. The 1575 map of François de Belleforest and the 1582 atlas of Lancelot Voisin de la Popelinière in 1582 only mentioned “Palohan”14 (Palawan), Mindanao and “Pauvodas”.15 However, it was the Franciscan priest and explorer Father André Thevet,16 Franciscan priest and explorer, who published in 1584 a planisphere that placed an island ‘Philipines’ (sic) in the middle of the Archipelago of ‘Saint Lazare’ (Figure 4). Following Thevet’s 6

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Figu


work, the cosmographic research ceased, with the publication of only three minor works between 1585 and 1601. The exhausting religious wars between Protestants and Catholics (1562- 1598) and the war with Spain (1595-1598) drained most of the resources of the French elite that financed cartographic works.

B.

17th century: The naming of the Philippines The 17th century ushered in a new era for navigation following the return of peace in the French kingdom and the creation of the short-lived Compagnie française des mers orientales (French Eastern Seas Company) in 1600. Friendly relations with the United Provinces (today the Netherlands) allowed the French cartographers to collaborate with the new masters of the art, the Dutch—who benefited from German scientific expertise and who founded the Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (Dutch East-India Company or VOC) in 1601. Despite these developments, French cosmography did not keep abreast of the times. In 1561, Italy’s Giacomo Gastaldi became the first geographer to have included a ‘Luzon’ island in his cartography. In 1592, Dutch scholars, such as Petrus Plancius,17 designated ‘Philipinae’ and ‘Luconia’ (Luzon) with Latin appellations in their

Figure 4. André Thevet, Carte des provinces de la grande et petite Asie (excerpt), 1584 (Bibliothèque nationale de France) 7

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maps. However, the two maps created for French publisher Jean Le Clerc in 1602 by the Dutch Jodocus Hondius18 had no reference to Luzon at all. Moreover, between 1603 and 1626, the French were unable to produce proper world maps. King Louis XIII’s19 young age and recurring conflicts with the Hapsburg monarchs who blockaded France between its Northeastern (Flemish) and southwestern (Spanish) borders were major factors. Dutch scholars eventually revived and revitalized French cartography, which had the support of the Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu. The Cardinal, who was also Prime Minister, signed the Treaty of Compiègne with The Netherlands in 1624, advocated free trade with both the West and East Indies, and who later formed a professional royal navy. Between 1627 and 1630, half a dozen atlases and planispheres were published in Paris in collaboration with Dutchtrained scientists such as Petrus Bertius,20 Cornelis Danckerts, and Jodocus Hondius. Thanks to their contributions, the toponym Luzon (as Luconia) finally entered French cartography, along with three dozen more toponyms, including Manila (Figure 5, Petrus Bertius, 1627). While the Philippines21 was now marked distinctly from the Archipelago San Lazaro (L’archipelage de S. Lazare, the future Marianas Islands, Figure 5), and the Paracel Islands were correctly placed, the shapes of its two main islands, Luzon and Mindanao, remained incorrect. Luzon lacked the contemporary provinces of Quezon and Camarines Norte, which were depicted instead as two distinct islands cut off from Luzon by an imaginary ‘Strait of Manila’. Meanwhile, Mindanao was drawn too close to Luzon on its eastern side. Moreover, the cartographer had used the name Solor instead of Solo (Sulu), confusing it with an island named Solor located in present-day eastern Indonesia. He also confused Samar (then called Achan22) with the southern part of Luzon. Driven by the European competition for long-distance trade, French cartographic production flourished well into the last years of Louis XIV’s reign. Twenty-seven world maps and atlases were created between 1631 and 1660; eighteen between 1661 and 1690; and twenty-two between 1691 and 1715—or an average of one publication per year. The 1659 Treaty of the Pyrénées, which heralded the peace between France and Spain, contributed to the foundation of the Compagnie des Indes orientales (East India Company) in 1664 and generated high demand for charts. 8

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Figure 5. Petrus Bertius, Carte de l’Asie corrigée, et augmentée, dessus toutes les autres cy devant faictes par P. Bertius – Melchior Tavernier, 1627 [Corrected and increased map of Asia, which supersedes all previous maps made by P. Bertius], extract, 1627.

9

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Figure 6. Pierre du Val, Carte universelle du commerce (1674), extract, showing Philippines as part of East Asia maritime roads.

Also in 1664, the scientist Melchisédech Thévenot23 published accounts of his travels in French. His second volume included four accounts relating to the Isles Philippines,24 which he translated from Spanish. Thanks to Thévenot, stories about the islands found their way into French travel literature, reaching a much broader audience than plain cartographic works. The Philippines inevitably became part of the Bourbons’ commercial ambition. Pierre du Val’s Carte universelle du commerce (Universal Map for Trade), published in 1674 (Figure 6), traced the sea lanes from the French ports to Manila. A few years later, Alain Manesson Mallet included the archipelago in his Description de l’Univers (1683), devoting several pages to his descriptions of the country,25 a map (Figure 7), and a sketch of Manila Bay (Figure 8). 10

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Although the French elite became increasingly interested in Eastern Asia, French mapping of the Philippines remained imprecise. Most cartographers either copied or completed the works of their predecessors, without updating their research. As an example, Alexis-Hubert Jaillot reproduced 40 years later in 1692, most of Nicolas Sanson’s 1652 Asia map in his L’Asie Divisée en ses Principales Régions (Main Regions of Asia).

Figure 7. Map of the ‘Isles Philippines’(1682) A. Manesson-Mallet, Description de l’Univers (Bibliothèque nationale de France) 11

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Figure 8. Sketch of the Manila Bay showing present-day Intramuros (id.) A. Manesson-Mallet, Description de l’Univers (Bibliothèque nationale de France)

12

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C.

The Philippines and 18th Century French Exploration of the South China Sea The works of Jean-Dominique Cassini, 26 an astronomer and mathematician of the Royal Observatory and the Academy of Sciences, and his father Jacques,27 introduced advances in geodetic calculations. Because of their scientific legacy, the quality of French cartographic works improved during the first half of the 18th century. The return of the first cargoes sent by the Compagnie des Indes from Canton (present-day Guangzhou, China) inspired in France a renewed interest in the South China Sea. In 1705, Noël Danycan de l’Épine, the wealthiest trader and privateer from Brittany, implored the Navy Minister—albeit without success—to send three ships to “Mindanao and other islands uncontrolled by European powers”.28 The 1705 Carte des Indes & de la Chine [Map of Indies and China] (Figure 9), published by Guillaume de l’Isle, a follower of JeanDominique Cassini, a member of the Académie des Sciences, and the King’s first geographer, displayed progress in the French knowledge of the Philippines. In de l’Isle’s map, the layout of the Visayas islands (in particular, that of Samar and Leyte), and the western part of Mindanao proved remarkably accurate. However, the size and location of the “Nouvelles Philippines” (Caroline Islands) remained a mere product of the imagination. The illustrated islands were smaller and farther to the east than their approximate location. The Manila Galleons, which remained the sole link between Spain and the Philippines until 1762, nurtured French ambitions, as illustrated by Nicolas de Fer’s 1713 map (Figure 10), presenting various routes between Manila and Acapulco. Capturing the fabulous galleons remained an elusive dream for the French. Not only did France forge an alliance with Spain and a Bourbon king, Philip V, ascended the Spanish throne in 1700, but also the cost of thirteen years of war with England, Austria, and the Netherlands drained the French treasury. Moreover, the Treaty of Utrecht ending the hostilities in 1713 forbade foreign ships from entering ports controlled by the Spanish crown.29 13

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Figure 9. Guillaume de l’Isle, Carte des Indes & de la Chine [Map of the Indies and China], extract, 1705 (Bibliothèque nationale de France)

Figure 10. Nicolas de Fer (1713) Carte de la Mer du Sud et des costes d’Amerque [sic] et d’Asie, situées sur cette mer [Maps of the Southern Sea and coast from America and Asia, located along this ocean …], extract showing sea lanes (Bibliothèque nationale de France) 14

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Yet, despite the various setbacks, the French cartographic school in the 18th century eventually took precedence in Europe largely due to the work of three great cartographers. The first one, Jean-Baptiste d’Anville,30 was appointed as king’s geographer in 1718 and revolutionized French cartographic production by systematically collecting available maps and documentation, and eventually assembled the biggest geographical database of the century. His collection included some 67 maps relating to the Philippines alone. In 1752, he published a detailed map of the archipelago (Figure 11) in his Seconde partie de la carte d’Asie… (Second part of the map of Asia…).

Figure 11. Jean-Baptiste d’Anville (1752), Seconde partie de la carte d’Asie … [Second part of the map of Asia...] (Bibliothèque nationale de France) 15

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The second world-renowned cartographer was Jean-Baptiste d’Après de Mannevillette.31 J. B. d’Après, who trained in mathematics and studied geography under Guillaume de l’Isle, worked as an officer for the Compagnie des Indes in India and South China. Using an octant, a navigational instrument first developed by the British that allowed for a more accurate measurement of longitudes, J.B. d’Après methodically created new nautical maps of the coastal regions that he had visited, which he gathered in 1745 into Neptune Oriental, a navigational atlas containing twenty-two charts. In 1762, J.B. d’Après became the director of l’Orient, a repository of maps and charts founded by the Compagnie des Indes in its main port, Lorient. In February 1763, the Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years’ War,32 where the French and Spanish colonial establishments were pillaged by the British. Manila fell to Britain in 1762. Alexander Dalrymple, who was then the hydrographer of the East India Company stayed in Manila until the dissolution of the company. On his way back to London, Dalrymple visited Sulu. Elected as a fellow of the Royal Society in 1765, Dalrymple started working on nautical charts, and published a first set thereof in 1772. During this period, Dalrymple and J.B. d’Après nurtured their scientific collaboration.33 J.B. d’Après’ Neptune Oriental34 was reprinted in 1775,35 having been updated and expanded to include sixty three maps. Four of the sixty-three maps were reproductions of A. Dalrymple’s works on the Philippines: “Chart of the China Sea inscribed to Monsieur d’Après de Mannevillette, the ingenious author of Neptune Oriental as a tribute due to his labours to the benefit of Navigation and in acknowledgment of his many signal favours to A. Dalrymple” (No. 52);36 “Maps of the Ports of Borneo and the Soloo Archipelago” (No. 54); “Chart of Felicia and the Plan of the Island of Balambangan” (No. 55); and “The Soloo Archipelago” (No. 56). Among J.B. d’Après’ own works included in the second Neptune Oriental were several maps of Philippines ports: “Plan de la baie de Manille [Chart of Manila Bay]” (No. 58); “Plan des principaux ports de la côte d’Illocos en l’isle de Luçon [Chart of the main ports of Ilocos coast on Luzon Island]” (No. 57); and “Plan du port de Subec [Chart of Subic port]” (No. 59, reproduced Figure 12), the latter having been first published separately.

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Figure 12. J.B. d’Après de Mannevillette (1766), Plan du port de Subec [Map of Subic Port] (Bibliothèque nationale de France)

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Figure 13. Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1764), Carte des isles Philippines 2e feuille [Map of Philippine Islands, f. 2], Petit Atlas Maritime, vol. III n°66 (Bibliothèque nationale de France)

Figure 14. Map of the port of Zamboanga, manuscript, unpublished, January 1772, Collection d’Anville (Bibliothèque nationale de France) 18

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J.B. d’Après' main competitor was the French king’s hydrographer, Jacques-Nicolas Bellin. In 1751, Bellin edited J.B. d’Après’ first chart of the ‘Oriental Ocean’ in the former’s Atlas Maritime. Bellin’s Petit Atlas Maritime (1764, with 580 charts spread in five volumes) presented two detailed maps on the Philippines (North and South, Figure 13). These maps were based on Father Murillo Velarde’s cartographs, which appeared in inferior quality than those of J.B. d’Après' charts because of their less accurate measurements of the longitudes.37 Although Spain lifted in 1766 the prohibition for foreign ships to dock in Spanish colonies, trade with the Philippines remained a Spanish monopoly. However, détente with Britain provided the impetus for a number of major French scientific expeditions to the Pacific. For instance, Guillaume Le Gentil de la Galaisière, an astronomer and a member of the French Academy of Sciences, stayed in Manila from August 1766 to February 1768.38 While the first French circumnavigation of the world occurred between 1766 and 1769 under the helm of Count Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, this expedition did not anchor in the Philippines. Its success, however, paved the way for the launching of smaller ventures, one of which reached the Philippines in 1771. The aim of the voyage was to collect spices and cultivate them in the Isle-de-France (present-day Mauritius) in order to put an end to Dutch monopoly on highly valued spices like cloves and nutmegs. During the ship’s brief sojourn in Manila and its neighboring regions, naturalist Pierre Sonnerat39 collected plants and animals of various species. Thereafter, the expedition embarked on a journey to Mindanao. The hydrographer on board the ship Le Nécessaire drew the maps of Zamboanga (Figure 14) and Sulu, and presented them to Jean-Baptiste d’Anville. Thus, the French elite who read the writings of Sonnerat finally became familiar with the Philippines while a few French traders, such as Gilles and Hippolyte Sébire,40 moved from Macau to settle in Manila at the end of 1784.

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II

COOPERATION AND DREAMS From César de Bourayne (1807) to the Basilan Adventure (1844-1845)

A.

FRANCE’S FIRST COOPERATION WITH THE PHILIPPINES

Figure 15. Francisco de Goya y Lucientes (Fuendetodos, 1746 – Bordeaux, 1828) L’Assemblée de la Compagnie royale des Philippines, 1815 Huile sur toile, 3,205 x 4,335 cm Legs Pierre Briguiboul 1894 (c) Ville de Castres—Musée Goya, musée d’art hispanique – Cliché François Pons

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François de Cabarrus and the Real Compañía de Filipinas

W

hen Spain joined France in supporting the American war for independence, it substantially increased the deficits of the royal finances. To support the borrowings by the Spanish Crown, the Franco-Spanish businessman François de Cabarrus41 aka Francisco de Cabarrús, developed promissory notes that were issued by the Spanish treasury in 1779, then rebuilt the Banco de San Carlos in 1782.42 A year later, he proposed to mitigate the losses of the Real Compañía Guipuzcoana de Caracas by linking Spain’s trade with America to that of the Philippines. In March 1785, King Charles III officially launched the Real Compañía de Filipinas43 (Compagnie royale des Philippines)44 which had a 25-year monopoly of the Philippines’ trade with China and Spain. Its commerce with Spain, however, was conducted only through the Cape of Good Hope. Although Real Compañía de Filipinas’ trade was thriving, it did not abolish the galleon to Acapulco because the company needed the port of Veracruz in Mexico.45 The company established its main offices in Manila and Madrid, and set up a factory in Canton. Manila traders firmly opposed the opening of the Real Compañía de Filipinas, vehemently refused to subscribe to the 3,000 shares allocated to them, and declined to avail of the shipping facilities offered by the company.46 A Renewed Interest in the Philippines: French Expeditions to the Pacific Ocean The creation of the Real Compañía de Filipinas increased the strategic and commercial allure of the Philippines. In 1785, Joseph Antoine Bruni d’Entrecasteaux47 was appointed head of the French naval forces in the Indian Ocean. He was instructed to send ships to the South China Sea, to assess the trade of each western nation with China, to explore the sea routes to Macao and Canton, and to try to establish cooperation with the Spanish forces in Manila. Spain was linked to France by the ‘Family Pact’ since branches of the Bourbon dynasty ran both kingdoms and had been allied to the United States in the recent war. 21

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The French naval squadron in the Indian Ocean comprised only four frigates, since a British-French agreement negotiated after the peace of 1783 stipulated that no large warships could be stationed by either nation east of the Cape of Good Hope. Joseph Antoine Bruni d’Entrecasteaux decided to sail to the South China Sea with two ships: his flagship La Résolution, a large frigate captured in 1781 from the British Navy, and the smaller La Subtile commanded by Scipion de Castries.48 Both left their base in Port Louis (Île-de-France, now the capital of Mauritius) in the summer of 1786. They stayed for some time in Pondicherry, on the Indian coast (north of today’s Chennai), which was the other French stronghold in the Indian Ocean, and sailed further to Batavia (now Jakarta). As adverse monsoon winds made it impossible to proceed straight to Macao across the South China Sea, d’Entrecasteaux decided to sail along the East coast of Borneo, then North of Sulawesi, then across the Moluccas archipelago, and northwards to the Carolines, and finally westwards to Macao via the Straits between Taiwan and Luzon. The frigates then took different routes: d’Entrecasteaux’s La Résolution sailed along the Vietnamese coast, following a French court's decision to initiate a cooperation with the Nguyễn dynasty in order to obtain information on the maritime surroundings of the Annam Empire. Castries’ La Subtile, on the other hand, headed straight to the Philippines. In Manila, Castries found two French ships, the La Boussole and L’Astrolabe whose expedition were under the command of Jean-François de La Pérouse and dispatched by the French king to complete James Cook’s last discoveries in the South Pacific. After crossing the North Pacific, La Pérouse anchored in Manila in February 1787. Castries decided to help La Pérouse, who had lost twenty-one officers and crew members in Alaska. Castries, thus, transferred his two officers and eight crewmembers to the La Boussole and L’Astrolabe. La Pérouse thereafter cruised north along the China Sea, between Korea and Japan, reached the Kamchatka Peninsula (in the Russian Far East), and returned towards Central Pacific before he disappeared in Vanikoro (currently Solomon Islands) around June 1788. In Manila, Castries found the Spanish authorities helpful and inclined to cooperate with the French Navy. He was impressed by the workers and the supplies of their shipyard and praised their land forces, in particular, the cavalry. The Spanish Navy 22

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seemed less promising since the warships were old and obsolete. Admiring the Philippine-bred horses, he bought three of them, which he would later offer to ladies in Port Louis. Then, after a few weeks in the “lovely city of Manila”, Castries and his crew left and sailed back to the French bases in the Indian Ocean. Joining La Pérouse’s expedition as a Russian interpreter was Barthélémy de Lesseps,49 the French Vice Consul in Cronstadt (seaport of St. Petersburg, Russia), who spoke fluent Russian, Spanish and German. Lesseps met La Pérouse’s deputy during a mission to the King’s court in Versailles and La Pérouse decided to bring him since the planned route of his expedition would go through Russian territory. Lesseps was François de Cabarrus’ second cousin, who belonged to the business and diplomatic network in Southern France interested in direct trade between the Philippines and Spain—through the ports of France. Lesseps left La Pérouse in Petropavlovsk (Kamtchatka) in September 1787, and brought to Versailles in October 1788 a secret report on the Philippines.50 In the dossier, Lesseps praised the inhabitants of the Philippines, while deploring the treatment they received from the Spaniards.51 Although the French Revolution caused an interruption on all maritime explorations for more than a decade, the Philippines had slowly become part of the political “worldscape” of the French authorities. The French Revolutionary Wars52 somehow drew a link between the Philippines and France. After the failed invasion of northern Spain by the French Republican armies in 1793 and the beheading of radical revolutionaries in Paris in the summer of 1794, France and Spain signed a peace treaty in Basel, Switzerland in July 1795. François de Cabarrus acted as Spain’s plenipotentiary for the said accord. The hostilities between France and Great Britain escalated when, in January 1795, France invaded the Netherlands and replaced the government of the former Stadhouder Prince Willem van OranjeNassau with an allied Batavian Republic. In retaliation, the British seized part of the Dutch Asian colonies. As the British settled along the banks of the Malacca Strait, French ships started using Batavia as their port of call prior to reaching Macau and Canton. The Treaty of Amiens, signed in March 1802 ended hostilities between France and Great Britain. However, war resumed in May 1803, due to Great Britain’s increasing concern over Napoléon Bonaparte’s political and geographic reshaping of continental Europe. Because of multiple alliances between the two branches of 23

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the Bourbon family, Spain supported France against Great Britain in December 1804. In May 1805, Lord Horatio Nelson defeated the Franco-Spanish fleet along the Cape Trafalgar,53 next to the port of Cádiz. The Dutch East Indies islands (today’s Indonesia), escaped the British subjugation, and passed nominally under French supervision. Former Dutch republican Herman Willem Daendels was appointed as the King of Spain’s Governor-General of the Dutch Indies. The Treaty of Paris of 1806 transformed the Batavian Republic into a subordinate kingdom, with Louis Bonaparte, the emperor’s younger brother, as its head. In May 1808, Ferdinand VII of Spain, who deposed his father Charles IV, was in turn, forced into abdication by Napoléon. A Castilian Council consisting of liberal pro-French elite installed Joseph, Napoléon’s eldest brother, as King of Spain. Although Joseph Bonaparte eventually abdicated in July 1813 in favor of Ferdinand VII, the Spanish war for independence and its atrocities would last until April 1814.

The Money from Acapulco and César de Bourayne’s Exploits At the turn of 19th century, the British became increasingly concerned over the possibility of a French conquest of the Philippines—a fear that was not unfounded. Driven by Louis XVI’s support of Monseigneur Pigneau de Behaine 54 and the restoration of the Nguyễn power in Cochinchina, which was located west of the Philippines, the French interest in Southeast Asia temporarily waned during the collapse of the Ancien Régime from 1789 to 1792. However, in 1793, France regained its interest in the Far East, especially on the Philippines. Three draft reports,55 which circulated among the officials of the Ministry for the Navy, analyzed the stakes and opportunities of a French conquest of the Philippine archipelago. The last of the three documents, dated September 1797 after the signing of the Treaty of Basel of 1795, detailed the most ambitious plan — entitled as the Projet d’établissement aux Philippines et à la Cochinchine (Project for a settlement in Philippines and Cochinchina).56 However, the French Expedition to Egypt in 1798 to 1801, and the losses during the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, prevented the French Navy from strengthening its presence in the Indian Ocean. However, Spain’s alliance to France, allowed French vessels, whose hub was the Isle-de-France along the Indian Ocean, to stop at the port of Manila frequently. 24

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When he arrived in Manila in 1790, Spanish GovernorGeneral Rafael María de Aguilar attempted to reorganize the city’s defense. In January 1804, Aguilar requested General Charles Mathieu Isidore Decaen, the French governor of Isle-de-France, for expert artillery support; and he recruited Félix Renouard de Sainte-Croix,57 who arrived in Manila in September 1804, as his aide-de-camp. In response, General Decaen appointed Paul du Camper,58 as the agent for France in Manila, and dispatched the frigate La Sémillante, 59 under the command of Captain Léonard Motard.60 The annual budget of 1,921,000 piasters,61 allotted for the Philippines, was not enough to fund the affairs of the archipelago. Hence, 500,000 piasters were granted yearly by the King of Spain and facilitated through the Acapulco Galleon.62 However, due to the war with Great Britain, which deprived Spain of a large portion of its galleon fleet, Mexico was hindered from providing reinforcements to protect the galleon and other vessels and from remitting money to Manila in 1805. Motard reached Cavite Bay in May 1805, and left for Acapulco on 21 July 1805. However, due to the changing directions of the winds, Captain Motard decided to anchor in the San Jacinto Bay, on the East Ticao Island, the last port before crossing the Pacific,63 where two British ships attacked Motard and his men. Although he was able to repel the British ships and force them

Figure 16. Bourayne’s La Canonnière fighting The Tremendous, 1806 (Château de Versailles, Galerie des Batailles) (c) RMN – Grand Palais / Stéphane Maréchalle 25

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to retreat to Macau, Motard’s frigate sustained too much damage and was unable to continue its journey. Since the British blocked Cavite Bay, Motard returned directly back to the Isle-de-France, passing a new route through Gilolo, Moluccas, Alor, and the Ombay-Wetar Strait. Motard’s diversionary strategy allowed a ship from the Compañía de Filipinas to arrive safely in Manila from Peru, bringing with it 500,000 piasters from Spain. In 1806, General Decaen sent to Manila the La Canonnière, a frigate in a poor state following its encounter with the British ship The Tremendous in La Réunion Island (see Figure 16). The La Canonnière, which was under the command of Captain César de Bourayne,64 arrived in Cavite in February 1807 for much-needed repairs and replenishment of supplies. However, the ship struggled due to the scarcity of food and equipment. The new Spanish Governor-General Mariano Fernandez de Folgueras, asked Bourayne to escort the galleon and Compañía de Filipinas’s ship called the Santa Gertrudis to Mexico. Since the galleon slowed down the entire contingent, Bourayne proposed to escort the galleon and the Santa Gertrudis only up to 500 miles off Cape Engano, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, where a British attack need no longer be feared. Thereafter, Bourayne proposed to proceed to Acapulco as planned to immediately seek audience with the Viceroy of Mexico,65 and return to Manila with the money. Bourayne left Manila on 20 April 1807, reached Acapulco on 15 August 1807 where he sojourned for three months while waiting for the funds, and returned to Manila with three million piasters66 on the eve of Christmas. His crew, who were then not yet paid, started a rebellion.67 The insubordination only ceased when the Governor-General was able to collect 30,000 piasters (1% of the funds brought by the French) as donation from the Manila traders. Although he was not wealthy, Bourayne gallantly refused to participate in the sharing, accepting only a saber of honor from the hands of Governor-General de Folgueras. This initial Philippine-French partnership ceased with Napoléon’s eviction of Ferdinand VII, with Governor-General de Folgueras and the Philippine clergy remaining loyal to the Bourbons. In 1808, Governor-General de Folgueras even ordered the imprisonment of Alexandre du Crest de Villeneuve 68 and his crew, releasing them only three months later upon the intervention of the French warship Entreprenant under Pierre Bouvet. French vessels stopped using Manila as its port of call until the end of the Napoleonic era. 26

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B.

DREAMING OF BASILAN: FRANCE IN THE SULU SEA, WITH THÉODORE DE LAGRENÉ (1844-1845) Trade between the Philippines and France resumed after the restoration of the Bourbon dynasty in 1814. France dispatched numerous merchant ships, mostly from Bordeaux, and four major scientific missions to the archipelago. The scientific expeditions occurred in 1817 under the command of Achille de Kergariou;69 in 1824 to 1826 under Hyacinthe de Bougainville70 and Paul du Camper, General Decaen’s former agent in Manila; in 1832 under Cyrille Laplace;71 and in 1836 under Auguste-Nicolas Vaillant.72 In addition, Pierre-Henri Philibert73 was sent to Manila in 1819 by the French admiralty to recruit Filipino workers for the French Guyana after the abolition of the slave trade. The Spanish Governor-General opposed the objective of the mission. However, this did not deter France from deciding to open a consulate in Manila in 1824, thereby being the first foreign country to do so. Opportunities offered by the archipelago caught the interest of some French nationals. Such was the story of Paul Proust de la Gironière,74 a surgeon in the French Navy. According to his book published in 1855, de la Gironière settled in the Philippines between 1820 and 1839. When his wife and son died, he sold his sugar plantation in Jala-Jala and returned to France where he was bestowed the Légion d’honneur. De la Gironière remarried in Nantes and had two children. However, twenty years after returning to France, he decided to go back to the Philippines. He bought a new plantation in Calauan, situated in the south of Laguna de Bay and died there three years later. Paul de la Gironière’s book75 greatly helped promote the knowledge of the Philippine archipelago in France. During the first half of the 19th century, the relations between the Philippines and France intensified beyond military cooperation. France regarded Southeast Asia as significant to the resumption of her global diplomatic ambitions. The collapse of the Napoleonic Empire depleted French coffers and reduced her foreign policy to a bare preservation of the pre-revolutionary borders. At peace with the British, Spanish, and Dutch during the reign of King Louis-Philippe between 1830 and 1848, France then decided on the costly process of subjugating Algeria. Succeeding in her engagement in Algeria, France then became prosperous enough 27

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to prepare for long distance colonial expansion, as shown by its blockade of Argentina ports76 in 1838 to 1840 and the establishment in 1843 of two stations in the South Pacific Ocean—in Tahiti and in the Marquesas islands. Great Britain, France’s main historical competitor and now ally, emerged victorious from the First Opium War (1838-1842). The Treaty of Nanjing sanctioned the ceding of Hongkong to Great Britain, and allowed the opening of five Chinese ports—Canton, Shanghai, Ningbo, Amoy (now Xiamen), and Fuzhou—to Western trade. In view of these recent developments, King Louis-Philippe sent his first legation to China in December 1843.77 The legation was escorted by three warships from the South China Sea division, which used Manila as its stopover port. Reinforced by a frigate and two corvettes from Brest (major military port in Brittany), the fleet was under the command of Vice Admiral Jean-Baptiste Thomas Médée Cécille.78 Heeding the advice of then Foreign Minister79 François Guizot,80, the delegation included a high-ranking diplomat, Théodore de Lagrené,81 former minister plenipotentiary to the newly independent Greece. The delegation was successful, having obtained for France the signing of the Whampoa82 commercial treaty in October 1844, and the issuance in December 1844 of an imperial edict on religious freedom aiming to protect Catholic missionaries. Jean Mallat, Advocate of Basilan Aside from his role as extraordinary plenipotentiary, Lagrené received secret instructions from Foreign Minister Guizot to scout for and establish a permanent base in the South China Sea for the French Navy. The British already controlled Lower Burma and the Malacca-Singapore Strait, and the mouth of the Sarawak river since 1842, thanks to James Brooke. The Dutch managed the Netherlands Indies while the Spaniards had been in the Philippines for centuries for as long as the Portuguese were in Macau. The establishment of French bases in the Far East proved challenging. While the islands of Natuna and Anambas 83 (northeast Batam) were free from foreign control; however, their locations are too 28

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Figure 17. « Habitants des Montagnes, archipel de Solou [Mountain people, Sulu archipelago, Basilan Island] », in Jean Mallat, Archipel de Solou, face p. I. The people depicted in the painting are obviously not Muslim, proof that Mallat had probably never himself been to Basilan Island. Basilan’s indigenous and mountain people were Yakan, a tribe already under process of Islamisation in the 1840s, and some northern groups of which had also already been previously Christianized by Jesuit missionaries, who remained in Basilan till the second half of the 18th century. 29

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near the British and Dutch colonies. Inhospitable living conditions in Pulau Condor forced the British to abandon the island after five years of settlement; and Cu Lao Cham, present-day Hội An in Vietnam, did not seem a favorable location either. To remain within the vicinity of China, the only vantage position left for France would thus have been located in the Philippine archipelago, but in a place remaining outside Spanish sovereignty: Basilan Island.84 The choice of Basilan—called the Tajima Island in old western maps— was not accidental. On 23 April 1843, during an exploratory mission to Sulu by the corvette La Favorite, the first commercial agreement was entered into between the Sultan of Sulu Jamal- ul Kiram I and France, represented by Lieutenant Commander Théogène François Page. In his report,85 Page mentioned that Basilan was more or less a no man’s land, not being controlled by the Sultan of Sulu, his extended male relatives, or the Spaniards. Westerners observed that Basilan had agricultural potential, as the island annually exported to Sulu some thirty big prahu86 of rice grown by hinterland Yakans.87

Figure 18. Text of the commercial agreement between France and the Sultanate of Sulu dated 23 April 1843 (Archives du Ministère de l’Europe et des Affaires Étrangères- La Courneuve) 30

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Another reason for Basilan’s appeal was based on the works of Dr. Jean Mallat88 who sojourned for eight years in the Far East, including Manila, before returning to France. Mallat published two preliminary works on the Basilan Island89 and the Philippines,90 which earned him full support from the Minister of Navy Rear Admiral Baron Armand de Mackau, and connections to the highest echelons of the State.91 The problem, however, was that Mallat’s information on Basilan were contradictory, having been gathered from various sources that were neither verified on site nor properly discussed. Explaining, for instance, “an attack from the people of Basilan on the people of Zamboanga was rare, especially on Westerners,” he wrote “as a precaution, in collecting water in the (Malosa) river, it is advisable to bring weapons and not to get close to the village to avoid an attack.” Unaware of the inaccuracies of Mallat’s accounts on Basilan, de Mackau requested him to join de Lagrené’s mission as a scientific and linguistic support for the secret operations in the Sulu archipelago. Together with the commercial delegation interested in textile trade,92 Mallat boarded the L’Archimède, which reached Macau in August 1844. Mallat was designated as the “colonial agent”, provided with a comfortable salary, and was promised 200 hectares (roughly 494 acres) in the new occupied territories.93

Escalating Conflict In October 1844, Admiral Cécille sent Mallat to Basilan aboard the corvette Sabine under the command of Captain Guérin. Unfortunately, Mallat could not speak Malay94 and had to require the assistance of a certain Hermann to interpret. Hermann was a fourteen- or fifteen-year old Dutch subject95 from Batavia whom Mallat hired in Macau96 while the latter was “busy in being taught the Malay languages.”97 On 24 October 1844, the French anchored in the perilous Malosa Bay in Basilan, a place that was prone to piracy—and where the French committed the first of their many mistakes thereby exposing the limits of Mallat’s abilities. During the first two days upon arrival in Malosa Bay, the French and the local inhabitants exchanged pleasantries and presents. A meeting in an islet called “Gowenen” (Gounan, in the middle of the bay) was arranged between Rajah Usuk, an ethnic Tausug local chief, and Captain Guérin. Adverse weather 31

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Figure 19. Map of Basilan, extract from the map ‘Archipel des Soulou’, in J. Mallat, loc. cit., 1843, last page.

Figure 20. À S.A.R. Monseigneur le Prince de Joinville, Hommage respectueux de l’auteur, son très obéissant et fidèle serviteur J. Mallat [To H.R.H. the Prince of Joinville, respectful regards from the author, his very obedient and faithful servant…]

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Figure 21. Map of the Malosa Bay, in J. Mallat, loc. cit. last page, mentioning (box, top right) “from the map drawn in 1764 by the British captain Walter Alves”98

conditions prevented the meeting from taking place, making the French impatient. Captain Guérin, Mallat and several of their crew members attempted to enter the mouth of the river, but their main boat ran aground. Instead of turning back, they took a dinghy and asked the men in a Malay prahu manning the entrance of the river if they could meet with the Rajah. The locals responded that the Rajah was indisposed; however, if Captain Guérin himself would venture upstream, the Rajah would receive him. Declining the proposal, the Captain sent four men, including the interpreter, on the dinghy. The group, under the supervision of Sub-lieutenant de Meynard, was tasked to conduct a reconnaissance of the river and collect water samples, which were needed by the French authorities in evaluating the feasibility of establishing their base in the island. The Tausugs resented the trip, viewing it as both insulting—owing to Captain Guérin’s refusal to meet personally with the Rajah—and threatening. Two Malay boats then approached the dinghy, and a local dignitary asked for Meynard’s gun. When Meynard refused, he and a crew member99 were struck down with a kris, while the interpreter and the ship’s boy were taken hostage in the chaos that ensued.100 Unable to wait for the arrival of the corvette La Victorieuse under 33

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the command of Rigault de Genouilly that would enable him to negotiate from a stronger military position, Captain Guérin sailed at once to Zamboanga to seek the assistance of Zamboanga Governor Cayetano Suarez de Figueroa. The Sulu archipelago, especially Basilan, was known for its economic activities that consisted primarily of raiding and slave trade conducted by the Balangingi population of its southern shores.101 Acting as the intermediary, Governor de Figueroa was able to bring Rajah Usuk and Captain Guérin to the negotiating table. Rajah Usuk demanded from Captain Guérin 2,900 piasters as ransom money, 10 guns, a hundred razors, and other sundries. The French initially refused to capitulate to all of the Rajah’s demands. However, they eventually paid the ransom and recovered their men who were treated surprisingly well.102 Apparently, Rajah Usuk only received 25% of the sum and some rifles, as it was customary to share the ransom with the local participants.103 After a brief stop in Basilan, and without encountering any aggression due to the acumen of her captain, the La Victorieuse joined the Sabine in Zamboanga. The captains of the two ships decided to make a blockade of Basilan104—against the advice of Governor de Figueroa, who could not prevent the operation for lack of proof of Spanish sovereignty over the island. Governor de Figueroa immediately informed Manila of the French’s action, sending to Basilan a few falhoas105 from the Marina Sutil as demonstration of Spanish warship over the area. The French then notified the Sultan of Sulu of the blockade. The Sultan explained that his sovereignty over the island was but nominal. Meanwhile in Basilan, two French boats rowing upstream in the Malosa river were fired upon by a cannon located at the fort. In retaliation, the French fired their cannons, wounding a dozen men, including Rajah Usuk. Arriving in Manila at the end of December 1844 with the Cléopâtre and the steamer Archimède, Admiral Cécille and Ambassador de Lagrené found themselves in the middle of a diplomatic deadlock. Spanish Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa explained coldly that Basilan was part of the Philippines but that the Spanish had to abandon their garrisons on the island in 1762 due to the British attack in Manila and they never returned. After Lieutenant Commander Page completed his mission in Basilan in 1843, Governor-General Clavería y Zaldúa ordered 34

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Zamboanga Governor de Figueroa to go to Basilan and counter French influence. Governor de Figueroa secured for Spain an informal alliance with a number of northern datus who were willing to use the Spanish flag. However, the alliance—called the “Balagtasan League” (covering Lamitan, East Isabela)—was formed without signing any formal document.106 In December 1844, although Ambassador de Lagrené and Governor-General Clavería y Zaldúa agreed to entrust to their respective governments the legal determination of the sovereignty over Basilan, Governor-General Clavería y Zaldúa asserted Spanish right by sending the frigate La Esperanza to Zamboanga. On the other hand, Admiral Cécille waited in Manila for the construction of two barges capable of transporting troops along the shallow banks of Basilan’s rivers. On 8 January 1845, Admiral Cécille and his fleet dropped anchor in Malosa Bay. A few days later, the French were able to repel two falhoas that were attempting to force their way through the blockade. The French limited the blockade to Malosa Bay when the captain of the La Esperanza protested. Friendlier than Maloso’s datus, the same Balagtasan datus that had struck an agreement with the Spanish the year before explained to Admiral Cécille on 13 January 1845 that they were loyal neither to Spain nor to the Sulu Sultanate and that they merely used the Spanish flag on their way to Zamboanga and displayed another one when they went to Sulu. The Balagtasan League was composed of Panglima “Tiran” (Tairan), his brother- in- law Arak Tao Marayo, and Imam Baran.107 This hierarchical structure was characteristic of the Samal-Balangingi raiding groups where the Panglima was the local chief (who was, most of the time, a Samal tributary of a Tausug datu), and the imam or hatib was both the chaplain and judge accompanying the raiding or commercial fleet.108 On 22 January 1845, the Balagtasan, Bulansa,109 Bagbagon,110 and Pasanban (Pasangan, today’s Isabela) chiefs finally signed a treaty with the French. When asked why they preferred the protection of the French to that of the Spaniards’, these local chiefs111 answered that with the treaty, the Spaniards would not bother them. The Spanish were already permanently established a few miles from their island, while the French presence remained minimal. Three of the French warships left for Sulu on 4 February 1845. Admiral Cécille requested the Sultan of Sulu to rent the Basilan 35

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island. Three days after the French arrived, the British corvette Semarang, which came from Brunei to assist James Brooke in resisting his Bruneian opponents, anchored in Sulu on the pretext of rescuing British crew who were taken into slavery.112 The Sulunese resented French presence, and went into lengths to poison, using the fruits of the manchineel tree,113 the spring where the sailors replenish their water tanks. Because of this acrimony, the French reluctantly requested the mediation of William Wyndham,114 an English trader who had settled in Sulu and conducted business in Manila, Borneo, and Singapore.115 After a heated debate within the Rumah Bichara (the Council of Dignitaries), and a lot of bargaining between the French and the Sulunese, the price was fixed at 100,000 piasters for the first year and 80,000 piasters for every succeeding year for a 100-year lease period, under an impossible condition that the agreement be approved by the French authorities within six months. A memorandum of understanding was signed on 19 February 1845. In the meantime, the French granted asylum to 23 slaves, who were mostly Tagal, Spanish and Dutch, who had swum to their ships.116

Figure 22. Mohammed Yamalul Alam, Sultan of Sulu (circa 1870s). (Photo/Musée du Quai Branly-Jacques Chirac, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais) 36

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Meanwhile, the ultimatum sent to Rajah Usuk on January 26, to produce 20,000 piasters as compensation for the families of the two murdered men, to deliver their assassins to the French, to release all Filipino and Western prisoners and slaves in his captivity, and to cease piracy remained, predictably, unheeded. On February 27, declining the Spaniards’ support, the entire French fleet assembled in Malosa to punish Rajah Usuk for his “treachery.” One group that went upstream lost three men. The remaining 400 soldiers were able to cross the mangrove and swamps, destroyed the small fort, burned about 150 houses, a whole flotilla of prahu and the materials of a small shipyard 117 in the vicinity, cut banana and coconut trees, and ransacked rice granaries—thereby destroying the livelihood of Rajah Usuk’s subjects. While the French were engaged in Malosa, the Spanish frigate La Esperanza attacked Balangingi Island, then the den of Samal slave raiders, without significant success.

Much Ado about Nothing After the destruction of Malosa, Admiral Cécille dispatched the steamer L’Archimède back to Suez post-haste. He instructed Captain Edmond Pâris and diplomatic attaché Alphonse MareyMonge to travel immediately from Suez to Paris because of the six-month deadline for the approval of the French authorities on the lease of Basilan. When Foreign Minister Guizot received Ambassador de Lagrené’s report in June 1845, the military and diplomatic conditions had already changed: France was involved in South America 118 and Madagascar,119 while Emir Abd-el-Kader led a major insurgency in Algeria. Foreign Minister Guizot remained skeptical of the project, while the Minister of Navy was supportive of the same. On 30 June 1845, the French Council of Ministers gave its approval for the establishment of its base in Basilan. However, on July 26, King Louis-Philippe decided to forego with the plan as constructing and maintaining a permanent outpost in Basilan would have required a strong military and naval support in the area and especially since the monarch was then in search of a Spanish spouse for his youngest son.120 The royal decision was transmitted to Ambassador de Lagrené on 5 August 1845, and to Admiral Cécille on 12 August 1845. He was instructed to convey France’s decision to the Spanish Governor-General and to the Sultan of Sulu. 37

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Staking Claims When the French left Basilan at the end of February 1845, the Spaniards arrived. Concerned with the growing appeal of the Sulu archipelago to European powers, the Spaniards built a small fort called “Isabela” in Pasangan (the core of present-day Isabela City), and entered into an agreement with the Balagtasan League that had previously signed a treaty with the French. The French operation in Basilan provided the impetus for putting the island under relative control of Manila, effectively preventing further attempts of colonization by other Western countries. Governor-General Clavería y Zaldúa, who had previously failed to purchase war steamers from the British, obtained three of them in subsequent years. These steamers were used in 1848, under the Governor-General’s command, to rid the Balangingi Island of Samal pirates.121 One of the steamers was the Elcano, which later sailed to Cochinchina.

38

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III

THE PHILIPPINES’ FIRST PARTNERSHIP WITH FRANCE The ‘Chasseurs Tagals’ (Tagal Rangers) and the French Conquest of Cochinchina (1858-1863)

D

espite the unsuccessful French expedition to Basilan, the issue of Cochinchina sparked a renewed relationship between the Philippines and France. Since 1676, Catholic missions in Tonkin were in the hands of the Spanish Dominicans based in Manila (Provincia del Santo Rosario)122 and the French from the Missions Étrangères de Paris (MEP) working mostly in Cochinchina. Although Emperor Gia Long (r. 1802-1820) and French Bishop Pigneau de Behaine shared a close relationship, the emperor issued an edict in 1804, which treated Buddhism and Catholicism with equal suspicion and forbade both religions from building or repairing pagodas and churches. The edict was issued to secure the support of the orthodox Confucian elite to legitimize the Nguyễn Imperial Dynasty and to secure Chinese recognition. Nonetheless, it was only Catholicism that was regarded as a proper threat, owing to a more organized Catholic community.123 To prevent the European powers that had settled in Manila, Macau, and Penang from using religion as a means to extend their influence, Gia Long’s successor, Minh Mạng aka Minh Mệnh (r. 1820-1841), increased pressure on the missionaries. Minh Mạng’s first edict, issued in 1825, forbade missionaries from entering the kingdom. A second edict was issued in 1833, outlawing Catholicism and ordering the arrest of missionaries and their exile to Huế. The second edict was promulgated following Lê Văn Khôi’s insurgency in Gia Định province (Cochinchina) where some Vietnamese Catholics called the Siamese for help. The third edict, declared in 1836, ordered the execution of all missionaries arriving on board Chinese ships and all missionaries detained in Vietnamese jails.124 Among those incarcerated were four Spanish clerics, including two bishops.125 Because of these developments, The Netherlands, Britain, and France refused to receive Minh Mạng’s ambassadors in 1840. 39

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Under  Emperor  Thiệu Trị (r. 1841-1847), persecutions of missionaries decreased for a while as Western powers remained close to Annam due to their intervention in China for the First Opium War. Without fighting, French warships were able to rescue imprisoned French missionaries in 1843 and 1845 (including Théodore de Lagrené). However, in 1847, two French frigates under the command of Captains Augustin de Lapierre (54-gun frigate Gloire) and Rigault de Genouilly (24-gun corvette Victorieuse) sank five Annamite ships on the Tourane Bay (today’s Đà Nẵng) during an outbreak of hostilities resulting from the breakdown of the negotiations to release French missionaries, which again included de Lagrené. In retaliation, Emperor Tự Ðửc (r. 1847-1883) promulgated in 1848126 and 1851 edicts on the persecution of Catholics. Ten Europeans and 115 Annamite priests were executed until 1862, around 5,000   Christians were killed, and around 5,000 people who took refuge in Siam were exiled. The situation escalated when the French warship Catinat shelled Tourane in 1856; Emperor Tự Ðửc refused to receive Emperor Napoléon III’s plenipotentiary in January 1857; and Spanish Bishop José María Díaz Sanjurjo, the apostolic vicar for Tonkin, was beheaded in July 1857. In September 1857, the Catinat returned to rescue missionaries; and in November 1857, Napoléon III decided to intervene in Cochinchina by asking the Spanish Ambassador in Paris for the support of 1,500 to 2,000 men from the Philippines.127 The French Empress Eugénie de Montijo was highly concerned about the situation in Cochinchina. A devout Catholic and a member of the Spanish nobility, sister of the Duchess of Alba, and with connections in the Philippines,128 Empress Eugénie de Montijo favored French intervention in Cochinchina. The French intervention was to be headed by Rear Admiral Rigault de Genouilly. Two days before Christmas, the Spanish government ordered Governor-General Fernándo de Norzagaray y Escudero to send to Cochinchina two companies—infantry and cavalry129—and some 1,200 to 1,400 men.130 This reinforcement was significantly smaller than what the French authorities requested. As the French forces in Asia were still engaged in China, the operation had to be suspended until the signing of the Treaty of Tianjin in June 1858. However, on 28 July 1858, Emperor Tự Ðửc ordered the Spanish Bishop Melchor García Sampedro to be chopped into pieces. 40

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Figure 23. From the Governor--General of the Philippines, instructions given to Colonel Bernardo Ruiz de Lanzarote, Sept. 8, 1858. Reproduced in L.A. Síntes, p. 457 (España. Ministerio de Defensa. Instituto de Historia y Cultura Militar. Archivo General Militar de Madrid.)

41

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Figure 24. State of the forces in Saigon by Lieutenant-Colonel Carlos Palanca Gutiérrez, May 15, 1860. As reproduced in L.A. Síntes, p. 484 (España. Ministerio de Defensa. Instituto de Historia y Cultura Militar. Archivo General Militar de Madrid.)

42

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The Philippines dispatched more than 1,000 men to Cochinchina: the whole infantry regiment Ferdinando VII No. 3 from Manila; two companies of rangers, including some cavalry from the King’s Regiment No. 1 in Manila and the Queen’s Regiment No. 2 from Cavite; two mobile and field artillery divisions and one for logistics. Although all officers were Spanish,131 nearly all troops were Tagal. On 20 August 1858, around 400 men boarded the French ship Dordogne under the command of Colonel Mariano Oscáriz, and around 100 men embarked on the Spanish aviso Elcano. They joined the French forces in the Yulikan Bay (present-day Hainan Island) where the Tagal soldiers were struck with cholera and dysentery, diseases that the French contingent contracted from China. The remaining 550 Tagals, together with Colonel Bernardo Ruiz de Lanzarote who headed the Spanish expeditionary corps, were brought to Tourane on 15 September 1858 on board the Durance. They were joined by five Spanish merchant ships that brought food and equipment. After the bombing of Tourane’s forts, several posts were occupied by the Tagals, who rested for a while and feasted reportedly on rice field rats—shocking their French counterparts who preferred less exotic fare.132 Assessing that a siege of Huế, Annam’s capital, would be too risky, Rear Admiral de Genouilly decided to attack Saigon instead, Cochinchina’s main port. Leaving a small detachment consisting of three infantry companies in Tourane, Rear Admiral de Genouilly left for Saigon on 2 February 1859. He was accompanied by 2,176 soldiers, including the Elcano and 300 Tagals under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Carlos Palanca Gutiérrez and Colonel Ruiz de Lanzarote.133 On 19 February 1859, the joint forces took control of the citadel of Saigon, which they destroyed in a few days later as they lacked sufficient number of troops to defend it. The Tagal soldiers took advantage of the victory break to train Cochinchinese fighting cocks.134 In March 1859, half of the troops were sent back to Tourane, leaving only 555 men in Saigon, including 223 Tagal fighters under the command of Captain Fajardo. Except for the 24-day ceasefire in September 1859 resulting from the three-month negotiations in June-August, the fighting in Tourane lasted until the final evacuation in March 1860. On 27 November 1859, 127 Tagals and most of the French sailed out of Tourane on 43

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Figure 25. The fight at the Pagode des Clochetons (3-4 July 1860)

board the French vessel Marne and the Spanish steamer Jorge Juan. The remaining forces left their bases on 22 March 1860 after the complete destruction of the fortifications. Meanwhile, Manila had sent 50 horses for artillery and 450 Tagal fighters to Saigon135 who camped with the French soldiers in a site close to the “Camp des Lettrés”136 (Figure 25). In April 1860, the frigate Europe that was transporting the Tagal soldiers was shipwrecked near Triton Island in the Paracels. The stranded soldiers were rescued by three French boats a few days later.137 The resumption of the war in China led to French troops based in Saigon being dispatched once again to China in April 1860. Thus, only two companies, 50 Tagal cavalrymen under the command of Second Lieutenant Le Maréchal,138 around 250 French soldiers and a small navy detachment remained in Saigon. To cut the lines between Saigon and Cây Mai Pagoda,139 Rear Admiral Page—who succeeded 44

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Figure 26."Assaut de la citadelle de Saigon par le corps expeditionnaire franco-espagnol, le 5 février 1859 [Attack of the citadel of Saigon by the Franco-Spanish task force, 5 February 1859]" from the weekly L'Illustration, 23 April 1859. Tagal soldiers are on the right side.

Rear Admiral Rigault de Genouilly in November 1859—ordered the occupation of the ‘Pagode des Clochetons’140 by 100 Tagal fighters, four Spanish officers and sixty French soldiers. On 3 July 1860, the pagoda came under attack by a detachment consisting of 2,000 Annamites who retreated because of the heroic actions of the Tagal and French troops.141   A peace treaty was finally signed between France and China on 25  October 1860. In February 1861, Vice Admiral Léonard Charner, who succeeded Rear Admiral Page, moved to Saigon with more than 4,000 soldiers and several warships as reinforcements. The small Philippine contingent had not been augmented despite repeated requests by Lieutenant-Colonel Palanca Gutiérrez and Rear Admiral Page to the Philippine Governor-General. On 24 February 1861, the allies launched a joint attack on the Ki Hoa fort with the support from the French Navy. During the assault, 180 Tagal infantry soldiers followed General Élie Jean de Vassoigne’s African cavalry (Chasseurs d’Afrique). More than 35 Tagal soldiers either perished or were injured, while Lieutenant-Colonel Palanca Gutiérrez sustained a serious head injury.142 On 1 April 1861, to replace the casualties among the Philippine troops, the schooner Constancia brought 56 Tagal soldiers and 1 Spanish officer from Manila, who participated in the capture of the Mỹ Tho citadel on 12 April 1861. 45

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Rear Admiral Louis-Adolphe Bonard, who replaced Vice Admiral Charner in November 1861, decided to unite all allied cavalry corps, including the Tagals, fighting in Cochinchina and formed the Cochinchina Spahis Squadron in December 1861.143 On the same month, the allied troops, which included two companies of the Philippine infantry (consisting of 100 men per company), captured Gò Công, Mỹ Hoa and Biên Hòa.144 In March 1862, the alliance conquered Vinh-luong with the Tagal soldier, Doroteo de Guzmán,145 being the first person to enter the conquered port. France, Spain and Annam signed a treaty on 5 June 1862 whereby France annexed three Cochinchinese provinces and shared with Spain the compensation for war damages amounting to 4 million dollars. The Philippines’ Governor-General José Lemery transmitted to Spain a bill of 1,057,047 pesos, 30% of which was allotted for the infantry—itemized as salaries (253,047 pesos) and bonuses (89,935 pesos)—and awarded to the Tagal soldiers, whom the French official reports referred to as “les braves soldats espagnols” (courageous Spanish soldiers).146 Unfortunately, the peace in Cochinchina lasted only for a few months. When an insurgency raged between Mỹ Tho and Saigon, Rear Admiral Bonard requested Rear Admiral Constant Louis Jean Benjamin Jaurès,147 who was stationed in China, for reinforcement. Manila sent around 515 officers and men from the regiment España No. 5 based in Zamboanga, 54 soldiers from Rey No. 1 and Reina No. 2 units and military administrative staff, to make up for previous losses. The Philippine-French troops took over the Go Cong citadel in February 1863. On 1 April 1863, the entire Philippine contingent sailed back to Manila. A few days later, the plenipotentiaries Rear Admiral Bonard and Colonel Palanca Gutiérrez148 disembarked in Tourane and, accompanied by the Tagal military band of the regiment Ferdinando VII,149 left for Huế where the treaty was ratified by Emperor Tự Ðửc. If the Cochinchina quest fully benefitted the French, the Spanish gained nothing but glory:150 the operating costs were six times higher than what Spain finally received as reparation from Emperor Tự Dửc in 1863.151 The French-Spanish agreement stipulated that, in case of further joint intervention in Tonkin, Spain would take the lead and would reap the benefits.152 However, when France intervened in the region twenty years later, in 1881, Spain was, by then, already exhausted from a third Carlist civil war and was, thus, unable to participate in the French intervention. 46

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As recorded in the accounts of Colonel Mariano de Oscáriz, the Spanish supremacy in the Philippines was hinged on both Catholicism and the so-called racial superiority of the Spaniards while the French military authorities treated the Tagal troops no differently from their own, allowing them to be irreverent in speech, placing them in the same quarter and side by side with their men. The French equal treatment sparked a progressive idea in the Filipinos, that is, “ideas contrary to our (Spanish) domination”.153 Did this awaken in the Filipinos a desire to take a first step toward independence? CHAPTER NOTES 1 See chronological index of maps, in Rodney W. Shirley, The Mapping of the World, Early Printed World Maps, 1472-1700, London, New Holland, 1993, p. 653-656. 2

At the very mouth of the Seine River.

3 With the help of Italian architects, Jean Ango built a magnificent manor close to Varengeville-sur-Mer in upper Normandy, which remains, until today, a beautiful testimony to the success of his maritime endeavors. 4 The brothers Parmentier, Jean (1494-1529) and Raoul (1499-1529), were both well-educated. Jean was both a Renaissance humanist (poet and cartographer) and a seafarer. 5 Luís Filipe F.R. Thomaz, “The Image of the Archipelago in Portuguese cartography of the 16th and early 17th centuries”, Archipel No. 49, 1995, p. 79-124; Luís Filipe F.R. Thomaz, “Precedents and Parallels of the Portuguese Cartaz system”, in Pius Malekandathil & Jamal Mohammed, eds, The Portuguese, Indian Ocean and European Bridgeheads: Festschrift in Honour of Prof. K.S. Mathew, Lisboa, Fundaçao Oriente & Tellicherry, Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities of Meshar, 2001, p. 67-85. 6 Catherine Hoffmann; Hélène Richard & Emmanuelle Vagnon, L’âge d’or des cartes marines, quand l’Europe découvrait le monde [The Golden Age of Nautical Charts, when Europe discovered the World], Paris, Seuil/Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2012, 256 p. 7 Jean Roze was a ‘Dieppois’, i.e. born and raised in Dieppe, to a family which originated from Scotland. Jean Roze worked for the British King Henry VIII from 1542 to 1546 to whom he dedicated his major work, Boke of Idrography [author’s spelling], including a globe and 11 regional maps (London, British Library Royal MS 20 E IX). When he returned to Dieppe, the French King Henri II ennobled him in 1551. 8 Jean Roze’s map was nearly similar to the anonymous Dieppois portolan, called the ‘Harleian map’, whose first registered owner was Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford (British Library, Ms Add 5413). The Harleian map bears the coat-of-arms of both the French King and the Dauphin (i.e. crown prince). 9 The Greek geographer Claudius Ptolemaeus (ca. 90 — ca. 168 AD) designed maps where the world was not spherical, but plane and surrounded by seas. 10 Carte cosmographique et universelle description du monde [Cosmographical map and universal description of the World], BNF, Cartes et Plans, cota GE D 7896 (RES).

47

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Atlas Vallard became the property of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Prince of Bénévent, Emperor Napoleon I’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, who sold it in 1816 to a British collector. It was bought by The Huntington Library, San Marino (California) in 1924.

11

12

Dedicated to the French King Henry II.

The Connétable [Grand Constable, supreme commander of the French army] Duke Anne de Montmorency (1493-1567) and the Amiral de France Claude d’Annebault (ca. 1495-1552).

13

14

Or ‘Paragua’, ‘Paragoyan’ on contemporary maps.

15

Following Gerardus Mercator’s map (1569).

Carte des provinces de la grande et petite Asie [Map of the provinces of Asia Major and Asia Minor], BnF, http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8468393w. André Thevet (1516-1590), who had travelled to the Middle East and to Brazil, became royal chaplain in 1576, one year after the publication of his Cosmographie universelle [Universal Cosmography i.e. geography].

16

17

Petrus Plancius (1552-1622), Dutch scholar and merchant from Amsterdam.

Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612) was from Ghent, in the Spanish Flanders (today Belgium).

18

Henry IV was murdered in 1610; he was succeeded by his 8½-year-old son, Louis XIII.

19

1565-1629. Born in Flanders, Petrus Bertius became professor of mathematics at the University of Leiden (Netherlands), and then settled in France in 1620 to teach mathematics at the Collège de France, the highest French academic institution.

20

The 1627 map includes much more data than the previous Philippinae Insulae map by Petrus Bertius which was published in 1616 in a mini atlas.

21

When Legazpi landed in Samar, he asked for the name of the island, and the nephew of the local chief gave instead his uncle’s name: Achan (Acham); see Thomas Suárez, Early Mapping of Southeast Asia, Singapore, Periplus, 1999, p. 188.

22

Melchisédech Thévenot (ca. 1620-1692), who had been Ambassador to Geneva, then to Rome, and knew English, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic and Turk, entered the French Royal Academy of Sciences in 1685.

23

« Relation des Isles Philippines faite par un religieux qui y a demeuré 18 ans [Account of the Philippine Islands by a clergyman who lived there for 18 years] » ; « Relation de la grand Isle de Mindanao et de la conqueste qu’en ont fait les Espagnols [Account of the great island of Mindanao and its conquest by the Spanish] » ; pp.  1-13 ; 14-26 — « Relation des Isles Philippines faite par l’amirante D. Hieronimo de Bañvelos y Carrillo [Account of the Philippine Islands by…]  » ; « Mémoire pour le Commerce des Isles Philippines par Don Juan Grau y Montfalcon, procureur général des Isles Philippines [Memorandum on Trade with the Philippine Islands by….] » pp. 1-29 & 30-40 in M. Thévenot, Relations de divers voyages curieux qui n’ont point esté publiées ou qui ont esté traduites d’Hacluyt, de Purchas…[Relation of various surprising travels that have not yet been published or translated from Hacluyt, Purchas...], Paris, Sébastien Cramoisy & Sébastien Mabre Cramoisy, 1664, vol. II.

24

Alain Manesson Mallet, Description de l’Univers [Description of the Universe], Paris, 1683, vol. pp. 127-129.

25

26

Gian Domenico [Jean-Dominique] Cassini (1625-1712), who worked first for 48

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the University of Bologna (Italy) was invited to France by Minister of Finances Jean-Baptiste Colbert in 1669, becoming the first director of the French Royal Observatory. 1677-1756, the son of the astronomer Jean-Dominique Cassini, Jacques Cassini was elected both to the British Royal Society and to the Berlin Academy, and was a friend of Isaac Newton.

27

Denis Nardin, « La France et les Philippines sous l’Ancien régime [France and Philippines Under the Ancient Regime] », Revue française d’histoire d’Outre-Mer, 1976, LXIII/230, p. 8.

28

Ibid., p. 9. Four French ships stopped in Manila between 1715 and 1770, which had been registered in Pondicherry or Mauritius and bypassed the interdiction by using Indian captains.

29

J.B. Bourguignon d’Anville (1689-1782) was a scientist who initiated an academic project for measuring the dimensions of the earth, supported by the King. He participated in the French Encyclopédie, which was one of the main projects of the enlightenment period.

30

J.B. d’Après de Mannevillette was a member of both the Académie Royale des Sciences and the Académie Royale de Marine [Nautical Royal Academy], (see Claude Briot, «J.B.D.N. d’Après de Mannevillette, hydrographe de la Cie des Indes, auteur du Neptune Oriental», 2007, http://www.le-havre-grands-navigateurs-claudebriot. fr/411049280).

31

England, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Spain and Portugal, the last two kingdoms entering the war in 1761, on the French side. Prussia was first allied with France against Austria and England, then changed sides in 1756.

32

33

Alexander dedicated several of his own charts to J.B. d’Après.

The title was inspired by the Neptune Français project, launched in 1693 by the French Minister of Finances, Colbert, to chart French coasts. The Neptune Français was updated and reprinted in 1753 by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin.

34

See a digitalized version on the website of the French Ministry of Defense, http://www.memoiredeshommes.sga.defense.gouv.fr/fr/ark:/40699/ m00525655f4b8602/525655f4b9c3c.

35

Bibliothèque nationale de France, https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark./1248/btv5962723b

36

The British Parliament had voted in 1713 the Longitude Act, creating a prize for the invention of a nautical chronometer capable of measuring time with enough precision according to the rotations of the earth. The winner was John Harrison in 1761. Five years later, the French Pierre Le Roy improved Harrison’s chronometer in adding a beam with compensation of temperature and an isochronous spring. Both inventions were improved during the three subsequent decades.

37

G. Le Gentil de La Galaisière (1725-1792), Voyage dans les mers de l’Inde, fait par ordre du Roi à l’occasion du passage de Vénus, sur le disque de soleil, le 6 juin 1761, & le 3 du même mois 1769 [Travel to the Indian seas, by order of the King, during Venus’ transit across the solar disc, on June 6, 1761, & the 3rd of the same month 1769], Paris, Imprimerie Royale, 1781, vol 2, part III, p. 1-366.

38

39

Pierre Sonnerat (1748-1814), Voyage à la Nouvelle-Guinée, dans lequel on trouve 49

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la description des lieux, des observations physiques et morales, et des détails relatifs à l’histoire naturelle [Travel to New Guinea, including a description of the places, physical and moral observations, and the details relating to natural history …], Paris, Ruault, 1776, 206 p. They came from a well-known merchant family from Saint-Malo (in Brittany) engaged in shipping to the East Indies for three generations.

40

Born in Bayonne (south-west of France, near the Spanish border) in 1752, François de Cabarrus aka Francisco de Cabarrús, came from a prominent French trading family and was educated both in Toulouse and in Saragossa. He settled in Spain in 1770, becoming a subject of the King of Spain after ten years while maintaining all his family and business connections with France. Imprisoned in Madrid in 1790 for misappropriation of company assets, he was pardoned by King Carlos IV and made Conde de Cabarrús, then sent as Ambassador to the Congress of Rastatt, negotiating peace between France and the Hapsburgs. He died in Sevilla in 1810.

41

42

Which became the Spanish Central Bank.

A Real Compañía de Filipinas, was initially created in 1733, and which remained in limbo. Cabarrus’ trading company of the same name and created in 1785 survived until 1830.

43

Comte Honoré-Gabriel de Riqueti de Mirabeau, «Extrait de la Cédule royale sur la Nouvelle Compagnie des Philippines [Excerpt of the Royal Order on the New Philippines Company]», in De la Banque d’Espagne dite de Saint Charles, Paris, 1785, p. cxiii-clxii.

44

Félix Renouard de Sainte Croix, Voyages aux Indes Orientales, aux Philippines, à la Chine, avec des notions sur la Cochinchine et le Tonquin, pendant aux années 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806 et 1807 [Travel to the East Indies, Philippines, China, with information on Cochinchina and Tonkin…], Paris, Clament, 1810, vol. 2, p. 367.

45

Jean-Pierre Poussou, Philippe Bonnichon & Xavier Huetz de Lemps, Espaces coloniaux et espaces maritimes au XVIIIe siècle [Colonial and Maritime Spaces in the 18th century], Paris, SEDES, 1998, p. 354-358.

46

Antoine Raymond Joseph Bruni d’Entrecasteaux (1737-1793) was the nephew of one of the greatest French admirals of the 18th century, the bailly Pierre André de Suffren. A. d’Entrecasteaux commanded a large warship in the Mediterranean fleet during the war for American Independence, taking part in the protection of the Spanish troops sent to retake Minorca Island from the British. He became deputy head of the division of naval infrastructures (1783-1785), then was assigned to the Indian Ocean, commanding the French naval forces east of the Cape of Good Hope (1785-1787), and finally named governor-general of the French possessions in the Indian Ocean (1787-1789). Promoted to rear admiral in 1791, he was selected to search for La Pérouse with the frigates La Recherche and L’Espérance and promoted further to viceadmiral and died from scurvy in 1793. A. d’Entrecasteaux sent back a Mémoire sur les Isles Philippines (Archives nationales, collection Asie Orientale, folder 46).

47

Scipion de Castries was born in May 1756, to a family of Southern French nobility. The head of the elder branch of the Castries family, Field Marshal and the Marquess of Castries, was Secretary of State for the Navy between 1780 and 1787. During his training, young Scipion took part in a 9-month campaign against piracy in the Mediterranean Sea. When France became allies with the nascent United States fighting for independence, he took part in six naval battles in the Caribbean Sea. He suffered a serious injury during the conquest of Granada Island. Transferred in February 1780 to one of the

48

50

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large warships escorting French Rochambeau’s army to the United States, he obtained permission to serve on frigates attacking isolated Navy vessels or, more often, British freighters. In 1782, he was ordered to sail to the West African coast where he captured two British ships. Scipion de Castries then became the captain of the larger frigate La Subtile. With his new ship, he was to remain for five years (1784-1789) in the Indian Ocean and the South East Asian waters. Promoted rear admiral after the Bourbon restoration, he died in 1830. Barthélémy de Lesseps published La Pérouse’s journal: Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse, Voyage de La Pérouse autour du monde pendant les années 1785, 1786, 1787 et 1788 [Voyage of La Pérouse around the world during the years...], Paris, Nouvelle Bibliothèque des Voyages, 1832, 4 vol.

49

On Lesseps’s own voyage from Petropavlovsk to Versailles, see Journal historique du voyage de M. de Lesseps, consul de France, employé dans l’expédition de M. le comte de La Pérouse en qualité d’interprète du roi […] [Historical Travel Journal of M. de Lesseps, Consul of France, who was hired to act as the King’s interpreter for the expedition of the Comte de La Pérouse], Paris, Impr. royale, 1790, 2 vol. Barthélémy de Lesseps’ nephew, Ferdinand de Lesseps, was to dig the Suez Canal.

50

Excerpts in D. Nardin, « La France et les Philippines sous l’Ancien Régime », op.cit., 1976, p. 26-27.

51

The French Revolutionary Wars of 1792 to 1802 were a series conflicts between the French Republic and Britain, Austria and several of the European monarchies.

52

Lord Nelson was killed during the battle, and the defeated French Admiral Pierre Charles Silvestre de Villeneuve, who was taken into captivity by the British, committed suicide in Brittany after his release a few months later.

53

54

Pierre Pigneau de Béhaine (1741-1799) became Apostolic Vicar of Cochinchina in 1771.

55

February 1793, June 1794 and September 1797 (D. Nardin, op. cit., p.35).

Capitaine de vaisseau Larcher, Projet d’établissement aux Philippines et à la Cochinchine, envoié [sic!] au Directoire Exécutif [Project for a settlement in the Philippines and Cochinchina sent to the Executive Directory – i.e. the French government of the time], Paris, 16 Fructidor an V (2 September 1797), Archives nationales d’Outremer, FR ANOM C15 folios 6-9, published by Henri Cordier, Mélanges d’histoire et de géographies orientale [Mixture of Oriental history and geography], vol. III, Paris, Jean Maisonneuve & Fils, 1922, pp. 145-151.

56

57

See Félix Renouard de Sainte Croix, op. cit., vol. 2, 390 p.

Paul-Anne de Nourquer du Camper (1776-1849), great-grandnephew of Marquess Joseph-François Dupleix, former Governor-General of Pondicherry (1697-1763), became Governor of French Guyana (1837-39) and finally Governor of the French East-Indies (1840-44); author of « Voyage aux îles Moluques, aux îles Philippines, à la Chine, à la Cochinchine […] [Travel to the Moluccas, Philippine Islands, China and Cochinchina…]», Annales maritimes et coloniales, 1824, vol. I, pp.105-161 et pp.186-204.

58

La Sémillante sailed from Brest to Isle-de-France in 1803, with the admiral Durand de Linois’ squadron.

59

Born in Honfleur (Normandy) to a family of navy officers, Léonard Motard was bestowed the title of baron in 1810 and promoted to rear-admiral in 1811. He died in Honfleur in 1852 (Ch. Bréard, Le vieux Honfleur et ses marins, biographies et récits militaires, Rouen, Gagniard, 1897, 265-317).

60

61

Spanish currency at that time. 51

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62

Renouard de Sainte-Croix, op. cit., p. 323.

Efren B. Isorena, “Maritime Disasters In Spanish Philippines: The ManilaAcapulco Galleons, 1565–1815”, International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies (IJAPS, Universiti Sains Malaysia), vol. 11 No.1, 2015, p. 58.

63

Born in Brest in 1768, to a family of navy officers, César Bourayne entered the Navy in 1781, at 12 years of age where he worked his way up to becoming an officer. He was sent to the Indian Ocean after his promotion to captain in 1803. Given the title of baron in 1811, he became a rear admiral and died in Brest in 1817. His title was confirmed by the Bourbon King Louis XVIII in 1815.

64

Henri Prentout, L’Île de France sous Decaen, 1803-1810: essai sur la politique coloniale du Premier Empire et la rivalité de la France et de l’Angleterre dans les Indes Orientales [The Île de France under Decaen, 1803-1810: an essay on the colonial policy of France’s First Empire and the rivalry between France and England in the East Indies], Paris, Hachette, 1901, p. 481-482.

65

Chevalier Thorel de La Trouplinière, Voyages et campagnes dans les mers de l’Inde et à l’Océan Pacifique à bord des frégates la Canonnière, la Caroline, la Vénus, la Néréide [Travels and campaigns to the Indian seas and the Pacific Ocean, on the…], Paris, 1822, p. 7.

66

67

Thorel de La Trouplinière, loc. cit.

Alexandre Louis du Crest de Villeneuve (1777-1852) became rear admiral in 1832 and received the grand'croix de la Légion d’honneur, the highest French order, both for his skills and exceptional bravery.

68

Achille de Kergariou (1775-1820), La mission de la Cybèle en Extrême-Orient, 1817- 1818, journal de voyage […] [The Cybèle's mission to the Far-East, 1817-1818, travel journal…], Paris, É. Champion, 1914, ed. by Pierre de Joinville.

69

Born in 1781, son of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville and of Marie-Flore de Montendre, rear admiral de Bougainville died in 1838.

70

Vice-admiral Cyril Pierre Théodore Laplace (1793-1875), Voyage autour du Monde par les Mers de l’Inde et de la Chine exécuté sur la Corvette de l’État la Favorite, pendant les années 1830-32 [Journey around the world through the India and China Seas, aboard the state corvette la Favorite in the years 1830-32], Paris, Imprimerie Royale, 1833, Philippines, vol. 1., p. 353-451.

71

Vice-Admiral Auguste-Nicolas Vaillant (1793-1858), Voyage autour du monde exécuté pendant les années 1836 et 1837, sur la Corvette la Bonite […] Relation du voyage par A. de La Salle…, [Travel around the world made in the years 1836 and 1837, on the corvette la Bonite … Account of the travel by…], Paris, A. Bertrand, 1845-1852, 3 vol.

72

Born in Isle Bourbon (today La Réunion) in 1774, Pierre-Henri Philibert introduced vanilla plants to his native island. He died mysteriously in Paris in 1824.

73

See Denis Nardin, « Un Français aux Philippines : La Gironière », Archipel No. 14, 1977, pp. 15-18.

74

Paul Proust de La Gironière, Aventures d’un gentilhomme breton aux îles Philippines [The Adventures of a Breton Aristocrat in the Philippines Islands], Paris, 1855, reprint Les Portes du Large, 2001, 278 p.

75

76

Due to a highly restrictive international trade tariff policy by Argentina in the 1830s.

77

Denis Nardin, « Les Français à Basilan, un projet de colonisation avorté [The French 52

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in Basilan, a failed colonization project]», Archipel No. 15, 1978, p. 30 n. 4. Jean-Baptiste Cécille (1787-1873) was elected to the National Assembly after the downfall of King Louis-Philippe in 1848. He became Ambassador to London in 1849, then supported Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, later Emperor Napoléon III, who made him a senator. In 1847, he was bestowed the title of count by Pope Pius IX .

78

The Prime Minister was the old Maréchal (field marshall) Soult, Duke of Dalmatia.

79

Born in Nîmes 1787, to a Protestant family, François Guizot was the son of a father beheaded in 1794 during the French Revolution. His mother moved the family then to Geneva. Returning to France in 1805, Guizot studied law in Paris and started publishing numerous contributions in newspapers, books and translations from English, including works by the great historian Edward Gibbon. In 1812 he was appointed professor of contemporary history at Sorbonne University, where his lectures increased his reputation, and gave him access to the Liberal Party. Entering high public office with the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, he was expelled from the government in 1820, and banned from teaching between 1822 and 1830, a period during which he published his major historical works. Elected to the House of Representatives in 1830, he became Minister of Education (1832-1837), Minister of Foreign Affairs (1840-1847) and de facto Prime Minister, then Prime Minister (1847-1848). He was elected to the Académie Française in 1836. He retired in 1848 and died in his country house of Val-Richer, Normandy, in 1874 (see G. de Berthier de Sauvigny, Encyclopaedia Universalis).

80

Born in Amiens in 1800 to an aristocratic family, Théodore de Lagrené entered diplomacy in 1822 under the administration of Foreign Minister Mathieu de Montmorency-Laval. He became fluent in Russian after a first posting in St. Petersburg, where he courted and later married Marie Varinska Doubenskaïa, nicknamed ‘the little bird’, then lady-in-waiting to the Empress, incurring the ire of Alexander Pushkin who challenged him to a duel. Lagrené gallantly refused, arguing that he could not fight against Russia’s greatest writer. After his stints in China and the Philippines, T. de Lagrené became a member of the French peerage and grand-officier de la Légion d’honneur, the second highest rank in the highest French order. He died in 1866.

81

82

Huangpu, some 25 kilometers downstream Canton.

Guizot had in hand a map of the Anambas islands (“Archipel des Anambas, carte de la baie Tupinier”) published in Cyrille Laplace’s Voyage autour du monde par les mers de l’Inde et de la Chine, exécuté sur la corvette de l’État La Favorite, pendant les années 1830, 1831 et 1832 […] Atlas hydrographique [Journey around the world through the India and China seas, on the state corvet la Favorite, in the years… hydrographic Atlas], Paris, Imprimerie royale, 1833.

83

François Guizot, « Introduction », in id., La Chine, racontée par Laurence Oliphant et traduite par… [China, relation by Laurence Oliphant, translated by…], Paris, Michel Lévy Frères, 1875, pp. 3-4.

84

T.-F. Page, Soulou et ses dépendances, 7 May 1843, Archives des Affaires étrangères, mém. & doc. Asie No. 24, ff. 38-57.

85

86

Traditional sailing boat.

87

James F. Warren, The Sulu Zone, the Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery and Ethnicity 53

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in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State, Singapore, Singapore University Press, 1981, p. 99. Born in Angoulême in 1808, Jean Mallat was a medical doctor, who had engaged into trade in Canton for a while, before becoming head surgeon of the San Juan de Dios Hospital in Manila.

88

Jean Mallat, Archipel de Solou ou Description des groupes de Bassilan [The Sulu archipelago or Description of the Basilan Islands], Paris, Pollet, 1843, in-8°, 160 p.

89

Jean Mallat, Les îles Philippines, considérées au point de vue de l’hydrographie et de la linguistique, ou Description des mers, des côtes, des détroits... ; suivie d’un coup d’oeil sur les idiomes de ces îles, d’un recueil de phrases, de dialogues et d’un vocabulaire français, tagalog et bisaya [The Philippine Islands, as seen from a hydrographic and linguistic point of view, or Description of the seas, coasts, straits… ; followed by an overview of the idioms of these islands, a collection of sentences, dialogs, and a French, Tagalog and Bisaya lexicon], Paris, Pollet et Cie , 1843, XII-108-60 p.

90

Jean Mallat’s connections are illustrated by the book (Fig. 22) preserved in BULAC (Universities library for languages and civilizations, Paris): it is dedicated by the author to H.R.H. the Prince de Joinville (1818-1900), 3rd son of King Louis- Philippe, who himself served in the Navy.

91

See Claudine Salmon, « La mission de Théodose de Lagrené et les enquêtes sur les textiles d’Insulinde (1844-1846) [Théodose de Lagrené’s mission and the inquiries on Insulindian (Maritime Southeast Asia) textiles…]», Archipel No. 75, 2008, pp. 167-197; Guy Durand & Jean-François Klein, « Une impossible liaison ? Marseille et le commerce à la Chine, 1815-1860 [An impossible Route, Marseilles and the China trade]», Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine, No. 57/1, 2010, pp. 139-167.

92

93

Denis Nardin, « Les Français à Basilan… », op. cit., p. 33.

94

Anonymous, « Lettre de Chine », Revue des Deux Mondes, June 1, 1845, p. 1033.

Docteur Gestin, « Le traité d’amitié et de commerce avec la Chine en 1844 et l’expédition de Basilan », extrait des mémoires du…, reprint, La Nouvelle Revue, vol. LCI, juillet-août 1906, p. 201.

95

V. de Mars, « Chronique de la Quinzaine, 31 mai 1845 [The Bi-weekly Chronicles]», Revue des deux Mondes, vol. 10, 1845, p. 1034.

96

Dr. Melchior Yvan, Voyages et récits [Travels and Accounts], Bruxelles, Meline, Cans & Cie, vol. 1., 1853, p. 219, who noticed the point during his stay in Sulu.

97

Which was published by Alexander Dalrymple in the “Essay toward an account of Sulu”, Oriental Repertory, Londres, G. Bigg, 1793, pp. 525-531.

98

99

A sailor named Toche.

Dr. Melchior Yvan (Voyages et récits, Bruxelles, Meline, Cans & Cie, 1853, Part II, p. 180) mentions a third man.

100

101

J. F. Warren, The Sulu Zone, op. cit., p. XX.

According to the testimonies gathered by Dr. Melchior Yvan, op. cit., p. 196, local women did even more, ‘enjoying’ the company of the young prisoners.

102

103

Docteur Gestin, « Le traité d’amitié et de commerce avec la Chine en 1844… , 54

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op. cit., n. 1 pp. 202-203. Cesar Adib Majul, who did not have access to French sources, mistook T. Page’s expedition to Basilan in April 1843 for those of Guérin in November 1844, during which the two sailors were taken into captivity (C.A. Majul, Muslims in the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, University of the Philippines Press, 1973, p. 322). The French diplomat’s name was not ‘Grene’, but ‘(de) Lagrené’ and Lagrené and Cécille’s warship in the Philippines was not the Erigone, but the Archimède, etc.

104

105

Anti-piracy light boats.

Dr. Robert Gestin, « Souvenirs maritimes (1843 à 1854) », Service historique de la Marine, Revue Maritime, 1904/04, p. 40.

106

Admiral Cécille’s report, abstract, in Dr. Gestin, Le traité d’amitié et de commerce... IIe partie, n. 1, pp. 209-211. Iman Baran is the same as Tuan Baran (Dr. Yvan, op. cit., p. 193) who participated in the negotiation of the ransom, getting 100 piasters for his mediation (Dr. Gestin, op. cit., n. 1 p. 202). Jules Itier (Journal d’un voyage en Chine en 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, Paris, Dauvin & Fontaine, 1848, p. 185) adds that he was the chief of Balagtasan.

107

108

J. F. Warren, The Sulu Zone, op. cit., pp. 186-189.

109

2.8 km west from Tairan.

110

One of the Barangays of Lantawan.

111

Two minor chiefs signed the document on January 23.

112

J. Itier, op. cit., p. 195.

Dr. Gestin, op. cit., p. 200. The Latin name of the manchineel is ipomane mancinella, a small tree originating from Caribbean and South America, whose fruits, leaves, and sap are equally toxic. The tree had probably been brought to Sulu by some Spaniard decades ago.

113

114

See excerpts of Admiral Cécille’s report in D. Gestin, op. cit., n. 1, pp. 213-217.

Wyndham had married a mestiza from Iloilo, spoke fluent Tausug and was highly respected in Jolo, where he anchored his schooner (Warren, op. cit., pp. 5152). Among his customers were Singapore merchants and James Brooke himself.

115

116

The Tausug masters usually killed the slaves who tried to escape.

117

J. Itier, op. cit., p. 200.

The Anglo-French blockade of the Rio de la Plata was formally notified on 18 September 1845, aiming to protect the secession of Montevideo from Uruguay, then allied with Argentina (see Christian Hermann, « La diplomatie de la France en Amérique Latine au lendemain des Indépendances », Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez, No. 28/3, 1992, pp. 80-81).

118

An Anglo-French expedition bombed Tamatave, the capital of the Merina Kingdom, in June 1845, in retaliation for Queen Ranavalona I’s persecutions against Christians.

119

Prince Antoine d’Orléans, duke of Montpensier, married the Spanish infanta Luisa Fernanda de Borbón, daughter of King Ferdinand VII, in 1846.

120

121

J.F. Warren, op. cit., p. 191. 55

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122 José Montero y Vidal, Historia general de Filipinas desde el descubrimiento de dichas islas hasta nuestros días [General History of the Philippines since the discovery of the Islands to the present day], Madrid, M. Tello, vol. III, 1887, footnote, p. 354.

See Nicole-Dominique Lê, Les Missions étrangères et la pénétration française au ViêtNam [The Missions Étrangères and French penetration into Viêt Nam], Paris, Mouton, 1975, p. 78-86.

123

Ángel Santos Hernández S.J., « El Viet-Nam, tierra de sangre (I) & (II) [Viet-Nam, land of blood] », Revista de Política Internacional, No. 12, 1972, p. 103. The first missionary to be executed was F. Isidore Gagelin, in October 1833; taken prisoner in Gia Ðinh, J. Marchand had to endure the horrifying ‘death by a thousand cuts’. A total of 7 missionaries were put to death between 1833 and 1838. See Cao Huy Thuần, Christianisme et colonialisme au Viêt-Nam, Paris, PhD thesis, Faculty of Law & Political Sciences, 1972, 563 p. 124

125 Brebion, A., Dictionnaire de bio-bibliographie générale, ancienne et moderne de l’Indochine Française [Dictionary of general ancient and modern bibliography of French Indochina], ed. by A. Cabaton, Paris, Société d’éditions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales, 1935, pp. 121-129.

The 1848 edict ordered the throwing of European missionaries into the sea with a rock tied around the neck; Annamites following the Imperial order would receive a reward of 30 silver bars; indigenous priests refusing apostasy would be marked on the face and sent to insalubrious regions. In 1851, indigenous priests, whether having apostatized or not, were to be cut in half (Ángel Santos Hernández, op. cit., p. 104-105). 126

127 Luís Alejandre Síntes, La guerra de la Cochinchina, cuando los españoles conquistaron Vietnam [The Cochinchina war, when the Spaniards conquered Vietnam], Barcelona, Edhasa, 2006, p. 93. 128 Eugénie’s maternal aunt, Enriqueta Kirkpatrick (1797-1872) had married Conde Domingo de Cabarrús (1798-1834), Francisco de Cabarrús' grandson. 129

José Montero y Vidal, Historia general de Filipinas, op. cit., p. 349.

130

L.A. Síntes, op. cit., p. 171.

131 One colonel, three majors, one captain and two military vicars for the general staff; one colonel, one major, one captain, one assistant-doctor and two chaplains for the task force; plus some 50-60 junior officers. 132 Colonel Henri de Ponchalon, Indo-Chine : souvenirs de voyage et de campagne, 18581860, Tours, Alfred Mame, 1866, p. 107.

Promoted to brigadier general, B. Ruiz de Lanzarote was replaced as chief of the Spanish expeditionary corps by Carlos Palanca Gutiérrez, who came back from a short visit to the Spanish Government as the Kingdom’s plenipotentiary for Annam. 133

134

H. de Ponchalon, op. cit., p. 147.

José Montero y Vidal, op. cit., p. 359 ; the troops were transported by the warship La Gironde (H. de Ponchalon, op. cit., p. 234). 135

136 Paulin Vial, Les Premières années de la Cochinchine, colonie française [The first years of Cochichina, French colony], Paris, Challamel Aîné, vol. 1, 1874, p. 82.

The rescue was made possible by the bravery of Lieutenant Araquistain, who managed to reach Saigon aboard a small boat, where he asked for help. 137

56

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138

H. de Ponchalon, op.cit., p. 252.

139

Northwest outskirts of Chợ Lớn.

140 Chùa Kiễng Phước, known by French as the Pagode des Clochetons (Small bells Pagoda). 141

José Montero y Vidal, Historia general de Filipinas, op. cit., p. 361.

Five Spanish officers, two sergeants, one corporal and one Tagal soldier were commended in the French Army Order. 142

143 Officiers de l’État-Major du Général de Division Aubert, Commandant Supérieur des Troupes du Groupe de l’Indochine, Histoire militaire de l’Indochine française des débuts à nos jours (Juillet 1930) [Military History of Indochina, from the beginning to the present day], Hanoi / Haïphong, Imprimerie d’Extrême-Orient, vol. 1, 1930, p. 34. 144 The Annamites set fire to the Ta-Dan Prison, killing 286 Christian and 27 non-Christian inmates.

His compatriot Pioquinta Grava « having died holding up the flag vis-àvis the enemy » (José Montero y Vidal, Historia general de Filipinas, op. cit., p. 368). 145

146

Luís Alejandre Síntes, La guerra de la Cochinchina, op. cit., p. 397.

Brother of Admiral Charles Jaurès, 1808-1870, both being first cousins of the father of the radical-socialist politician Jean Jaurès. 147

148 On the global role of Spain, see James W. Cortada,"Spain and the French Invasion of Cochinchina", Australian Journal of Politics & History No. 20/3, 1974, pp. 335-345. 149

José Montero y Vidal, Historia general de Filipinas, op. cit., p. 374.

See Carlos Palanca Gutiérrez’s testimony, with many excerpts of his dispatches: Reseña histórica de la expedición de Cochinchina, Carthagena, 1869, 489 p. The Spanish intervention in Cochinchina was the object of staunch criticism as early as 1862, as shown by Lieutenant Colonel Serafin Olave in Cuestión de Cochinchina, Aclaraciones [The Cochinchina Issue, Explanations], Madrid, 1862, 31 p. 150

151

Luís Alejandre Síntes, La guerra de la Cochinchina, op. cit., p. 406.

152 Léopold Pallu de la Barrière, Histoire de l’expédition de Cochinchine en 1861 [History of the expedition to Cochinchina in 1861], Paris, Berger-Levrault, 1888, p. 17.

Francisco de Arce, Noticias de la vida de Don Mariano de Ozcáriz [Note on the life of…], Madrid, 1864, quoted by José Montero y Vidal, op. cit., footnote p. 355. 153

57

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JOSÉ RIZAL AND THE FILIPINO ELITE IN FRANCE

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2

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1

JOSÉ RIZAL AND FRANCE: THE PENDULUM OF A CULTURAL ENCOUNTER

C

ommercial exchanges constituted the bulk of unofficial relations between the Philippines and France in the first half of the 19th  century. However, a few Filipinos braved the long sea travel and the great distance between the two countries and visited France after 1860— mostly students coming from Spain. Among them was the Philippines’ national hero José Rizal, who as a teenager, first discovered French culture through its literature1 translated into Spanish.2 Later on, he read novels by Eugène Sue3 and Alexandre Dumas,4 critical essays by Boileau5 and La Bruyère,6 philosophy by Voltaire7 and Jean-Jacques Rousseau,8 poetry by Victor Hugo,9 and Lamartine,10 historical works such as those by Adolphe Thiers,11 and many other works by other authors.12 After having taken a glimpse of Corsica’s coasts—"Napoléon’s fatherland”—as he described it to his family,13 José Rizal disembarked in Marseilles on the early morning of 13 June 1882. During this brief two-days-and-a-half stopover in France, he stayed at Le Grand Hôtel Noailles de Marseille, located on the Canebière along the city’s old harbor. He barely had time to explore the art museum, the zoo, and the museum of natural history, before taking the train to Barcelona.

A.

FRANCE AND OPHTHALMOLOGY Tourism and cultural encounters, 1883 Los ingleses en comparacíon con los franceses son bárbaros, me lo puedo aplicar […] hoy que me encuentro en Paris, me hallo y me considero casi hasta grosero... The English in comparison with the French are barbarian, which I can apply to myself […] now that I am in Paris, I am, and I consider myself, almost as crude… -- José Rizal, 21 June 188314 61

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Figure 27. Laënnec Hospital (postcard)

Rizal’s second trip to France started on 17 June 1883, and lasted a little more than two months during which—as he wrote to his parents—he was impressed by French culture. He also noticed the absence of the upper-classes—who, as usual during the summer, had deserted Paris for the countryside—abandoning the town to the poor and the middle-classes.15 Alongside the discovery of France’s capital, château de Versailles and Paris’ major museums of art, and a first immersion into French daily life, the purpose of his stay was to improve his medical training by visiting Paris’ hospitals and faculty of medicine.16 In Laënnec Hospital, he followed a consultation17 by Jules-Édouard Nicaise,18 professor at the Faculty of Medicine and member of the Medical Academy, and attended one of the professor’s operations the following day. He also attended another consultation, this time by Dr. Simon-Emmanuel Duplay,19 professor of surgical pathology, in Saint Antoine Hospital. In Lariboisière Hospital,20 he met an old classmate from the Ateneo de Manila,21 Félix Pardo de Tavera,22 who was then training to become pediatric surgeon. In addition, he visited major scientific museums: the Dupuytren Museum, located in the former Cordeliers’ Convent and dedicated to anatomical pathology,23 and the Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière Museum of Anatomy.24 By late August, he was back in Madrid. 62

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Figure 28. Lariboisière Hospital (postcard)

The choice of ophthalmology, 1885-1886 Rizal obtained his bachelor of medicine from the Universidad Central de Madrid on 28 June 1884,25 but remained in the capital to complete his doctoral studies in medicine and his baccalaureate in Philosophy and Letters, which he got in July 1885. During his spare time, he attended a few painting classes at Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando and started writing a novel set in his homeland, which would later become the Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not). Though Rizal never submitted his thesis, he passed all his doctoral subjects which allowed him to practice as a physician.26 Rizal’s third visit to France, which began in October 1885, was crucial for his medical training. For three months, he studied ophthalmology under the supervision of one of the most famous specialists of the time, Dr. Louis de Wecker, aka Ludwig von Wecker.27 Wecker taught private courses in his clinic located at 55 rue du Cherche-Midi, which could accommodate 50 to 100 patients. Though the tuition was free, Rizal was asked to bring his own ophthalmoscope (which cost $12,28 i.e. 12.65 pesos,29 when the average allowance his family30 sent him was only 50 pesos per month) to follow the sessions. Aside from German and French, Wecker spoke English and Spanish, which was of great help to Rizal. As Wecker was the first to fully master cataract 63

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surgery, he had become the ophthalmologist of French Empress Eugénie and the imperial court until the end of Napoléon III’s reign (1870). Wecker then opened a second clinic in Biarritz,31 close to the Spanish border and a highly fashionable city, where he spent the months of August and September to accommodate a royal and international clientele, such as Queen Isabella II of Spain. Wecker also visited Vienna every year, where Emperor Franz Joseph from Austria was one of his patients; the emperor’s brother-in-law, Duke Karl-Theodor in Bavaria,32 himself an ophthalmologist, assisted Wecker during his operations whenever it was possible. Thanks to the extremely high fees paid by his royal and rich clientele (the duchess of Medinaceli paid a bill amounting to 40,000 francs),33 Wecker was a millionaire: in Paris, he lived in a brand new house (“a palace”, as described by Rizal)34 at No. 31 Avenue d’Antin, completed in 1884 and decorated with numerous masterpieces such as a painting by Raphael. Built in 1878,35 Wecker’s villa in Biarritz (Figure 30) was equally luxurious with two storeys, a Louis XVI-style facade, and featured a terrace with ornate balusters. The door to Germany Louis de Wecker’s patronage opened for Rizal the doors to the best German universities, as the former was a friend of Professor Otto Becker36 from Heidelberg, and of Rudolf Virchow37 from the

Figure 29. Avenue d’Antin is now Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt (postcard) 64

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Figure 30. Biarritz, Villa de Wecker (postcard)

University of Berlin. On 3 February 1886, Rizal arrived in Heidelberg38 where he stayed for four months, working at the university eye clinic.39 He contacted Ferdinand Blumentritt, whose ethnological research on the Philippines had been published in July 1882.40 Blumentritt wrote him letters of recommendation for Prof. Rudolf Virchow and Dr. Andreas Fedor Jagor, author of Reisen in den Philippinen41 which Rizal had read in Spanish while studying at the Ateneo de Manila.42 Rizal then stayed in Leipzig for two months where he translated Friedrich Schiller’s William Tell into Tagalog, and met on October 31, the director of the Königlich Ethnographischen Museum [Royal Ethnographic Museum] of Dresden, Dr. Adolf Bernhard Meyer (1840–1911).43 Later, he left for Berlin, where he remained for six months, joined in December 1886 by his friend Maximo Viola44 (also a physician like him), after a brief stopover in Paris. While working at the faculty hospital, Rizal increased his knowledge on the anthropology of the Philippines thanks to his contacts with Dr. Jagor, whom he and Viola met in 1887.45 Prof. Virchow, who founded the Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte in 1869,46 invited Rizal to join the Berlin Society for Anthropology in January 1887.47 Rizal was admitted into the Society for Geography the following month. 65

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As a result, Noli Me Tangere, which Rizal had begun writing in Spain and continued in France, was completed both in Heidelberg and Berlin, and published in Germany. On their way back from Germany, Rizal and Viola visited Leitmeritz, Brunn, Prague, Vienna, Salzburg, Munich, Stuttgart, Geneva, and Rome, reaching Marseilles on n1 July 1887, from where he boarded the Djemnah48 to Manila on 3 July 1887.

B.

PARIS’ ‘EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE’ [WORLD EXPOSITION], 1889 After six months in the Philippines, and a return navigation across the Pacific Ocean (via Hong Kong, Tokyo, and San Francisco), Rizal took the railway to New York, sailed to Liverpool, and settled in London, where he found accommodations close to the British Museum. As he was preparing his scientific edition of Antonio de Morga’s Sucesos,49 he came to Paris for a week in September 1888 to search for documentation on the Philippines in the Bibliothèque Nationale (National Library). In January 1889, while he was still working on Morga’s book, he worked on a proposal that will take advantage of the opportunities offered by the holding of a universal exposition in Paris starting on 6 May 1889—one year after that of Barcelona—to promote scientific research on the Philippines: a good way to inform the European intellectual elite on the current situation of the country. The project of “Association internationale des Philippinistes”, Paris Rizal's plan was to gather the Europe-based scholars working on the Philippines into an academic society, the Association Internationale des Philippinistes, which would be chaired by F. Blumentritt, with Edmond Plauchut, journalist at the respected fortnightly Revue des Deux-Mondes and at the daily Le Temps,50 as vice-president, and José Rizal as secretary. Dr. Reinhold Rost (Secretary of the Royal Asiatic Society), Rizal’s best English supporter in London, and Dr. Antonio Maria Regidor51 would eventually complete the board. His proposal was to use the society to organize an international conference during the Paris World Exposition to be scheduled in August, with four provisional panels:52 1) pre-colonial Philippines; 2) from the arrival of the Spanish to the integration of the Philippines into the Spanish nationality [translation of “dans la nationalité 66

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Figure 31. Rizal’s project to establish an academic society, January 1889. (CRPFB II 1888-90, p. 433) The document mentions that “E. Plauchut, Ant. Regidor and J. Rizal” already accepted their appointment.

67

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Figure 32. Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, Paris, Garnier Hermanos, 1890

espagnole”, original text in French by Rizal] (1521-1808); 3) from the integration of the Philippines into the Spanish nationality [id., translation of the French original] to the Cavite military insurgency (1808-1872); 4) Linguistics and literature. Rizal thus arrived in Paris on 19 March 1889, to prepare for the conference and consult documents in the Bibliothèque Nationale to complete his work on Morga’s Sucesos. Unfortunately, he found the Bibliothèque Nationale collections rather disappointing as far as the Philippines were concerned.53 He launched an informal club for incoming Filipinos, named Kidlat (lightning), for the duration of the Exposition, but the name was short-lived, and it was soon replaced by Los Indios Bravos.54 In spite of the interest among scholars such as Dr. Schmeltz55 of the Leiden Ethnographic Museum, or Dr. Jagor from Berlin,56 the project of an Association Internationale des Philippinistes remained in limbo,57 even though Rizal still considered organizing a conference on the Philippines on September 30, but only for the ethnology section.58 If the French limited the number of conferences during the Exposition, it was for logistic reasons; the postponement of the workshop was mostly due to Rizal’s work on Morga, his regular 68

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contributions to La Solidaridad59 (the new bi-monthly journal of the Filipino elite in Madrid), and his preoccupation with the outlines of a new novel—a sequel to Noli Me Tangere, which later will be known as El Filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed). During the Paris Exposition, Rizal received a visit from Dr. Adolf B. Meyer, from Dresden, on 4 June 1889. As he needed to go to London to compare his draft edition of Morga’s Sucesos with the original in the British Library, Rizal took the train to Dieppe at the beginning of July;60 there he stayed for a few days before sailing to London. Back in Paris on July 12, he resumed work on his translation, sending the first proofs to Blumentritt, with the accompanying request for him to write the foreword. His friend obliged him. The book was published in Paris and in Spanish by the French publisher Libreria de Garnier Hermanos, i.e. Garnier Frères.61 Rizal sailed back to London on 6 January 1890 for a two-day trip, to buy some specific paper for Meyer.62 Sojourns in Brussels and Madrid In late January 1890, Rizal left Paris for Brussels,63 where, in addition to his work on his second novel, he wrote ten articles for La Solidaridad. Meanwhile, back in the Philippines, his family was plagued by more troubles. The petition written by the Calamba agrarian elite— asking for either proper contracts with Dominican estate managers,64 or the option to purchase the lands they had been working on—had been rejected by Governor-General Valeriano Weyler.65 Moreover, the Calamba petitioners were sued by the Dominican lay brother managers of the estate. If the Dominicans lost before the Calamba lower court,66 they won their appeal both before the Court of Laguna and the Manila Real Audiencia. Even though the tenants had already collectively secured the support of the Spanish Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo, Madrid), their families received notices of eviction, which were finally implemented on 14 August 1890. They were not even allowed to take their furniture with them and had to leave them on the street.67 Rizal, who was torn between leaving for the Philippines or staying in Spain, chose the latter and went to Madrid in August 1890. He devoted five months and spent time getting in touch with contacts and in writing papers for La Solidaridad regarding the situation in Calamba.68 All of his efforts were largely unsuccessful. Rizal decided instead, to complete the publication of El Filibusterismo before sailing back to the Philippines. 69

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Biarritz, 1891 As Rizal had been previously invited by the Boustead family, whom he first met in 1889,69 he went to Biarritz on 27 January 1891, where he spent two months writing and courting the charming Nelly Boustead. After a few days in Paris in early April, he went back to Brussels on 8 April 1891, and finally settled at the end of June in Ghent where he found a publisher, F. Meyer-Van Loo,70 who was willing to be paid on an installment basis (obviously upon the advice of Antonio Luna, who was then working in the Flemish city). He remained in Ghent, next door to his publisher, to complete the editing of El Filbusterismo and to correct proofs. He returned to Paris on 3 October 1891 with several hundred copies of the book and he left for Marseilles after a fortnight, then sailed to Manila. He was never to return.

Figure 33. Villa Eliada, Residence of Edward Boustead in Biarritz (Retrato Collection of the Filipinas Heritage Library)

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II

RIZAL’S NETWORKS IN FRANCE

Figure 34. Juan Luna, “La Parisienne”. Rizal is among the three Filipinos seated at the background of the painting. (GSIS Collection)

A.

LIFE IN FRANCE

Living in Paris was not so easy for José Rizal, whose income was

already barely sufficient even before the eviction of the Mercados from Calamba. It became even more problematic thereafter, especially as Paris was the most expensive capital of Europe at that time. The cost of living in Berlin was about three times cheaper which would explain why Rizal stayed longer in Germany than in France, and spent much more time in Spain. Since the cost of accommodation increased by fifty percent during the Paris 1889 World Exposition,71 Rizal had to stay with Valentin Ventura in October 1889.72 Most French people were totally ignorant of the Philippines. In Marseilles in 1882, Rizal was routinely mistaken for an American, a Chinese, or a Japanese.73 Similar mishaps occurred in 1883: during 71

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Figure 35. Residence of the Pardo de Taveras in Paris (Pardo de Tavera Library and Special Collections of the Rizal Library of Ateneo de Manila University)

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an exhibition at the Palais de l’Industrie et des Beaux-arts, he was taken for a Japanese.74 He himself noted, that in Spain, he would have been mistaken for a Chinese. When he visited Laënnec Hospital on 18 June 1883, the ‘Japanese’ Rizal was introduced to a Frenchman (Mr. ‘Saint Rémiz’75) who, as it turned out, had lived in Japan for years, to the pleasant surprise of both. At that time, the Japanese were the most popular Asians in France, owing to the popularity of a trend called Japonisme,76 which blossomed at the end of the century with the Art Nouveau (New Art) school, borne out of the influence of Japanese aesthetics and artists such as the masters of ukiyo-e—Hokusai, Hiroshige and Utamaro, whose color prints were in high demand in the beginning of the 1860s. Like Rizal himself, the Japanese were newcomers to France and were highly educated, but more prosperous. Rizal’s financial constraints did not allow him access to the French high society, ‘le grand monde’, as it was called at time. However, Rizal’s life in Paris, particularly when he went to Juan Luna’s atelier and the house of the Pardo de Taveras, he was able to establish connections with some of the French intellectual elite through his illustrado friends.

B.

MEDICAL NETWORKS IN PARIS Among Rizal’s Parisian friends, the wealthiest illustrados were the Pardo de Taveras:77 thanks to the income generated by their real estate properties in the Philippines, they could afford a 14 Avenue de Wagram address, in the expensive 8th arrondissement (district) in 1886,78 and seaside holidays at Berck, in the north of France, in a pleasant villa close to Baroness James de Rothschild’s chalet.79 Their aristocratic origins and their wealth made them fully part of the Parisian international elite. Dr. Félix Pardo de Tavera’s older brother, Dr. Trinidad Hermenegildo,80 was a physician, too, and an orientalist who graduated in Malay in June 188581 at the École Nationale des Langues Orientales Vivantes82—an institution Rizal himself visited in 1889, at the instigation of Trinidad.83 As with the Pardo de Taveras, two thirds of the Paris-based young male illustrados worked for the health sector. Felipe Zamora,84 whom Rizal met in June 1883, was privately training in obstetrics with Étienne Tarnier85 in Paris. Thanks to Joaquín González86 who had specialized in ophthalmology under Louis de Wecker, Rizal became one of Wecker’s assistants in 1885. 73

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Figure 36. Marriage Certificate of Paz Pardo de Tavera and Juan Luna. (Archives de Paris, V4E 6106)

74

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Figure 37. Doña Juliana Gorricho vda. de Pardo de Tavera and Paz Pardo de Tavera (Pardo de Tavera Library and Special Collections of the Rizal Library of the Ateneo de Manila University)

Jose Albert87 got his medical degree in Madrid in 1889 before leaving for the Paris Exposition, after which he proceeded to Brussels where he shared accommodations with Rizal for a while. Juan Luna’s younger brother, Antonio,88 who sailed to Europe in 1886, was a pharmacist who first worked in Paris as a microbiologist at the prestigious Institut Pasteur under the supervision of Dr. Pierre Paul Émile Roux,89 then in Ghent as deputy-director of the biology laboratory.90 Ariston Bautista-Lin,91 an old relation of Rizal’s, who came to Paris in 1889 for the Exposition, obtained his doctorate in medicine two years later in Madrid. There were exceptions to the Filipino inclination to work in the health sector, such as Mariano Cunanan92 in 1883, who studied agronomy, and since the end of 1884, the painters Félix Resurrección Hidalgo93 and Juan Luna, one of Rizal’s closest friends.94 Luna had been awarded a gold medal at the National Art Exhibition of Madrid95 in 1884.

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The Boustead Family 1889 was probably the most interesting and pleasant of Rizal’s trips to France. Rizal really enjoyed going from the Pardo de Taveras to the Bousteads, finding in both places Filipino cooking and a warm welcome.96 The Bousteads were much richer than the Pardo de Taveras, but were neither proper illustrados nor scholars. A British citizen known in the Philippines as Eduardo, Edward Boustead Jr. was the son of a Malay mother, Jabidah, and the British Edward Boustead,97 who had founded a prosperous trading company in Singapore at the end of the 1820s. The first Edward Boustead had three children with his Malay mistress: Edward, Jane and John. After founding the Singapore Chamber of Commerce, he came back to England in 1850 with his children, to coordinate the main branches of his business: Penang, Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Manila.

Figure 38. In Luna’s atelier (from left to right): Rizal with a turban, Paz Pardo de Tavera, Nelly Boustead, Félix Resurreción Hidalgo and Adelina Boustead; seated, Mrs. Boustead (Pardo de Tavera Library and Special Collections of the Rizal Library of the Ateneo de Manila University) 76

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ra, d

Figure 39. Nelly Boustead (Retrato Collection of the Filipinas Heritage Library)

Figure 40. José Rizal’s drawing of Adelina Boustead, 1889. (Retrato Collection of the Filipinas Herigage Library)

Born circa 1837, and educated in Europe—in Germany and England—Edward Boustead Jr. was sent back to Asia by his father after 1850. Working in the company office in Manila at the end of the 1860s, he created his own firm—E. Boustead Jr.98—and married Dolores de Ocampo, a mestiza, who gave him three children, Helen (aka Nelly, 1871),99 Adelina (1876) and Edward Samuel100 (1887, born in Paris). Living at 3 rue des Bassins101 (Paris 16), E. Boustead represented the Philippine cigar company La Puerta del Sol102 at the 1889 World Exposition in Paris. At the end of the century, the Boustead Group103 developed numerous activities, including merchant banking and shipping, the latter giving birth to Keppel Group. Thanks to the Pardo de Tavera’s salon, Rizal and some of their illustrado friends went to Mallat de Bassilan’s house, where a collection of artifacts from the Southern Philippines was displayed. Contrary to F. Villanueva’s assertions,104 they could not have met Jean Mallat himself, as he died in 1863, but rather his son, MarcelJacques,105 a novelist, librettist, and translator. Another close relation of the Pardo de Taveras was Edmond Plauchut.106 After first being shipwrecked in Cape Verde while sailing to Manila, E. Plauchut landed in Manila in 1852, and remained in the Philippines and the Far East for a decade.107 Plauchut gathered testimonies on the 77

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Figure 41. Edmond Plauchut’s file. Library of the Société de Géographie, 1882

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execution of the three priests following the Cavite rebellion in 1872,108 and interviewed Joaquín Pardo de Tavera in 1877.109 As a republican and a liberal, he was close to French Masonic networks, if not himself a Mason.

C.

THE MASONIC CONNECTION Though Masonry reached the Philippines around 1850, its membership was mostly limited to Europeans and its influence occasional.110 During the 1880s, it was thus mostly in Spain that Filipinos were initiated. The first lodge admitting proper Indios (and not mestizos) and Cubans as members was the lodge Porvenir, to which Graciano López Jaena111 had been affiliated to before 1884. One of the more active lodges in Madrid was Solidaridad No. 359, founded in April 1886,112 and which López Jaena eventually joined in 1887.113 With the support of López Jaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar founded the Propaganda committee in Manila in 1888, and then fled to Spain to avoid capture. López Jaena established the lodge Revolución No.65 in Barcelona in April 1889. Though some authors believe that Rizal entered the lodge Acacia No. 9 as early as 1883,114 the assertion remains undocumented.115 Rizal’s first contacts with Masonry were indirect, through the republican Miguel Morayta y Sagrario,116 one of Rizal’s professors in philosophy and universal history at the Universidad de Madrid. Morayta had entered Masonry in July 1863117 and was one of its dignitaries in the 1870s. Morayta knew Rizal since 1883,118 and was present at the dinner in Madrid on 25 June 1884 celebrating the triumphs of Luna and Félix Hidalgo at the 1884 Madrid Exposition of Fine Arts, during which Rizal made a remarkable speech on the relation between Spain and Philippines. No sources prior to 1889 mentions Rizal’s affiliation to any Madrid lodge. However, he was already a Freemason in May 1889119 and appears as a grade 3 (i.e. ‘master’) in lodge Solidaridad No. 53 (symbolic name Dimasalang, ie. Noli Me Tangere) in 1890,120 a lodge exclusively for Filipinos. In Paris, the illustrado network was thus capable of connecting with some members of the French liberal and masonic elite, even more so because Trinidad Pardo de Tavera and his brother Félix established a masonic triangle with Antonio Luna and Ariston Bautista-Lin121 in 1889. All Propaganda122 members had been admitted into Masonry between 1882 and 1890. 79

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Figure 42. Diploma of ‘maître du Grand Orient de France’ delivered in absentia on 15 February 1892 to ‘Rizal, homme de lettres (writer)’

The Paris World Exposition gave French Masons an opportunity to organize the Congrès Maçonnique International du Centenaire (Masonic International Congress for the Centenary),123 1789-1889, on 16 to17  July 1889. The Congress was probably one of the reasons for the visit to Paris of Segismundo Moret y Prendergast,124 a former Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs and later Prime Minister, who had asked for a discussion with the author of Noli Me Tangere.125 Rizal knew the minister’s son, Lorenzo (whom he described as a “semi-friend"), as they traveled together to visit Professors Jagor and Virchow in Germany in December 1886.126 Rizal had also met Moret in Madrid once before, during the banquet honoring the painters Luna and Hidalgo in June 1884.127 On his way back to Manila, just before leaving for Marseilles, Rizal was received on 14 October 1891 (Figure 42) in the Temple de l’Honneur et de l’Union128 (part of Grand Orient de France), with which the brothers Pardo de Taveras and Juan Luna were already affiliated. Ten years later, on 18 June 1901, Trinidad Pardo de Tavera founded a new Filipino lodge under the French Grand Orient,129 “Logia Rizal”, which was later affiliated under the Spanish Grand Orient.

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III

RIZAL AFTER RIZAL IN FRANCE

Beyond his Masonic connection, Rizal was also known to the French intellectual elite. In 1888, the Revue d'Anthropologie mentioned the publication of Rizal's presentation on Tagal versification at the Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie.130 Two years later, in 1890, the respectable Revue d'Histoire Diplomatique cited his edition of Morga's Sucesos in its bibliographic section.131

A.

RIZAL’S EXECUTION VIEWED FROM FRANCE But it was the Philippine insurgency and Rizal’s trial that grabbed the attention of the French newspapers. Plauchut was the first to describe the motivations for the rebellion in the daily Le Temps (14 October 1896), noted the increasing frequency of political unrest in the Philippines since 1812, the popularity of Masonry among the local elite, the behavior of religious orders, and the lack of freedom of Filipinos as a whole. Presenting Rizal as “a creole of unusual intelligence”, Plauchut analyzed his arrest upon his arrival from Spain as both retaliation for Noli Me Tangere and a precaution against the spread of insurgency. Moreover, Plauchut wrote about the revolutionary program as published in the leaflet Kalayaan, adding that in case of a rebellion by the Tagal troops, Spain would be unable to reconquer the country. On 31 December 1896, L’Univers132—a Catholic newspaper— announced, in a few lines and without giving any explanation, that Rizal had been sentenced to death and that on 29 December 1896, he entered ‘into chapel’ (i.e. to prepare for eternal life) assisted by Jesuit priests. Le Matin,133 on 26 December 1896, wrote “One expects the death sentence of the famous agitator Rizal by the war council”, thus implicitly supporting the death sentence. On the contrary, the anticlerical newspaper Le Radical134 (1 January 1897) announced Rizal’s execution, adding that Jesuits’ efforts to obtain a confession on the conspiracy remained in vain, and that Rizal requested, in extremis, to marry his Canadian (sic!) mistress.135 81

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Le Radical increased the tragic dimension of the drama by adding that the authorities refused to return the body to Rizal’s family to prevent demonstrations and that the Manila Council of War was to indict eleven more ‘other leaders’ of the insurgency, among which “three priests, a millionaire notary and a banker”, thus showing the antagonism between the local elite and Spain. On 31 December 1896, La Justice,136 whose political director was the well-known radical politician Georges Clémenceau,137 published similar information, depicting Rizal as a “most distinguished man”, who had studied in “European capitals, mainly in Paris” (which, of course, was erroneous) and obtained three doctorates—in literature, sciences, and medicine—the inflation of Rizal’s diplomas being a way to indirectly criticize his execution. A.-S. Grenier’s reflection in his Répertoire des faits politiques, sociaux, économiques et généraux, année 1896 (Index of the political, social, economic and general events…) seemed to be the most objective and factual reporting of Rizal’s death at that time: Like Chief Marshal Campos in Cuba, Chief Marshal Blanco was in favor of conciliation in the Philippines. He was recalled on 8 December 1896 and was replaced by General Polavieja, a follower of General Weyler. Polavieja marked his arrival in Manila with many executions, especially that of a patriot, Dr. Rizal, which was perpetrated in particularly cruel circumstances.138 […] His unjustified execution came as a painful surprise to the civilized world.139

B.

THE PHILIPPINE DRAMA GOES ON, 1897-1905 As the Philippine insurgency went on, Plauchut gave a detailed analysis of the troubles in the monthly magazine Cosmopolis in mid1897, with a homage to Rizal:140 In spite of the actions of Governor-General Blanco, the religious corporations denounced him to Madrid as incompetent and too conciliatory toward the insurrectionists. They had wanted merciless deportations and countless capital executions. But, what exasperated them — what they held the most against Blanco—was for his not having executed Rizal, a pure Indio. They regarded him as their enemy, the instigator of the rebellion, 82

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to whom they owed the hostility of a population which had previously venerated them, but which now uttered death threats against them. This Rizal, whose portrait has been printed on thousands of copies and distributed widely in all the islands of the Spanish archipelago, has become, since his tragic death, a venerated martyr for the rebellious Indios. He was raised by the Dominicans in Manila.141 Once in Europe, he studied medicine, law, sciences, and foreign languages, then went back to his native land, decorated with university degrees, but rather unfortunately, also a freemason and the author of a novel entitled Noli Me Tangere. This novel, which exposed the manners of the monks, showed how, under a paternal appearance, these same monks were the most despotic, rapacious, and vicious of priests. The congregations added the book to the Index142 and the author, after having seen his assets confiscated, his brothers expelled, and his old mother banished, was relegated to Mindanao, a large island entirely populated by fanatical Muslims, the mortal enemies of Spain. He lived there more or less excommunicated, when, by chance, he happened to hear that the troops fighting in Cuba needed surgeons and doctors. At once, he requested the permission to go there to look after patients, in his capacity of being a doctor and surgeon. His request was approved, but, when he was already ashore in Barcelona, and was about to take the boat to Havana, he was arrested, sent back to Manila, where, immediately upon arriving, he was tried and sentenced, and put to death. […] He fell under the bullets without boastfulness, claiming his loyalty to the crown of Spain, saying that he should not have to be sentenced as a revolutionist when he simply asked for the Philippines to be freed from the odious yoke of the monks. The Indios furiously avenged their champion’s death by massacring a certain number of Spanish monks. From now on, it will be in the name of Rizal that the Philippines will raise and fight. The anarchist journal L’Humanité nouvelle, revue internationale : sciences, lettres et arts,143 devoted two dozen pages to José Rizal in its first issue (mid-1897), publishing excerpts of Noli Me Tangere under the title “La voix des persécutés (The Voice of the Persecuted)”,144 a critique of Spain’s colonial policy, the French translation of his last poem “Ma dernière pensée (My Last Farewell)” and a short biography by J. (or P.) Mario.145 On 4 September 1897, Ramon Sempau, who occasionally worked for Garnier Frères (Brothers), the publisher of Rizal’s edition of Morga, and was—along with the French Henri Lucas—Rizal’s translator into French, badly injured a Spanish lieutenant who had tortured anarchist prisoners detained at the 83

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Montjuïc Jail in Barcelona, adding that he wanted to avenge Rizal’s death. Sempau was thus sentenced to death. Mario’s biography was well-documented and particularly impassioned: A horrible crime has been just been committed. A young man of very great merit, Dr. D. José Mercado Rizal, has been executed by firing squad in the Philippines, following the sentence of a Council of War. This iniquitous act was the final straw in creating the abyss between the Philippines and Spain. […] Sleep in peace, dearest friend, your memory will never be erased from our hearts, the bed of oblivion is not the one you will be sleeping on… For the sake of your country, and for it only, you left this fleeting existence to enter immortal life; your deeds will live eternally alongside your memory, as just punishment for your enemies, and as a beneficial lesson for the future generations. Rest in peace [… ] When the Philippines becomes the master of its own destiny, it will give your ashes the honor they deserve. When it governs its own history, it will want to write your name in golden letters next to the names of those who suffered the same martyrdom for the same sacred cause. Until then, let the ardent worship that each Filipino devotes to your memory with the depth of his heart, be sufficient to you. In a less grandiloquent way than Mario, the professor and journalist André Bellessort, who had spent a few days in the Philippines on his way to Japan in November 1897, depicted Rizal as “the noblest, perhaps the only noble figure of the insurrection” in a paper published in January 1899.146 Jean Jaurès’ Preface Writing in 1900 the foreword to Henri Turot’s book on Aguinaldo,147 Jean Jaurès provided the most moving commentary on Rizal’s life: The life and the death of Rizal are undoubtedly one of the most moving episodes of the history of mankind. While in Europe, he soaked up all modern science; he came back to the Philippines not to create an uprising, but to try by a supreme effort to open up the minds of the masters to new 84

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Figure 43. “Mme Josephine Rizal, veuve du Dr Rizal et un des chefs des rebelles des Philippines [Mrs. Josephine Rizal, Dr. Rizal’s widow and one of the leaders of the rebellion in the Philippines]” (drawing, La Revue des Revues, 3rd quarter 1898)148

Figure 44. Josephine Bracken in Filipino dress, Dapitan, January 1896. The opposite portrait and its legend are pure imagination, all the more that Josephine was already living in Hong Kong where she remarried a Filipino in December 1898. 85

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necessities. But he was arrested, tried, shot: and before dying, on the very night preceding his torment, while his fiancée cried kneeling behind the door of his cell, he wrote an admirable poem where the love of freedom merges with an unknown pantheistic worship of earth and sky. Turot was right to give us the details of this tragic event: the life and death of Rizal leave a kind of sacred shiver in our souls, and it seems impossible that the people, who inspired such a devotion, are still not free. The reception of Rizal’s ordeal was all the more significant because most of the journalists and politicians who paid him homage (including Plauchut)—with the exception of Jean Jaurès and a few others—were in favor of colonization not only in Africa, but in a highly civilized neighbor of the Philippines: Vietnam.

C.

LITERARY WORKS OF JOSÉ RIZAL THROUGH THE FRENCH MEDIA Rizal as a novelist Not only were the French progressive elites impressed by the character of José Rizal, but they had access to his literary works too. A first French edition of Noli Me Tangere was published in 1897 under the title of Aux pays des moines [In the Friars country], translated by Henri Lucas and Ramon Sempau.149 The Supplément litteraire [Literary Supplement] of the social-anarchist weekly Les Temps Nouveaux immediately gave a mitigated review of the book in mid-1897,150 adding, as a conclusive remark: And though it does not differ from what you can ordinarily find in novels written forty or fifty years ago, it was this novel which led Rizal to his death. Yet, while the harmful influence of the priests is somewhat exposed there, and while their feigned humility and their fake poverty has been slightly criticized, the author took care not to attack religion since his characters are all believers! And the book shows such respect for the good intentions of the majority of the Spanish civil servants! The economic issue is hardly touched upon there; the novel’s hero, Ibarra, who respects all living creatures, is nothing but a good philanthropist who hopes to cure social evils with the benign plasters of charity and alms. Elias is more revolutionary, that is true, but only in the way Jacobins were–Jacobins thought that they would prevent social evils by changing the men in power, and Elias’s most radical proposal is the separation between Filipinos and Spain. While Les Temps Nouveaux did not find Rizal’s novel bellicose enough, it was not the case of the anonymous reviewer from 86

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L’Intransigeant, who greatly enjoyed the book, writing in 1899:151 […] Theocracies of the past are depicted with precision by the scholarly Doctor Rizal, who would have been, if the inquisition had let him live, a worthy brother of our great intellectuals. By writing a moving novel, Rizal gave an engaging depiction, in a style that is alternately tender and vibrant, of the very diverse types of people composing Philippine society while a touching and tragic intrigue unfolds. Indios, mestizos, Chinese merchants, priests, monks, Peninsulars and civil servants are all drawn in situ as precise portraits. Au pays des moines gives the tools to understand the Philippine issue; the book will also interest scholars and amateurs of literature. The ethnologists and naturalists will collect invaluable information through the multiple notes given by the translators on the flora and the fauna of this beautiful country […] The historian Henri Hauser added in 1904: Whoever has not read the striking and veracious novel of Rizal Au pays des moines would not know what an oppressive theocracy can do to a people [I mean the Tagal people] that nature did not create dullwitted. And, to give this depicting of clerical tyranny [political, legal, intellectual and economic tyranny] the importance it deserves, nobody should forget that, once he returned to his homeland, this courageous Filipino paid the price for the unpardonable crime of having printed the truth about Spain–he faced an ignominious death. He thus gave supreme honor to his book by being an example of monastic despotism.152 Rizal as a poet Rizal’s poetic expertise was recognized by the French as well. At the end of 1897, the literary journal Matines qualified Rizal’s last poem, Ultimo Pensamiento (Mi Ultimo Adios), published in translation in L’Humanité nouvelle,153 as a “remarkable test”, obviously ignoring that its author had been known for his poetry since his youth. In 1900, Henri Turot published once again this “wonderful excerpt” of “the great Filipino poet Rizal” in his paper “La guerre aux Philippines (War in Philippines)”.154 Rizal for French children At the dawn of the new century, in 1900, four years after his execution, Rizal entered French middle schools. The weekly Le Petit Français illustré, journal des écoliers et des écolières (The Illustrated little 87

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French, a newspaper for schoolboys and schoolgirls), published “Un parisien aux Philippines”,155 whose main objective was to promote the figure of Rizal as a model for youth: […] Let me tell you about this great beaming, noble and high figure. Rizal was erudite, an exceptional scholar, a poet, an artist, a philologist, a writer, and a politician. At the age of thirteen, this Tagal, this colored man, wrote a verse drama praised by the whole Manila high society and triumphed in a Madrid literary tournament with a prose composition entitled “The Council of the Gods”, which is imbued with […] the purest Hellenism. At the age of twenty, Rizal left for Spain and quickly reached the titles of doctor of medicine and bachelor in philosophy. To his two mother tongues, Tagal and Castilian, he soon added Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and later French, English, German, Italian, and Japanese. He travelled and explored the world, yearning to know everything. He was sad to see that Europe was unaware of his country whose long list of complaints did not cross the oceans. Then, in order to raise awareness of these three centuries worth of suffering, he wrote this admirable book entitled Noli Me Tangere in which, as a poet, he described and bemoaned the enslavement of his homeland, and as a citizen, he protested against the tyranny which subjugated and degraded his race. This sublime cry of revolt resounded in the whole Archipelago, and the Filipinos rose in an impressive and fearsome manner. As he was well off, Rizal devoted his time to public service—free schools and hospitals; he became a school teacher for children, a physician for the poor, and an honest and devoted friend for all. But treason was just around the corner, luring him into a trap: on October 12th, he was jailed at Fort Santiago; on 30 December 1896, at dawn, this great patriot shed his blood on Dagumbayan [sic!] field. Rizal was thus the triumphal victim of active and honest patriotism, the unquestionable prestige of which survived his death and keeps making the masses rise to this day. [… Rizal’s last poem follows]. Rizal was thus recognized as an exemplary character by some French authors, several years before the Americans promoted Rizal’s image as a national hero. French authors who recognized Rizal included not only those who found ideological affinity with his writings but also included unpoliticized and ordinary authors writing for middleclass children.

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Figure 45. Excerpt from Le Petit Français illustré, journal des écoliers et des écolières

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JOSÉ RIZAL’S FIRST IMPRESSION OF FRANCE, AND HIS LAST, WERE THROUGH ITS OLDEST CITY, MARSEILLES.

IV

He first arrived in this southern port city on 13 June 1882 on board the French cargo-passenger steamship Djemnah,156 the ship that took him from Singapore to France, with Barcelona as his intended destination at that time. Rizal’s voyage to Europe would be his first journey outside of the Philippines.

Retracing

JOSÉ RIZAL’S FOOTSTEPS in France

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Figure 46. The steamship Djemnah which brought Rizal to the Port of Marseilles where he disembarked to begin his European journey. (postcard)

Arriving in Marseilles, Rizal, just like any tourist would, used this brief stopover before proceeding to Barcelona to explore the city’s monuments, like Le Palais Longchamp, and walked through Marseilles’ bustling streets, rue de la République and La Canebière.157 Rizal was also mesmerized by his first-ever visit to a museum. 91

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Figure 47. La Cannebiere (now La Canebière) in Marseilles in the late 1890s. Rizal would write in a letter to his family that La Cannebiere was beautiful with clean and paved streets and bright shops. (postcard)

Figure 48. From 13 to 15 June 1882, Rizal stayed at Le Grand Hôtel Noailles de Marseille located on 62 La Canebière. This building now houses the offices of the French bank Société Générale but the hotel name is still very much visible on one of its archways. Rizal wrote in his diary that the hotel was one of the best, if not the best in Marseilles. The hotel had hydraulic elevators going to all floors. Rizal described that his room was on the first floor with a room facing the street side replete with a large dressing table, a bureau, small marble-topped tables, toilette, a proper bed, and velvet chairs. Wall to wall rugs would cover the entire floor and large red embroidered curtains hung on the windows.158 (Photo / Eugene Caole) 92

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Figure 49. Rue Saint-Ferréol in Marseilles in the late 19th to early 20th century. (postcard) Vestiges of the old hotel are all but gone now in the existing building.

Marseilles would beckon him again on 2 to 3 July 1887, to board the SS Djemnah to take him to Saigon for the first leg of his trip to the Philippines, and then again on 17 to 18 October1891, to board the SS Melbourne on what he would later write to friends, as his last journey from Europe. In this last trip to Marseilles, Rizal would stay at the Hôtel de Castille et du Luxembourg located at the junction of 1 and 3 rue du Jeune Anacharsis and 36 rue Saint-Ferréol. 93

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Figure 50. Rizal’s bill from his stay at the Hôtel de Castille et du Luxembourg dated 17 October 1891.159

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While Rizal was impressed by Marseilles and visited it through the course of his stay in Europe—staying for a day or two, enroute to other destinations—he also visited Strasbourg, Dieppe, and Biarritz. However, it was Paris that left an indelible mark on him. It was in Paris where Rizal wrote one-fourth of his first novel, the Noli Me Tángere. He also wrote parts of his second novel, El Filibusterismo, and worked on articles for La Solidaridad, while in Paris.

Figure 51. The Steamship Melbourne of the shipping company Messageries Maritimes de France shown here with the Cathédrale de la Major and the harbor of La Joliette of Marseilles in the background. The SS Melbourne would bring Rizal to Hong Kong on his way back to the Philippines in 1891. (postcard)

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STRASBOURG

Figure 52. On 1 February 1886, Rizal left Paris for Heidelberg via Strasbourg and stayed there for a day. (postcard)

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BIARRITZ

Figure 53. Rizal stayed with the Bousteads in their Villa Eliada in Biarritz in February and March of 1891. It was in Biarritz that Rizal completed the El Filibusterismo on 29 March 1891. View of Biarritz. (postcard)

DIEPPE

Figure 54. On 4 July 1898, Rizal took the train bound for the coastal town of Dieppe where he stayed for a few days at the Hôtel du Rhin et de Newhaven pictured above. (postcard) Rizal was on his way to London for a short visit. The train he took passed through the French towns of Vernon and Rouen. 97

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Rizal lived intermittently in Paris from 1883 to 1891. He last left France on 18 October 1891 on board the SS Melbourne, never to return again. On this last voyage, Rizal brought with him boxes full of Antonio de Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas and his own El Filibusterismo.

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The following images document the places Rizal stayed at as they look like now but much of which still remains the same as in the time of Rizal. For such is the character of Paris, a city where, in most parts, time has stood still for those willing to rediscover the Paris of Rizal.

Figure 55. Portion of an 1894 map of the 9th Arrondissement of Paris which shows the streets of the various apartments Rizal stayed at for the most part of his stay in Paris. The street names and numbers have remained unchanged. The facades of some of the buildings, as well as their uses, also remain unchanged.160 99

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1883 HÔTEL DE PARIS 37 rue de Maubeuge, 9e arrondissement, Paris From 17 June to possibly the end of June 1883

Figure 56. The image shows Hôtel de Grammont, which was on No. 35 rue de Maubeuge. Right beside it is Hôtel de Paris. During this period, Rizal would visit Hôpital Laënnec with Felipe Zamora and Mariano Cunanan. Rizal also visited the Hôpital Lariboisière where Felix Pardo de Tavera was an intern and where he learned about the treatment of women’s diseases. Aside from his visits to various hospitals, Rizal would go to various gardens, museums and shops in Paris. In his letters to his family, he mentioned visits to the Louvre, Bois de Boulogne, Jardin d’Acclimatation, Printemps, and Le Bon Marché. 100

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Figure 57. No. 37 rue de Maubeuge remains to this day as Hôtel de Paris. Rizal stayed at this hotel during his first-ever visit to Paris.

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124 rue de Rennes, 6e arrondissement, Paris Circa July to third week of August 1883

Figure 58. A perspective of rue de Rennes circa 1890s (postcard) Rizal moved from rue de Maubeuge to the Latin Quarter where the cost of living was cheaper.

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Figure 59. 124 rue de Rennes is now the Best Western Aramis Saint-Germain Hotel. Rizal would stay at an apartment on the 4th floor owned by Madame Desjardins. During this period, Rizal would visit the Hôtel Dieu and other gardens, museums, and shops in Paris.

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1885 to 1886 65 boulevard Arago, 13e arrondissement, Paris October 1885 to 1 February 1886

Figure 60. Boulevard Arago circa 1907 (postcard) Rizal stayed with Juan Luna at his atelier located at La Cité Fleurie, a series of artist studios located on 65 boulevard Arago. As Luna was still a bachelor at that time and had not yet married Paz Pardo de Tavera, he rented the biggest studio in La Cité Fleurie which had an atelier, residential quarters, and indoor toilet facilities, which at that time, was considered very upscale and modern.

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Figure 61. La Cité Fleurie was created from materials gathered after the dismantling of the Pavillon de l’Alimentation of the Paris World Exposition of 1878. La Cité Fleurie is renowned because of its occupants — Auguste Rodin, Pierre Roy, Paul Gauguin, Aristide Maillol, Jean-Paul Laurens, Amedeo Modigliani and César Domela. It was in Luna’s studio that many Filipino artists and intellectuals would gather to discuss the fate of the Philippines. Félix Resurrección Hidalgo also occupied one of the studios at La Cité Fleurie.161

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Figure 62. José Rizal (2nd from right), Juan Luna (with the palette) and other Filipino intellectuals at Luna's Studio at No. 65 boulevard Arago. (Pardo de Tavera Library and Special Collections, Rizal Library, Ateneo de Manila University)

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55 rue du Cherche-Midi, 6e arrondissement, Paris October 1885 to January 1886

Figure 63. From November 1885 to February 1886, Rizal trained under ophthalmic surgeon Dr. Louis de Wecker whose clinic was located at No. 55 rue du Cherche-Midi.

Figure 64. Rizal learned the cataract-surgery technique from Dr. Wecker which he eventually used to treat his mother, Teodora Alonzo. Dr. Wecker's clinic could accommodate 100 patients. Dr. Wecker took a liking to Rizal and even invited him to his home at 31 avenue d'Antin and to his villa in Biarritz. 107

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1888 HÔTEL DU RESTAURANT DE ROME-GARNIER 111 rue Saint-Lazare and 7 rue du Havre, 8e arrondissement, Paris 4 to 10 September 1888

Figure 65. Hôtel du Restaurant de Rome-Garnier was located in the bustling area of the Saint-Lazare train station. (postcard)

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Figure 66. Rizal was in Paris in early September 1888 for a short visit. He also attended the birthday of Juan Luna's son, Andres. During this period, Rizal was busy working on Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas.

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1889 23 Passage Saulnier, 9e arrondissement, Paris Circa 19 to 28 March 1889

Figure 67. Rizal returned to Paris in March 1889 to attend the World Exposition. Upon his arrival, Rizal formed the Kidlat Club162 which was to last until the end of the Exposition and where Filipinos who came to Paris could meet each other.

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Figure 68. It was during this period that Rizal planned to have his translation of Ferdinand Blumentritt's monographs Ethnography of Mindanao and Defense printed.

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HÔTEL DE LA PENSÉE 18 rue de Rochechouart, 9e arrondissement, Paris Circa 2 to 22 April 1889

Figure 69. By April 1889, Rizal transferred to the Hôtel de la Pensée. Rizal moved several times between the months of March and July 1889 due to the high cost of accommodation in Paris because of the World Exposition. (postcard)

Figure 70. This small hotel on 18 rue de Rochechouart now bears the name Hôtel des Arts. 112

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rts.

HÔTEL DU PRINTEMPS 89 rue de la Victoire, 9e arrondissement, Paris Circa 23 to 29 April 1889

Figure 71. Image of rue de la Victoire dated 1899. Hôtel du Printemps is the building on the right. The building with the street number 87 (middle building) no longer exists and in its place, a street has been created. (Archives de Paris, 11Fi 4234).

Figure 72. Rizal stayed at the Hôtel du Printemps for a few days in late April 1889. During this time, Rizal completed the manuscript for the Ethnography of Mindanao and sent this to Barcelona for publication. 113

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10 rue de Louvois, 2e arrondissement, Paris Around 30 April to 3 July 1889

Figure 73. Hôtel Louvois is one of the prominent buildings along rue de Louvois which Rizal would have most likely passed by in his walks in the area. (postcard)

Figure 74. 10 rue de Louvois now 114

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45 rue de Maubeuge, 9e arrondissement, Paris Circa 12 July 1889 to late January 1890

Figure 75. Rue de Maubeuge in the late 19th century. (postcard)

Figure 76. Rizal stayed at this apartment on 45 rue de Maubeuge which was leased by Valentin Ventura who came from a rich family from Bacolor, Pampanga. Ventura financed the publication of Rizal's El Filibusterismo. Rizal gave Ventura the original manuscript of the novel as a token of his gratitude. 115

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1891 GRAND HÔTEL 12 boulevard des Capucines, 2e arrondissement, Paris Around 4 to 7 April 1891

Figure 77. Grand Hôtel in the early 1900s. Rizal stayed in this hotel for a few days in April 1891, during which time he already finished writing the El Filibusterismo, but planned to revise some chapters. (postcard)

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Figure 78. Retaining much of its old grandeur, Grand Hôtel is now the InterContinental Paris Le Grand Hotel (Photo courtesy of InterContinental Paris le Grand)

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4 bis rue de Châteaudun, 9e arrondissement, Paris Around 3 to 16 October 1891

Figure 79. View of rue de Châteaudun at the end of the 19th century. (postcard)

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Figure 80. Rizal stayed in this apartment leased by Valentin Ventura.

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In Memory: Place José Rizal

José Rizal's life and times in Paris is fittingly memorialized with

the Place José Rizal located at the intersection of rue de Maubeuge, rue Choron, and rue Rodier in the 9e Arrondissement. It was on 07 April 1999 that the Mairie de Paris (City Hall of Paris) agreed to the proposal of the Philippine Embassy and named this small part of Paris in honor of Rizal. It is a place where Rizal would have walked by numerous times, to and from the places he stayed at to his meetings with other Filipinos in Paris, and his visits to various parts of the city, to further the cause of the Filipinos.

Figure 81. Place José Rizal at the Paris 9e Arrondissement 120

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Figure 82. Place José Rizal at the junction of rue de Maubeuge, rue Choron, and rue Rodier.

Figure 83. Mairie du 9e Arrondissement (City Hall of the 9th Arrondissement) in the late 1800s. 121

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Figure 84. No. 4 bis rue de Châteaudun, 9e arrondissement, Paris

JOSÉ RIZAL (1861-1896) Philippine National Hero, writer and doctor, lived here in October 1891 In celebration of the 100th anniversary of his death, on 30 December 1896 122

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In the past three decades, the Philippine Government, in cooperation with the Mairie de Paris, Mairie du 9e Arrondissement, Mairie du 6e Arrondissement, Mairie du 13e Arrondissement, and the Filipino-French community, have successfully installed historical markers at five of the places where Rizal stayed.

Figure 85. 45 rue de Maubeuge, 9e arrondissement, Paris

Philippine Historical Committee Philippines Historical Committee JOSÉ RIZAL 1861-1896 NATIONAL HERO OF THE PHILIPPINES Lived in this house in 1889 This is where he wrote books and articles that stimulated the Philippine national spirit. 123

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Figure 86. Hôtel de Paris, 37 rue de Maubeuge, 9e arrondissement, Paris

JOSÉ RIZAL (1861-1896) Philippine National Hero, writer and doctor, lived here in June 1883. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his death, on 30 December 1896.

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Figure 87. La Cité Fleurie, 65 boulevard Arago, 13e arrondissement, Paris

NATIONAL HISTORICAL INSTITUTE TRIBUTE To the Philippine patriotic artists and intellectuals, Los Indios Bravos, who gathered here in the 1880s in the studio of Painter Juan Luna. From their 1980s Spiritual Heirs

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Figure 88. 124 rue de Rennes, 6e arrondissement, Paris

PHILIPPINES HISTORICAL COMMITTEE JOSÉ RIZAL 1861-1896 National Hero of the Philippines Lived in this house in 1883.

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CHAPTER NOTES W. E. Retana, Vida y escritos del Dr. José Rizal, Madrid, Algunas Publicaciones Sobre Filipinas, Librería General de Victoriano Suárez, 1907, p. 63.

1

Jules Verne’s The Children of Captain Grant (cf. Cartas entre Rizal y Otras Personas [CROP], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, 1877, p. 7); Alexandre Dumas’ Three Musketeers (CROP, 1877-1896, 25 May 1881, p. 20).

2

CROP, “A Vicente Barrantes [Réplica de Rizal a la crítica de Barrantes contra el Noli]”, 1890, p. 142. Godson of the Empress Joséphine, first wife of Napoléon I, and son of a military surgeon, Eugène Sue (1804-1857) was a popular author, whose bestsellers were the serials Les mystères de Paris [The Mysteries of Paris], first published in the daily Journal des débats, and Le Juif errant [The wandering Jew], published in Le Constitutionnel.

3

José Rizal, Diarios y memoria, Madrid, 6 January 1884, Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, p. 114. Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870) was the son of General Dumas, also known as Thomas-Alexandre Davy de la Pailleterie, himself the illegitimate son of the marquess de La Pailleterie and his slave Marie-Cessette Dumas. His world-known book is Les Trois Mousquetaires [The Three Musketeers], translated into nearly a hundred of languages. A. Dumas produced some 100 historical novels or plays, of which 40% were written in collaboration with Auguste Maquet.

4

Nicolas Boileau (1636-1711) was a French poet and literary critic, author of Satires [Satirical poems], Épîtres [Epistles], Le Lutrin [The lectern, a satirical epoch], Art poétique [The art of poetry], etc.

5

6

Jean de La Bruyère (1645-1696), known for his Caractères [Portraits].

François-Marie Arouet (1694-1778), known under his penname Voltaire, was the most popular and prolific French writer of the enlightenment period and a staunch opponent to Catholicism. Invited by King Frederick II of Prussia, he sojourned at his court from 1749 to 1753.

7

Born in Geneva, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was an autodidact and prolific writer interested in political philosophy. His works included Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes [Discourse on origin and the basis of inequality among men] (1755), Du Contrat social ou Principes du droit politique [On the Social Contract, or, Principles of Political Right](1762) and Émile ou De l’éducation [Emile, or on Education](1762).

8

Victor Hugo (1802-1885), the most prolific French writer of the 19th century, playwright, essayist, poet and novelist, author of Les Misérables.

9

Diarios, Madrid, 25 January 1884, p. 119. Alphonse de Lamartine (1790-1869), was a great romantic poet, who entered politics in 1833 and became a member of the 1848 interim government.

10

11

CROP, “A Vicente Barrantes”, 1890, op. cit.

On Rizal’s library, see Esteban A. De Ocampo, Rizal as a bibliophile, Manila, Bibliographical Society of the Philippines & UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines, 1960, 56 p.

12

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Cartas entre Rizal y los miembros de la familia [CRMF], 1887-1896, 23 June 1882, p. 21.

13

14

CRMF, 1876-1887, 21 June 1883, p. 115.

15

CRMF, 1887-1896, 5 July 1883, op. cit., p. 125.

16

He stayed at Hôtel de Paris, 37 rue de Maubeuge (CRMF, 21 June 1883, p. 45).

17

CRMF, 1887-1896, 21 June 1883, p. 117.

Jules Édouard Nicaise (1838-1896), officier of the Légion d’honneur (second lowest grade of the order), taught surgery. When he met Rizal, J.É. Nicaise was translating Cyrurgia, Henri de Mondeville’s treaty of surgery (14th century), from Latin into French which was published in 1893. 18

Simon-Emmanuel Duplay (1836-1924), officier of the Légion d’honneur, was the foster son of Baron Hippolyte Larrey, grand officier of the Légion d’honneur, the most famous military surgeon of Emperor Napoléon I. During the French Revolution, the Duplay family had been the lodger of the revolutionary leader Maximilien de Robespierre. 19

20

Diarios, 21 June 1883, p. 94.

21 Francisco Villanueva, Reminiscences of Rizal's stay in Europe, Manila, Loyal Press, 1936, interview with Felix Pardo de Tavera, ca. 1930, p. 4. Villanueva’s work must be taken with caution, as it includes several big mistakes. For example, Rizal’s first stay in Paris was not in 1889, but in 1883. 22 Arriving in Paris in 1877, F. Pardo de Tavera (1859-1932) obtained his medicine doctorate in March 1886 (La France médicale: historique, scientifique, littéraire, March 3, 1886, p. 10). He received then private patients at his cabinet 2 bis rue Frochot. He was also a talented sculptor, who had won a silver medal at Madrid’s Exposición de Filipinas in 1887 and a bronze one at Paris’ Exposition Universelle in 1889.

The Museum is now part of the Faculty of Medicine, University René Descartes – Paris 5. 23

Located 45 rue des Saints-Pères, next to the Faculty of Medicine, its collections were transferred in 2011 to the University of Montpellier, the oldest French Faculty of Medicine, where the freedom of teaching medicine (particularly the medical science of the Arabs) was granted by count William VIII of Montpellier in 1181. 24

25 In 1884, he had the best marks of the whole University in Greek, getting maximum honors in History, Latin and Greek literature (CRMF I, 1876-1887, 28 June 1884, p. 156-157); in letters and philosophy, he obtained all his courses with honors, with the exception of Arabic and Spanish literature (CRMF, 1876-1887, 17 December 1884, p. 173). His medicine examinations were less satisfactory.

Rizal finally obtained a copy of his physician license in 1887, necessary to practice medicine, sent by mail from Madrid to Hong Kong as the first one had been blocked by the Philippine authorities (CRCP II, 1889-1896, endnote 2, “Cartas 140”, p. 20). 26

27 Born in Frankfurt am Main in 1832, Louis de Wecker had been successively trained in Vienna and Würzburg (Bavaria), where he obtained his first doctorate in 1855. He was then hired as a private doctor by Count Stroganov, the richest man of the Russian Empire, Governor of Odessa during the Crimean War (fought between France, Great-Britain, the Ottoman Empire on one hand, and Russia on the other). In 1861, Wecker settled in Paris to study ophthalmology with Dr. Louis Auguste Desmarres, an ocular surgeon, who was the first to systematically use the ophthalmoscope to practice dilated fundus examination in his private clinic. L. de Wecker then went to Berlin to work a few months under Professors

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Albrecht von Gräfe (1828-1870) and Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902), Gräfe being himself a comrade of Dr. Desmarres. Back to Paris, L. de Wecker presented his second thesis on 15 May 1861 (De la conjonctivite purulente et de la diphtérite de la conjonctivite au point de vue du diagnostic différentiel et de la thérapeutique [Purulent conjunctivitis and diphtheritic conjunctivitis from the point of view of the differential diagnosis and therapeutics]), dedicated to Rayer, member of the Académie Française and the Académie de Médecine, and to A. de (i.e. ‘von’)] Gräfe. 28

CRMF I, 1876-1887, 4 December 1885, p. 207; ibid., 1 January 1886, p. 210.

1 US $ = 5,27 Spanish pesetas (cf. Rodney Edvinsson, Historical Statistics, http:// www.historicalstatistics.org/Currencyconverter.html). 5 Spanish pesetas make 1 peso.

29

CRMF, 1887-1896, letter from Rizal to one of his younger brothers, 1885, p. 198.

30

In 1862, he opened his own clinic in Paris. In 1867, he enucleated the eye of Léon Gambetta (then a leading French politician). L. de Wecker was made a baron by Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria in 1870 and later, officier of the Légion d’honneur. See Jean-Marie Mouthon, Un répertoire biographique des médecins de langue allemande à Paris au XIXe siècle [Biographical List of German-speaking physicians in Paris in the 19th century], vol. II—Les médecins de langue allemande à Paris au XIXe siècle [German- speaking physicians in Paris in the 19th century] : 1803-1871, Paris, École pratique des hautes études (EPHE), 2010.

31

32

Brother of Empress Elisabeth (aka Sissi) of Austria.

Ángela Apolonia Pérez de Barradas y Bernuy (1827-1903), herself Duchess de Denia y Tarifa, widow of Luis Tomás Fernández de Córdoba Ponce de León, 15th Duke of Medinaceli (1813-1873). 40,000 francs = 8,161 pesos (1 peso = 4,9 French Francs on 1883-1889, cf. Markus A Denzel, Handbook of World Exchange Rates, 1590–1914, London, Routledge, 2016).

33

34

CRMF I, 1876-1887, 4 December 1885, p. 207.

35

Unfortunately destroyed in 1978.

1828-1890, doctor from the University of Vienna and (since 1867) professor of ophthalmology at the University of Heidelberg.

36

Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (1821-1902) obtained his medicine degree at Humboldt University in Berlin, worked at the Charité Hospital, then taught pathological anatomy at the University of Würzburg from 1849 to 1854, where L. de Wecker was one of his students.

37

From April to June 1886, he lived at Wilhelmsfeld (12 km from Heidelberg), at the home of pastor Karl Ullmer, as a paying guest.

38

39

CRMF I, 1876-1887, 16 February 1886, p. 226.

F. Blumentritt, Versuch einer Ethnographie der Philippinen, Gotha, Petermanns, 1882, reprint 2015, Perfect Library, 152 p. Rizal’s correspondence with Blumentritt (director of a high school in Limeritz, Bohemia, today Czech Republic) started on 31 July 1886, when he sent him an arithmetic book written in Tagalog as a complement to Blumentritt’s documentation on the languages of the archipelago. Blumentritt’s interest in the Philippines was not a coincidence, but the result of his family origins. Blumentritt had spent a good part of his childhood in Ronda (Malaga, Spain) and spoke perfect Spanish (Mauro Fernandez, “Las cartas de Pardo de Tavera [Trinidad] a Schuchardt”, Grazer Linguistische Studien No. 74, 2010, p. 239). Among his ancestors was the Spaniard Alcaraz, who arrived from Manila to Prague in 1773. Dolores de Alcaraz’s forefather had worked as oidor de

40

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la Audiencia in Manila at the beginning of the 17th century; see Archivo General de Indias, Madrid, http://www.archivesportaleurope.net/ead-display/-/ead/pl/ aicode/ES-41091-AGI10/type/fa/id/ES-AGI-41091-UD-1859526/unitid/ES-AGI41091-UD-1859526+-+ES-AGI-41091-UD-421403). She married Frank Blumentritt whose family had settled in the Sudetenland as a reward for the support they gave to the Hapsburg against the Ottomans during the siege of Buda in 1686. Dolores and Frank were the grand-parents of Ferdinand (Lea-Katharina Steller, “Ferdinand Blumentritt [1853-1913]”, Collections for Research into Sudeten German Minority, Szentendre [Hungary], pp. 1-9). 41 Travel in the Philippines, Berlin, Weidmann, 1873. Andreas Fedor Jagor (18161900) described in his book (p. 45-51) his trip to Bulacan. 42 Austin Craig, Lineage, Life and Labors of José Rizal, Philippine Patriot, A Study of the Growth of Free Ideas in the Trans-Pacific American Territory, Manila, Philippine Education Company, 1913, p. 95.

Adolf Bernhard Meyer (i.e. Aron Baruch Meyer, 1840–1911) was the first anthropologist to collect data in northwest New Guinea in 1873 (see Hilary Howes, “‘Shrieking Savages’ and ‘Men of Milder Customs’, Dr. Adolf Bernhard Meyer in New Guinea, 1873”, The Journal of Pacific History, vol. 27/1, 2012, March 2012, p. 21- 44).

43

Maximo Viola (1864-1933). After studying at University of Santo Tomas, M. Viola obtained his Doctorate in Medicine in Barcelona in 1886. The following year, during his trip to Mitteleuropa with Rizal, he contributed to financing the publication and dispatching of Noli me Tangere.

44

Maximo Viola, “Mis Viajes con el Dr. Rizal [My travels with…]”, Madrid 1913, reprinted in José Rizal, Diarios y memorias [Diaries and memoirs], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, p. 318; J. Rizal, Diarios…, p. 325. In both cases, the editor transcribed ‘Jagor’ instead of ‘Yagor’.

45

46

Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory.

47

CRPFB I, 1886-1888, 26 January 1887, p. 65.

48

CRCP I, 1882-1889, 29 July 1887, p. 149.

Antonio de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas [Events of the Philippines Islands], critical edition by José Rizal, foreword by Ferdinand Blumentritt, Paris, Libreria de Garnier Hermanos, 1890, 474 p.

49

50 The transcription given in CRPFB I, 1886-1888, 14 January 1889, p. 429, as ‘Planchut’ is erroneous (Rizal’s ‘u’ being easily confused with ‘n’).

Antonio Maria Regidor y Jurado (1845-1910), born in Manila to Spanish parents, got his bachelor of philosophy at University of Santo Tomas in 1863. He became chief inspector of municipal schools. After a doctorate in Civil and Canon Laws from the Universidad Central of Madrid (1871), he was appointed professor at the Manila University of Santo Tomas. As he supported the Cavite Revolt of 1872, he was exiled to the Mariana Islands. He managed to escape a few years later and reached France, and then settled in London. His offer to defend Rizal at the 1896 trial was rejected by the Spanish authorities.

51

52

CRPFB I, 1886-1888, p. 434-436.

53

CRPFB II, 1888-1890, 23 April 1889, p. 480.

54 A reference to the show performed by American Indians (Buffalo Bill’s troop) during the Paris Exposition, as indigenous Filipinos were called Indios by the Spanish.

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Curator of the Ethnographic Museum, Johannes Dietrich Eduard Schmeltz (1839-1909) worked first for the Hamburg Museum, and then was hired by the Dutch in 1882. He was an authority on Pacific islands.

55

56

CRPFB II, 1888-1890, 28 September 1889, p. 554.

57

CRPFB II, 1888-1890, 20 October 1889, p. 562.

58

CRPFB II, 1888-1890, 9 September 1889, p. 545.

La Solidaridad [Solidarity] was a movement launched in 1888 in Barcelona by overseas Filipino students and intellectuals. It was a channel to spread the ideas of the Propaganda group, founded in Spain, which had expanded its activities in Manila and Madrid since mid-1880s. It was in favor of liberal reforms: equality of rights for Filipinos and Spaniards, which implied a representation of Filipinos in the Spanish Cortes, suppression of compulsory labor services (15 days per year for male adult after the reforms, which could be replaced by the payment of the falla [i.e. default] tax) and forced deliveries of agricultural products to the authorities (bandala); replacement of regular orders by secular clergy. The movement published the first issue of its journal in February 1889.

59

See the amusing relation of this unwilling exchange with an uneducated American in the train in Diarios, July 1889, p.228-232.

60

Auguste-Désiré (1812-1887), François-Hippolyte (1815-1911) and Pierre-Auguste (1807-1899) Garnier founded a publishing house, which soon published the best sellers of French 19th century literature: Honoré de Balzac, George Sand, François de Chateaubriand, Charles-Augustin Sainte-Beuve, Alfred de Musset, Alfred de Vigny, Théophile Gautier, Gustave Flaubert, etc., plus political thinkers such as Pierre-Joseph Proudhon. The Garniers had recently published an encyclopedia in Spanish (Luis Grégoire, Diccionario Enciclopédico de Historia, Biografía, Mitología y Geografía, 1884, 3 vol.).

61

62

CROP, 1877-1896, 7 January 1890, p. 134.

63

CRPFB II, 1888-1890, 2 February 1890, p. 613.

The estate administration never gave its tenants receipts for their payment of the rent, which allowed raising it ad libitum, the amount of the increase being difficult to prove in front of a court.

64

General Valeriano Weyler (1838-1930), marquess of Tenerife, duke of Rubí, Grandee of Spain, and governor-general of the Philippines (1888-1892).

65

José S. Arcilla, “Documents concerning the Calamba deportations of 1891”, Philippine Studies, No. 18, July 1970, p. 607.

66

67

CRPFB III, 1890-1896, July 20, 1890, p. 687-688

The Supreme Court finally supported the Dominican cause, while the expelled tenants tried to illegally maintain their economic activities on the spot with the support of those who remained in Calamba, and eventually came back.

68

69

CRMF II, 1887-1896, letter from Rizal, 16 May 1889, p. 308.

70

66 rue de Flandres, Ghent.

71

CRPFB II, 1888-1890, 10 June 1889, p. 502.

Valentino Ventura (1860-1935) studied with Rizal in Madrid, and then went to Paris in 1889, living first at 45 rue de Maubeuge.

72

73

CRMF I, 1876-1887, 23 June 1882, p. 22.

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74

Ibid., 21 June 1883, p. 117.

The notation of the name is obviously erroneous: no ethnic French surname ends with ‘iz’, and there was no record of foreigners called ‘Saint Rémiz’ at the time.

75

See Olivier Gabet (dir.), Japonismes, Paris, Flammarion/musée Guimet/musée d’Orsay/musée des Arts décoratifs, 2014, 240 p.

76

77 Born in Toledo in 1795 to an aristocratic family (whose head was Marqués de Malagón), Don Julián Pardo de Tavera settled in Manila in 1826 with his Spanish wife. His son Félix, father of Félix Pardo de Tavera, married a wealthy mestiza whose family owned estates in Cavite and Manila. After his brother’s premature death, Félix’s brother, Joaquín Pardo de Tavera (1829-1884), who had married also into the Gorricho family and worked as a professor of Law in the University of Santo Tomas, became the surrogate father of his nephews. Joaquín and his wife were arrested in 1872 after the Cavite Mutiny and were exiled to the Mariana Islands. They eventually settled in Paris where their family joined them. 78

Wedding of Paz Pardo de Tavera and Juan Luna (see Figure 36).

79 Annuaire des châteaux et des départements, 40.000 noms & adresses de l'aristocratie, du high life, de la colonie étrangère, ‘Pas-de-Calais’, 1897, p. 1,155.

Trinidad Pardo de Tavera (1857-1925) studied first at the University Santo Tomas in Manila, and then entered (at 18 years old) the French Sorbonne, where he obtained his medical degree in 1882. Back to Manila in 1887, he married a rich creole, Concepción (Concha) Cembrano y González Calderón. Returning to Paris in 1889, he worked for a while for the Paris Legation of the Dominican Republic, probably without salary.

80

81

Journal officiel de la République française, 24 December 1885, p. 6848.

Founded first by Louis XIV in 1669 and rebuilt in 1795 during the French revolution, the Institute is the oldest academic institution in the world dedicated to the study of non-Western European languages and cultures. Known today as INALCO, the Institute teaches more than a hundred languages and cultures, including Filipino, Cebuano and Ilocano.

82

83

Francisco Villanueva, Reminiscences of Rizal's Stay in Europe, s.d., ca. 1930, p.8.

CRMF I, 1876-1887, letter from Rizal, July 21, 1883, p. 115. Felipe Zamora (18541919) studied medicine at the University of Santo Tomas, Manila. He sojourned in Europe from 1879 to 1883 (Raquel A.G. Reyes, Love, Passion and Patriotism, sexuality and the Philippine Propaganda Movement, 1882-1892, Singapore, NUS Press, 2008, p. 274).

84

The obstetrician Stéphane Étienne Tarnier (1828-1897) invented the incubator for premature infants and developed asepsis for both mother and child.

85

Joaquín González (1853-1900) was the first Filipino to obtain a doctorate in medicine (University of Madrid, 1878). After returning to Manila, he opened a clinic located on Plaza de Binondo (Raquel A.G. Reyes, ibid.p. 283)

86

87

CROP, note 5, p.25.

Antonio Luna (1866-1896) arrived in Europe to complete his pharmacy studies in Barcelona, then a doctorate course at the University of Madrid. He returned to Manila in 1894. During the war for independence, he was assassinated in 1899, after a conflict with Aguinaldo.

88

89

Pierre Paul Émile Roux (1853-1933) discovered the anti-diphtheria serum. 132

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90

Le Temps, “Lettres des Philippines”, 7 August 1899.

Ariston Bautista-Lin (1863-1928) joined the Indios Bravos in Paris in 1889. When he returned to Manila in 1895, he was jailed in Fort Santiago in 1896, with Rizal. Released in early 1897, he became professor of clinical medicine at the newly founded University of the Philippines College of Medicine in 1907.

91

92

Mariano Cunanan is a wealthy landowner from Pampanga.

Félix Resurrección Hidalgo (1853-1913) had obtained a scholarship from Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando (Madrid) in 1879. He moved to Paris in 1884. In 1889, he got a silver medal at the Paris World Exposition.

93

Rizal had been acquainted with the Luna family since his studies in Manila (CROP, 21 May 1877, p. 5).

94

One gold medal out of three (H. Goujat, Réforme ou Révolution, le projet national de José Rizal, 1861-1896, pour les Philippines, Paris, Connaissances et Savoirs, 2010, p. 401). Juan Luna married Paz Pardo de Tavera in December 1886. They had two children, Andres and Paz, Rizal’s goddaughter; after baby Paz’s death, the relation between the spouses worsened. Devoured by jealousy, Juan Luna, who had been beating his wife during his previous outbursts, murdered her along with his motherin-law and badly injured Félix Pardo de Tavera on September 22, 1892. The Seine Cour d'assises (Assize Court) declared him not guilty in February 1893 (see Ruby R. Paredes, “The Pardo de Taveras of Manila”, in A. McCoy, ed., An Anarchy of Families, State and Family in the Philippines, Quezon City, Ateneo de Manila Press, 3rd ed. 1998, p. 368-396).

95

96

CRMF II 1887-96, 16 May & 21 September 1889, p. 309 & 313.

Jabidah remained in Singapore with financial support from Edward Boustead (1801-1888) until her death. When he returned to England, E. Boustead married his daughter’s governess, who gave him a second daughter, Helen, in 1858, dying a few months later. This first Helen Boustead, who married in 1876 and died from childbirth in 1877, was the grandmother of Actor David Niven. In Malaya, the Boustead company operated tin smelting facilities and rubber plantations in the 1880s (Robert Fitzgerald, The Rise of the Global Company: Multinationals and the Making of the Modern World, Cambridge U.P., 2016, p. 72).

97

Otto van den Muijzenberg, “Philippine-Dutch social relations, 1600-2000”, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, The Philippines Historical and social studies No. 157/3, 2001, p. 486.

98

Born in Manila in 1871, Helen al. Nelly Boustead married Daniel Rodriguez Earnshaw (born in 1873) ca. 1895 and had two children (see Geni, geneological database, https://www.geni.com); their marriage did not last. N. Boustead died in London in 1959. After his divorce, Daniel R. Earnshaw married Eloise Pardo de Tavera, daughter of Joaquín Pardo de Tavera, i.e. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera’s first cousin.

99

Mentioned in E. Boustead’s letter to Rizal as ‘el niño’ (the child), CROP, March 21, 1892, p. 176 ; see also British Army Service Records 1914-1920, transcription. Eduardo’s son Edward was killed in France during WWI, he was fighting on the side of the British.

100

CRCP I, 1882-1889, 19 July 19, 1889, p. 411. Rue des Bassins today is rue Auguste Vacquerie (Paris 16).

101

102 103

La República, 18 June 1889. Boustead is still a major company in Singapore, Malaysia and Hong Kong 133

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today (see “The Man & other families, Boustead, Sykes and Schwabe”, http:// www.manfamily.org/about/companies/ boustead-sykes-schwabe/). One of its contemporary offspring is the Malaysian Boustead Naval Shipyard, working for Malaysian defense. 104

Francisco Villanueva, op. cit., p. 11.

Marcel-Jacques Mallat ‘de Bassilan’ (1852-1897), author of Le Roman d'un rayon de soleil [Sunbeam novel], Paris, Frinzine, Klein et Cie, 1885, 328 p.; Essai sur la cartographie de Madagascar [Essay on Madagascar’s cartography], Paris, A. Challamel, 1890, 30 p.; Au pays des homards : excursions en Bretagne [In the country of lobsters: excursions in Britanny], Paris, La Géographie, 1897, 104 p., etc. 105

106 F. Villanueva, op. cit., p. 11, who transcribed Edmond Plauchut as ‘Mondepleutchut’. 107 After exchanging letters, Edmond Plauchut (1824-1909) became a friend of the famous French writer George Sand (1804-1876), regularly sojourning in her Nohan estate, where he is buried. See Marie-Louise Guillaumin, “Plauchut, ‘crème des naufragés’, chevalier servant de George et de la République [Plauchut, best of survivors, paladin of George and the Republic]”, in Les Amis de George Sand, No. 23, 2001, p. 17-26. Specialized in international affairs, Plauchut published “L'Archipel des Philippines et la piraterie, récit de mœurs et de voyages”, Revue des deux mondes, May 1st, 1869, p. 932-964; “L'Archipel des Philippines — I. Le climat et les races — II. Les mœurs, l’instruction, — III. L’industrie, le commerce, la situation politique”, Revue des deux mondes, March-April 1877, p. 447-464 & 896913; May-June 1877, p. 885-923.

E. Plauchut, “L'Archipel des Philippines — II.”, p. 920-923, partly reprinted in “Aux Philippines — Troisième et dernière partie”, Bibliothèque universelle et Revue suisse, 104th year, vol. XVI, 1899, p. 562-565. 108

109 Joaquín Pardo de Tavera and Antonio Ma. Regidor were interviewed by Edmond Plauchut in 1877 (Austin Craig, The Filipinos’ Fight for Freedom, 1933, rep. New York, 1973, p. 388-389). 110 Susana Cuartero Escobés, La masonería española en Filipinas, Madrid, Escuadra y Compás, 2006, vol. 1, p. 71-72. 111 Born in 1856, G. López Jaena started studying medicine in Manila before leaving for Spain in 1880. He returned for a few months in the Philippines in 1891 before sailing back to Barcelona, where he died from tuberculosis in 1896. The Encyclopedia of the Philippines mentions that he was already affiliated with the lodge Porvenir in Madrid in 1882, without giving its sources. J.N. Schumacher (n. 23 p. 332) considered it plausible as “it fits with other known facts”: López Jaena appears as a master mason in the same lodge listing on 15 February 1884 (Susana Cuartero Escobés, La masonería española en Filipinas, Madrid, Escuadra y Compás, 2006, vol. 1, p. 43).

J.N. Schumacher, S.J., The Making of a Nation: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Filipino Nationalism, Quezon City, Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1989, p.333. .113 Ibid., p. 332. 112

114 Austin Craig, The Story of José Rizal, the Greatest Man of the Brown Race, Manila, Philippine Education Publishing, 1909, reprint Bexley Publications, 2006, p. 21, without mentioning any source.

Susana Cuartero Escobés & José Antonio Ferrer Benimeli, “José Rizal y la masonería”, in El lejano oriente español [The Spanish Far East]: Filipinas (siglo XIX), Actas, 1997, pp. 599-618. 115

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Miguel Morayta y Sagrario (1834-1917) belonged to the Spanish aristocracy (La Dinastía, 21 March 1888) and became the first president of the HispanoFilipino Association which was inaugurated in January 1889 (CRCP I, 1882-1889, 18 November 1888, p. 241; ibid., 12 January 1889, p. 285) with Antonio Luna as treasurer. Morayta, who then chaired the Barcelona Provincial Committee of the Historical Republican Party (CRCP I, 1882-1889, p. 264), founded the Gran Oriente Español in 1889 through the merger of Gran Oriente de España and Gran Oriente Nacional de España, of which he was elected first Grand Master (see Pedro Álvarez Lázaro, Páginas de historia masónica [Pages on the History of Masonry], p. 362-363).

116

117

Pedro Álvarez Lázaro, Páginas de historia masónica, Madrid, IDEA, 2006, p. 363.

Letter from Morayta to Rizal, erroneously published in CRCP I, 1882-1889, 23 January 1883, p. 27, asking the young J. Rizal to send one of his papers for a public lecture during the party given in memory of Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), executed on 17 February 1600. Morayta got Rizal’s address thanks to Pedro Paterno, doctor in law (Madrid, 1880), who later became a well-known writer (poetry and novels). See Hélène Goujat, Réforme ou Révolution ? Le projet national de José Rizal (1861-1896) pour les Philippins [Reform or Revolution? The national Project of José Rizal (1861-1896) for the Philippines], Paris, Connaissances et Savoirs, 2010, p. 437-438.

118

As shown by the letter from Marcelo del Pilar to Rizal on 17 May 1889 (CRCP I, 1882-1889, 18 May 1889, p. 368).

119

M. Adán Guanter, “Una logia de filipinos en Madrid, Solidaridad n.º 53 (1887- 1895)”, in J.A. Ferrer Benimeli, dir., La masonería en la España del siglo XIX, Valladolid, Junta de Castilla y León, Consejería de Educación y Cultura, 1987, p. 474 ; Susana Cuartero Escobés & José Antonio Ferrer Benimeli, “José Rizal y la masonería”, El lejano oriente español : Filipinas (siglo XIX). Actas, 1997, p. 602.

120

121

Raquel A.G. Reyes, Love, Passion and Patriotism, p. 268.

122

The Committee was created towards the end of 1888.

Acta edited by Daniel Ligou, Congrès maçonnique international du Centenaire, 1789-1889, Paris & Genève, Champion & Slatkine, 1989, XXII + 175 p.

123

Segismundo Moret y Prendergast (1838-1913) was one of the founders of the Liberal Party. In 1870, he abolished slavery in Puerto Rico when he was Minister for Overseas Colonies (Moret Law). The date for the initiation of Moret into Masonry is unknown, but Moret was already one of the highest dignitaries (grade 30) of Madrid's lodge El Progreso No. 1 on 25 June 1885. He was bestowed the title of Marquess of Moret by King Alfonso XIII (Carlos Ferrera Cuesta, “Segismundo Moret y la conspiración masónica”, in J. A. Ferrer Benimeli, ed., La masonería española en la época de Sagasta, XI Symposium Internacional de Historia de la Masonería Española, Logroño, 2007, vol. I, pp. 455-470).

124

CRMF II 1887-1896, letter from Rizal, 29 September 1889, p. 313. The letter was written two months after the Congress, but Rizal had not sent a letter to his family since 29 June.

125

CRPFB I 1886-1888, letter from Rizal, 9 December 1886, p. 44. L. Moret was studying civil engineering in Berlin.

126

127

CRMF I 1872-1887, letter from Rizal, 28 June 1884, p. 157 & note 7 p. 37.

128

The Temple de l’Honneur et de l’Union still exists today.

Philippine Center for Masonic Studies, “History of the Masonry in the Philippines, 1901-1918”, http://www. philippine masonry.org/1901---1918.html.

129

135

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130

Presentation given in April 1887 (Revue d'Anthropologie, 1888, III, p. 126).

131

Revue d'Histoire Diplomatique, 4e année, Paris, 1890, p. 316.

Founded in 1834 by the priest Jacques-Paul Migne, the journal was saved from bankruptcy in 1838 by the liberal Catholic Count Charles de Montalembert (one of its former contributors) and his father-in-law Prince Félix de Mérode. In 1840, the journalist Louis Veuillot took the direction of the journal, making it more and more the voice of traditional Catholics.

132

Inspired by the British Morning News, Le Matin was founded in 1883 and directed by Alfred Edwards as a moderate Republican paper until 1895.

133

134

Founded, directed and owned by Victor Simond (1847-1911).

Born in Hong Kong in 1876 to Irish parents, Josephine Bracken was adopted by her godfather, American engineer George Taufer, after her mother’s death as her father, a corporal in the British army, was unable to look after her. As Taufer had eye problems, he went to Dapitan in March 1895 to be operated by Dr. Rizal, who had worked in Hong Kong in 1892 and left an excellent reputation. A few days after their first meeting, Rizal asked Josephine to marry him. The local priest requesting the consent of the bishop of Cebu—which would have implied Rizal’s retraction from Masonry and his rejection of his previous writings—the bishop’s consent never came. The pair thus lived together and had a son, Francisco, born prematurely, who died after a few hours. Josephine married again in December 1898 with a Filipino, Vicente Abad, in Hong Kong, had a daughter in 1900, and died from tuberculosis in 1902.

135

The chief-editor of La Justice, founded in 1880, was Charles Camille Pelletan (1846-1915), who later became Minister of the Navy.

136

Born to a family of minor nobility and strongly republican, with a physician father, Georges Clémenceau (1841-1929), himself a physician, spent most of his time as a journalist. Anti-clerical, he was elected to the National Assembly (1876- 1893) several times, then to the Senate (1902-1906). Nicknamed ‘the Tiger’ and after World War I, the “Father of Victory”, Clémenceau became Prime Minister twice (1906- 1909 & 1917-1920).

137

138 A.-S. Grenier, Répertoire des faits politiques, sociaux, économiques et généraux de l’année 1896, Paris, Berger-Levrault, 1897, p. XLIII. 139

Ibid., p. 364.

140 “L’insurrection des Philippines”, Cosmopolis, No. 17, May 1897, p. 475-488. Published in three languages (French, English and German) in Paris, London, Geneva, Saint-Petersburg, Amsterdam, Berlin, Vienna and New York, the magazine offered papers by major authors such as (in May 1897 issue) Rudyard Kipling (the author of the Jungle Book), the French academician Anatole France, the poet Stéphane Mallarmé, and the Russian novelist Ivan Turgenev, etc. 141

In Manila, Rizal studied at the Jesuit’s Ateneo.

Index librorum prohibitorum [List of prohibited books], list of books banned by the Catholic church, administered by a special congregation, the Sacred Congregation of the Index, which later became the Holy Office, and since 1965 the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.

142

143

Vol. I, No. 1 , 1897, p. 575-577.

L’Humanité Nouvelle…, No. 1, 1897, p. 322-334; Ramon Sempau, “La politique coloniale de l’Espagne”, id. p. 513-520; Mario P., “José Rizal”, id., p. 568-574.

144

136

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Unidentified author, who wrote in Spanish (see L’Humanité Nouvelle…, No.1, 1897 note p. 571), obviously a Filipino close to Rizal. He is presented as ‘P.’ at the end of the biography, but as ‘J.’ in the summary.

145

“Une semaine aux Philippines [A week in the Philippines]”, published Revue des Deux Mondes, 1 January 1899, p. 810.

146

Henri Turot, Aguinaldo et les Philippins, les hommes de révolution [Aguinaldo and the Filipinos, men for revolution], Paris, Librairie Léopold Cerf, 1900, 344 p. See Camille de Sainte-Croix’s review of Turot’s book in "Aguinaldo et les Philippines", Revue franco-allemande, Deutsch-französische Rundschau, Paris, 1901, No. 49, p. 22-27. Or the review published in the daily La Lanterne, 13 December 1900, p. 1-2.

147

Dr. A. Pinto de Guimaraes, “La terreur espagnole aux Philippines [Spanish Terror in the Philippines]”, La Revue des revues, vol. XXVI, 1898, p. 199.

148

149

Paris, Stock, 1897, 1 vol., 491 p.

150

Les Temps Nouveaux, Supplément litteraire, No. 23, 1897, p. 675.

L’Intransigeant, 27 July 1899, journal founded in 1880 and directed by the anticlerical Henri Rochefort (1831-1913), aka Henri de Rochefort-Luçay, Count of Rochefort.

151

Henri Hauser (1866-1946), professor of history at Dijon University, “L’œuvre américaine aux Philippines [The American work in the Philippines]”, Revue politique et parlementaire, 11th year, 1904, t. XL, April-May-June, p. 126-139. The journal still exists today (http://www.revuepolitique.fr/) and had contributions for many first- rate politicians such as the future General de Gaulle, Presidents Raymond Poincaré, Paul Doumer, Vincent Auriol (before WWII) and after WWII, Prime Minister Pierre Mendès-France and Presidents Georges Pompidou, Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, François Mitterrand, Jacques Chirac, and François Hollande.

152

153

Matines, revue de littérature et d’art, No. 1, October 1897, p. 124.

154

Le Tour du Monde, journal des voyages et des voyageurs, p.114-115.

The author was A. de G. (unidentified), 8 September 1900, p. 483-486. Apolitical, Le Petit Français illustré (1889-1904) was published by Armand Colin, who published many schoolbooks.

155

Rizal took the steamship Salvadora from the Philippines to Singapore. The whole voyage from Manila to Marseilles would take him a total of 41 days. (3 May- 12  June).

156

157

Cannebière is now spelled Canebière.

In "Reminiscences and Travels of José Rizal." Manila: National Historical Institute, 1977. Pages 73-74 and 222.

158

159

Ibid., page 159.

160

K. Baedeker, Paris et ses Environs-Manuel du Voyageur, Paris 1894.

Catalogue Général Officiel Exposition Universelle Internationale de 1889 Tome Premier, Groupe I, Œuvres d'Art, page 166, lists Hidalgo's address as 65 Boulevard de Arago.

161

162

Kidlat is a Filipino word that means lightning.

137

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3

THE MAKING OF BILATERAL POLITICAL RELATIONS: 1824 -1947

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140

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I

THE PREMISE: THE FIRST WESTERN CONSULATE AND FRENCH CONSULS IN THE PHILIPPINES 1824 AND 1836 AND BEYOND

Two decades before the French expedition to Basilan and more than

a century before the treaty of friendship initiating full diplomatic relations between two sovereign states in 1947, France was the first Western country to establish a consulate in Manila. To understand why France decided to open a consulate in 1824 and why it took twelve years before it opened in 1836, it is first necessary to describe the set up of both the French and regional contexts. France, China, Cochinchina and Manila France was kept out of the Far East ‘Great Game’ for a while, the major stakes of which were the China Trade and the DutchBritish rivalry in Southeast Asia, due to the failure of the Napoléonic hegemonic enterprise in Europe. The Treaty of Paris of 20 November 1815 (Article 4) marked the calamitous French defeat at the Battle of Waterloo and resulted in France having to indemnify the Seventh Coalition1 with 700 million francs to be paid during the following five years. As France was financially exhausted, the only place in the Far East where it was capable of maintaining some minimal diplomatic presence was in Cochinchina, thanks to Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau.2 Introduced to Prince Nguyễn Phúc Ánh by Mgr. Pigneau de Béhaine, the French Bishop of Adran, Chaigneau entered the Prince’s service at the end of 1796 and participated in the Nguyễn’s conquest of Tourane (today Ðà Nẵng) and Huế. Promoted as general a few years later under the name of Nguyễn Văn Thắng by Emperor Gia Long (the former Nguyễn Phúc Ánh), Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau returned to France in 1819, disembarking in Bordeaux in January 1820. 141

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Figure 89. Eugène Chaigneau, first French Vice Consul and Chancellery agent in the Philippines, 1835-1840 (miniature, “J.-B. Chaigneau et sa famille”, Bulletin des Amis du Vieux Hué, No. 23/1, fig. XX)

Seizing the opportunity offered by Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau’s relations with the emperor of Annam, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs and Prime Minister Duke Armand de Richelieu sent him back to Huế as Consul of France, thus opening the first French Consulate in Southeast Asia. Moreover, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs accepted to name the young Eugène Chaigneau, Jean- Baptiste’s nephew, as chancellery agent. Unfortunately, Emperor Gia Long had died during Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau’s stay in France, and his successor, Minh Mạng, was less than favorable to Westerners: Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau himself had no choice but to leave the country in 1824. After the departure of Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau, the Ministry of 142

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Foreign Affairs named Eugène Chaigneau (Figure 89) Acting Consul in Huế.3 The young Eugène was less successful than his uncle, as Emperor Minh Mạng refused him audience in 1825. On his way back to France, Eugène Chaigneau embarked on a new expedition searching for La Pérouse. The difficulties endured by the French in Cochinchina and their absence from the Europe-China Trade (though a few French merchants participated in the Eastern Asia regional trade) explained why the Ministry of Foreign Affairs decided to establish a Consulate in Manila in 1824, in order to have a second diplomatic outpost located in a more favorable place. One year later, in 1825, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs even decided to reopen its consulate in Canton, which had been closed in 1801. But neither Bernard-Marie Barrère, appointed Consul for Manila, or Dussumier de Fonbrune, Deputy-consul to Canton,4 arrived at their destinations. B.-M. Barrère was finally redeployed to Peru in 1829, without even having reached the archipelago, and Dussumier de Fonbrune, apparently, remained in France. For financial reasons, and also because of the weakness of French commercial activities in the region, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs chose to rely on honorary consuls, whose salaries and living costs were considerably less expensive than those of full diplomats. Benoît Gernaert, a trader living in Canton and Macao, was thus appointed as honorary consul for Canton in November 1827, and kept the office until his departure for Belgium in September 1837. The British Lancelot Dent, the head of the trading firm Dent & Co— whose main business activity was the opium trade—succeeded Gernaert as acting honorary consul for France. In 1829, Eugène Chaigneau was once again sent to Cochinchina, this time as vice consul in Tourane; unfortunately he landed penniless after a shipwreck and once again, the local authorities totally ignored him. He then left Tourane in 1831. After his misadventures in Cochinchina, E. Chaigneau was finally sent to the Philippines in 1835, as second class honorary consul in Cavite, and consular agent in charge of the chancellery in Manila. Théodore-Adolphe Barrot, former consul at Cartagena (Colombia), was appointed as consul to Manila on 3 October 1835. Barrot stayed for two and a half years in Manila, with his wife, the daughter of the British Rear Admiral Thomas Manby (who fought against the French during the Revolutionary and Napoléonic era), before leaving mid- 1838 for the Balearic Islands. 143

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The First Opium War and the moving status of the French Consulate in Manila The increasing difficulty of smuggling British opium into China was the decisive factor for the upgrading of the French consulate in Manila. In spite of the ban on the import of opium, enforced by the Chinese customs since 1729, the opium trade by Westerners multiplied 20 times between 1720 and 1790 (from 200 boxes yearly to 4,000),5 and again 10 times between 1790 and 1838 (from 4,000 to 40,000 boxes),6 the British having established their de facto monopoly on the trade in 1797, smuggling their products through Macao. In 1838, Emperor Daoguang chose Lin Zexu as imperial commissioner to halt the illegal importation of opium by the British. Having closed most of Chinese opium dens in Canton, he ordered the destruction of all the seized drugs (23,243 boxes, more than half of the British imports),7 but failed in convincing the British to surrender their stocks of opium against tea, thus triggering the first ‘Opium War’ in 1839. As a major trader, the French honorary consul in Canton, Lancelot Dent, was himself the object of an arrest warrant, prompting his escape to Macao. Due to the high stakes of the conflict—a predictable forced opening of China to Western trade (thanks to the superiority of British weaponry)—the French decided to support the British, upgrading their representation in Manila to “Consulate General for Indochina”8 in October 1839. The Manila Consulate was then designated as regional overseer of the French Consulates in Southern China and, eventually, Cochinchina. The first French Consul General was once again Théodore Adolphe Barrot,9 called back from the Balearic Islands, who disembarked in Singapore on May 1840, then reached Manila on July 1840. He asked to keep Eugène Chaigneau—who had just been promoted to the rank of Consul General of Singapore—in Manila, for a while. Chaigneau finally took his office in Singapore at the end of 1840.10 However, due to his poor health, he resigned at the beginning of 1848, and died a few months later, upon his arrival at Lorient. Barrot left Manila in April 1843, with his wife and eldest son, Odilon, born in Manila in 1841. His successor was Charles Lefebvre de Bécourt. In March 1844, Bécourt became Acting Consul General in Canton — where he could not reside for safety reasons — meaning that he had to leave Manila for Macao, as replacement for Comte de Ratti-Menton, who had been called back to France. Barrot’s nephew, 144

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the young Amédée Fabre,11 ‘élève consul’ (i.e. trainee), then became Acting Consul in Manila, for two years (1844-46). Following the Treaty of Whampoa between France and China (1844), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs changed its representation in the Far-East. At the beginning of 1847, it closed the Consulate in Canton and opened both a Legation in China, based in Macao, and a Consulate in Shanghai. The Manila Consulate General was downgraded to first class consulate, meaning that the consul’s yearly emoluments were decreased by 20,000 Francs.12 C. de Bécourt then left Macao for Calcutta. A few years later, the Manila Consulate was once again upgraded to Consulate General. ‘Franco-Greek’13 Alexandre-Achille de Codrika14 was appointed Consul General in Manila in 1851. Before taking his assignment, he first had to temporarily take over the French legation in Macao as chargé d’affaires. De Codrika came from a diplomatic background. His father had previously served as secretary, then as drogman (interpreter) at the first Ottoman resident mission in Paris from 1797 to 1802 before joining the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs when the mission was called back to the Sublime Porte15—the Sultan having not been amused16 by the French invasion of Egypt in 1798. De Codrika, whom the great novelist Gustave Flaubert described as “a man whom I strongly remember for his nervousness... I believe he is excessively passionate”17 left Manila one year after his arrival, in 1853. Casimir Troplong18 arrived a few weeks later. Born in 1824 to Julien Troplong and Céphise de Sèze, niece of King Louis XVI’s lead counsel during his trial, Casimir Troplong belonged to a wellknown family from Bordeaux, the city whose trade networks—the most prominent of which was the Balguerie family—had strongly supported the effective opening of a consulate in Manila. He had been the first French Vice Consul in Padang. In the middle of 1856, however, Troplong eventually left Manila, too, for the French Legation in Beijing.19 A year later, Troplong went back to the Dutch East Indies, to marry Elisabeth Steenstra Toussaint (1840-1879) in Batavia.

145

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Consul Eugène Méchain and King Norodom’s visit to Manila Of all the 19th century French consuls in Manila, it was EugèneLouis-Désiré-Benjamin Méchain who stayed the longest in the Philippines. Born in 1814, Eugène Méchain came from a family famous for its contributions to science and diplomacy. Among his relations was the French journalist Edmond Plauchut. His grandfather, Pierre Méchain (1744-1805), was both an astronomer and a mathematician, who worked for the French Navy as a cartographer while pursuing the study of planets. The British Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences—into which Pierre Méchain was admitted in 1782—asked him to work on the comparison of Greenwich and Paris meridians. With Jean-Baptiste Delambre,20 he became the main calculator of the meter, as a 1/10 millionth section of the meridian.21 Eugène Méchain’s father, Jérôme-Isaac Méchain (1778-1851), started his career as an astronomer too. As such, he followed Napoléon Bonaparte’s expedition to Egypt (1798-1801) and joined the French diplomatic services, becoming Consul General in the Dardanelles (Gallipolli, 1804-1817) and in Cyprus (1820-1829). Along with his younger brother, Edme (1815-1873), an amateur sinologist who served as Vice Consul in Smyrna, Eugène Méchain

Figure 90. Sec ktīnīrāshuṅkuṅ, King Norodom’s travel to Kong [i.e. Macao, Hongkong, Manila, and Singapore], Khmer manuscript, palm leaf, unpublished, 187222 146

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likewise made a career for himself in consular service. From Puerto Rico, he arrived in Manila in 1859 where he was Consul General for nearly fourteen years. During his posting, the main international issues Eugène Méchain had to deal with were linked to the French policy in Indochina; the Franco-Spanish military intervention in Cochinchina was also then currently ongoing, and so he had to regularly intervene to secure basic supply for the French and Philippine troops. A decade later, on 8 August 1872, E. Méchain welcomed King Norodom (born 1834, reigned from 1860-1904) of Cambodia—a French protectorate since 1863—upon his arrival on board the corvette Bourayne.23 Escorted by the Protectorate delegate, Lieutenant Commander Jean Moura, the King was on his way back to Phnom Penh via Singapore after his visits to Hongkong, Macao, and Canton.24  E. Méchain attended the State Dinner and the ball given by GovernorGeneral Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutíérrez25 at the Malacañan Palace, and several other festivities. Lodged at No. 2 San Sebastian Street (today Félix Resurrección Hidalgo Street), at the house of the Conde de Avilés,26 His Majesty found that the people of Manila were not very different from the Khmers, as the author of Norodom’s travel accounts (shown in Figure 90) narrated, noting that the complexion of their skin, in particular, was very similar to that of the Khmers and the only difference was the language.27 The King brought a Filipino band back to the Royal Palace, but failed to marry a pretty Filipino girl, Josefa Roxas y Manio. King Norodom gave Josefa and her older sister a jeweled pendant each, but Josefa’s got lost. Her sister’s was much smaller, and bore the inscription, “S.M. el Rey de Cambodia à la Sta. Ana Rojas 1872”.28

Figure 91. Jewel offering by King Norodom to Josefa’s elder sister, on which is inscribed “S.M. el Rey de Cambodia à la Sta. Ana Roxas 1872” 147

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E. Méchain remained in Manila until early 1873, when he left for Hong Kong for medical reasons. He died in the British colony a few weeks later, in February 1873.29 His successor, Charles Ducourthial, appointed in 1874, left in 1876 after the death of his Colombian wife in Manila. Eugène Méchain, Felipa de Torrès, and the French jurisprudence on filiation Méchain’s personal life and the question of his succession following his death were so complicated that it required the intervention of the French courts to settle the matter. The decision of the French Court of Appeals in this instant is noteworthy as the judgment became part of French jurisprudence on filiation and legitimation and would be reproduced in numerous law books in the following decades.30 A few weeks after his arrival in Manila, Méchain had—as was a common practice among westerners — taken a Filipino querida, Felipa de Torrès. On 26 August 1860, a first daughter, Eugenia-Loretta, was christened at Sampaloc, a Manila suburb. The church register recorded the name of both parents as Eugène Méchain, bachelor, and Felipa de Torrès, Spanish mestiza. A second girl, Felipa, was christened in the parochial church of San Miguel on 19 September 1861, as the daughter of “Felipa de Torrès, Chinese mestiza, and unknown father”. A third child, Enrique Mariano, was christened in the same church on 26 October 1862, and was described as “son of Felipa de Torrès, Spanish mestiza, and unknown father. All three baptism documents were signed by the ecclesiastic authorities, and not by any of the presumed parents. On 29 April 1870, Consul Méchain married at the very last moment Felipa de Torrès on her death bed. The wedding certificate was signed only by the officiating priest and not by any of the spouses. Not only did E. Méchain not leave any documents relating to the three children’s legitimation, but he died without even having written a will. Once informed of the existence of the three children born out of wedlock, Méchain’s siblings disagreed on the matters regarding their late brother’s estate. The sister, widowed by a Mr. Laurent, and Henri-Armand Méchain, who was a manager at the Chemins de fer de l’Est, were predisposed to refuse the inheritance due to the existence of the children. On the contrary, the less prosperous Adolphe Méchain did not recognize the rights of his so called “nieces and nephew”. Their legal 148

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guardian, Mr. Chevrillon, had no other choice but to take the case to court. In its first decision, the Seine Civil Court judged in 1875 that the three children could not be considered as the natural, recognized and legitimated children of Eugène Méchain, thus had no rights to his inheritance despite an affidavit drawn in Manila proving their apparent status.31 The Court of Appeals in 1876 confirmed the decision, adding that the validity of the documents establishing the children’s identity in the Philippines was not contested in itself, but that their consequences on filiation, state, and capacity in France should be based solely on the French law. The Court thus ordered the sale of Méchain’s house in Manila,32 with the task of implementing the regium exequatur falling on the shoulders of the new French Consul General in Manila, Léopold Dudemaine.33 While the Paris courts deprived the Méchain children of their inheritance, documents show that the two daughters were recognized in Saigon as Eugène Méchain’s. As far as civil law and filiation were concerned, it seemed that the colonial practices were more adaptable and tolerant than the Metropole’s courts.

Figure 92. Eugenia Méchain’s second marriage certificate, mentioning her previous marriage, Loire, 20 August 1885. (Archives municipales de Saint-Etienne, 3 E 92) 149

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High profile French consuls for Manila As a whole, during the first fifty years of the French Consulate in Manila, France sent highly-qualified diplomats to the Philippines, as shown by the dispatches of Gabriel de Bérard—Consul General from 1890 to his death in March 1904.34 They came from upper-class families interested in international affairs—with diplomatic, business, or navy backgrounds, with only perhaps the exception of Charles Ducourthial. All spoke perfect Spanish, most having been previously posted in Latin America or Spain. The unstable political situation in China explained the change in the level of the French consulate in Manila: the Philippines could be used as a diplomatic hub between China and Southeast Asia, and as a possible strategic support for intelligence, naval and military operations in the region—or not. With the development of trade between Cochinchina and France after 1865, the consuls tried to promote French exports, too, which were lagging behind those of Britain, Germany, or the United States. In 1885, Consul General Ernest Crampon’s report to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs cited the following problems: 1) the lack of French trading houses in Manila; 2) the unsuitability of French products to local demand; 3) the excessive costs of transport, conditioning and intermediation; and 4) the deficient transport logistics between Manila and Marseilles35— all factors that did not change significantly after 1898, with the exception of trade with America.

150

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II


II

1783, 1815, 1951—these are just some defining moments in world history where a “Treaty of Paris” was signed. These three particular treaties marked the end of the American Revolutionary War, denoted the defeat of Napoléon at Waterloo, and created the European Coal and Steel Community which eventually became part of the European Union. All these treaties marked major turning points in world history. But for the Philippines, it was the Treaty of Paris of 1898 that has held immense significance in its own history.

TREATY OF PARIS AND THE FILIPINO DIPLOMATS IN PARIS P

France and the Treaty of Paris of 1898

aris has historically been the site of negotiations settling wars between nations. And it was Paris, at the Quai d’Orsay, that both Spain and United States selected to be the venue for their peace negotiations held from 01 October to 10 December 1898 which led to the cessation of the war with the former ceding the Philippine Islands to the United States for twenty million dollars. However, France’s role was not just to provide a venue for the negotiations. It was, in fact, France’s Ambassador to the United States, Jules Cambon, who was deputized by Queen Regent of Spain Maria Christina of Austria to represent her in Washington following the outbreak of the American-Spanish War in April 1898. 151

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Figure 93. Signing of the Peace Protocol of the Spanish-American War by Jules Cambon and William R. Day and witnessed by US President William McKinley. President McKinley stands beside seated Secretary of State William R. Day and French Ambassador Jules Cambon, both of whom signed the Protocol. Also in photo are Assistant Secretary of State and later Secretary of the Treasury George B. Cortelyou, Asst. Secretary of State Alvey A. Adee, General Henry C. Corbin, Asst. Secretary to the President Oscar L. Pruden, John Bassett Moore, noted jurist and author of essays on international law, Charles Loeffler, Union officer and head doorkeeper of the White House, and Asst. Secretary of State Thomas W. Cridler, White House aide Benjamin Montgomery, and French diplomat Eugène Thiébaut. Cabinet Room (today the Treaty Room), White House, 12 August 1898. (U.S. Library of Congress Frances Benjamin Johnston Collection)

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Jules Cambon, Spain’s Interlocutor Cambon’s role in the Treaty of Paris of 1898 came to the fore on 19 July 1898 when he received his instructions from French Foreign Minister Théophile Delcassé.36 Mr. Delcassé, Minister of Foreign Affairs to Mr. Jules Cambon, Ambassador of the French Republic to Washington Paris, July 19, 1898 The Spanish Ambassador to Paris came to see me today to officially request France’s mediation between Spain and the United States. The Madrid Cabinet would like for you to be allowed to give President McKinley a message in which the Government of H.M. The QueenRegent expresses the wish to put an end to the difficult situation in Cuba. If the President of the United States were to accept this message, the Spanish Government would ask for you to be allowed to negotiate a suspension of hostilities on its behalf, as a preliminary phase to the peace negotiations. Please let me know what your thoughts are on this suggestion by the Cabinet of Madrid and on the dispositions you think you would have to make with the President of the United States. Delcassé To this, Cambon replied on 21 July 1898 that “I believe that the proposal of the Madrid Cabinet will be favorably welcomed by the President of the United States.”37 On 26 July 1898, Cambon called on American Secretary of State William Day and presented a letter signed by the Duke of Almódovar de Río Don Juan Manuel Sánchez, the Spanish Minister of State, inviting the United States to state its terms on how to end the SpanishAmerican War.38 Following this, the diplomatic process moved very quickly with Cambon receiving a communication from the United States on the 30th of July addressed to the Duke of Almódovar where the terms of peace were listed down and this became the basis of the eventual protocol between Spain and the United States. 153

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Figure 94. French Ambassador Jules-Martin Cambon signing the Memorandum of Ratification of the Treaty of Paris on behalf of Spain. (Photo from Harper’s Pictorial History of the War with Spain, page 431)

By the 10th of August, Spain’s reply to the terms, dated 7 August, was handed over to Day by Cambon. In this letter, Spain accepted the conditions ceding Cuba, Puerto Rico, and other islands in the West Indies to the United States but introduced reservations regarding the handling of the Philippine Islands. The issue regarding the United States’ occupation of the city of Manila and the harbor of Manila “pending the conclusion of a treaty of peace which shall determine the control, disposition, and government of the Philippines”39 was eventually resolved so much so that by the 12th of August, Cambon informed the United States that he received his full powers to sign the protocol and by the afternoon of the same day, Cambon and Day signed the Protocol of Peace, the precursor to the Treaty of Paris of 1898. Cambon’s role did not end with the signing of the Protocol of Peace. He too was part of the negotiations between the Spanish and American Peace Commissions from 01 October to 10 December 1898 that culminated with the Treaty of Paris. Furthermore, Cambon signed the ratification of documents on behalf of the Queen of Spain 154

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Figure 95. French Ambassador Jules-Martin Cambon receiving from United States Secretary of State John Hay the US $20 million due to Spain for developments made in the Philippines under Article III of the Treaty of Paris of 1898. (Photo from Harper’s Pictorial History of the War with Spain, page 434)

on 11 April 1899 and finally received the $20 million payment of the United States for the Philippines. Cambon, as a seasoned diplomat, knew the importance of France’s and his own role in the search for peace between Spain and the United States. He was likewise fully aware of the imperialistic ambitions of the United States and its consequences for the Philippines and for Europe as well. In his diplomatic dispatches to Delcassé, Cambon writes:40 Washington, 1 July 1898 My dear Minister, I wrote you a long personal letter 8 days ago which was sent with the last mail shipment but it now lies at the bottom of the sea with the Bourgogne.41 Yesterday and today, we exchanged very official dispatches, but I wish to specifically express how happy I am to see you at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The game that is currently being played in 155

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the world is so important that I cannot begin to tell you how glad I am to see you holding its strings. I dare not ask you to read my correspondence with the Department. I tried to monitor its events and to prevent some of them. In this correspondence, you may see the development of the authoritarian ambitions of the Americans. I do not know if the public in Paris is aware of that. The French in general, and Parisians especially, imagine that we only conduct our affairs through words and feelings. First, we showed Spain too much sympathy: we came back and we had a heated discussion about sister republics and the memory of Lafayette. These are nothing but words. The only likeness between our institutions and those of this country lies in their names. These people do not like us. This is all the more true as we are witnessing an event that goes far beyond the fight between the two peoples that are involved, and which draws the attention of the whole universe. Mr. Moore, the First Undersecretary of State for Foreign Affairs dined at my house last night and said something very true: “This is our second revolution”. He was right, and he was sorry about it. Imperialistic ideas are growing dreadfully. All these people have read Seeley’s works, who wrote about the theory of a Greater Britain. They want to apply his doctrines and create a Greater America. This idea is an infinite breeding ground for the infinite vanity of this nation, and especially of women, who are jealous of Europe. The declarations they made at the beginning of the war stating that they were disinterested have thus been forgotten. The West Indies are an open-and-shut case. Perhaps we went to the Philippines with a certain lack of foresight. They are there: they would like to stay, they want to stay. Please note that this will not be without consequences on the future life inside this country. The importance this will give to the west and to the Pacific coast will change its balance. But will they stop there? If peace is not achieved soon, it is said that the United States will go to the Canary Islands, and that they will step foot in the Mediterranean through a coal deposit. If that happens, and if we let it happen, Europe will be exposed to all kinds of possibilities. These people pretend to ignore our business. They claim to be modern and they do not care about difficulties that cannot reach them. A military officer recently told me that, for the United States, this war against weak Spain was the same as what the war in Denmark had been to Prussia—a lesson, a test, a beginning. We should mark these words because they reveal a certain mindset. 156

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Fascination has taken over these people: a demon took them to the mountain and they feel temptation. The tempting demon is England. England is not a good European, and it skillfully worked on annihilating Europe. Americans are snobs and they got flattered by its sweet talk, though they had known that it was a self-serving move on the part of England. It was like a flirt. Up until now, this has not gone any further. If America worries about the Philippines too much, and if we bother the English elsewhere before the end of the war, the flirt may very well go further, and this is what we must pay attention to. Other considerations must not push us to act too shy or too self-serving. (illegible) We therefore need to be careful and keep the continental powers united. Common apprehension will be bound to create common interests. We saw that in the Far East, at the end of the war in Japan. This successful union could appear again, if this business ends up in a Congress like the German Ambassador seems to wish. Forgive me for writing such a long letter. As you know, my attention has been focused on African issues for a long time. While our hopes in the Mediterranean area may have been weakened, we still need to make sure that no new element will come to make our goals even less achievable. We cannot allow the work of the past three months be brought down to nothing. The incapacity of the Spaniards exceeded the expectations of its enemies. We saw, in 1866, that we could be beaten in other battlefields than those on which we are actually fighting, and this is when we must be wise. That is why, dear Minister, I am so glad to know you are the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Yours sincerely,

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Cambon was not immune to intrigue regarding his role or that of France as Spain’s interlocutor.42 He noted that the English wanted to be the intermediary between the United States and Spain. In his letter dated a week after the signing of the Protocol of Peace, he conveyed to Delcassé England’s desire and noted that the European colleagues of the Foreign Minister would have already mentioned this fact to him. Cambon contends that if the English were allowed to do so, peace would not have been achieved between the US and Spain.43 “The people are equivocating on the purpose of my mission (in Europe). It is being exaggerated in order to shrink it down to nothing and the newspapers are observing all sorts of subtle distinctions that no one is paying much attention to here (in Washington). Of course, the French newspapers and especially the most serious ones—which are considered serious for professing a kind of superstitious deference to anything that bears the stamp of London—[...] readily follow the footsteps of their English counterparts.”44 “However, I think we can easily see the purpose of this campaign. It seems to try to dim the hopes of London and to create sensitivity towards France and towards my character. But the press overlooked how people behave here: these people are business people who do not associate with the nonsense of the Chanceries (Embassies) and who did not care whether I served as a mailbox or acted as a plenipotentiary for as long as I brought the submissions of Spain.”45 “Today, the same people, the same agencies, and the same newspapers are campaigning in order for the United States to be merciless regarding the Philippine issue (because from you to me, Mr. McKinley still wants a lot while acting as a moderate) and I see in diplomatic dispatches from Paris that the Paris newspapers fear that we may have gone too far by preventing England to find, in these troubled waters, the honor and the profit that it hoped to get. This really makes you wonder what evil force is constantly making us act against ourselves.”46 Cambon emphasized that France’s role as peacemaker not only benefited Spain, but also itself as well as the entire continental Europe. “It has been a long time since I got to see an occasion where France honored itself more; there has never been an occasion with lesser risk that gave you (referring to Delcassé) the opportunity to show the role that France is playing and that it must play in the world. This is an eminently pacifist and conservative role. There has never been an occasion which gave you 158

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as good a position from the very start and it seems that, pushed by some kind of jealousy, people are trying to cast doubt on this first success of your administration.”47 On the ambitions of the United States to gain influence over Europe and how France’s role in the negotiations was able to avert this, Cambon writes: “Yet it would be easy to say that a bigger service has never been rendered not only to Spain, which could no longer stand it, but also to Europe and especially to France. The moment was a critical one. The United States was on the verge of taking a step that would take them to the European side for the first time. They did not take the step: just like the barbarians respected the borders of the Empire back in the day, they still respect the borders/surroundings of Europe. They will lose that bias soon enough but they will still need to make an effort. Let’s hope that the worst has been avoided this time and for a long time.”48 “I do not know if England can feel this common peril as much as we can because it is not a European power so to speak. But according to us, there was not a moment to lose, and I think that, over the course of fifteen days, we faced a huge risk. Luckily, we were dealing with the United States and not with some Chancery imbued with tradition, and that is why, this time, diplomacy failed to prove the point of Bismarck who said, referring to the diplomacy of others, that it was the art of preventing things from being timely.”49 “What I find funny in all of this, is the cowardice with which some newspapers in Paris (and I fear others) fear that we may have angered the Americans but this means that they do not really know these people or how strong their optimism is. If the war had continued, they would be waging it with fury. But peace has been achieved and it is an event that will mark the history of the White House.”50

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Felipe Agoncillo and the Filipino Diplomats in Paris When news of the impending Spanish-American peace agreement which would induce American acquisition of the Philippines reached him, the leader of the Revolutionary Government, Emilio Aguinaldo, signed Felipe Agoncillo’s appointment as Minister Plenipotentiary on 26 August 1898. In this role, Agoncillo’s goal was to convince the American leadership that the Philippine Revolutionary Government was valid, moral, and capable of governing the country independently. Realizing the need for foreign recognition of his revolutionary government, Aguinaldo earlier signed two decrees on 24 June and 10 August 1898 creating a committee that would take the lead in promoting the interests of the Philippines abroad. Following these decrees, the Filipino Central Committee was created and diplomatic representatives were assigned to Barcelona, Madrid, Hong Kong, London, Paris, the United States, Japan, and Australia. In Paris, Pedro Roxas and Juan Luna represented the Central Committee while Agoncillo represented it in the United States. As soon as he received his instructions on the 1st of September in Hong Kong, Agoncillo, together with Sixto Roxas as his secretary, promptly boarded a ship to San Francisco and arrived at his destination on 22 September 1898. Agoncillo and Roxas eventually met with President William McKinley on the 1st of October but only through the efforts of Brig. General Francis V. Greene, Commander of the second United States expeditionary force to the Philippines. While the American President did receive Agoncillo at the White House, McKinley refused to receive Agoncillo as an official foreign envoy. During this encounter, which lasted about 30 minutes, Agoncillo attempted to lobby the American President to help the Philippines acquire independence or to allow Philippine representatives to participate in the negotiations of the Spanish-American Peace Commission in Paris. Realizing the futility of his mission in Washington, Agoncillo made his way to Paris to join other Filipinos in order to work on the recognition of the Philippines and to try to participate in the peace negotiations which began on the 1st of October. 160

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F


Figure 96. Aguinaldo remained in Bacoor, Cavite while he sent Agoncillo as delegate to Washington, and the Junta in Hong Kong sent someone to Paris. This article also places General Greene and Agoncillo on the same passenger boat China. L’Aurore, 01 September 1898.

Figure 97. Filipino diplomats in Paris, France, 1898-99. From left: Antonino Vergel de Dios, Ramon Abarca, Felipe Agoncillo, and Juan Luna. (Retrato Collection of the Filipinas Heritage Library) 161

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Arriving in Paris in mid-October, Agoncillo immediately set out to seek the members of the American Peace Commission who were billeted at the Hôtel Continental.51 Agoncillo himself stayed at this hotel in the hope that he would run into the Americans and use the opportunity to plead his case. Agoncillo mobilized the Filipinos in Paris, most of whom were members of the Philippine upper class and studying in France, to form their own revolutionary committee supporting the Philippine Revolutionary Government of Aguinaldo. The revolutionary committee was composed of Jose Ramirez as president; Felix M. Roxas and Fernando Zobel, as secretaries; Ramon Abarca, as treasurer; Félix Resurreccion Hidalgo, Antonio Vergel de Dios, and Ramon Ramirez as councilors.52 In the latter part of November, Aguinaldo, at the behest of Agoncillo, issued a decree creating Diplomatic Commissions in Europe and in Washington53 whose members were imbued with the credentials to make representations on behalf of the interests of the Philippines to any foreign government. The Diplomatic Commission for Europe was composed of Agoncillo as president; Emiliano Riego de Dios, who was based in London, as vice-president; Gregorio Araneta, as secretary; Benito Legarda, Juan Luna, Jose Lozada also based in London, Pedro Roxas, Antonio Regidor, Felix Roxas, and Jose Albert as members.

Figure 98. Agoncillo’s arrival in Paris covered by the American media. San Francisco The Call, 17 October 1898 162

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Figure 99. Agoncillo with Filipinos in Paris. First row, from left: F. de Amores, Felipe Agoncillo, Pedro Roxas and Antonino Vergel de Dios. Standing, from left: B. Villanueva, Antonio Roxas, E. Brias and P.A. Roxas. Note the Philippine flag and Emilio Aguinaldo’s photo in the background. (Retrato Collection of the Filipinas Heritage Library)

Figure 100. There were indications that Aguinaldo himself wanted to attend the peace conference in Paris. L’Aurore, 26 October 1898

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Agoncillo, together with Luna, Roxas, and other Filipinos in Paris as well as the other diplomatic representatives based in London and Madrid (Rafael del Pan), worked tirelessly to make their voices heard in the Peace Commission. None were allowed to enter or address the Peace Commission. However, Agoncillo was allowed to submit a short position paper which was submitted to the Peace Commission by General Greene who by then was the military adviser to the American Peace Commission. In the end, this position paper did not aid the Filipino cause. The Spanish-American peace negotiations came to a close on 10 December 1898. He did not stop there. During the negotiations and shortly after the signing of the treaty, Agoncillo sent multiple telegrams and letters

Figure 101. Felipe Agoncillo (left) and Sixto Lopez (standing), with two other Filipinos54 164

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from Paris to President William McKinley, Senator Sherman Hoar, Vice President Garret Hobart, Secretary of State John Hay, and other American politicians trying to advance the Philippine cause. With the signing of the treaty, Agoncillo decided that the last hope was to block the ratification. There was a significant amount of apprehension from Americans about the treaty, mainly as a result of the Philippine acquisition. Given the anti-imperialist sentiments at that time, Agoncillo thought it likely that the treaty might not pass the legislature. Agoncillo arrived back in Washington D.C. on 25th December, and began his quest to stop the treaty. Agoncillo’s work was unsuccessful and the United States Senate ratified the treaty on 06 February 1899 and the Memoranda of Ratification were officially signed on 11 April 1899. Following the ratification, Agoncillo returned to Paris and held office at the Le Grand Hôtel de la Havane located at No. 44 Rue de Trévise in the 9th Arrondissement together with Luna and Felix M. Roxas55 as the office secretary.56 As the leading Filipino diplomat in Europe at that time, Agoncillo continued to lobby for recognition of Philippine independence. He would eventually be joined twice in Paris—in November 1899 and again in December 1900—by Galicano Apacible, a member of the Central Committee in Hong Kong. Together, they met with Papal Nuncio Benedetto Lorenzelli in Paris in the hope of seeking an audience with Pope Leo XIII at the Vatican.

Figure 102. Seal that Felipe Agoncillo used as a diplomat. (Museo nina Marcela Mariño at Felipe Agoncillo) 165

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Figure 103. Interior of Grand Hôtel de la Havane (postcard)

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Figure 104. Agoncillo’s interview in the French newspaper Le Matin, 29 April 1899. 167

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Agoncillo also found ways to have the Philippine Diplomatic Commission recognized by the French government and other diplomatic missions in Paris. On the occasion of the jubilee of the Emperor of Austria-Hungary, he sent Aguinaldo’s congratulations to the Emperor through a letter sent in December 1898 to Ambassador Anton Graf von Wolkenstein-Trostburg. Agoncillo also sent a wreath and condolences to the French government at the demise of President Félix Faure in February 1899. Agoncillo also gave interviews to the French media who covered developments in the Philippines. It was while in Paris that Agoncillo wrote and published his book To the American People in 1900. By July 1901, Agoncillo would eventually leave Paris for Hong Kong to rejoin other Filipinos who continued to work on Philippine independence, closing this chapter of Philippine diplomacy in France.

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III

THE INDOCHINESE STAKE AND THE 1947 TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN THE PHILIPPINES AND FRANCE A Frenchman in Manila: Willoquet and the Philippines (1931-1945)

As had been the case for the opening of a consulate, the early

establishment of diplomatic relations between the Philippines and France was at first due to growing problems in Indochina. As a whole, after the Kellogg-Briand Pact57 launched by France and the United States in 1928 and signed by 63 countries, France had hoped for American support for its Southeast Asian colonial policy. As a response to the visit to Indochina in 1931 of then Philippine Governor Dwight F. Davis—former tennis champion-turnedpolitician58—Governor-General Pierre Pasquier came to Manila on February 1932, to meet with Acting Governor George C. Butte, at the very moment the Japanese launched an attack on Shanghai.59 Unfortunately, neither country benefited from these exchanges. As far as the diplomatic relations of the Philippines and France were concerned, however, France was lucky enough to have the right man for the Philippines: Gaston Willoquet. Born in 1888, G. Willoquet joined the diplomatic service as an interpreter and consular agent. As a former Chancellor of the Shanghai Consulate General in the French concession, he was promoted to Consul and sent to Manila in February 1931.60 As such, he greeted on his arrival Pierre Pasquier, Governor-General of Indochina, and was praised for his professionalism. Helped by his masonic connections, Willoquet succeeded in quickly being assimilated into the Philippines’ various power networks, discovering that Filipinos were “subtle people, using irony rather well”.61 Among his close relations was the President of the Senate, Elpidio Quirino, whom he later called Compadre. In April 1931, President Quezon himself asked Willoquet for the text of the Constitution of the French Third Republic, as he was working on 169

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the future Philippine Constitution, with the intention of winning over the diplomat to his side against his arch-rival Osmeña.62 Not easily influenced, Willoquet described President Quezon as “[a] cunning fellow, crafty and indefatigable”.63 While Willoquet apparently had misgivings about Quezon’s indirect links with Spain’s General Francisco Franco and fascination for fascist regimes, he praised the Philippine leader for displaying “qualities of a truly exceptional statesman”64 in 1939. Following France’s surrender to Germany in June 1940 and General Charles de Gaulle’s speech on June 18, Willoquet supported the party of De Gaulle’s France Libre (Free France). He launched a call in Manila dailies, calling on June 22 for a meeting of all French citizens living in the Philippines, to reject the armistice with Germany. Consequently, Willoquet, who had been promoted to 1st Class Consul in 1940, had his French citizenship revoked by the collaborationist Vichy government in January 1941. Refusing to leave the Philippines, he kept on collecting intelligence and distributing propaganda leaflets to all French sailors disembarking in Manila, asking them to join De Gaulle in London. After Pearl Harbor, he expressed his condolences to General MacArthur, who was then stationed in Manila. Upon the arrival of the Japanese Army in January 1942, Willoquet was immediately arrested, jailed in Fort Santiago, and then put in a wooden cage upon the orders by Lieutenant-Colonel Seiichi Ohta, Military Police of the Imperial Japanese Forces. In June 1942, he was finally exchanged for Japanese prisoners detained in North Africa, thanks to the mediation of the Red Cross, which arranged for his transfer to Shanghai with his family, and from there, to the neutral Portuguese territory Lourenço Marques in the Indian Ocean. He finally arrived in London in October 1942.65 Even though he was no longer in the Philippines, Willoquet managed to keep in touch with Filipino politicians, including Quezon,66 by calling them on the phone or by sending letters through various channels.

Post WWII Southeast Asia: The Philippines’ Independence vs. the Independence of the Associated States of Indochina WWII had left the Philippines in a precarious position. The war had destroyed much of the country’s productive capacity: the 1946 GDP was approximately 40% of the 1937 GDP;67 the communist Huk insurgency 68 remained active in many places of Luzon; Southern 170

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Muslims kept their fingers on the trigger; and state finances were totally dependent on American official development assistance (ODA) —a situation nearly as uncomfortable as that in metropolitan France. French Indochina did not fare any better. As a staunch anticolonialist, President Franklin D. Roosevelt had been hostile to the return of France to Indochina after the demise of the previous collaborationist administration. In 1944, he even offered the whole Indochinese package to Chiang Kai-shek during the Yalta Conference. The latter refused the burden, explaining to the US President that the Indochinese were not Chinese.69 During earlier private talks with General de Gaulle, Roosevelt had proposed to send Filipino councilors and experts to Indochina, to help the French implement “a policy of Progress”,70 an offer to which the astonished and haughty General Charles de Gaulle did not even condescend to give an answer. Although Metropolitan France had been liberated in June 1944, the Japanese remained in its former Indochinese territories at the beginning of 1945. On 9 March 1945, the Japanese took over the administration of Indochina and attacked all remaining French garrisons. Following Japanese advice, Emperor Bảo Ðại proclaimed the independence of Vietnam on the same day, and a few days later, on March 13, King Norodom Sihanouk did likewise with Cambodia. King Sisavang Vong followed suit with Laos on April 8, but under constraint—because he considered himself a prisoner. After Japan announced its surrender on August 14, the Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, or Viet Minh, launched an insurgency in the North. After Bao Ðại’s abdication on August 25, Hổ Chí Minh proclaimed anew Vietnam’s independence. The Potsdam Conference held from July to August 1945 only aggravated the confusion in assigning the disarmament of the Japanese71 to Chiang Kai-shek’s troops north of the 16th parallel, and the British in the south. When the French authorities came back to Saigon in September, their power was but nominal, even as French troops arrived in the Mekong Delta a few weeks later. Knowing that the French Communist Party had support from about a quarter of the metropolitan population in 1945, the situation became increasingly problematic for the French authorities after the resignation on 20 January 1946 of General Charles de Gaulle, head of the provisional government, as they hoped for a recall that would not happen until 1958. Even if a modus vivendi with Cambodia was established in early 1946, and even as French soldiers disembarked in the port of Hải Phòng in March, the Da Lat and Fontainebleau Conferences on Indochina, 171

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held in May and from July to August, failed to turn back the clock and restore France’s authority on most of her former Southeast Asian territories. In December 1946, France was officially at war with the Viet Minh. After the adoption by referendum of a new constitution in October 1946 and the subsequent holding of general elections in November, Vincent Auriol became President of the French Republic in early 1947. Institutional stabilization thus allowed France to resume an international policy extending beyond WWII allies. When the Cold War broke out, the framework of international relations was changed drastically, as illustrated by President Truman’s address of 11  March 1947: “At the present moment in world history nearly every Nation must choose between alternative ways of life. […] One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions […] The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression […]”. Instead of granting Indochinese States full independence, the French government followed the 1946 constitution and, in March 1947, decided to negotiate the integration of Associated States of Indochina into a Union Française. Entangled in the Indochina trap, under pressure from the French Communist Party—which supported decolonization and left the government in May 1947—France had no other choice but to secure support from the United States: in Europe through the Marshall Plan (as proposed by Secretary of State General Marshall in his speech at Harvard University on June 5),72 as well as in the Far East. The establishment of diplomatic relations with America’s regional hub and Indochina’s newly independent neighbor, the Philippines, had become a prerequisite. Willoquet back in Manila On 18 March 1945, Willoquet returned to Manila and was promoted to Consul General. On 4 July 1946, he attended the proclamation of the Philippines’ second independence, writing in his long dispatch (excerpts): The birth of a Nation is not a very common event and the world contemplates it with all the more interest because this event is rare. Is the newborn quite fully formed? Is it likely to survive? For the Philippines, the answer to these questions is yes. The new republic begins its independent life under the most auspicious conditions. First of all, independence did 172

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not come abruptly. Using never-ending care and benevolence, the United States had, since 1898, been preparing the Filipino Nation for the day it would be able to control itself and be declared all grown up. Since 1935, the Filipino Commonwealth had enjoyed complete autonomy and during eleven years, including three years of war, it proved that it could take its place within the family of Nations without disadvantage. The artificial economy that the Philippines had developed for fortyeight years, thanks to free trade with America posed the most serious and fearful danger; the abrupt rupture of this economic partnership would start a crisis from which the Filipino people would probably never recover. The US government solved the problem with the passing of the Bell (Trade) Act […] Some prophets had predicted that people would take the streets in masses, and that there would be plundering and riots on the day after the unveiling. They were completely mistaken. Nothing happened, and never had there been duller and calmer days in Manila than these first days of July 1946. When they woke up on the morning of July 5th, Filipinos realized that the sun had risen like any other days, that it was still shining as the earth continued to revolve around it, that the Americans were still there, their jeeps parked in front of bars. They knew, of course, that it would have been a catastrophe for them if, during the night, everything American in the archipelago had magically disappeared. They heaved a sigh of relief when they saw that the Merikanos were still there, ready to lend them assistance to rebuild their ruins.[…]73 A few months later (November 1946), Willoquet became the first French extraordinary envoy and plenipotentiary to the newly independent Philippines, remaining in Manila until March 1949. 74 Having a good knowledge of the country, its politicians and its complexity, Willoquet wrote to Manuel Roxas on the occasion of his inauguration as President of the Philippines (4 July 1946) “it has been my privilege to know you for more than 15 years and I am well aware that, owing to your statesmanship and devotion to your country, the Philippines is in good hands […]”75 On the occasion of the presentation by Willoquet of his letter of credence, President Roxas answered: “Mr. Minister, your Government could not have chosen a representative more deserving of our confidence and affection. You are one who has shared with us our sufferings. By your record of gallant resistance during the enemy occupation, you proved yourself a good and true friend […]”.76 During Willoquet’s tenure, his daughter Madeleine married a WWII hero in Manila, Lieutenant-Colonel Edwin Ramsey, officer 173

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of the 26th cavalry regiment, who had remained in the Philippines after MacArthur’s retreat and organized resistance forces of about 40,000 Filipino scouts, who fought until the return of American forces.77 Having spent more than fifteen years in the Philippines, Willoquet wrote after his retirement the first French “Que-sais-je” book on Philippine history (Figure 106) published by the academic Presses Universitaires de France.78 But even Willoquet’s aura and wit could not compensate for the lack of substance in the economic relations between Philippines and France, nor gain Manila’s political support for French Indochina in exchange for the hasty opening of full diplomatic relations through the signing of the Treaty of Friendship on 26 June 1947. The United States had waited for the ratification on 4 February 1950 of the Élysée Agreements granting formal independence within the French Union to the three ‘associated states’ to recognize them, followed by Thailand a few days later.79 Newly-independent Philippines, however, was hostile to colonialism especially because it was not as free as it had wanted to be—as shown by the remaining twenty-three American military bases on the national territory and the presence of Americans inside the national administration: they postponed any kind of recognition of the three Indochinese states until the end of the first Indochina War that put the states’ “association” status to an end.

174

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Figure 105. Gaston Willoquet, on his Brazilian residence permit document, January 1950

175

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Figure 106. The cover of G. Willoquet’s book on Philippine history

176

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IV

MANILA AND THE END OF FRENCH INDOCHINA

Lucien Colin, Consul General in Tianjin before WWII and

former Ambassador to Panama, succeeded Willoquet in April 194980 as French Plenipotentiary to Manila. Due to the victory of the Communist Party in China in the latter part of the year, and the extension of Viet Minh activism far beyond Vietnam borders, Peninsular Southeast Asia now became directly under communist threat. The Hukbalahaps (or Huks, a Communist guerrilla movement formed by the peasant farmers of Central Luzon), managed to still be active beyond the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese, but were constrained to stay in the hilly parts of Luzon because of the American military bases and special forces. However, communist pressure in the region increased in June 1950 when troops of North Korea and the People’s Republic of China invaded South Korea, marking the first bipolar military confrontation of the Cold War. The Philippines sent 7,420 men to Korea (the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea or PEFTOK), losing 116 soldiers while 299 were wounded between the years 1950 to 1953.81 France sent 3,421 men, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Ralph Monclar aka WWII 4-star General Monclar.82 Though the Philippines and France shared a common agenda in the Korean War—as reported for the Philippines in 1950 by the talented 18-year- old journalist Benigno “Ninoy” Aquino83— the Philippines persisted in refusing any diplomatic recognition of the Associated States of Indochina. On the other hand, the Philippines remained attached to the Western block, especially as on 30 August 1951, it signed a mutual defense treaty with the United States. To sum up, Lucien Colin’s posting in Manila was a happy but difficult one, aggravated by the multiple claims over the Spratly Islands that had started to surface which included a potential claimant still under the tutelage of France, Vietnam. By the time Jean Brionval presented his credentials to President Magsaysay in September 1953, French Indochina was already falling apart. Negotiations had started in Geneva in April 1954 177

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officially to discuss the issue of the Korean peninsula which had been divided into two parts since the Panmunjom armistice of July 1953. During the same time, in the same building, the negotiations on the future of Indochina were likewise conducted. The fall of Ðiện Biên Phu a month after the beginning of the negotiations marked a turning point in Southeast Asian affairs. Following the French defeat and the Geneva Agreement on Indochina on July 21, Vietnam was divided into two parts, North and South. As the Philippines partly faced North Vietnam, it was from then on potentially under communist threat. Due to the significant increase in communist pressure in the region, the United States stipulated that the mutual defense treaty with the Philippines should be covered by a broader agreement including other powers such as the United Kingdom and France, which, even after suffering humiliating defeat in Indochina, remained permanent members of the UN Security Council. The Philippines’ young diplomacy—whose professional Foreign Service had only been created in 1946—84 was in favor of a collective security system in the West Pacific,85 as were the two Pacific British dominions, New Zealand and Australia. The Philippines’ Secretary of Foreign Affairs, General Carlos P. Romulo—former president of the United Nations General Assembly in 1949—had raised the possibility of a Pacific version of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) immediately after the election of the Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower in December 1952. On 18 April 1954, President Ramon Magsaysay announced his agreement in principle with the proposal of an anti-aggression regional alliance, provided that it has all the guarantees of NATO, adding two conditions: 1) the right of Asian nations to self-determination; and 2) full guarantee of US assistance in case of aggression.86 To avoid being the sole Asian and Third World nation member of a security pact once again dominated by the West, it was necessary for the Philippines to invite other Asian countries to join the alliance. On the other hand, following the USSR, the Geneva Agreement prevented Laos, Cambodia, and South Vietnam from joining the alliance directly. The United States, however, was not inclined to approve it; it did not want to build a security system as heavy a burden as NATO. The result was a compromise : the Manila Pact or Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, signed on 8 September 1954 by three of the former colonial powers of Southeast Asia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and France; the two most powerful states of the South-Pacific region: Australia and New Zealand; Pakistan, the 178

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eastern part of which (today Bangladesh) was next door to Southeast Asia; and—in spite of the very name of the treaty—two Southeast Asian countries only, the Philippines and Thailand. The pact created what will be known as the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), although it did not properly imply a structure similar to NATO. On the Philippines’ request, another document, the Pacific Charter, was signed on the same day by the same States, upholding the principle of “equal rights and self-determination of peoples” and promoting “the independence of all countries whose peoples desire it and are able to undertake its responsibilities”. As none of its numerous and tiny Pacific territories asked for independence at the time, France signed the Pacific Charter without any hesitation. In October, the Philippines and Thailand joined the Colombo Plan, the main objective of which was to coordinate aid programs. The Plan had been initiated by the British through the Commonwealth in 1950. With American support, it was expanded beyond its original scope. Exhausted by the Indochina War, France chose not to participate in it. The Philippines opened full diplomatic relations with Laos in January 1955 and South Vietnam in July 1955. At the end of 1955, the French Legation in Manila was upgraded to an embassy, in recognition of the Philippines’ role in SEATO and the Pacific region. On 19 January 1956, Jean Brionval presented anew his credentials to President Magsaysay. However, six months later, he was appointed Ambassador to Indonesia. Brionval’s successor was Georges Cattand, former consul in Shanghai in 1928 and Tianjin from 1929 to 1946, and later, from 1953 to 1956, as chargé d’affaires in China and Taiwan. The visit of former Prime Minister Antoine Pinay in Manila in October 1956 confirmed the importance of the country for the French authorities. In July 1957, the Philippines normalized relations with Cambodia, effectively closing the issue of the decolonization of the Associated States of Indochina.

179

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V

SEATO, THE PHILIPPINES AND FRANCE

The Manila Pact, or Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, was signed on 8 September 1954 by eight states: the United States, Australia, New Zealand (who had already signed a first trilateral defense treaty, ANZUS, in 1951), the United Kingdom, France, Pakistan, Thailand and the Philippines. The pact was to be known as SEATO, though it did not imply a joint command such as NATO. Its headquarters was located in Bangkok.

Section 1, Article IV of the Pact states that “Each Party recognizes

that aggression by means of armed attacks in the treaty area against any of the Parties or against any State or territory which the Parties by unanimous agreement may hereafter designate, would endanger its own peace and safety, and agrees that it will in that event act to meet the common danger in accordance with its constitutional processes”, hence, the Pact could be extended to other countries. To bypass the 1954 Geneva Agreement preventing the three Indochinese States to eventually join SEATO, a protocol was annexed to the treaty, mentioning that the States unanimously designed for the “purposes of Article IV” were “Cambodia and Laos and the free territory under the jurisdiction of the State of Vietnam”. However, none of the three entities had been properly consulted to know their wishes as far as their own security was concerned. Though Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru questioned the commitment of Asian leaders supporting the Manila Pact in front of Philippine delegate Carlos Romulo87 during the Bandung Conference,88 the Philippines remained staunchly anti-colonialist. While the Philippines did not sign the 26 July 1955 letter written by the Afro-Asian group requesting the inclusion of the Algerian question in the UN tenth session, it voted with the Afro-Asians and against France and Western powers to put Algeria on the agenda.89 180

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Due to the drawdown of US troops in South Korea from 300,000 in 1953 to some 50,000 by the mid-1950s,90 President Syngman Rhee was thinking about joining SEATO and started consultations with South Korea’s foreign legations in 1956. According to Lee Jae-Bong, then Korean envoy to Manila, Vice-President Garcia was favorable to South Korea’s membership, as was France’s outgoing ambassador, Jean Brionval.91 However, the United Kingdom’s vulnerability with regards to the People’s Republic of China—with supplies of food, water and electricity of Hong Kong coming from the mainland—prevented London from supporting South Korea’s proposal: the British were afraid that South Korea’s membership would create a precedent with respect to Taiwan. SEATO thus remained a grouping of eight.

Figure 107. Manila Conference of SEATO nations on the Vietnam War, 24 October 1966, Malacañan Palace. (LBJ Library photo by Yoichi Okamoto)

181

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Figure 108. French Prime Minister Georges Pompidou at the SEATO Council meeting in Paris, 8 April 1963 (L-R) Secretary of State David Dean Rusk (United States), Foreign Secretary Lord Alexander Douglas-Home (United Kingdom), Foreign Minister Thanat Khoman (Thailand), French Prime Minister Georges Pompidou, Mr. Pote Sarasin (General Secretary of SEATO), Foreign Minister Maurice Couve de Murville (France), Secretary of Foreign Affairs Emmanuel Pelaez (Philippines), Ambassador Jalaluddin Abdur Rahim (Pakistan), Minister of Defense Dean J. Eyre (New Zealand), and Minister for External Affairs Sir Garfield Barwick (Australia) (© Keystone Pictures USA/ZUMAPRESS.com)

(L-R) Pr

Prime Prime M 182

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When General Charles de Gaulle came back to power in 1958, the issue of the Protocol States—Cambodia, Laos and the free territory under the jurisdiction of the State of Vietnam—became a point of contention between the United States and France. Sharing apparently the same analysis, President Garcia declared on 5 September 1958, that the Philippines would go to war “only if provoked by direct military or naval attacks on its territory.”92 Four years after the signature of SEATO, its implementation thus remained limited, all the more because the Philippines and the United States disagreed on Philippine military buildup and on the role devoted to Asian countries inside the organization. The resumption of war in Vietnam in 1959 increased the split inside the organization. Since 1961, General Charles de Gaulle regularly warned the Americans that intervening in South Vietnam or even Laos would be useless.93 In 1965, Prince Sihanouk considered refusing SEATO protection as a Protocol State.94 On

Figure 109. SEATO leaders in front of the Philippine Congress Building in Manila, 24 October 1966. (L-R) Prime Minister Nguyễn Cao Kỳ (South Vietnam), Prime Minister Harold Holt (Australia), President Park Chung Hee (South Korea), President Ferdinand Marcos (Philippines), Prime Minster Keith Holyoake (New Zealand), Lt. Gen. Nguyễn Văn Thiệu (South Vietnam), Prime Minister Thanom Kittikachorn (Thailand), and President Lyndon B. Johnson (United States) (LBJ Library photo by Frank Wolfe) 183

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1 September 1966, during an official trip in Phnom Penh, in front of 100,000 people, French President de Gaulle urged the United States to negotiate its departure from South Vietnam. Due to SEATO’s lack of effectiveness, the United States used bilateral agreements to obtain support from some of its members during the Vietnam war: in 1966, the Philippines sent 2,200 men (mostly engineering), Australia sent 4,500, and South  Korea—reciprocating American support during the Korean war—45,000.95 But without nuclear or popular support, the American intervention was a failure. On 25 July 1969, in Guam, President Nixon explained that, from now on, the United States would “look to the nation directly threatened to assume the primary responsibility of providing the manpower for its defense”.96 On 21 February 1972, President Nixon met Chairman Mao Zedong in Beijing. After more than one year of war and Indian intervention, Pakistan lost its eastern territory, which became Bangladesh. Reduced to its western part, Pakistan withdrew from SEATO in November 1973. After the withdrawal of American military aid to South Vietnam (August 1973), France, too, withdrew from SEATO on 30 June 1974. Two months later, the United States suspended its financial aid to Saigon. Left useless after the communist victories of April 1975, SEATO formally ended on 30 June 1977.

184

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CHAPTER NOTES The Coalition was composed of: the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Prussia, Hanover, Nassau, and Brunswick.

1

Born in 1769 to a family that served in the French Navy, as well as a cousin to the well-known writer and politician François-René de Chateaubriand, J.-B. (de) Chaigneau joined the French Navy in 1781 as a trainee. As his commission as naval officer after two military campaigns was refused by the Ministry, he embarked on the merchant ship Flavie in 1791, to search for La Pérouse in the Pacific Ocean. When his ship was destroyed in Macao in 1794 by the British, who were then at war with France, he sailed to Cochinchina (A. Salles, J.-B. Chaigneau et sa famille, Bulletin des amis du vieux Hué, janvier-mars 1923, 200 p.; review by Louis Finot in BEFEO, vol. 23, 1923, p. 424-427).

2

Cordier, Henri, Mélanges d’histoire et de géographie orientales, vol. 2, Paris, Jean Maisonneuve & fils, 1922, p. 352.

3

Bensacq-Tixier, Nicole, Histoire des diplomates et consuls français en Chine (1840-1912) [History of French diplomats and consuls in China…], Paris, les Indes Savantes, 2008.

4

Guimarães, Ângela, Uma relação especial, Macau e as relações luso-chinesas, 1780-1844 [A special relation, Macao and the Portuguese-Chinese relations], Lisbon, Ediçao CIES, 1996, p. 30.

5

Gernet, Jacques, Le monde chinois [The Chinese World], Paris, Armand Colin, 1972, p. 465.

6

Cordier, Henri, “La mission Dubois de Jancigny dans l’Extrême-Orient (1841-1846) [Dubois de Jancigny’s mission to the Far East]”, Mélanges d’histoire et de géographie orientales, vol. IV, Paris, Jean Maisonneuve & Fils, 1923, p. 66.

7

8

Ibid., p. 159.

Born in 1803, brother of Odilon Barrot (briefly Prime Minister of France, 1848-49), Adolphe Barrot became High Commissioner to Haïti (1843), then Consul General in Alexandria (1845). He was designated Ambassador to the following places: Brazil and Portugal (1849), the Bourbon Kingdom of Naples (1851), Belgium (1853), and Madrid (1858). Holder of the Grand'Croix of the Légion d’honneur, he died in 1870.

9

Cordier, Henri, “La mission Dubois de Jancigny en Extrême-Orient (1841-1846)”, Revue d’histoire des colonies françaises, 1916, 2nd quarter, p. 29.

10

Amédée Fabre (1819-1871) was the son of Adolphe Barrot’s eldest sister. He served as Consul in what was, under the Swedish crown then known as Christiania, today Oslo, then Consul General in Quito, Ecuador. He was admitted into the French Société de Géographie in 1850.

11

Cordier, Henri, « La première légation de France en Chine (1847) », T’oung Pao, Second Series, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1906, p. 354.

12

Mercier, V. (S.J.), Campagne du Cassini dans les mers de Chine, d’après les rapports, notes et lettres du commandant [François ] de Plas, Paris, Retaux-Bray, 1889, p. 258.

13

185

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Born in Paris to a Greek father and a French mother, A. de Codrika (1804-1880) served as an officer in the French Army before he joined the French Diplomatic Corps. He married Austrian Pauline Emmanuelle Joséphine Kemperle von Philips. See Maurice Herbette, Une ambassade turque sous le Directoire [A Turkish Embassy under the Directoire], Paris, Librairie Académique Didier Perrin & Cie, 1902, p. 16, n. 1.

14

15

Another term to refer to the Ottoman Empire.

In retaliation for the French invasion of Egypt, the Ottomans seized control of the French legation in Istanbul. In response, Napoléon Bonaparte did the same with the Ottoman legation in Paris, before the 1801 settlement.

16

Gustave Flaubert, « Lettre à Louise Colet [27 March 1853] », Correspondance, 2, juillet 1851-décembre 1858, Paris, Gallimard, coll. La Pléiade, 1980.

17

Mercier, V. (S.J.), op. cit., p. 374. Casimir worked as Consul General in Calcutta, then Singapore, and in early 1870, in Bogota. In 1881, he got married for the second time in Paris (La Presse, 31 December 1881) to one of his young cousins, the daughter of the royalist author Attale du Cournau, and died in 1887 (Le Gaulois : littéraire et politique, 12 December 1887).

18

Courcy, Marquis de, “Martyre de l’Abbé Chapedelaine en Chine (juillet-octobre 1856)”, Revue d’histoire diplomatique, 13th year No.1, 1899, p. 483-484.

19

20

Chevalier Jean-Baptiste Delambre (1749-1822).

Encyclopédie des Gens du Monde, répertoire universel, Paris, Presses Mécaniques de E. Duverger, 1842, vol. XVII/2, p. 462-463. On Pierre Méchain and the meter, see Ken Alder, The Empire of Science, the measure of all things: The Seven Year Odyssey and Hidden Error that Transformed the World, Abacus, reprint, 2004, 480 p.; Denis Guedj, The measure of the World, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2001, 310 p.

21

Catalogue reference: ms. EFEO, fondskhmer O 141. The trip to Manila {srukmnillā} is related f. 32-44.

22

Luciano P. R. Santiago, “The Heart of Norodom: The State Visit of the King of Cambodia in 1872”, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, vol. 18, No. 3, 1990, p. 185-200. The ship was named after Rear Admiral César de Bourayne (see supra), Ch. 1. Santiago writes ‘Roxas’ for the girl’s family name and not ‘Rojas’, as engraved on the jewel Fig. 91.

23

King Norodom’s trip to Southern China and the Philippines was related in two poems, one written on palm leaves (EFEO No 141, 45 f.) and the second on paper (EFEO No. 9[141], 76 f.). See Khing Hoc Dy, “Le voyage de l’envoyé Cambodgien Son Diêp à Paris en 1900”, in Claudine Salmon, ed., Récits de voyages des Asiatiques, genres, mentalités, conception de l’espace, Paris, EFEO, 1996, p. 368. The Bulletin de l’École française d’Extrême-Orient (BEFEO) mentions in 1904 the two poems describing the trip, written by okñā Santhor Vohàr, one of the greatest Cambodian poets of the time, and by the Akkāmahāsenā i.e. Chief Minister (Anonymous, “Chronique — Cambodge”, BEFEO, 1904, vol. 4/1, p. 493).

24

Born in 1820, he served as Governor-General of the Philippines from April 1871 to January 1873, organizing the repression of the Cavite Mutiny. He died in 1882.

25

Luciano P. R. Santiago, “The Last Hacendera: Doña Teresa de la Paz, 1841-1890”, Philippine Studies vol. 46, No. 3, 1998, p. 349.

26

27

Sec ktīnīrāshuṅkuṅ [King Norodom’s travel to Kong], f. 35. 186

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The girl was Josefa Roxas y Manio (Luciano P. R. Santiago, “The Heart of Norodom…”op. cit.); the King gave her a jewel as big as a pomegranate that eventually disappeared after being stolen. He also gave a smaller one to her elder sister, which still exists and has been given by the family to the statue of Nuestra Señora del Santo Rosario in the Santo Domingo Church (Quezon City). Prince Norodom Sihanouk visited the church in 1969.

28

29

Le Temps, 30 April 1873.

Such as Gazette des Tribunaux, 25 August 1876, p. 1-2 ; Revue du notariat et de l’enregistrement, Paris, 1876, p. 768-777; Recueil général des lois et des arrêts en matière civile, criminelle, administrative et de droit public, Paris, Bureaux de l’administration du Recueil, 1879, p. 252.

30

Revue du notariat et de l’enregistrement, vol. 17, 1876, p. 772. The document writes ‘Benjamin Méchain’ and not ‘Eugène,’ Benjamin being Méchain’s third Christian name.

31

32

Revue du notariat et de l’enregistrement, op. cit., p. 775.

Ministerio de Ultramar (Ministry of Overseas affairs, Madrid), Archivo Histórico Nacional, ES-28079-AHN-UD-178138-ES-28079-AHN-UD-1701963.

33

See Maria-Luisa Camagay, French Consular Dispatches on the Philippine Revolution, Manila, University of the Philippines Press, 1997, 207 p. Born in 1851, chevalier of the Légion d’honneur, Gabriel de Bérard had previously been Consul General in Santiago de Cuba and Cagliari.

34

Consul General Ernest Crampon’s report to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, excerpts in Revue des vins et liqueurs et des produits alimentaires pour l’exportation, January 1886, p. 110-112.

35

Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Documents diplomatiques, Négociations pour la paix entre l’Espagne et les États-Unis, 1898, Imprimerie Nationale.

36

37

Ibid.

Miles, Maj.-Gen. Nelson A. Harper’s Pictorial History of the War with Spain. Harper & Bros., 1899, page 426.

38

Article III of the Protocol of Peace between Spain and the United States signed on 12 August 1898.

39

40

Cambon’s letter to Delcassé dated 01 July 1898.

SS La Bourgogne is a French ocean liner which sank on 4 July 1898 and Cambon’s letter is dated 1 July. It is possible that he added the commentary about Bourgogne to his letter after he had heard about the sinking. The original report showed that the line on Bourgogne was added as an afterthought.

41

Cambon’s secretary at the French Embassy in Washington, Mr. Thiébaut, writes in November 1898 “The criticism made about the protocol by some shortsighted “do-gooders” does not surprise me. It can easily be replied to by saying “perhaps the protocol is vague, perhaps it was signed hastily, perhaps you were not acting like a good Spaniard when you signed it. But you were definitely acting like a good Frenchman when you did, and France is deeply indebted to you for having prevented the Americans from settling in the Balearic Islands. We just saw the way they dealt with things, or rather how uncompromising they can be. What would we have done

42

187

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had we had them as our bad neighbors in the Mediterranean? As it stands, our Toulon squadron already lacks free rein between La Spezia, Malta, Gibraltar and Egypt. The day will come when people in France will understand this, just like people in England immediately understood it. The English would have been content if the war had kept going, and the support given to their American cousins regarding the Philippines is nothing compared to what it would have been if they had settled in the Balearic Islands – No, dear Ambassador, have no regrets; you did a good job.” 43

Cambon’s letter to Delcassé dated 19 August 1898, page 252.

44

Ibid., page 253.

45

Ibid.

46

Ibid., pages 256-257.

47

Ibid.

48

Ibid., page 258.

49

Ibid. page 259.

50

Ibid., page 260.

51

This hotel is now the Westin Paris-Vendôme.

De Ocampo, Esteban A., and Alfredo B. Saulo. First Filipino Diplomat: Felipe Agoncillo, 1859-1941. National Historical Institute, 1994. Page 95.

52

53

Ibid., pages 97-98.

h t t p : / / w w w. f i l i p i n o a m e r i c a nw a r. c o m / t re a t yo f p a r i s . h t m   a c c e s s e d on 15 April 2018.

54

55

Felix M. Roxas later became the Mayor of Manila.

In De Ocampo, op. cit., page 103., he wrote that “They maintained a small office at L’Havana Hotel, No. 4 Rue de Trevise.” The correct name and address for the hotel is Le Grand Hôtel de la Havane and it is located at no. 44 Rue de Trévise based on the book Mémoire des rues Paris 9e Arrondissement 1900-1940 by Philippe Roy, page 148, showing an actual photo of the said hotel. This hotel is located within walking distance from most of the houses Rizal stayed in at the 9th Arrondissement of Paris.

56

As a reference to the two ministers of Foreign Affairs who prepared the treaty, French Aristide Briand (1862-1932) and American Frank B. Kellogg (1856-1937).

57

Dwight F. Davis (1879-1945) gave his name to the prestigious tennis tournament Davis Cup. Under the Republican Calvin Coolidge’s presidency, he was Deputy Secretary of War (1923-1925), Secretary of War (1925-1929); then (under Herbert Hoover) Governor of the Philippines (1929-32).

58

59

Henry Champly, “Lettre des Philippines”, Le Temps, 11 March 1932.

For some of Gaston Willoquet’s dispatches prior to 1941, see Armando Malay, “Bolshevism in the colonies: Indochina and the ‘Philippine example’”, Asian Studies, p. 16-36.

60

61

Ministère des Affaires étrangères [MAE], 1930-1940, general files, Philippines, 188

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file 10, dispatch 10 September 1932, quoted by William Guéraiche, Manuel Quezon, les Philippines de la décolonisation à la démocratisation [Philippines from decolonization to democratization], Paris, Maisonneuve & Larose, 2004, p. 223, n. 9. 62

William Guéraiche, Manuel Quezon, op. cit., p. 224.

63

G. Willoquet, “Dispatch”, 2 July 1934, in ibid., p. 225.

64

G. Willoquet, “Dispatch”, 3 September 1939, in ibid., p. 227.

65

Revue de la France Libre, n° 126, June 1960.

The Philippine Diary Project, Diary entries from Philippine history, “Diary of Francis Burton Harrison”, 21-23 February 1943, posted on 23 February 1943, http:// philippinediaryproject.com/1943/02/23/february-21-23-1943/

66

Steinberg, David Joel, The Philippines, a singular and a plural place, Boulder, Westview, 1994, p. 103.

67

Benedict J. Kerkvliet, The Huk Rebellion. A study of Peasant Revolt in the Philippines, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1977, 305 p.

68

Bernard B. Fall, Viet Nam, dernières réflexions sur une guerre [translated from Last Reflections on a War], Paris, Robert Laffont, 1968, p. 156-157.

69

70

Ibid., p. 157.

On the cooperation between the Japanese and the Viet Minh, see Christopher E. Goscha, “Alliés tardifs : les apports techniques des déserteurs japonais au Viet-Minh durant les premières années de la guerre franco-vietnamienne [Belated Asian Allies: The Technical Contributions of Japanese Deserters to the Viet Minh during the Early Years of the Franco-Vietnamese War]”, Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, 2001/2, n° 202-203, p. 81-109.

71

Excerpts : “In considering the requirements for the rehabilitation of Europe, the physical loss of life, the visible destruction […] was correctly estimated but it has become obvious […] that this visible destruction was probably less serious than the dislocation of the entire fabric of European economy. […] before the United States Government can proceed much further in its efforts to alleviate the situation and help start the European world […], there must be some agreement among the countries of Europe as to the requirements of the situation and the part those countries themselves will take […]. The role of this country should consist of friendly aid in the drafting of a European program and of later support of such a program so far as it may be practical for us to do so. The program should be a joint one, agreed to by a number, if not all European nations.”

72

G. Willoquet, Manila, 8 July 1946, in Ministère des Affaires étrangères & GeorgesHenri Soutou, edds., Documents diplomatiques français, 1946, tome II—1er juillet31 décembre, Paris, Commission de publication des documents diplomatiques français & Peter Lang, 2004, p. 330-334.

73

G. Willoquet was then appointed Consul General to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a very welcome assignment as he had just married, at the end of 1920, a Brazilian from Recife, Hilda Ballalai (1903-1959). Id., "Diary of Francis Burton Harrison," Posted on 25 February 1943 at 11:59 AM. 75 An annotated bibliography on President Manuel A. Roxas, http://repository.mainlib. upd.edu.ph/pmarf/download.php?fileid=30 74

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76 “Remarks of President Roxas on the occasion of the Presentation by the French Minister to the Philippines, Gaston Willoquet, of his letter of credence, 7 February 1947”, Official Gazette, http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/1947/02/07/ remarks-of-president-roxas-on-the-occasion-of-the-presentation-by-the-frenchminister-to-the-philippines-gaston-willoquet-of-his-letter-of-credence. 77 “Edwin Ramsey dies at 95 (“WWII Army cavalry officer in Philippines”, Los  Angeles Times, 16 March 2013. Back in the US, he got a law degree and worked for Hughes Aircraft as vice-president for Asia, then for electronics companies. See Edwin Price Ramsey & Stephen J. Rivele, Lieutenant Ramsey’s War: From Horse Soldier to Guerrilla Commander (Memories of War), Brassey’s, 1990, 333 p. (reprinted in 2005). Madeleine and Edwin had four children, Edwin Jr., Douglas, Michele and Janine. They divorced in the late 1970s and Ramsey remarried in 1979, this time with a Filipino academic. 78 Gaston Willoquet published a second book in the same collection on Brazil’s economy, and a surprising third book, on the 16th century prophecies of astrologer Nostradamus. 79 Christopher E. Goscha, Thailand and the Southeast Asian Networks of the Vietnamese Revolution, 1885-1954, Abingdon & Copenhagen, Routledge & NIAS, 1999, p. 318319. 80 He presented his credentials on December 14, 1949 (Diplomatic Agenda of Philippine Presidents, 1946-1985, Manila, Foreign Service Institute, 1985, p. 11). 81 Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Korea, http://www.philembassyseoul.com/dafa.asp 82 Kenneth Hamburger, “Le rôle du ‘bataillon de Corée’ dans la guerre de Corée”, Revue historique des armées, No. 246, 2007, p. 65-76. 83 See Benigno (Ninoy) Aquino’s description of the Korean War and the Philippine troops in Nick Joaquin, The Aquinos of Tarlac, Metro Manila, Solar Publishing Corporation, complete and unexpurgated edition, 1986, p. 199-217. 84 The Philippine Foreign Service was created by virtue of Executive Order No. 18 in 1946. It was re-organized in 1952. Republic Act No. 708, see Diplomatic Agenda of Philippine Presidents, 1946-1985, op. cit., p. 27). 85 H. W. Brands, Bound to Empire: The United States and the Philippines, Oxford University Press, p. 257. 86

Diplomatic Agenda of Philippine Presidents, 1946-1985, op. cit., p. 38-39.

87

Carlos Romulo chaired the Philippine delegation to the U.N. from 1947 to 1955.

88 Lisandro E. Claudio, Liberalism and the Postcolony: Thinking the State in 20th-Century Philippines, Singapore, NUS Press, 2017, p. 106; Vijay Prashad, The Darker Nations, a People’s History of the Third World, New York & London, The New Press, 2007, p. 36. 89 Jean-Luc Vellut, The Asian Policy of the Philippines, 1935-1963, Ph.D. dissertation, Canberra, Australian National University, 1964, p. 193-194. 90 Lee Jae-Bong, “US Deployment of Nuclear Weapons in 1950s South Korea & North Korea’s Nuclear Development: Toward Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula”, The Asia-Pacific Journal, Japan Focus, vol. 7/8, 17 February 2009, p. 4.

190

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“Report No. 79 from Young Kee Kim to Syngman Rhee”, 7 April 1956, http:// digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/document/123259.

91

President Garcia, September 5, 1958, in Diplomatic Agenda of Philippine Presidents, 1946-1985, op. cit., p. 85.

92

93

Pierre Journoud, De Gaulle et le Vietnam, 1945-1969, Paris, Tallandier, 2011, ch.4.

Richard A. Falk, The Vietnam War and International Law, Volume 3: The Widening Context, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1972, p. 80.

94

François Joyaux, “La Conférence de Manille, 24-25 Octobre 1966”, Politique étrangère, vol. 31/5, 1966, p. 534.

95

Jeffrey Kimball, “The Nixon Doctrine: A Saga of Misunderstanding”, Presidential Studies Quarterly Vol. 36, No. 1, Presidential Doctrines, 2006, pp. 59-74; Richard Nixon, “President Nixon’s Speech on ‘Vietnamization’”, https://www.nixonlibrary. gov/forkids/speechesforkids/silentmajority/silentmajority_transcript.pd

96

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4

NURTURING FRIENDSHIP: 1947-2017

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I

THE ROAD TO FRIENDSHIP: THE SIGNING OF THE PHILIPPINES-FRANCE TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP

After the opening of the consulate in 1836, the second milestone

in the long relation between Philippines and France was the Treaty of Friendship drawn between the two countries, signed on 26 June 1947 in Paris. Less than a year after the Philippines’ second independence on 4 July 1946, its former colonizer, the United States,1 was the first Western state to establish full diplomatic relations with Manila, on 13 March 1947. France, surprisingly, was the second, preceding Italy on July 9, and even its other former colonizer, Spain, on September 27.2 But the road to the signing of the Treaty of Friendship was not a smooth one. When first proposed in the early months of 1947 to France’s envoy to Manila Gaston Willoquet by Vice President and Secretary of Foreign Affairs Elpidio Quirino, the initial reaction from the Quai d’Orsay was not a favorable one. Largely stemming from the Philippines’ anti-colonialist position in the United Nations, French foreign ministry officials—referencing the French Indochinese colonies—did not “see the point of such a treaty, unless it comes with some sort of political agreement, namely on colonial issues, as it seems the Philippines does not seem to share our views on the matter (see its votes in New York).”3 The French officials were also worried how the United States would react to France signing the treaty. “Furthermore, our interests in the Philippines do not seem to be sufficiently important to justify such a general gesture, which could be seen in a bad light by the United States, given their almost absolute de facto control over the Philippine Islands.”4 However, Willoquet successfully convinced the Quai d’Orsay stating that France stands to gain by negotiating a treaty of friendship with the Philippines. Citing that China, Great Britain and Italy were all negotiating similar treaties with the Philippines, France would lose out on future economic relations and commercial agreements if 195

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Figure 110. Vice President and Secretary of Foreign Affairs Elpidio Quirino signing the Philippine-French Treaty of Friendship on 26 June 1947 with French Foreign Minister Georges Bidault looking on (right). (President Elpidio Quirino Foundation)

it did not sign a similar treaty. On the issue of Indochina, Willoquet reports that “while the Philippines happened to be one of the most systematically anti-colonialist countries during the New York (UN) debates on international tutelage, public opinion in the Philippines, however, seems to have shown almost absolute neutrality with regards to the events in Indochina to this day.”5 Having secured the commitment of France to enter into negotiations for a Treaty of Friendship, Paris became the sixth stop in Quirino’s world tour of the United States and Europe as President Manuel Roxas’ Ambassador of Goodwill.6 The trip was the first time since its independence that the Philippines dealt directly with foreign countries. Quirino’s goal was to study the solutions of various European nations on how they rebuilt following the end of the Second World War. “After waiting for our independence for a long time, we now have to build a whole new nation... and we have to do it in a world dominated by change. Why... Europe? Simply because we already know America. There are three worlds now: the old world, the new world...and the world that is being born from the coasts of the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. And this world needs the other two to be born and to live.”7 196

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Arriving in Paris on June 9 by a special plane provided by the British government since trains in France had been paralyzed by a strike,8 Quirino officially began his visit with the offering of a wreath at the tomb of the unknown soldier at the Arc de Triomphe followed by meetings with President Vincent Auriol at the Élysée Palace, Prime Minister Paul Ramadier, President of the Chamber of Deputies Édouard Marie Herriot, and Foreign Minister Georges Bidault. In his meeting with Bidault on June 12, both sides agreed in principle to the signing of the Treaty of Friendship but the issue of Indochina and the Philippines’ anti-colonial stance at the United Nations loomed large in the discussion. Quirino assured Bidault that “while it is true that the aspirations for independence of non-self governing territories will always arouse the sympathy of the Philippines, it prefers to act as an example for the populations of these territories rather than a guide.”9 By June 26, the Treaty of Friendship was signed by Quirino and Bidault. The Treaty was then adopted by the Senate of the Philippines on 4 May 1948 and by the French Parliament in August 1949. The instruments of ratification were exchanged by both parties on 19 April 1950 in Baguio City.10 For all his efforts in promoting Philippines-France relations, Quirino was conferred in 194811 the rank of grand officier of the Ordre National de la Légion d’honneur, the second highest decoration given by the French Republic to foreigners.12

Figure 111. Secretary of Foreign Affairs Elpidio Quirino at the Élysée Palace (President Elpidio Quirino Foundation) 197

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198

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199

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200

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202

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203

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Source: Archives du Ministère de l’Europe et des Affaires Étrangères La Courneuve

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II

STEADY GROWTH IN THE RELATIONS

Since the signing of the Treaty of Friendship and its entry into force

in 1949, relations between the Philippines and France have been strengthened over the decades by cooperation and engagement in many fields of endeavor—political, economic, cultural, and people to people exchanges. Both countries concluded a number of bilateral agreements in these fields which can be found in the end of this book. The Philippines and France have each sent the following ambassadors and envoys to each other’s capitals to represent their respective national interests and promote closer ties: Table 1. French Envoys and Ambassadors to the Philippines

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Table 2. Philippine Envoys and Ambassadors to France

206

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Figure 112. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary Proceso Sebastian (center) leaving the Élysée Palace following his Presentation of Credentials to President Vincent Auriol, 13 March 1951 (Archives Nationales)

Figure 113. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Salvador P. Lopez to President René Coty, 9 February 1955 (Archives Nationales) 207

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Figure 114. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Jose M. Alejandrino to President Charles de Gaulle, 1963 (Archives Nationales)

Figure 115. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Luis Moreno Salcedo to President Charles de Gaulle, 25 February 1969 (Archives Nationales) 208

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Figure 116. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Felipe Mabilangan, Jr. (left) to President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, 6 September 1979 (Archives Nationales)

Figure 117. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Felicidad Bengzon Gonzales (right) to President François Mitterrand, 31 May 1988 (Archives Nationales) 209

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Figure 118. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Rosario G. Manalo to President François Mitterrand, 9 May 1990 (Archives Nationales)

Figure 119. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Rora Navarro Tolentino to President François Mitterrand, 25 May 1994 (Archives Nationales) 210

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Figure 120. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Hector K. Villarroel (center) to President Jacques Chirac, 11 September 1997 (Archives Nationales)

Figure 121. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Jose Abeto Zaide to President Jacques Chirac, 28 April 2006 (Photographie Présidence de la République) 211

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Figure 122. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Rora Navarro Tolentino to President Nicolas Sarkozy, 25 January 2009 (Photographie Présidence de la République)

to

Figure 123. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Cristina G. Ortega to President Nicolas Sarkozy, 22 December 2011 (Photographie Présidence de la République) 212

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Figure 124. Presentation of Credentials of Ambassador Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro to President François Hollande, 8 July 2014 (Photographie Présidence de la République)

213

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Exchange of Visits The exchanges of high-level visits are veritable highpoints of the political relations between the Philippines and France. These highlevel visits, especially those at head of state or head of government level, serve as important catalysts to deepen and strengthen bilateral relations. Following Quirino’s visit in 1947, Vice President and Secretary of Agriculture Fernando Lopez visited Paris in 1952 to promote closer economic ties between the Philippines and France. Quirino, by then, had become the President of the Philippines.

Figure 125. Philippine Vice President Fernando Lopez and French President Vincent Auriol at the Élysée Palace, 6 November 1952. (Archives Nationales)

In 1963, Vice President and Minister of Foreign Affairs Emmanuel N. Pelaez visited Paris twice. The first visit was in February and coincided with his trip to attend the London Talks on the issue of North Borneo13 and a regional conference of the Philippine Chiefs of Missions in Europe organized to coordinate diplomatic efforts 214

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“to augment Philippine export trade with Europe and the extension of financial and economic assistance by European countries to the Philippines.”14 The second visit was in April for the SEATO Ministers’ Council Meeting.

Figure 126. Philippine Vice President and Foreign Minister Emmanuel Pelaez leaving the Élysée Palace following his meeting with President Charles de Gaulle on 8 February 1963 (Archives Nationales)

While the February visit was a private one, the French Foreign Ministry organized meetings between Pelaez and President Charles de Gaulle, Prime Minister Georges Pompidou and Foreign Minister Maurice Couve de Murville. In his discussions with the French President, Pelaez expressed his satisfaction at the good relations between the Philippines and France but hoped to reinforce them in the political, economic and cultural areas. Pelaez noted that since its independence, the Philippines has indeed relied heavily on the United States but that it is natural to look at new markets such as France. De Gaulle expressed France’s willingness to increase its relations with the Philippines and to look for practical ways to improve them. He did note however, that Philippine products such as copra oil and other tropical products would have to compete with 215

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the products coming from France’s former colonies in Africa.15 There were also discussions between Pelaez and De Gaulle related to the developments in North Borneo and on the Asian region in general. The meeting with Foreign Minister Couve de Murville centered on how both sides can strengthen bilateral economic relations and on the French Government’s interest in the problems affecting SEATO. The French viewed SEATO as an effective alliance playing a useful role in the region.

Fig

Figure 127. Vice President Emmanuel Pelaez in an interview with Paris-based media— United Press International, Reuter’s News Agency, Agence France Presse, and The Associated Press. (Photo / Emmanuel Pelaez Foundation)

Besides visits to each other’s countries, state funerals also provided opportunities for meetings between the leaders of the two countries. In 1963, President Diosdado Macapagal and President Charles de Gaulle were some of the more prominent leaders who attended the State Funeral of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. Similarly in 1969, President Ferdinand E. Marcos and First Lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos had the opportunity to meet with President Charles de Gaulle during the funeral of U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower. At the sidelines of the State Funeral of Japanese Emperor Hirohito in 1889, President Cory Aquino and President François Mitterrand held bilateral discussions.

Figu Preside

216

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Figure 128. President Diosdado Macapagal (right) with President Charles de Gaulle (left) during the State Funeral of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, 25 November 1963.16

Figure 129. President Ferdinand E. Marcos and First Lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos with President Charles de Gaulle during the State Funeral of U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower, 1969 (Photo / Office of Representative Imelda R. Marcos) 217

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Relations during the Marcos Presidency During the term of President Ferdinand Marcos, there were high-level visits between the two sides. In 1976, First Lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos visited France on the invitation of the City of Paris and attended the opening of À la découverte des Philippines (Discover the Philippines), an exhibition of Philippine products and industries that was held from 24 to 30 May 1976 at the Centre Commercial Parly 2, in Île-de-France. During this visit, the First Lady paid a courtesy call on French President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing and a lunch was tendered in her honor at the Élysée Palace.

Figure 130. First lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos with French President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing at the Élysée Palace, May 1976 (Archives Nationales)

Foreign Minister Carlos P. Romulo followed the First Lady’s visit on November 1978. Foreign Minister Romulo and his French counterpart, Louis de Guiringaud, signed cultural and scientific accords in Paris on 18 November 1978. During their bilateral meeting, Minister Romulo noted that these two accords reflect the quality of cooperation between the two countries and allow for a form of rediscovery between the cultures of both nations. For his part, Minister Louis de Guiringaud stated that France appreciates the importance the Philippines plays in Southeast Asia and its unique role in the whole of Asia.17 218

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Figure 131. First Lady Imelda Romualdez Marcos introducing a member of her delegation to French President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing. (Archives Nationales)

at the Élysée Palace, 6 November 1952. (Archives Nationales)

Figure 132. Foreign Minister Carlos P. Romulo with French Foreign Minister Louis de Guiringaud, 18 November 1978. (Photo / CPR Foundation) 219

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Exchanges between the parliaments of the two countries were likewise robust during this period. Batasang Pambansa Speaker Querube Makalintal paid an official visit in 1979 upon the invitation of the French-Philippine Parliamentary Friendship Society of the National Assembly and return visits by French parliamentarians were made during this period. French and Philippine labor ministers also exchanged official visits to discuss possible joint ventures in subcontracting and employment projects in the Middle East. In July 1983, Prime Minister and Minister of Finance Cesar Virata met with this French counterpart Pierre Mauroy and agreed to exert best efforts in solving industrial disputes which had remained as obstacles to better relations and committed to start a new chapter in PhilippineFrench relations. Corazon C. Aquino State Visit France was among the first to recognize the government of Corazon “Cory” Aquino in February 1986. Then Prime Minister Laurent Fabius categorically stated that “France must show its support of democracy and state it is alongside Aquino”. Mr. Fabius would later visit Manila and meet with President Cory Aquino in June 1986, (when he was no longer Prime Minister, having been replaced by Jacques Chirac in March 1986) to express support to the government.

Figure 133. President Corazon C. Aquino and President François Mitterrand at the arrival ceremonies at the Orly Airport (Archives Nationales) 220

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Figure 134. President Corazon C. Aquino and President François Mitterrand at the Élysée Palace (Archives Nationales)

It was the desire of then French President François Mitterrand that President Aquino be invited to France to a State Visit on 11- 14 July 1989 so that the State Visit could occur just before the French Bicentennial celebrations. Preparations for her visit began in March  1989, soon after the encounter of Presidents Aquino and Mitterrand during the funeral of Emperor Hirohito in Tokyo in February 1989. Her presence in France as Chief Guest at the French Bicentennial was seen as an added note of prestige to the French celebration, given her popularity and the fact that she had become an icon for democracy. President Aquino was personally met by President Mitterrand and his wife at the Orly Airport. From there, they flew by helicopter to the Esplanade des Invalides fronting the mausoleum of Napoléon Bonaparte. Here, the motorcade to the State Guesthouse, the Hôtel de Marigny, began.18 Hundreds of French Republic Guards on horseback were a magnificent sight to behold as they cantered forward, blowing on trumpets as they escorted President Aquino to the State Guesthouse. All roads leading to Hôtel de Marigny were closed to traffic to accommodate the Presidential entourage. In simple ceremonies, President and Mrs. Mitterrand and President Aquino exchanged gifts and pleasantries.19 221

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Figure 135. President Corazon C. Aquino delivering her remarks in French during the State Banquet hosted by President François Mitterrand, July 1984.

Later at the Élysée Palace, the President was feted in a state banquet hosted by President Mitterrand. It was during this important occasion that the latter verbalized the value the French people and government accorded to President Aquino as a guest of honor: “In the heart of a year devoted to the commemoration of the Bicentenary of the French Revolution, this week is, for us French, somewhat exceptional as it is the week of the 14th of July, our National Holiday. I wanted to invite, for this occasion, a few of those people who are working to create a more just and more generous world in the spirit of the universal values of human rights and democracy that France proposed to the world in 1789. It is only fitting, Madam President, that with this state visit with which you honour us, you should be the first to arrive at this gathering of the friends of France”.20 The second day of President Aquino in France began with a meeting with French business leaders to discuss investment prospects in the Philippines. Afterwards, she visited the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and proceeded to the reception tendered in her honor by Mayor Jacques Chirac of Paris at the Hôtel de Ville.21 The highlight of the day was the luncheon hosted by the Conseil national du patronat français and her meetings with French Foreign Minister Roland Dumas and Prime Minister Michel Rocard. Before the Patronat, the President underscored the economic gains made by her country and assured her audience that the political, social, 222

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and economic situation was ripe for joint ventures and new trade opportunities with French businessmen.22 During the meeting with Minister Dumas, President Aquino witnessed the signing of a memorandum of understanding which provided for the extension of social security to some 12,000 to 15,000  Filipinos working in France. During a press conference at the Hôtel de Marigny, the President announced the signing and exchange of letters specifying the extension of FRF 1.0 billion in official development assistance from France to the Philippines over a period of four years. Her day finally ended with a dinner hosted by Prime Minister Rocard at the Foreign Affairs Palace where she was repeatedly praised for her role in the bloodless revolution that restored democracy in the Philippines.23 President Aquino was among forty-six other chiefs of state who attended the many ceremonies to commemorate the French Bicentennial. Even among this crowd of world luminaries, the President stood out, being very much applauded and cheered.24 As was her wont, President Aquino made the most of her time and the opportunity by meeting with several world leaders present during the celebrations. The President met with Prime Ministers Brian Mulroney of Canada, Rajiv Gandhi of India, Sōsuke Uno of Japan, and President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt. The President also took time to meet with UNESCO officials and six honorary Filipino consuls as well as the Filipino community in France. The timing of President Aquino’s visit was most opportune as she was able to ensure the support of France in the meeting of the world’s economic powers, the Group of Seven (G-7), which was to be held in France after the Bicentennial Celebration.25 Fidel V. Ramos visit The huge goodwill of the Philippines in France which saw its peak during the State Visit of President Corazon Aquino in 1989 lasted well until the Official Visit of President Fidel V. Ramos to France on 13 to 15 September 1994. That visit was seen as the necessary impetus to boost the relationship between the Philippines and France. During the Official Visit of President Ramos, bilateral relations between the Philippines and France primarily revolved around three subjects: 1) culture, science, and technology; 2) official development 223

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Figure 136. President Fidel V. Ramos with French President François Mitterrand (Archives Nationales)

assistance; and 3) debt relief through the Paris Club accord and the bilateral debt rescheduling agreements. Among the members of President Ramos’ delegation were the Speaker of the House of Representatives, seven Cabinet members, one Senator, and four Congressmen. President Ramos met with President François Mitterrand, Prime Minister Édouard Balladur, and National Assembly President Philippe Séguin. A successful conference on investment was also held on 14 September 1994 at the headquarters of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Paris. Nine agreements were signed between the Philippines and France which included an Agreement on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments, Agreement on Financial Protocol, Cooperation Agreement between the Metropolitan Manila and the Region of Île-de-France, and Arrangement between the Secretary of National Defense of the Republic of the Philippines and the Minister of Defense of the French Republic related to Defense Cooperation. President Ramos’ official visit to France rode on the changing perception of the Philippines as country that has gone “back in business in the heart of Asia.” President Ramos invited France “to take part—as a friend and a partner—in the economic modernization of the Philippines…It seems to us only fitting that Europe—and 224

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France, especially—should mold strong ties with the country that resembles them most in their history and ideals.”26 “For truly the Philippines is unique in Asia today for venturing to develop—not at the expense of its democracy, but through democracy. And we are succeeding, much as Europe did in an earlier time. I say that not to boast but to reply to the conventional wisdom that only authoritarian government can make progress possible in the Third World. Democracy also needs its examples of success among developing countries.”27 Joseph Ejercito Estrada Presidency The highlight of Philippine-French relation during this period was the celebration of the Centennial of Philippine Independence in France with the naming of the Place José Rizal in the 9th arrondissement of Paris. The inauguration of a plaza honoring the Filipino national hero and the Philippines is a rare recognition accorded by the Paris municipal government to the efforts made to strengthen the ties between the Philippines and France. Philippine Foreign Secretary Domingo L. Siazon formally inaugurated the plaza and also met with his French counterpart Minister Hubert Védrine. During this period, there were visits by members of the France-Philippines Friendship Group of the National Assembly. French companies involved in construction, gas and petroleum, water treatment, cement production considered the Philippines as a good investment destination. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo Presidency Exchange of visits by officials and businessmen from both countries continued during the first decade of the 21st century. President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo visited France in September 2003 not as an official guest of the French government but as the Keynote Speaker of the Plenary Session of the 32nd Session of the UNESCO General Conference. Secretary of Foreign Affairs Alberto G. Romulo also visited in 2007 and met with Brice Hortefeux, Minister for Immigration, Integration, National Identity and CoDevelopment. In the meeting, Secretary Romulo stressed that upholding and protecting the rights, welfare, and well-being of Filipinos overseas is one of the pillars of Philippine foreign policy under the administration of President Macapagal-Arroyo. The signing of a Joint Statement on Filipino professionals and student exchange was witnessed by the two ministers. 225

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Figure 137. Speech by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo at the opening plenary meeting of the Thirty-Second Session of the General Conference of UNESCO, 29 September 2003

Jean-Marc Ayrault visit The visit of French Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault to the Philippines on 19-21 October 2012 was an historic one because it was the very first made by a French Head-of-Government to the Philippines since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1947. Prime Minister Ayrault brought with him a large 130-member delegation, which included key cabinet officials, and leaders of industry, European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company, Airbus, ALSTOM, Peugeot Citröen, Thales, among other companies. Among the highlights of the visit were the meeting between President Benigno S. Aquino III and Prime Minister Ayrault, signing of Memorandum of Agreements (MOA) such as the MOA for the Philippine Exhibition at the Musée du Quai Branly in April 2013, 226

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the biomass project funded by a French government grant, and the holding of a Philippines-France Business Forum where commercial contracts were signed, including between Philippine Airlines and Airbus, for the purchase of 10 aircraft, on top of an earlier order of 54. From Manila, the Prime Minister traveled to Cebu to inspect an important cooperation project on the development of a bus rapid transit system supported by the French Development Agency and the World Bank, in cooperation with the local government. The Prime Minister also inaugurated the new building of the Alliance Française de Cebu.28 The historic visit was significant in raising the visibility and profile of the Philippines in France, especially among French officials and businesses. It also paved the way for increased engagement in many areas—political, security, defense, economic, and cultural. Soon after the trip of Prime Minister Ayrault, President François Hollande in February 2013 invited President Aquino to visit France.

Figure 138. President Benigno S. Aquino III and French Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault at the Malacañan Palace (Pierre Chabaud, photographe des services du premier ministre) 227

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Figure 139. President Benigno S. Aquino III and French Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault witnessing the signing of various bilateral agreements (Pierre Chabaud, photographe des services du premier ministre)

Benigno S. Aquino III visits The official visit of President Benigno S. Aquino III on 17- 19 September 2014 was his first visit to France. The visit marked the growing strength and dynamism of Philippines-France relations since the establishment of diplomatic relations. This momentum was further maintained as President Hollande also announced his visit to the Philippines in 2015. During the official visit, President Aquino was able to articulate the Philippines’ position on the South China Sea/West Philippine Sea issue. In the Philippines-France Joint Statement, both President Aquino and President Hollande expressed their opposition to any acquisition or claim, by coercion or force, of any or all territory of a State by another State, in violation of international law, especially the Charter of the United Nations. They stressed their commitment to the peaceful settlement of disputes, in accordance with international law and the promotion of maritime security and freedom of navigation.

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Figure 140. President Benigno S. Aquino III and President François Hollande during their press conference, Élysée Palace, September 2014 (Photographie Présidence de la République)

The Philippine and French governments committed to undertake regular political consultations between Foreign Ministries as a framework to strengthen relations and exchange views on regional and international issues of common concern. As part of the implementation of an updated Philippines-France Arrangement, defense cooperation will be enhanced particularly in the fields of defense equipment, logistics and defense industries. The Philippine and French ministers of defense later discussed and agreed to finalize the updated arrangement for signing. Several agreements were signed and witnessed by the two Presidents, which included a Bilateral Air Services Agreement, Administrative Arrangement between the National Commission of Culture and the Arts and the French Ministry of Culture and Communication, and a Memorandum of Understanding for Academic Collaboration between the Development Academy of the Philippines and the École Nationale de l’Administration (ENA).

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Figure 141. President Benigno S. Aquino III and President François Hollande with their respective delegations, Élysée Palace, September 2014 (Photographie Présidence de la République)

In his official engagements with President Hollande, Prime Minister Valls, and in a conference at the Institut français des relations internationales (IFRI), President Aquino highlighted the importance of promoting the welfare of the 10 million overseas Filipinos. President Aquino also addressed around 700 to 800 members of the Filipino community in France. He informed the community of the positive developments in the Philippines and the bright prospects for economic growth. During the visit, both countries also committed to work together on climate change issues, most especially towards a successful outcome of COP21 which would be held in Paris in 2015. France acknowledged that global warming is not a matter of statistics for the Philippines but a stark reality which affects the country. On 30 November and 01 December 2015, President Aquino was again in France primarily to participate in the COP21 Leaders Event. He delivered the national statement for the Philippines where he urged other Parties to take heed of the needs of the vulnerable countries, especially for more climate financing, during the Climate Vulnerable Forum.

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Figure 142. President Benigno S. Aquino III with French Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development, and Energy Ségolène Royal at the COP21 in Paris.

Figure 143. President Benigno S. Aquino III at the Third High Level Climate Vulnerable Forum Meeting at COP 21 in Paris, 30 November 2015 (Photo / Climate Vulnerable Forum)

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Figure 144. President François Hollande and President Benigno Aquino III during the State Dinner at the Malacañan Palace, 26 February 2015 (Photographie Présidence de la République)

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François Hollande Visit The State Visit to the Philippines of French President François Hollande on 26 to 27 February 2015 was groundbreaking because it was the first visit of a French Head of State since the establishment of diplomatic relations in 1947. President Hollande was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development, Laurent Fabius, Minister of State for Development and Francophony, Annick Girardin, Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy Ségolène Royal, and France’s Special Envoy for the Protection of the Planet, Nicolas Hulot. They were joined by personalities well-known for their environmental advocacies, such as Marion Cotillard, Mélanie Laurent, Patriarch Bartholomew I of the Orthodox Church, and high officials from various international organizations.29 A bilateral meeting between President Aquino and President Hollande on 26 February 2015 was held where they discussed issues of bilateral interest such as defense, security and anti-terrorism, economic and trade relations, climate change, education, people-topeople exchanges, among others. President Aquino and President Hollande witnessed the signing of the Agreement on Tourism Cooperation, MOU on Cooperation on Higher Education and Research, and the Declaration of Intention on the Protection of the Environment and Sustainable Development of Marine Resources of the Philippines. On 26 February 2015, both Leaders issued the Joint Declaration on Enhanced Partnership between the Philippines and France. The Declaration recognized that the “two countries have entered a new, more dynamic and future-oriented era in the development of bilateral relations,” and committed “to maintain this positive momentum and to mobilize our respective governments towards this end.”

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Joint Declaration on the Enhanced Partnership between the Republic of the Philippines and the French Republic 26 February 2015, Malacañan Palace 1. We, the President of the Philippines Benigno S. Aquino III and the President of the French Republic François Hollande, agree to expand and strengthen bilateral relations and elevate the bilateral relationship to an enhanced partnership between the Philippines and France on the historic occasion of the first visit to the Philippines by an incumbent President of France made on invitation of President Aquino during his first visit to France on 17 - 18 September 2014. 2. We affirm that the Philippines and France shared the same commitment to democracy, the rule of law, the maintenance of peace and international security and to common objectives to promote inclusive economic growth and sustainable development. 3. On international peace and security, we affirm our opposition to any acquisition or claim, by coercion or force, of any or all territory of a State by another State, in violation of international law, especially the Charter of the United Nations. 4. We reiterate the importance of maintaining peace and stability in Southeast Asia and promoting maritime security, freedom of navigation and the peaceful settlement of disputes in accordance with international law, including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). We call for a full and effective implementation of the Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea and the early conclusion of a Code of Conduct in the South China Sea in fostering peace and stability. 5. We condemn terrorism in all its forms and call on the international community to work together to fight this scourge to mankind. 6. Acknowledging that our two countries have entered a new, more dynamic and future-oriented era in the development of bilateral relations, we commit to maintain this positive momentum and to mobilize our respective governments towards this end. We believe that upgrading the bilateral relationship would be highly beneficial to both our countries and peoples. From this perspective, we agree to encourage the active participation of various stakeholders, such as local and regional governments, the business community, the private sector and civil society, in strengthening bilateral ties. 234

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7. We welcome the promising outlook for the development of enhanced economic and trade relations in numerous industries of the future. We welcome, in particular, the development of new fields of cooperation and the conclusion of agreements in the areas of renewable energy, sustainable development, urban transportation and infrastructure, and the management of natural resources. 8. We wish to develop mutually beneficial bilateral cooperation in the area of health, in particular, in the fight against emerging and re-emerging diseases due to, inter alia, the effects of climate change. 9. We hope to promote exchanges between the French and Filipino peoples, particularly the youth, through the intensification of academic exchanges. In this regard, we welcome the conclusion of agreements in higher education and research, and in the development of the tourism sector in the Philippines which would increase tourist flows between our countries. 10. Our enhanced partnership will also be pursued through regular bilateral political consultations between our Foreign Ministries, through meetings of the Joint Economic Committee, and through the framework provided by the bilateral Defense Cooperation Arrangement between our Defense Ministries. 11. We stress the importance of strengthening the fight against climate change and its impacts and agree that the Philippines and France must work together to encourage the adoption of a universal and equitable agreement during the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21) to be hosted by France at the end of the year in Paris. We, therefore, took the initiative to launch the Manila Call to Action on Climate Change, which takes into account the needs and concerns of the most vulnerable countries. 12. In that spirit, the Government of the French Republic will extend to the Government of the Republic of the Philippines, through the French Development Agency, a loan of at least fifty million euros to contribute to the implementation of prevention and reconstruction actions in response to natural disasters resulting from the effects of climate change or from other causes.

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Figure 145. Launching of the Manila Call to Action on Climate Change at the Malacañan Palace grounds. (Photographie Présidence de la République)

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Both Leaders also issued the Manila Call on Climate Action on 26 February 2015 which urged the international community to act on climate change and to give importance to developing country concerns. On his second day in the Philippines, President Hollande visited Guiuan, Samar, one of the areas most devastated by Typhoon Haiyan in 2013 where he met with local officials and the local community. He announced the donation of the French government of €1.5 million to ACTED, a French NGO that will help fishing communities.

Figure 146. President François Hollande in Guiuan, Samar which was the hardest hit by Typhoon Haiyan (Photographie Présidence de la République)

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Rodrigo Roa Duterte Presidency The Philippine ratification of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change under the presidency of Rodrigo Roa Duterte was the singular highlight of the 70th anniversary of Philippines-France diplomatic relations in 2017. The ratification comes in full circle two years after the Manila Call to Action on Climate Change.

Figure 147. French Ambassador Nicolas Galey presenting his credentials to President Rodrigo Roa Duterte, December 2017.

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Figure 148. French Minister for Environment and Solidarity Nicolas Hulot with Philippine Senate Delegation. L-R: Senator William Gatchalian, Senator Cynthia Villar, Minister Hulot, Senate President Aquilino “Koko” Pimentel, Jr., Senator Loren Legarda, Senator Gérard Miquel and Ambassador Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro, 28 June 2017.

Figure 149. Philippine Senators call on Gérard Larcher, President of the French Senate, 28 June 2017.

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Under President Duterte, there was increased interaction between parliamentarians with the official visit to the Philippines in January 2017 of four French Senators headed by Mr. Gérard Miquel, Chairman of the France-Southeast Asia Interparliamentary Friendship Group, and the official visit to Paris of eight Philippine Senators led by Senate President Aquilino “Koko” Pimentel, Jr. in late June 2018. The Philippine delegation included Senators Loren Legarda, Cynthia Villar, Panfilo Lacson, Juan Miguel Zubiri, JV Ejercito, William Gatchalian, and Joel Villanueva.

Figure 150. Philippine Senators with members of the France-Southeast Asia Interparliamentary Friendship Group. 1st Row: Senator Loren Legarda, Senator Cynthia Villar, Senator Jacky Deromedi, Ambassador Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro. 2nd Row: Senator JV Ejercito, Senator Joel Villanueva, Senator Joëlle Garriaud-Maylam, Senator Simon Sutour, Senate President Aquilino “Koko” Pimentel, Jr., Senator Juan Miguel Zubiri, Senator Yves Pozzo di Borgo, Senator Panfilo Lacson, and Senator William Gatchalian, 28 June 2017.

Secretary of Foreign Affairs Alan Peter Cayetano was in Paris in late February 2018 and met with newly-elected UNESCO DirectorGeneral Audrey Azoulay where they discussed how culture and education can help rebuild Marawi which has been devastated by violent extremism and terrorism. 240

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Figure 151. Secretary Alan Peter Cayetano and UNESCO Director-General Audrey Azoulay, 28 February 2018 (UNESCO/Christelle ALIX)

Figure 152. French delegation to the 2018 Philippines-France Joint Defense Consultative Committee Meeting with officials of the Philippine Embassy. 1st Row: General Philippe Boutinaud, Ambassador Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro. 2nd Row (L-R): Minister and Consul General Aileen Mendiola-Rau, Commander Jérôme Chardon, Mrs.Valérie Saint-Aimé Hilaire, Colonel Philippe Deponcelle, Lieutenant-Colonel Emmanuel Peltriaux, and First Secretary Hans Mohaimin Siriban

The past two years likewise saw the convening of various bilateral committee meetings on defense, education, and tourism to implement agreements signed in 2014 and 2015, including the holding of the Political Consultations and the Joint Defense Consultative Committee. 241

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III

French and Philippine Relations (2012–2017) by Christian Lechervy Ambassador to Myanmar Former Ambassador-Permanent Secretary in charge of the Pacific Advisor on Strategic Affairs and the Asia-Pacific Region for President François Hollande (2012 – 2014)

French and Philippine relations have been maintained by over a

hundred companies located in the archipelago, French investments totaling as high as a billion euros, a Joint Economic Commission, a Philippine community of more than 50,000 in France, and also through many associative and religious partnerships. The relations between France and the Philippines became increasingly politicized between 2012 and 2017. French Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault went to Manila and then to Cebu (19- 21  October 2012) for his first trip outside of Europe. That was a historic trip! It was the first visit of a French head of government to the Philippines since its independence. Other exceptional moments followed: the State visit of French President François Hollande (26-27 February 2015), during which he stayed in Guiuan, on Samar Island, to show France’s lasting solidarity with the victims of Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) in November 2013. Presidents François Hollande and Benigno Aquino were determined to achieve a universal agreement during the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (in Paris, in December 2015) and therefore launched the Manila Call to Action on Climate Change. French and Philippine relations are developed in a context of mutual concern for sustainable management of maritime areas (both countries are bordering the Pacific region), freedom of navigation, peaceful resolution of disputes according to international law— 242

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namely the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, and reinforcement of the relations between France and ASEAN countries. During his five-year term, President F. Hollande travelled to 8 of the 10 ASEAN countries and his Minister of Foreign Affairs, Laurent Fabius, spoke in Jakarta for the first time in August 2013 at the ASEAN Secretariat. The importance placed on Southeast Asia by France’s highest executive officials was greeted with the full support of the members of the French Parliament, as can be seen through the reports on French policy in the area by the Senate (in July 2014), by the National Assembly (in February 2015), and through the visit to Manila and Cebu of 4 senators in July 2017 to mark the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between France and the Philippines. France and the Philippines have agreed to hold regular political consultations with a view to strengthen their political relations. This measure was added to the joint declaration published for the visit of President Benigno Aquino III to France (17- 19 September 2014). This visit was important as it came ten years after the visit of President F. Ramos and twenty-five years after that of President Corazon Aquino, who was President François Mitterrand’s guest of honor for the bicentenary celebrations of the French Revolution. While political relations at the highest level help broaden the spectrum of cooperation—as was seen with the signature of a defense cooperation agreement in May 2016—French and Philippines bilateral relations are mainly based on common values of democracy, observance of the rule of law, and commitment to the pursuit of peace, promotion of human rights, and the establishment of social justice for their peoples. Cultural exchange also plays a key role, as demonstrated by the successful exhibition entitled « Les Philippines, archipel des échanges » (“The Philippines: archipelago of exchange”) which was inaugurated by Vice-President Jejomar Binay and shown at the Quai Branly–Jacques Chirac museum in Paris between April and July 2013.

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Economic Relations 1946 Onwards The transition of the Philippines from an agricultural economy to a newly industrialized economy is clearly illustrated by the history of bilateral trade between the Philippines and France. Table 3 below demonstrates how the Philippines literally moved up the value chain, starting with exports of grains/straw in the 1960s, to wood in the 1970s and to electronics in the 1980s up to the present. The composition of products exported and imported between the Philippines and France has changed notably over the last seventy years. When the Philippines began to trade globally following the Second World War, its primary exports were mostly raw goods and agricultural products while its imports were generally finished products. The balance of trade between the two countries was largely in France’s favor from 1946 to 2016. While the Philippines had a trade surplus with France in the initial period from 1946 to 1953, the following twenty-five years saw the Philippines achieve this milestone on only six occasions: in 1958, 1960, 1963, 1965, 1971, and 1973. The Philippines had a positive trade balance with France in the 1980s primarily due to a drop in imports from France. But from 1990 to the present day, the Philippines only displayed a positive trade balance with France for eight years: in 1991, 1999, 2002-2006 and in 2016.

Table 3. Top exports and total exports in 2016 USD figures by year. 244

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Table 4. Exports, imports, and total trade in 2016 USD figures by year.

Total trade between the Philippines and France has increased greatly during the last seventy years (Table 4). From a total trade of US$13,591,157 (US$ 2016 values) in 1946 up by 1,300% to US$1,830,283,400 in 2016, trade relations between the two countries have shown no signs of diminishing. Multiple peaks of over US$2.0 billion (2016 US$ values) in total bilateral trade, the results of the actions of a small number of firms, indicate that trade between the two economies has the potential to reach new heights in the future. Top Exports Philippine exports to France have increased significantly since 1946, in terms of total quantity and the range of products exported. Despite the expanding diversity of Philippine exports to France, the total export figures are dominated by three export groupings: grains/ straw, wood and electronics. Table 3 illustrates these three major groupings which have followed the trend of total exports to France (blue line in the graph), and to a certain extent, the transition of the Philippine economy from one based on agriculture (through exports of grains/straw and wood) to one based on manufacturing (through electronics exports). 245

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From the 1940s to the early 1980s, Philippine exports were almost entirely comprised of agricultural and forestry goods. During this period, grains and straw and wood products were the top exports from the Philippines to France. Electronics exports only gained momentum in the Philippines in the early 1980s and quickly overcame the others to be the country’s top export for the next thirty years. In 2015 and 2016, however, the top export from the Philippines to France became aircraft parts.30

Wood In the 1960s, the Philippines was one of the world’s largest exporters of tropical hardwoods. The rate of wood production was highest between 1969 and 1973. Logging was unrestricted in the country until the mid-1950s, when a selective logging system was initiated. Following this legislation, however, the timber industry continued to expand in the Philippines. On the other hand, France was a leading manufacturer of finished sawn hardwood and plywood products in Europe. For both of these products, France requires the importation of sawn hardwood and tropical hardwood materials from countries such as the Philippines. With the exception of two years, 1970 and 1971, the period from 1968 to 1983 saw wood become the most valued export from the Philippines to France. For almost ten years, wood exports comprised more than fifty percent of the country’s total exports to France. Extensive logging led to a decrease from about 70% forest cover to less than 20%. Starting in the 1980s, log production in the Philippines began to decrease. The devastating effects of the logging industry on Philippine forests led authorities to ban the export of lumber from logs coming from the natural forest. Timber exports were banned entirely starting in 1987. This caused lumber production to decrease from 1.5 million cubic meters in 1980 to only 288,000 cubic meters in 2005, representing a decrease of over 80%. The Philippines eventually transitioned from a net exporter of wood to a net importer.

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Figure 153. The logging industry in the Philippines (Retrato Collection of the Filipinas Heritage Library)

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Electronics In 1984, electronics surpassed wood to become the top exported product group from the Philippines to France. Electronics continued to be the most exported commodity for the next 32 years. From 1999 to 2016, it claimed more than 50% of the value of total exports to France. The Semiconductor and Electronics Industries in the Philippines Foundation, Inc. (SEIPI) divides the electronics industry of the Philippines into two categories: approximately 73% of the industry is Semiconductor Manufacturing Services (SMS), while the other 27% is Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS). One of the biggest French investments in the field of electronics in the Philippines is STMicroelectronics in the Philippines. The Compagnie française Thomson-Houston (CFTH) founded in Paris in 1893 was the French subsidiary of American firm General Electric. They were in the business of building and operating production and transportation units and networks of electric tramways. This company eventually became Thomson Semiconductors which merged with Italian firm SGS Microelettronica in May 1998 to become STMicroelectronics. Today, ST is a global leader in the semiconductor market serving customers across the spectrum of sense and power and automotive products and embedded processing solutions. A few months after the merger, in January 1999, STMicroelectronics opened a Packaging and Test plant in Calamba City in the Philippines.

Figure 154. The ST facility in Calamba City. 248

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This state-of-the-art facility forms part of ST’s strategic network of front and back-end manufacturing sites and handles a broad range of products including connectivity, displays, sensors, digital videos, power management, RF transceivers, identification, automotive and near field communications. It employs almost 2,000 highly-skilled workers in its Calamba plant and has a Sales and Marketing Office in Manila. Integrated Microelectronics Inc. (IMI), a publicly listed corporation in the Philippines, and which is part of the Ayala Group of Companies in the Philippines under AC Industrials is one of the leading global electronics manufacturing services (EMS) companies in the world. Apart from already exporting its products and services to France, IMI also has corporate officials based out of Paris. Other Philippine-based semiconductor/electronics companies that regularly or are firming up their position to contribute to the export earnings of the Philippines from France include Ionics, Sun Power Philippines, Fastech and others. Export Promotion through French Trade Fairs France is a recognized global center for cuisine and for fashion. Through the assistance of the Center for International Trade Expositions and Missions (CITEM), Philippine food manufacturers and Filipino designers have had the opportunity over the past few decades, to participate as part of the national pavilion in international trade events in France, which serve as truly global platforms for Filipino products to be featured alongside the world’s best. Two French trade fairs that are regularly participated in by the Philippines are Le Salon international de l’Alimentation (SIAL), an international food exhibition that happens in Paris every two years, and Maison et Objet, a twice-a-year home decor, interior design, architecture and lifestyle culture and trends event. Many Filipino food manufacturers and designers take advantage of these global platforms provided by the CITEM in France to initially assess export opportunities and familiarize themselves with the market, as they embark on breaking into the discriminating (European) export market.

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Among the companies that have been featured at the Philippine Pavilion for the SIAL since 1992 include now-formidable names in the food export industry such as Profoods (dried mangoes), Nissin Monde (biscuits), Mama Sita (Filipino sauces and condiments), URC (food and beverage brands), See’s International Food Manufacturing (banana chips), Century Tuna, Franklin Baker (coconut products), Dole and Del Monte (processed tropical fruits). Designers who have been invited to be part of the CITEM’s Philippine Pavilion at Maison et Objet since the year 2000, include the likes of Al Caronan, Kenneth Cobonpue, Carlo Cordaro, Tony Gonzales, Milo Naval, Ann Pamintuan, Tes Pasola, Luisa Robinson, and Renato Vidal, who were part of the Movement 8 that sought to help establish the Philippines as a serious player in the world’s highend design market.

Figure 155. Philippine Ambassador to France Maria Theresa P. Lazaro (fourth from left) is joined during the FASHION PHILIPPINES launch at Maison & Objet, by Ms. Hannah Oamil (third from left) of Mele+Marie, a fashion accessories design company in Cebu, and representatives from CITEM led by Ms. Katrina Pineda (leftmost), Head for the Buyer Marketing and Sales Team; Ms. Maria Dominique Rustia, (second from left) Project Manager for Fashion Philippines–September 2016; Minister and Consul General Aileen Mendiola-Rau (fourth from right); Ms. Chiqui Veneracion, Maison & Objet representative for the Philippines; Mr. Froilan Emil Pamintuan, Commercial Attaché–Philippine Trade and Investment Center in Paris; and Mr. Eduardo Francisco, PTIC-Paris Trade Assistant. 250

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In recent years, the presence of the Philippines to promote its export products, particularly for food and design has expanded with Filipino manufacturers and designers exploring new niche trade fair/ exposition platforms to feature world-class products. In October 2017, the Philippines participated for the first time at the Salon du Chocolat in Paris, an annual gathering of the world’s finest cacao producers and chocolate makers. Seven Filipino companies represented the country in the Paris chocolate event, which also saw cacao beans from Puentespina Farms, makers of Malagos Chocolate, being cited as one of the top 50 in the world during the trade event’s International Cacao Awards Competition. Pili nuts pinned victory at the April 2018 Les Snacking d’Or held in Paris when the brand “Mount Mayon Volcanic Pili Nuts” bagged the top prize for the “dry savory impulse products — self-service readyto-eat products category.” Fashion accessories and niche lifestyle shows in Paris, particularly those that happen during the Paris Fashion Week have also been the choice of Filipino fashion and fashion accessories designers to feature their products. These include Bijorhca, Première Classe (Porte de Versailles and Tuileries editions), TraNoi, Who’s Next, and others. Top importS The rise of electronics as a major import began in 1982, when it represented 23% of total imports. This peaked in the year 2000 with US$530 million (2016 US$ values) and nearly 62% of total import value coming from electronics. Large, sporadic periods of spending in aviation caused surges in five separate years between 1979 and 2006, when planes and aviation parts and instruments were the most imported products. From 2007 to 2016, aviation products dominated Philippine imports from France, with a peak of US$1.7 billion spent in 2014, comprising nearly 80% of total imports for the year.

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Table 5. Value of aviation vis-a-vis total imports in 2016 USD figures by year.

Aviation Looking at Table 5, we can see that aviation imports clearly followed the trend of total imports from France. The importation of aviation products and parts peaked in the years 1979, 1981, 1983, 1997, and 1998, becoming the top import for these years, before permanently overtaking electronics as the top import from 2007 to 2016. Philippine Airlines (PAL) was mostly responsible for these increases in imports due to its purchases of aircraft from French manufacturers. On 25 November 1979, PAL purchased its first aircraft from Airbus, the leading French aviation manufacturer. This aircraft, an A300-B4 model, was the first of its kind as a wide-body twin-engine jet airliner. From 1979 to 1983, PAL purchased five more Airbus aircraft from the France-based consortium. This resulted in significant increases in aircraft imports in the years 1979, 1981, and 1983, when PAL completed payment for the purchased aircraft. On 28 October 1968, the Philippines and France signed an Air Transport Agreement in Paris to establish air transportation services 252

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between the two countries. However, there would be no direct flights between France and the Philippines for the next fourteen years. It was only on 5 November 1982 that former PAL Vice President Martin Bonoan hosted cocktails to celebrate the first direct PAL flight from Paris to Manila from the Orly Sud Airport.31 Former Ambassador to France Felipe Mabilangan was a guest of honor for the occasion, which was covered by the French media. There was a marked increase in inquiries and requests for tourism information to the Philippines after this flight.32 In 1996, PAL began a re-fleeting program to modernize the airline worth US$4 billion. They ordered twenty-eight new aircraft from Airbus between 1996 and 1999. In 1997 and 1998, PAL paid what was due for the twenty-eight Airbus aircraft ordered from France, resulting in a large jump in aviation imports. Aviation imports peaked in 1997 with a value of US$ 1,456,622,752 (US$ 2016 values) spent on the Airbus aircraft and other aviation parts, which represented 64.8% of total imports of the Philippines from France that year. The company suffered huge losses from 1997 to 1999 during the Asian financial crisis due to the purchase of too many aircraft and the chartering of unprofitable routes, which led to a company shut-

Figure 156. PAL Airbus A320-321 253

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down of operations during a fourteen-day period from 23 September to 7 October 1998. It was during this time that PAL ended its direct flights from Manila to Paris. The import of aircraft from France dropped notably in the last months of 1998 and remained low until 2005. In 2005, PAL agreed to purchase or lease up to eighteen Airbus aircraft, the first of which was delivered in 2006. On 12 April 2012, San Miguel Corporation purchased a 49  percent stake in PAL, and shortly thereafter announced an ambitious re-fleeting plan to modernize the company. PAL placed an order worth more than US$ 7 billion for 118 Airbus aircraft. The company decided in September to buy ten more Airbus aircraft for an additional US$  2.5 billion. The first of these aircraft were delivered in 2013. In 2014, San Miguel Corporation sold its entire stake in PAL to Lucio Tan. A new President and Chief Operating Officer (COO), Mr.  Jaime Bautista, was appointed, who deferred the purchase of most of the aircraft ordered in 2012. In January 2014, the Philippines and France updated its Air Services Agreement to increase the number of flights between the two countries. The agreement expanded the number of flights from four to seven per week. However, there have been no direct flights between the two countries since May 2004, following the merger of Air France and KLM, when the latter took over direct flights to Manila. In a letter to Ambassador Ma. Theresa Lazaro dated 9 March 2017, Air France President Jean-Marc Janaillac said that “the reopening of direct flights between Paris and Manila is a subject of our regular evaluations” but the economic viability of this route remains to be seen. When Airbus launched the A350 XWB program in 2005, Moog Inc. and B/E Aerospace, both Filipino companies based in Baguio and Cavite respectively, accepted to participate in the open and competitive call for tenders. Both were selected by Airbus as a result of their global offers, which included their commitment to manufacture the parts in the Philippines. Airbus signed a contract with Moog Inc. in 2007 and with B/E Aerospace in 2008. The first A350 XWB aircraft parts were produced in the Philippines by Moog Inc. in 2012 and by 254

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B/E  Aerospace in 2013. Today Moog Inc. is supplying from the Philippines the complete A350  XWB primary flight control system actuators set, while B/E Aerospace builds modern galley structures for the A350  XWB. With the A350 XWB program, Airbus now has two Tier-1 suppliers in the Philippines which contribute to the development of the local aerospace industry. Airbus sourcing from the Philippines is expected to reach US$ 300 million per year by 2020 according to Airbus.33 Aside from purchasing aircraft from France, the Philippines’ top export now includes aircraft parts for the Airbus A350. In April 2016, PAL finalized a purchase agreement with Airbus covering the firm order of six A350-900s, the first delivery made in July 2018. PAL passengers will now have the unique experience of riding a plane with Philippine-made components.

Figure 157. Ambassador Ma. Theresa Lazaro (first from right) visits the Airbus final assembly line for the A350 XWB in Toulouse, France with Consul Rapunzel Acop (center) and Honorary Consul  Jeffrey Cabuay (first from left).

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The Story of Services Bilateral trade data between the Philippines and France only covered merchandise exports and imports, leaving out an important element of bilateral trade: services. Today, the biggest French employers in the Philippines are all in the services sector, particularly in IT-Business Process Management (IT-BPM). Teleperformance, which is the global leader in outsourced omni channel customer experience, has around 40,000 employees in eighteen sites all over the Philippines. This represents almost a fifth of its global work force. Sitel, a competitor of Teleperformance which was acquired in 2016 by French firm Acticall, is the second largest French employer in the Philippines with over 18,000 employees in twelve sites all over the country. This represents almost a fourth of its global work force. Aside from Teleperformance and the Acticall Sitel Group, another big French employer in the Philippines is Atos, the European leader in Big Data, Cybersecurity, High Performance Computing and the Digital Workplace. Atos also provides Cloud services, Infrastructure and Data Management, Business and Platform solutions, as well as transactional services through Worldline, its e-payment arm. Atos has over 2,400 employees in the Philippines, primarily engaged in Managed Services, spread in three sites. Atos Philippines is now expanding its domestic business by rolling out to the full global portfolio of products and services. Philippine IT-BPM companies, including those in the digital content and animation services sector have also been sealing deals with major French companies in recent years. With support provided by the Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT), the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the Philippine Embassy in Paris, the Animation Council of the Philippines, Inc. (ACPI) and some of its members such as Toon City, ASI Animation Studio, Team App, and Top Peg Animation have been participating in the annual Marché international des contenus audiovisuels (MIPCOM) held in Cannes since 2016. Additionally, the Film Development Council of the Philippines (FDCP) had been spearheading the further promotion of Filipino animation content and services, including startup studios and animation practitioners, in the annual Marché international du film d’animation (MIFA) since June 2017. 256

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Figure 158. The French business delegation with senior officials from the DFA, DTI and PEZA at their welcome briefing at the Department of Foreign Affairs, 16 March 2016.

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Shared Services With this strong presence in services, it was just natural that the same French companies locate their Shared Services to the Philippines. Today, Teleperformance and Atos have some Shared Services in their Philippine sites. Other French companies like energy leader Schneider Electric also has a Shared Services facility in their Cavite site. As part of the Government’s push to encourage more non-voice services, the Philippine Embassy in Paris organized a Shared Services Study Mission to the Philippines on 16-18 March 2016. Ten participants from top six French companies—Air Liquide, Axa, Engie, LafargeHolcim, Sanofi and Sodexo—joined Ambassador Ma. Theresa Lazaro on a learning expedition to the Philippines, visiting the local operations of Teleperformance, Atos and Schneider Electric. After the mission, LafargeHolcim shared its plans to move its Business and IT Shared Services to the Philippines. This unit will be handling the entire Asia Pacific region. Axa also inaugurated last January 2018 its regional IT Shared Services Center in the Philippines.

Moving Up the Value Chain: Going Digital Two of the largest industries where the Philippines can claim comparative advantage in, are electronics, and information technologybusiness process management (IT-BPM). Electronics products continue to be the largest merchandise export of the Philippines with the industry posting a record annual revenue amounting to USD 32.7B in 2017. The IT-BPM industry, continues to soar over the years, and in 2017, employed at least 1.2 million workers in an industry that generated around USD 23 billion in revenues. This double compétence, as the French call it, places the Philippines at an attractive position for French companies in this era of digital transformation, where more and more traditional (hardware) products are being developed (using software and digital technology) into connected objects. 258

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Figure 159. Philippine startup and scale-up ecosystem at the QBO Innovation Hub of the Department of Trade and Industry

In December 2015, this Philippine double compétence was highlighted at the sidelines of the COP 21 Paris Summit, during a visit by thenPhilippine President Benigno Aquino III to Usine IO, a French fabrication laboratory that incubated a project for the development of an “intelligent toothbrush” which was eventually manufactured in an economic zone in the Philippines. That said toothbrush enabled users to gather dental hygiene and habit information, as the traditional toothbrush device was incorporated with a sensor and digital devices enabling data to be gathered and processed. In 2015, France was already actively moving towards fostering an environment of digital innovation under then Minister of Economy and Finance, Emmanuel Macron, who was a strong proponent of the French Tech, a platform intended to foster an environment of innovation and digital technology in France and in other parts of the globe. By 2016, the French Tech Philippines was formed, and its group chiefly based in Manila participated in startup events already being organized for the emerging Filipino ecosystem by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) along with partner agencies such as the newlycreated Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Among these events included Slingshot, the platform for innovation and startup development, which gathered, government, academe and private practitioners from the creative sector, so they can interface and nurture an environment of innovation tapping digital technology. 259

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The French mission to innovate and to tap digitalization also reached the Mouvement des entreprises de France (MEDEF), the largest business federation in France with over 750,000 members. Around 100,000 MEDEF members are traditional SMEs which the federation intends to guide through their digital transformation. To identify future partners of France for the digital transformation of MEDEF’s SMEs, the federation ventured into learning expeditions in various countries, including one conducted in May 2017 in the Philippines. The MEDEF Philippine visit eventually resulted in the presentation of the Philippines as a veritable Startup Nation to the digital economy practitioners in Paris in September 2017. During the event led by Ambassador Ma. Theresa Lazaro, notable observations by MEDEF from the learning expedition were shared to the French business community, including results of its dynamic and creative interface with the youthful startup community of the QBO Innovation Hub, a collaboration among the DTI, DOST, Ideaspace and JP Morgan, to help develop a globally competitive startup ecosystem in the Philippines. The Philippine Startup Nation presentation at MEDEF highlighted the country’s strength in both the hardware and software industries, notably the presence of its well-organized industry associations, SEIPI and the Information Technology and Business Processing Association of the Philippines (IBPAP). It also cited the ramp up of strong incubation support from the academe, IoT-ready manufacturers, and the impressive prototyping, testing and enclosure prototyping facilities made available through DOST funding such as the Electronic Products Development Center (EPDC) and Advanced Device and Materials Testing Laboratory (ADMATEL).

Figure 160. A technician from the Electronics Product Development Center (EPDC) demonstrates a prototyping equipment. 260

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The OECD also cited this double compétence of the Philippines on electronics and IT-BPM, in its Economic Outlook for Southeast Asia, China and India which focused on “fostering growth through digitalization,” released in time for the ASEAN 50th year anniversary in 2017, which the Philippines hosted. In December 2017, the Philippines also presented the Health Information Management Industry during Global Digital Health Summit in Paris, where discussions focused on capabilities of the country in responding to the challenges of the era of artificial intelligence, including in processing data that may be derived from various medical devices to help improve health care services. Interestingly, even French students, many of them on short-term internship programs in Philippine community-based organizations such as Gawad Kalinga (GK), have also been instruments in harnessing innovation and digital technology partnerships between France and the Philippines, through social enterprise projects they help set up in local communities. The volunteers, some of them students from elite business schools in France, even consider the Philippines as a laboratory for social and digital innovation. In January 2018, the GK along with French volunteers hosted a hackathon intended to provide innovative and digital solutions to agriculture-related enterprises such as goat and chicken raising, and cheese making. The French Tech from Angers, France, a cluster devoted to IT and electronics, has also been regularly cooperating with the Semiconductor & Electronics Industries in the Philippines Foundation Inc. (SEIPI) since 2017. SEIPI attended the 2017 World Electronics Forum in France, while the Angers French Tech participated in the 2017 and 2018 Philippine Semiconductor & Electronics Convention and Exhibition (PSECE) organized in Manila by SEIPI. The Philippines has come a long way from exporting mostly grains and straw, in the 1960s, to aeronautics parts, in 2016. Today the Philippines is poised to become a major French partner in the digital era, with further exchanges of missions from the electronics and ITBPM industries expected in the near future. The aerospace industry, particularly Airbus has also been incorporating digital technology into many of its devices, including those that pertain to cybersecurity, e-propulsion and data analytics, as evidenced by its communication during the 2018 Aeromart Clark, the first major international aerospace event hosted by the Philippines. 261

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With the Philippines’ 100 million strong consumers, hyperconnected youth and early adopter attitude, the country should attract more and more French startups—which can tap into the Philippines’ strong hardware and software capabilities—which will set the stage for the future of bilateral relations. Encouraging Innovation: Science and Technology Cooperation The scientific and technical cooperation between the Philippines and France is anchored on the “Agreement for Scientific and Technical Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic” signed on 18 November 1978. In order to update this Agreement, both sides are now discussing a proposed Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Science, Technology, and Innovation. To further strengthen the French-Philippine scientific cooperation in health, delegates from the Philippines headed by the Philippine Council for Health Research and Development (PCHRD) visited France last 24 to 28 April 2017 to explore possible partnerships and collaborations with French health research institutions by visiting selected laboratories and research facilities and discussing potential projects with French scientists. The PCHRD is one of the three sectoral planning councils of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) which provides essential technical and financial support to contribute to the attainment of national and global health goals. The PCHRD focuses on the following areas: Drug Discovery and Development, Genomics/Molecular Technology, Diagnostics, Functional Foods, Hospital Equipment and Biomedical Devices, and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for Health. During their mission to France, the Philippine delegation was able to visit the research facilities of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), ranked second and ninth, respectively, of Reuters and Clarivate’s “Top 25 Global Innovators— Government” in 2017. They were able to visit the Infectious Disease Models and Innovative Therapies (IDMIT), the Molecular Imaging Research Center (MIRCen), the French National Research Centre for Human Genomics (CNG), the French National Sequencing Centre (Genoscope), the Institute 262

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for Structural Biology (IBS) and the Biosciences and Biotechnology Institute of Grenoble (BIG). Upon review and assessment of the exploration and institutional visits, the delegation listed prospective activities that could jumpstart coordination programs on research and development and capacity building. Potential research and development activities include collaborative researches on proteomics and metagenomics, biobanking and high-throughput screening of bioactive molecules, and disease-specific projects on communicable and non-communicable diseases. Joint studies relating to climate change, health technology development, emerging and re-emerging diseases, poverty-related diseases and epidemic preparedness were also discussed. Plans of inviting the Filipino and French experts and scientists to France and the Philippines to hold a series of joint seminars and workshops were also discussed. As follow-up to the mission of the Philippine delegation, the Philippine Embassy met with INSERM President and CEO Yves  Lévy in September 2017 to discuss how to formalize possible research collaboration and partnerships in the following research areas already identified by DOST-PCHRD: climate change, health technologies, emerging and re-emerging diseases, poverty-related diseases and epidemic preparedness. As a first step, both INSERM and DOSTPCHRD have agreed to hold a joint scientific seminar in the future.

Figure 161. The Philippine delegation at the Institute for Structural Biology in Grenoble, France. From left to right: Mr. Paul Ernest De Leon, Dr. Elizabeth Paz-Pacheco, Dr. Carmencita Padilla, Dr. Ma. Anita Bautista, Dr. Jaime Montoya, Dr. Amelia Guevara, Dr. Winfried Weissenhorn (Director of the IBS) and Ms. Annabelle Rondaud (Head of National and International Affairs of the CEA). 263

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IV

The Value Added by France in the Sustainable Socioeconomic Development in the Philippines by Anton T. Huang Chairman of the Philippines-France Business Council

2017 marks an important historical milestone for the Philippines

and France. In 1947, then-Philippine Vice President Elpidio Quirino and then-Foreign Minister Georges Bidault signed a Treaty of Friendship, calling for constant peace and perpetual friendship between these two countries. Without a doubt, however, the bonds of friendship and mutual respect between our two nations go beyond the last 70 years. The Philippines-France Business Council (PFBC), in particular, has continuously advocated for the Philippine-French bilateral relationship to evolve to that of a progressive partnership founded on shared ideals and principles of social and economic development, and environmental sustainability. Launched on 6 October 1998 in Manila, with Philippine Trade and Industry Undersecretary Melito Salazar and French Minister of Foreign Trade Jacques Dondoux in attendance, the PFBC aims to identify and develop areas of cooperation between French and Philippine corporations, through encouraging the development of mutual investment sectors. Moreover, the Council has been actively working for the promotion of the Philippine market as the emerging preferred investment destination for the French businessman, having brought in high-level Philippine business delegations to France, in the interest of growing the French presence in our country. The Council’s most recent mission, done in September 2014, was led by then-President Benigno Aquino III, and was the first visit of a Philippine head of State to France since 1994. In 2015, on the occasion of the State Visit of French President François Hollande to the Philippines, the PFBC and the Makati Business Club organized a forum with the Philippine and French business communities to strengthen the call for collective action in response to climate change. Underscoring the President’s views 264

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on enhancement of areas of bilateral cooperation between the two countries, a contract signing ceremony between numerous Philippine and French companies for ventures and projects in renewable energy and infrastructure development was done alongside the forum. Our business communities take pride in the fact that both the Philippines and France not only share a mutual ideal and love for liberty and democracy, but also enjoy a robust economic partnership. To date, France has been consistently one of our country’s major markets for import and export merchandise trade. In 2016 alone, Philippine exports to France amounted to US$726.6 million while imports totaled US$933.2 million, making the country the 15th biggest market in terms of total trade value. More notably, France has risen to become the Philippines’ third largest trading partner among the European Union member states. Truly, we can be proud of the strong foundation our two countries have built together—perhaps the strongest we have seen in recent years. Amid the many changes and challenges facing the world today, we can continue to take comfort and confidence in the enduring friendship between our two nations, as our hopes remain high that the ties that bind us together continue to thrive.

Figure 162. 26 February 2015. President François Hollande, the first French President to officially visit the Philippines, at the Forum on Climate Change and Inclusive Development, organized in partnership with the Philippines-France Business Council. 265

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Closer Linkages in Higher Education Since the signing of the Philippines-France Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Higher Education and Research during the State Visit of former President François Hollande to the Philippines on 26 February 2015, bilateral cooperation on higher education and research has been one of the most dynamic areas of bilateral cooperation in recent years. The Joint Committee provided for in the MOU has met thrice. The first meeting was hosted by the Philippine Commission on Higher Education (CHED) in Manila on 22 to 23 June 2016, while the second meeting was hosted by the French Ministry of Higher Education in Paris on 5 to 9 September 2016. The third Joint Committee Meeting was held in Cebu City on 31 May to 1 June 2018. During these meetings, both sides have been able to establish new partnerships and cooperation between Philippine and French universities. As part of the K to 12 transition program, CHED has set up partnerships with foreign governments and universities to provide Filipino university professors with opportunities for further education. In 2017, CHED signed agreements with the French government for the CHED-PhilFrance scholarship in January and with Sciences Po Paris for another scholarship agreement in June. To date, there are about 20 Filipino teachers enrolled in different French universities. There are now more than 50 academic partnerships that exist between Philippine and French universities. France welcomes close to 300 Filipino students annually while the Philippines welcomes around 70 French students a year. For example, the Ateneo de Manila University regularly sends its undergraduates abroad for a school term, including different French universities such as the Catholic University of Lille and Sciences Po Paris. In January 2018, the Ateneo de Manila and Science Po Paris conducted the “Urban Laboratory 2018: Urban Resilience and Sustainability Challenges Governance Innovations from the Global South.” The research exchange program sought to familiarize foreign and Filipino participants with the challenges of city governance in a context of rapid urban sprawl, densification, and increasingly visible threats brought by climate change related events and proliferation of 266

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systemic risks. The laboratory was participated in by over 60 students and faculty members from Sciences Po Paris and over 60 Filipino students and academics from the Ateneo de Manila University and other Philippine Higher Education Institutions such as Ateneo de Naga, Ateneo de Zamboanga, University of San Carlos, Miriam College, De La Salle University, and others. UniLaSalle, a French engineering school, will be sending close to 50 of its students to its partner La Salle institutions in the Philippines in 2018 for short-term exchanges as part of the drive for internationalization. As Philippine-French cooperation in higher education deepens, areas for growth include expanding academic mobility, exploring research collaborations and sandwich programs, and mutual recognition of diplomas.

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CHAPTER NOTES To understand how the French considered the American rule in the Philippines, see William Guéraiche, “Regards français sur la colonisation américaine aux Philippines (1898-1916) [French glances on American colonization in Philippines…]”, Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, No. 209 (January-March 2003), p. 103-117.

1

Philippines Office of Legal Affairs – Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA-OLA) and the Library Services of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, Treaties Online — List.

2

Handwritten note presumably by Foreign Minister Bidault to Millet found on the 29 March 1947 letter of Gaston Willoquet to the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

3

4

Ibid.

Telegram from the Ministère des Affaires étrangères-Asie-Océanie to Haussaire Saigon dated 19 May 1947 citing reports from the French representative in Manila.

5

Salvador Lopez, “Diplomat and Nationalist” in Elpidio Quirino The Judgement of History, (President Elpidio Quirino Foundation, 1990), p. 83.

6

Interview of Vice President Elpidio Quirino published in Le Monde, 14 June 1947.

7

8

Lopez, op. cit., p. 84.

The meeting discussed the Philippine position against colonialism being advocated by General Carlos P. Romulo in the United Nations where France takes offence. Quirino also raised the following points: that the policy of the Philippines was that of a very young nation, which mainly focused on rebuilding the country from its own ashes and finding its own national stability; that, in these conditions, the Philippine Government was determined not to intervene in foreign issues that it is not concerned with; that, in any case, this instinctive sympathy for independence movements could not take precedence over the Philippine Government’s strong desire to have friendly relationships with powers with a liberal tradition, such as France. Found in the Report on the official conversation between Mr. Georges BIDAULT and Mr. Elpidio QUIRINO, the Vice President and Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines on 13 June 1947, pages 147-149.

9

“Proclamation No. 184, s. 1950”, Official Gazette, http://www.officialgazette.gov. ph/1950/05/12/proclamation-no-184-s-1950/

10

Ministère des Affaires étrangères-Asie-Océanie documents on the visit of Fernando Lopez.

11

12

Lopez, op. cit., p. 84.

Sabah question. Accompanying him on this trip was the Congressman Jovito Salonga.

13

Statement of Vice President Emmanuel Pelaez during the Regional Conference attended by Philippine Ambassadors and Chargés d’Affaires to Paris, Rome, Holy See, The Hague, Berne, London, Bonn, and Madrid. Philippine Embassy Annual Report, 1962-1963, p. 10.

14

Report on the Meeting between General Charles de Gaulle and Vice President Emmanuel Pelaez, 8 February 1963.

15

268

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Cecil Stoughton. White House Photographs. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston https://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/ JFKWHP-ST-C422-87-63.aspx/ Accessed on 28 April 2018.

16

http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/1978/11/20/official-week-in-review-november13-november-1978/ Accessed on 28 April 2018

17

Presidential Management Staff, “France: A Symbolic Meeting” in Her People’s Emissary, (Office of the President, June 1992), pp.17-18.

18

19

Ibid.

20

Ibid.

21

Ibid.

22

Ibid.

23

Ibid.

24

Ibid.

25

Ibid.

Speech of President Ramos at a dinner hosted by Foreign Minister Alain Juppé of France on President Ramos’ official visit to France, 13 September 1994, http:// www.officialgazette.gov.ph/1994/09/13/speech-of-president-ramos-at-a-dinnerhosted-by-foreign-minister-alain-juppe-of-france-on-president-ramos-visit-to-france/

26

27

Ibid.

Embassy of France in Manila, Official Visit of Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault to the Philippines, October 19 to 21, 2012, https://ph.ambafrance.org/OfficialVisit-of-Prime-Minister-Jean-Marc-Ayrault-to-the-Philippines-October.

28

Embassy of France in Manila, State Visit of President François Hollande to the Philippines on 26-27 February 2017, https://ph.ambafrance.org/State-Visit-ofFrench-President

29

30 31 32

Data from the Philippine Trade and Investment Center-Paris. Philippine Embassy in Paris Annual Report 1982. Philippine Embassy in Paris Annual Report 2007 and 2008.

Interview with Mr. François de Bortoli, International Cooperation Senior Director of Airbus, 7 and 8 March 2017.

33

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5

COOPERATION IN THE GLOBAL ARENA: SHAPING A MORE JUST AND EQUITABLE WORLD

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272

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The Philippines and France were founding members of the United

Nations in 1945 and have been partners in the promotion of its ideals and objectives. Both countries, working individually and jointly, have sought to create the conditions for a more peaceful and equitable international order based on sovereign equality and respect for human dignity, with collective responsibility at its core. Indeed, from the very beginnings of the United Nations and the creation of its bodies and mechanisms, the Philippines and France joined forces at crucial and defining moments. The following episodes in multilateral diplomacy are milestones not only in the 70-year relationship between the Philippines and France, but also in the development of the international system as we know it. Filipino-French cooperation played a key role in shaping the norms, aspirations and institutions of the world community and is likewise contributing to sustainable development in the new millennium for future generations to come.

I

The “spirit of Paris” as inspiration for UNESCO After the widespread destruction of World War II, it was deemed necessary to create an international organization that would construct “the defences of peace”1 in the minds of men through enhancing collaboration among nations in education, science, culture and communication, and information. In this regard, in 1945 a Conference of Education Ministers held in London, established the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). At the conference, France offered to host the newly created organization in Paris. The Philippine delegate, Dr. Maximo M. Kalaw, then Secretary of Public Instruction and Information, notably stated the following in support of France’s initiative for Paris to be the seat of the Organization: “…when the Philippines defended their independence against Spain, it was in Paris that their spirit had sought refuge. It was an additional reason for rejoicing in the choice of Paris which has just been made.”2 273

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Since then, both the Philippines and France have been active Member States in support of UNESCO’s important work at Headquarters and in the field. Among global priorities of UNESCO is the promotion of gender equality and empowerment. And in this connection, the very first woman delegate on UNESCO’s Executive Board was Filipina, Senator Geronima Pecson in 1950.

Figure 163. Senator Geronima Pecson at the UNESCO3 274

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II

The Philippines at UNESCO 2015-2017 In the tradition of strong Philippine engagement and women’s leadership in UNESCO, Ambassador Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro, Philippine Permanent Delegate to UNESCO, has continued to raise the profile of the Philippines in the Organization by serving as: * Chairperson, Asia-Pacific Group of Member States (Electoral Group IV) in 2014; * Chairperson, Group of 77 and China Paris Chapter in 2015; * Chairperson, ASEAN-UNESCO Committee in 2016; * Vice-Chairperson, World Heritage Committee in 2016; and Vice-President of the UNESCO General Conference in 2015 and 2017.

Figure 164. Ambassador Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro (center) chairs G77 and China Plenary Dialogue with UNESCO Director-General Irina Bokova (second from left) 275

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The Philippines won a seat on the prestigious UNESCO Executive Board during the 39th session of the General Conference of UNESCO in November 2017. Represented by Ambassador Lazaro, the Philippines now serves as one of the 58 members of the Executive Board whose main functions are to examine the program of work and budget of UNESCO, and guide the Organization’s support to Member States in the implementation of relevant Sustainable Development Goals in education, culture, communication and information.

Figure 165. Philippine Ambassador and Permanent Delegate to UNESCO Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro (center) chairing the General Policy Debate of the 39th session of the UNESCO General Conference next to UNESCO Deputy Director-General Getachew Engida (2nd from left) 276

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The Philippines last became a member of the Board during the period 2007–2011. Its re-election after a decade will increase the ability of the Philippines to shape the global agenda and programs of UNESCO, as well as enhance relations with UNESCO Member States, especially Pacific Island States. During Ambassador Lazaro’s tenure, the Philippines was also elected to the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) Committee, the Executive Council of the International Oceanographic Commission (IOC), the Intergovernmental Council of the Information for all Programme (IFAP), the Intergovernmental Council of the Management of Social Transformations (MOST) Programme, and the Headquarter Committee.

Figure 166. Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary (Photo / Roy Ponce)

In 2014, the 38th session of the World Heritage Committee in Doha, Qatar inscribed Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary on the World Heritage List, becoming the Philippines’ 6th World Heritage site. The Philippines’ other World Heritage sites include the Cordillera Rice Terraces, Baroque Churches, Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, Tubbataha Reefs, and the Historic City of Vigan.

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Figure 167. Punnuk Tugging Ritual, Hungduan, Ifugao (Photo / Renato S. Rastrollo/NCCA)

In 2015, the 12th session of the Intangible Cultural Heritage Committee in Windhoek, Namibia inscribed tugging rituals in the Philippines, Cambodia, Viet Nam and Republic of Korea on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. The Philippines has two other elements inscribed on the ICH Representative List, namely, the Darangen Epic and the Hudhud Chants.

Figure 168. Albay Biosphere Reserve (Photo / Wang Regalado) 278

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Figure 169. Report of the Group of 77 and UNESCO

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In 2016, the 28th session of the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) International Coordinating Council held in Lima, Peru approved Albay Province as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Puerto Galera and Palawan are recognized as the Philippines’ other Biosphere Reserves. In addition, during its last year as member of the World Heritage Committee, the Philippines chaired discussions on the budget of the World Heritage Convention, which resulted in the adoption of a “Roadmap for the sustainability of the World Heritage Fund” at the 41st session of the Committee held in Krakow, Poland. The Philippines likewise served as Vice-President and Co-Chair of the Open-Ended UNESCO Working Group on Governance which met over the course of the 2016–2017 biennium and developed recommendations to enhance transparency, inclusivity, effectiveness and efficiency of the Governing Bodies of UNESCO, including the General Conference, the Executive Board, and the various intergovernmental councils, programs and funds across the expanse of UNESCO’s mandates in education, science, culture, and communication, and information. Notably, during Ambassador Lazaro’s Chairmanship of the Group of 77 and China Paris Chapter, the Group issued a special Declaration on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of UNESCO and adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. The Group also published a compilation of its statements delivered throughout the year entitled “The Group of 77 and UNESCO: Partners for Peace and Sustainable Development.”

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III

A Constitution for the Rights of All

What characterizes the engagement of the Philippines and France

over the last seventy years in the United Nations is a shared complicity –an abiding faith in the ability of humanity to rise above the ashes of conflict and renew itself in a quest for greater social justice and prosperity for all. An exceptional and relatively unknown example of this cooperation is the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Philippines’ General Carlos P. Romulo was a member of the first United Nations Commission on Human Rights with French Professor René  Cassin that was formed in 1947. Together with other inspiring leaders of the time, such as First Lady of the United States Eleanor  Roosevelt of the United States that chaired the Commission, Charles Malik of Lebanon, and P.C. Chang from China, they drafted what is perhaps the most influential document of the twentieth century, the Universal Declaration on Human Rights.

General Romulo, known as “Mr. United Nations,”was a leading advocate for independence of developing countries from colonialism and the right to self-determination. He would later become President of the Fourth UN General Assembly and also be the Philippines’ longest serving Secretary (Minister) of Foreign Affairs. René Cassin was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1968 in recognition of his far- reaching work on human rights.

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Figure 170. Working Group on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

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Figure 171. First meeting of the Commission on Human Rights of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, left to right: Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, United States, chairman; Prof. John P. Humphrey, Canada, Director of the Division of Human Rights of the UN Department of Social Affairs and Secretary of the Commission; Dr. Charles Malik, Lebanon, Rapporteur; Charles Dukes, United Kingdom; Valentin F. Topliakov, USSR, and General Carlos P. Romulo, Philippine Republic. 27 January 1947 (Photo / UN News Centre)

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Figure 172. General Carlos P. Romulo chatting with Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt at the 2nd session of the UN General Assembly, 15 November 1947 (Photo / UN News Centre)

General Romulo and Professor Cassin were members of the Working Group of the UN Commission on Human Rights which finalized the text of the Universal Declaration before it was eventually transmitted to the UN General Assembly for adoption. Of particular interest is that after the Philippines and France submitted individual proposals for Article 1 of the Declaration, the two delegates worked on a joint text which formed the basis of the actual text adopted by UN Member States: “All men are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed by nature with reason and conscience, and should act towards one another like brothers.”4 The Universal Declaration was adopted by the Third United Nations General Assembly held on 10 December 1948, which met that year at the Palais Chaillot in Paris. Thereafter, 10 December has become celebrated as “Human Rights Day.” 284

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Figure 173. The proposals of the Philippine and French delegates at the Working Group of UN Commission on Human Rights in 1947

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IV

Jointly Facing the Challenge of our Times: Climate Change

T

his Franco-Philippine “touch” for producing landmark documents has continued to the present day. In 2015, the adoption of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change set the stage for reinforced international cooperation to counter one of the most urgent threats facing the community of nations. The Philippines played a key role in the negotiation of the Paris Agreement, serving as Chair of the Climate Vulnerable Forum, a grouping of the countries most affected by climate change in terms of natural disasters and extreme weather events. Former Philippine President Benigno S. Aquino III chaired the meeting of the Climate Vulnerable Forum held at the sidelines of the 21st Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 21) in Paris in December 2015.

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On the occasion of former French President Francois Hollande’s visit to the Philippines following the large-scale devastation and loss of lives wrought by super-Typhoon Haiyan in Tacloban in the Eastern Visayas, a bilateral declaration, the “Manila Call for Climate Action,” was issued urging all countries and stakeholders to join forces to combat climate change and work towards a “universal, equitable and ambitious climate deal.” The havoc left in the wake of super-typhoon Haiyan was widely seen as “ground zero” for climate change. Its tragic impacts were a timely wake-up call and catalyst for resolute climate action ahead of the Paris COP21. These initiatives helped generate substantial momentum leading into the final stages of negotiations in Paris and contributed to the Agreement’s adoption. The Philippines’ Climate Change Commission and the Embassy of France in the Philippines organized a bike ride at the Luneta National Park in Manila entitled “The Road to Paris starts in Manila.” Hence, after 70 years, the Philippine-Franco multilateral partnership comes full circle. While in the beginning, the spirit of Paris was an inspiration for the creation of UNESCO for the Philippines, now, Manila is the beacon of the battle against climate change, whose efforts are anchored on the Paris Agreement.

Figure 174. Participants to the Climate Vulnerable Forum, November 2015 (Photo / Climate Vulnerable Forum)

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The Philippines is an active member of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition and ratified the Paris Agreement in 2017. Environmental protection remains a core objective of Philippine government policy nationally and internationally.

Figure 175. Climate Week - COP21: The Road to Paris starts in Manila (Photo / Embassy of France to the Philippines)

Figure 176. Climate Week – COP21 – Former Climate Change Commission Chair, Ms. Mary Ann Lucille Sering, reaches the finish line. (Photo / Embassy of France to the Philippines) 288

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V

Areas of continuing cooperation

With the rise of violent extremism and deliberate attacks on

cultural heritage, there remain opportunities for the Philippines and France to extend their cooperation at the multilateral level through UNESCO and the United Nations for mutual benefit to address challenges to global solidarity. Terrorism and Combating Extremism The Philippines and France are actively engaged in counterterrorism, responding resolutely to threats in their respective countries and regions. In partnership with UNESCO, the Philippines hosted a workshop on Dealing with the DarkNet: Measures to Prevent Violent Extremism in February 2018 which encouraged military, law enforcement, and other national stakeholders to develop comprehensive policy and program responses. The Philippines is enhancing cooperation with UNESCO and other United Nations agencies on the Prevention of Violent Extremism. The fight against terrorism remains a top priority for France at the United Nations. In July 2017, France welcomed the adoption of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 2368 which defined the criteria for inclusion on the list of people and entities associated with terrorist organizations and underscored the importance of fighting money laundering and the financing of terrorism. Subsequently, France hosted an international conference on combating the financing of terror groups in April 2018, attended by 80 countries and nearly 500 experts, which adopted a declaration encouraging improvement of mechanisms to effectively collect, exchange and process financial intelligence. 289

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Human Rights In the field of human rights, as described above, the Philippines and France have historically supported the promulgation of international human rights treaties. They were also founding members of the Human Rights Council in 2006. The Philippines served as the facilitator of the Human Rights Council’s rules of procedure and working methods which formed an integral part of the institution-building package adopted by Member States. The Philippines is currently a member of the Council and serves as Vice-President for the Asia-Pacific region. With human rights as one of its founding principles, France maintains a policy of engaging actively in the work of the Human Rights Council. France plays an active role in the adoption of United Nations resolutions and undertakings which protect and promote the rights of women and children, especially those who are affected by armed conflict and victims of human trafficking. The Philippines shares this advocacy as lead sponsor of United Nations and Human Rights Council resolutions on combating trafficking in persons and as initiator of the ASEAN Convention Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially in Women and Children signed by ASEAN leaders in November 2015. Migration The Philippines and France recognize that legal and safe migration wherein the rights of migrants are fully respected contributes to the economic and social development of countries of origin and destination. Both states are supporters of the International Organization for Migration and the recently concluded Global Compact on Migration. Peace-keeping The Philippines and France demonstrate their enduring commitment to peace and security through support for United Nations Peace Keeping Operations (UNPKOs). Since 1963, the Philippines has consistently played an important role in UNPKOs with Filipino peacekeepers serving in 16 countries and territories. As of September 2017, 840 French uniformed 290

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personnel were taking part in peacekeeping operations. France is also the fifth top contributor for PKOs, providing 6.29% of the total budget for 2017-2018. With the past 70 years as reference, we can always be hopeful that when the Philippines and France join their efforts for the common good, the results shall often be far-reaching, profound and historic.

CHAPTER NOTES 1 The UNESCO preamble states “since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed”. 2

Excerpt from Official Records of the UNESCO London Conference, page 133.

Malacanang Presidential Museum and Library from https://www.flickr.com/ photos/govph/sets/72157658746879360/with/21136488333/ accessed on 05 February 2018. 3

Excerpt from Report of Working Group of UN Commission on Human Rights E/CN.4/57 page 5. 4

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6 CROSSING CULTURES: FILLING GAPS AND BRIDGING PEOPLE

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I

GUSTAVE EIFFEL AND THE PHILIPPINES

French engineer Gustave Eiffel is best known for the tower he built

for the 1889 World Exposition which, to this day, remains as the landmark that defines Paris and France. His company, the G. Eiffel et Cie and later the Société de construction de Levallois-Perret, partnered with architects world-wide to provide materials and structural design work for bridges, lighthouses, factories, gas plants, churches, and other buildings for public use like train stations. One of the most notable of such partnerships is with Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi. Bartholdi designed the Statue of Liberty and the interior framework was built by Eiffel.

Figure 177. Portrait of Gustave Eiffel (Bibliothèque nationale de France) 295

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In Asia, Eiffel worked on projects in Cambodia, China, Java, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. The Saigon Central Post Office, one of Eiffel’s major works in Vietnam, still remains standing.  At the height of his career, Eiffel had representatives in various parts of the world. Eiffel was also commissioned to do projects in the Philippines. His company is known to have undertaken at least nine design and building projects from 1875 to 1895. These are: Church of Manila (1875); the San Nicolas Lighthouse in Manila (1878); and the bridges of Santa Cruz in Laguna (1890), Ayala on the Pasig River (1890), Simala in Cebu (1891), Tanauan in Batangas (1892), Calamba (between 1892-1893), San Miguel de Mayumo in Bulacan (between 1892-1893), Ayala (1893), and Janipan in Iloilo (1895).1 Unfortunately, none of these projects have survived to this day. Eiffel had many projects in the Philippines, second only to the Cochinchina states.

Figure 178. Official stamp of Eiffel’s company found on many of the designs he made (Archives nationales du monde du travail–Roubaix)

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1878 Église de Manille (Church of Manila)

In the 1880s to the 1890s, Jacobo Zobel y Zangroniz, one of the founders of Ayala y Compañia (Ayala et Cie), the precursor of today’s Ayala Corporation,2 was the sole representative of G. Eiffel et Cie in the Philippines. It was in this capacity that Jacobo Zobel also imported the first bicycles to the Philippines.3

Figure 179. Eiffel kept Carnets de sortie d’usine (Manufacturing Order Books) that confirm the works that his company designed or fabricated materials for. The page above shows that Eiffel was commissioned to work on an Église de Manille (Church of Manila) in 1875.4 The date roughly corresponds to the time when Felix A. Roxas designed and received the approval of the Jesuits to build the San Ignacio Church. 297

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As the agent of G. Eiffel et Cie, Jacobo Zobel arranged the partnership between Felix Roxas y Arroyo,5 the first Filipino architect, and Eiffel for the construction of the San Ignacio Church in Intramuros.6 While many attribute the San Sebastian Church to Eiffel, it was in fact the San Ignacio Church that was built with steel provided by Eiffel’s company.

Figure 180. Photo of the interior of the San Ignacio Church located at Calle Arzobispo in Intramuros, Manila. This Jesuit church built by Felix Roxas y Arroyo was completed in 1889 but destroyed during the Battle of Manila in 1945. (Postcard)

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1878 Phare de Saint Nicolas, Manille (San Nicolas Lighthouse, Manila)

Spanish architect José Echeverría is another architect who collaborated with Eiffel. In 1876, Echeverría was commissioned to work on an offshore lighthouse located at San Nicolas in the Manila Bay. Eschewing the traditional mode of construction that a large number of lighthouses in the Philippines were built from, Echeverría designed the San Nicolas Lighthouse to be made of iron supplied by Eiffel’s company.

Figure 181. A page from the Carnets de sortie d’usine confirming that Eiffel was commissioned to work on the Phare de Saint-Nicolas (Rade de Manille) [San Nicolas Lighthouse, Manila Harbor] in 1878.7 299

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Figure 182. Design of the Phare de Saint Nicolas, Manila8

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1890 Pont de Santa Cruz, Laguna (Santa Cruz Bridge, Laguna) In 1890, Eiffel appointed Mr. Louis René Denis, a civil engineer living at 43 rue de Constantinople, Paris, as his representative to manage and execute the works in "Cochinchina, Cambodia, Tonkin, and the Philippines". It was also during the same year that records show that Eiffel worked on two projects in the Philippines: the Santa Cruz Bridge in Laguna and the Ayala Bridge in Manila. Both bridges no longer exist, having been replaced by newer construction.

Figure 183. A page from the Carnets de sortie d’usine confirming that Eiffel was commissioned to work on the Pont de Santa-Cruz (pour Manille) [Santa Cruz Bridge for Manila] in 1889.9 301

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Figure 184. Contract signed by Gustave Eiffel authorizing Louis René Denis to represent him in projects in Cochinchina, Cambodia, Tonkin, and in the Philippine Islands, signed in 1890. (Archives nationales du monde du travail—Roubaix, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

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Translation The following party appeared in the presence of the undersigned, Mr. Dufour and his notary public colleague in Paris: Mr. Gustave Eiffel, a structural engineer and officer of the French Legion of Honor, living in Levallois-Perret, 42 rue Fouquet; Who has hereby appointed Mr. Louis René Denis, a civil engineer living in Paris, 43 rue de Constantinople, as his representative; And given him a power of attorney; To represent him before French administration or third parties, regarding the management and execution of the works that Mr. Eiffel is or may be in charge of in Cochinchina, Cambodia, Tonkin, and the Philippine Islands; For this purpose, to sign any account, to receive any communication, to present any new research submission, to make any deal and sign any treaty related to the works, either with the administration or with the third parties; To attend the provisional or final acceptance of the works; to sign any minutes and any freight bill and to sign their discharge receipts; to sign any agreement and to represent the appearing party before the competent courts, to obtain all judgments and decrees and to ensure their enforcement through all legal means and remedies, to collect any registered package and letter at the address of the appearing party; To receive any payment that is or will be owed to the appearing party in this respect and for any reason, to receive any payment mandate and their corresponding amount; to make any purchase; to make any deal and pursue their implementation; For the foregoing purposes, to sign and carry out any legal act, to elect residence, to replace and generally do what is necessary. Based on the presented model, the abovementioned terms were formally acknowledged in Paris, 37 rue Pasquier, in the offices of Mr. Eiffel, on February 4, 1890. Further to the reading of the terms hereof, the appearing party and the notaries signed this document. Signatures of Gustave Eiffel, Louis René Denis and Mr. Dufour

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Figure 185. Folder containing the designs and other related documents for the construction of the Pont de Santa Cruz de la Laguna. (Archives nationales du monde du travail– Roubaix, Ref,152 AQ 231–3, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

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Figure 186. Blueprint of the Pont de Santa Cruz de la Laguna (Archives nationales du monde du travail—Roubaix, Ref. 152 AQ 231–3, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

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Figure 187. Cross section of the Pont de Santa Cruz de la Laguna showing elevation. (Archives nationales du monde du travail–Roubaix, Ref,152 AQ 231–3, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

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Figure 188. Photograph of the completed Santa Cruz (de la Laguna) Bridge taken in 1891 by Albert Fernique (1841–1898). (Photo/Musée d’Orsay, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais/Alexis Brandt)

Figure 189. Design of the Pont de Santa Cruz de la Laguna showing detail of the elevation. (Archives nationales du monde du travail—Roubaix, Ref. 152 AQ 231–3, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

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1890 Pont de Ayala sur le rio Pasig, Manille (Ayala Bridge on the Pasig River, Manila)

Eiffel’s company developed a system of pre-fabricated bridges and used these designs in many of their projects in the Philippines.10 This method allowed for the construction of portable bridges in an economical manner. The Ayala Bridge was based on one of these pre-fabricated designs and used imported structural steel produced by Eiffel’s company.11 A project managed by Jacobo Zobel, the bridge was named after the Destileria de Ayala which was located on the south bank of the Pasig River.

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Figure 190. Photograph of the Ayala Bridge taken in 1890 by Albert Fernique. (Photo/Musée d’Orsay, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais/Alexis Brandt)

Figure 191. Sample of a bridge project brochure. (Archives nationales du monde du travail—Roubaix, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

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1892 Pont de Tanauan, Batangas (Bridge of Tanauan, Batangas)

Figure 192. Cover of folder containing schematics, documents relating to the construction of a bridge in Batangas by Eiffel. (Archives nationales du monde du travail—Roubaix, Ref. 152 AQ 231–7, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

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Figure 193. Handwritten notes dated 27 June 1892 regarding the construction of a 25.6 meter long bridge in Batangas using a Type 34 bridge. (Archives nationales du monde du travail–Roubaix, Ref. 152 AQ 231–7, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

Figure 194. Design of the bridge in Batangas by Eiffel dated 5 July 1892 (Archives nationales du monde du travail—Roubaix, Ref. 152 AQ 231–7, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel) 311

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1895 Pont sur le rio Janipan, Iloilo (Bridge South of the River Janipan in Iloilo)

Figure 196. Computation of the type 11 bridge dated 12 April 1895. (Archives nationales du monde du travail— Roubaix, Ref. 152 AQ 231-7, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

Figure 195. Folder cover stating an order of an 11R bridge for Manila sent by a Mr. Schül [see letter f] (Archives nationales du monde du travail— Roubaix, Ref. 152 AQ 231-7, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

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pe 11

vail—

Figure 197. Part of the design of the bridge for Janipan dated 24 April 1895. (Archives nationales du monde du travail—Roubaix, Fonds des Établissements Eiffel)

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Figure 198. The Palais du Trocadéro was built for the 1878 World Exposition. (Postcard)

Figure 199. The Palais de l’Industrie was built for the 1855 World Exposition. It has been the venue for the Salon de Paris from 1855 until it was demolished to make way for the Grand Palais which was constructed for the 1900 World Exposition. Since 1901, all successive renditions of the Salon de Paris have been held under the glass roof of the Grand Palais (Photo / Christelle Gonzalo) 314

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II

PHILIPPINES AND PARIS EXPOSITIONS

Paris has been the host of many expositions. In the 19th and early

20th centuries, Paris hosted six editions of the Exposition Universelle (World Exposition)12 and one Exposition Coloniale Internationale (International Colonial Exhibition).13 These expositions marked milestones in technology, culture, and aimed to improve understanding between nations. The Philippines participated in the 1867, 1878, and 1889 expositions in Paris under Spain, and under the United States, during the International Colonial Exhibition in 1931. In these expositions, the Philippines was represented by various provinces, universities, religious groups, companies and private individuals. Products exhibited included different types of wood, agricultural products, shell craft, cigars, liquor, fabrics, perfumes, oils, native hats and bags, and even plans for a country house near Manila. Philippine agricultural products were singled out for awards during these expositions.14 Paris was similarly the site of the Salon de Paris. Organized by the Académie des Beaux-Arts, the Salon de Paris showcased the works of selected artists from around the world.15 Often, it coincided with the holding of the World Exposition. The World Exposition and Salon de Paris of 1889 Philippine participation in the 1889 World Exposition and the Salon de Paris was a landmark one with leading Filipino intellectuals, artists, and businessmen of that period coming together and representing the Philippines. Some of the more notable Philippine exhibitors during this exposition were: the Cámara de Comercio de Manila (Chamber of Commerce of Manila), which exhibited agricultural products that 315

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Figure 200. The Eiffel Tower was built for the 1889 World Exposition. The Palais du Trocadéro can be seen in the background. The 1889 World Exposition would occupy the entire area pictured. (Postcard)

won the Bronze and Gold awards;16 and, Ayala y Cía,17 which won the Grand Prize for its exhibit of alcohols produced by its Destilería Ayala. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, who was the representative of the Chamber of Commerce, exhibited coffee and cacao products which also won the Bronze Prize in their respective categories.18 Leading Filipino painters and artists of the time, Juan Luna, Félix Resurección Hidalgo, and Félix Pardo de Tavera19 exhibited their artworks at the Galerie des Beaux-Arts at the Palais du Champ de Mars located in the World Exposition grounds. Luna exhibited five oil paintings—the Fiesta de Himeneo (“Hymen, oh Hyménée I”), Retrato de las señora M.P. y L., Bacante, La modelo, and Paisaje. Hidalgo exhibited the El Aquéron (La Barca de Aqueronte)20 and Rêverie while Tavera exhibited a terracotta bust of Miguel López de Legazpi, the first Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines and a cast statue entitled Pensive.21 At the same time, the Salon de Paris22 exhibited Luna’s La Chula and Félix Pardo de Tavera’s plaster busts entitled Portrait of Lulin and Mlle Th... (sic).23 Three years earlier, in 1886, Luna exhibited Spoliarium at the Salon de Paris and was awarded the bronze medal. 316

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Figure 201. Félix Resurección Hidalgo’s La Barca de Aqueronte (Lopez Museum)

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Figure 202. Extract from the Catalogue illustré of the Salon 1889 showing the name “Rizal”

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But what is perhaps the most important and least known fact in the history of Philippine participation to the Paris expositions and salons is that the Philippine national hero, José Rizal, joined Luna24 and Pardo de Tavera in the list of Filipinos who exhibited in the highly coveted Salon de Paris in 1889. In a letter to his family, Rizal writes “I made a bust that I will exhibit at the Salon de Paris. I have been fortunate to have been accepted. People say that is it very difficult for foreigners to be accepted, and that there were two other Filipinos who were initially declined but later accepted.”25 In another letter, this time addressed to his friend, Fernando Canon,26 Rizal explains that the “affairs of the Salon in which I exhibited a bust, and other little pursuits...have not left me a free moment for friendly conversation with you.”27 The Catalogue illustré of the Salon 1889 confirms that a “Rizal (F.)” exhibited a plaster bust of “Monsieur le Dr. P. de Favera.” One can surmise that given the evidence, the “F” in both Rizal’s name and in Favera’s were likely printing errors as the J. in Rizal’s signature can easily be mistaken as F. The bust that Rizal exhibited is most likely that of Dr. Trinidad Hermenegildo Pardo de Tavera.28

Figure 203. Map of the 1889 World Exposition 319

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Figure 204. José Rizal (center) with Juan Luna's (left), family and friends who attended the World Exposition (Pardo de Tavera Library and Special Collections, Rizal Library, Ateneo de Manila University)

Rizal was in Paris from March 1889 to January 1890 and found time to visit the World Exposition frequently. He enthusiastically wrote to his friends to come to Paris to view what was “truly an exposition.”29 Rizal visited the exposition together with Luna, Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, Valentin Ventura, Justo Trinidad, and Ramon Abarca.30 Describing the exposition to his family, Rizal wrote that the exposition attracted many people to Paris and that from the Philippines alone, he knew about a hundred of them.31

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International Colonial Exposition of 1931

Figure 205. The Palais du Trocadéro and the country pavilions during the 1931 International Colonial Exposition. (Postcard)

After 1889, the Philippines returned to Paris during the International Colonial Exposition of 1931. The Philippine pavilion was billed as a masterpiece by the French media.32 Outwardly, the building was a simple wood frame building. But, as soon as one entered the thirty meters long and twelve meters wide pavilion, the history of the islands from 1521 up to the American period was presented through a collection of art, food and fashion of the past four hundred years.

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Figure 206. Le Petit Journal article on the Philippine Pavilion citing it as a masterpiece, 25 August 1931.

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Figure 207. Philippine Pavilion at the International Colonial Exhibition of 1931 (Musée des Civilisations de l’Europe et de la Méditerranée)

The highlights of the pavilion were the large frescoes that covered its walls. Painted by Fabián de la Rosa, then Director of the School of Fine Arts of the University of the Philippines, and Fernando Amorsolo, the frescoes were rendered with as much simplicity as with talent. Fabián de la Rosa, who had studied at the Académie Julien in Paris,33 was by then already known in the French art world having participated at the Salon des Artistes Français for several years. He was acknowledged as a master, particularly of portraits. He was the mentor of Amorsolo who would later become the Philippines’ national artist in painting. The 1889 and 1931 expositions and salons are just but two occasions where Filipino artistry, talent and creativity were showcased in France. Fast forward to the 21st century, Filipinos continue to exhibit these same characteristics and achieve recognition in various expositions in France. 323

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III

INSPIRATION BEHIND THE NOTES OF THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL ANTHEM

President Emilio Aguinaldo, on 5 June 1898, issued a decree

setting aside June 12 as the day for the proclamation of Philippine Independence from Spain. It was about this same time that Aguinaldo commissioned Julian Felipe,34 a Filipino composer and music teacher, to compose a hymn that would be played during the independence day ceremonies.

By June 11, Felipe finished the composition and played this to Aguinaldo and other revolutionary leaders present at that time.35 Felipe titled his composition Marcha Filipina Magdalo, adopting the name Magdalo from Aguinaldo’s faction of the Katipunan.36 Aguinaldo enthusiastically adopted this composition as the anthem of the Philippines and Felipe changed the title to Marcha Nacional Filipinas (Philippine National March).37 On June 12, Aguinaldo proclaimed the independence of the Philippines at Kawit, Cavite and the Marcha Nacional Filipinas was performed by the members of the San Francisco de Malabon band as the Philippine flag, made in Hong Kong by Felipe Agoncillo’s wife, Marcela Agoncillo,38 together with her daughter Lorenza Agoncillo and José Rizal’s niece Delfina Herboza, was unfurled. When the Marcha Nacional Filipinas was played on 12 June 1898, it was without lyrics. It was only about a year later, on 3 September 1899, when the poem of José Palma, a Filipino poet and soldier, titled Filipinas and written in Spanish was adopted as the lyrics of the national anthem. The lyrics of the anthem would then be translated into English in 1934 by a Filipino writer, Camilo Osias, and an American, A.L. Lane. It was then called The Philippine Hymn. In 1956, Julian Cruz Balmaceda and Ildefonso Santos penned the lyrics of the current Filipino version entitled Lupang Hinirang. 324

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But beyond the obvious historical significance of the history of the Philippine national anthem, if one delves deeper into the music, one can discern the distinct influences behind Felipe’s composition.39 In his memoirs, Julian Felipe said that the Marcha Real of Spain, the Triumphal March from Giuseppe Verdi’s Aida, and La Marseillaise were the three musical pieces that he used as the basis for the Philippine National Anthem. If you break down the composition of the Lupang Hinirang into three distinct movements, the melodic patterns in its third movement, which starts from the point— Lupa ng araw ng luwalhati’t pagsinta, Buhay ay langit sa piling mo; Aming ligaya nang pag may mang-aapi, Ang mamatay ng dahil sa iyo. —distinctly evoke the opening strain of the French march La Marseillaise. Felipe’s choice of La Marseillaise as musical influence could be due to the similarities in the objectives of the Philippine and French revolutions which both aimed to free the people from oppression.

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IV

FRENCH INFLUENCES IN THE 1898 MALOLOS BANQUET

French influences are very much evident in the 29 September 1898

Malolos Banquet which celebrated the ratification of the Declaration of Philippine Independence by the representatives of the Malolos Congress.

About two hundred guests were sent invitations to the banquet by La Comisión de festejos del Gobierno Filipino (the Commission on Festivities of the Philippine Government) to what would be a veritable feast of French cuisine. Guests were invited to attend both the lunch and dinner. Designed by Arcadio Arellano, the menu card presented to the guests is shaped as a Philippine flag when folded and had the Spanish phrase “Solemn Ratification of the Philippine Independence” printed on its cover. The surviving copy of the Malolos Menu, found in the collection of the Museo de Oro at Xavier University in Cagayan de Oro,40 is small enough to fit in the palm of the hand.

Figure 208. Invitation card to the 29 September 1898 Malolos Banquet issued by the Commission on Festivities of the Philippine Government. The invitation was issued on 26 September 1898. (Retrato Collection of the Filipinas Heritage Library) 326

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Figure 209. The Malolos Menu Card resembled the Philippine flag.

Unfolded, both the lunch and dinner menus would have the words—Libertad, Igualidad, and Fraternidad—albeit written in Spanish, but singularly the motto of the French Republic. French was then used for both the lunch and dinner menus to describe the distinctly French dishes and wines the guests were offered during the banquet.

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Figure 210. The Malolos Menu Card unfolded. (Museo de Oro at Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro)

The dishes were prepared by pastry maker Juan Padilla and cook Emilio Gonzales.41 The lunch menu consisted of seven appetizers, followed by six main dishes, five kinds of dessert including cheeses. Four types of wines were served as well as two kinds of liqueurs and finally, coffee, and tea.

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Figure 211. Malolos Banquet Lunch Menu Card (Retrato Collection of the Filipinas Heritage Library)

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Lunch Menu APPETIZERS OYSTERS – SHRIMPS – RADISH WITH BUTTER – OLIVES – LYON SAUSAGES – SARDINES IN TOMATO SAUCE – SALMON WITH HOLLANDAISE SAUCE MAIN COURSES STUFFED CRAB SHELL FILLED PASTRY SHELLS À LA FINANCIÈRE (with cockscombs, chicken kidneys, chicken quenelles, veal sweetbreads, mushrooms, olives and truffles) TAGALOG-STYLE CHICKEN GIBLETS MUTTON CHOPS EN PAPILLOTE WITH POTATO STRAWS MANILA-STYLE TRUFFLED TURKEY BEEF FILLET À LA CHATEAUBRIAND (with a butter, wine, shallot and mushroom sauce) WITH GREEN BEANS COLD HAM WITH ASPARAGUS STALKS DESSERT

CHEESES – FRUIT – JELLIES STRAWBERRY JELLY – ICE CREAMS WINES BORDEAUX – SAUTERNE – SHERRY – CHAMPAGNE LIQUEURS GREEN CHARTREUSE, COGNAC COFFEE – TEA 330

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Figure 212. Malolos Banquet Dinner Menu Card. (Museo de Oro at Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro)

The dinner offering for the guests was less than that of the lunch but, it was still quite substantial. Guests were served soup, a light dish, four appetizers, followed by a roast, salad, and vegetables, some ice cream, cheese, fruits, and jellies. The meal was paired with four types of wines and capped by a choice of three liquors, coffee, and tea. The use of French cuisine and French language in the menu cards was not accidental. France was the center of diplomacy and culture at that time and the use of French influences in the banquet can be considered as General Emilio Aguinaldo’s subtle political message to the world that the fledgling Philippine Republic had arrived. 331

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Dinner Menu SOUP CHICKEN CONSOMMÉ À la Royale AFTER-SOUP COURSE FISH IN WHITE SAUCE APPETIZERS PHILIPPINE-STYLE CROQUETTES CHICKEN SAUSAGE À LA RÉPUBLIQUE MARBLED BEEF PIGEONS with mushrooms ROA S T brown CAPON (A typical French holiday fare of roasted male chicken which has been eunuched at 6 to 7 weeks old to ensure that the meat is tender) SALAD SEASONAL SALAD VEGETABLES

STUFFED EGGPLANTS SAUTÉED GREEN BEANS PA L AT E C L E A N S E R PARISIAN MOCHA ICE-CREAM DESSERT CHEESE–FRUIT–JELLIES WINES BORDEAUX–SAUTERNE–SHERRY–CHAMPAGNE LIQUEURS GREEN CHARTREUSE–COGNAC–ANISETTE COFFEE AND TEA

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V

40 YEARS OF FRIENDSHIP IN BRITTANY: PAINTER MACARIO VITALIS IN PLESTIN-LES-GRÈVES

(in the Côtes d’Armor Department) by Mayor Christian Jeffroy and Jeanne Eliet42 (Translated into English by Laetitia Groszman)

Figure 213. Portrait of Macario Vitalis (Collection of Eric Ledoigt, grandnephew of Camille Renault) 333

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The Thrill of Discovery Macario Vitalis first discovered for himself the Brittany region, and more specifically the Trégor (an area located between Morlaix and Tréguier, on the northern coast of Brittany), around 1947. He was, by then, 49 years old and already an accomplished painter. After spending some time at the artists’ residence Le Bateau– Lavoir and rubbing shoulders with the great Parisian painters of that time, he later joined artist patron Camille Renault’s circle of friends. For him, this was a time of productive artistic creation, as he was around artists of that era (Jacques Villon, Marcel Duchamp, Guillaume Apollinaire, Frantisek Kupka, Francis Picabia, Robert Delaunay, Roger de La Fresnaye, etc.). His best paintings, inspired from Cubism, date back to this time.

Figure 214. In 1925, Camille Renault opened a restaurant in Puteaux which became the meeting place for many artists and intellectuals. Macario Vitalis, Vue de Puteaux: restaurant Camille Renault (View of Puteaux: Restaurant Camille Renault), Oil on hardboard, undated, 146.5 X 106.5 cm (Collection of La Maison de Camille).

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Figure 215. Macario Vitalis, Assemblée de onze personnages attablés dont Camille Renault (Assembly of eleven people sitting by a table including Camille Renault). Eleven people are depicted, as well as two dogs and one cat. Dimensions: 300cm x 199cm (Collection of La Maison de Camille)

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He was in Paris when World War II broke out. As he was holding a Commonwealth of the Philippines, U.S.A. passport, he was arrested by the Germans and imprisoned at the Stalag 23 camp in Compiègne as early as 1942. This period, marked by solitude, hunger and idleness, would scar him for life. Once he was released at the end of the war, he discovered the Brittany region and the village of Plestin-les-Grèves. How and why did he get here? There are several stories depicting this first trip, and all of them are somewhat incredible. But it does not matter. What matters is that he immediately fell in love with the Trégor area. The mild climate, the beautiful landscapes and the simple and hospitable people contrasted with the hardships he went through before and appealed to him in an instant. He came back several times at the end of the 1940s, before settling in permanently in the early 1950s.

Figure 216. Vitalis at his studio at Camille Renault’s place (Collection of Eric Ledoigt)

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A Plain Life

In Plestin-les-Grèves, after the end of the war, rural life was predominant, along with its old traditions. The Breton language was still widely spoken. Means of communication had yet to be developed. Electricity was still rare in the country side, and it took more than ten hours to reach Paris by train. Very few foreigners would come (except for the English, who could come by crossing the Channel). The inhabitants of Plestin-les-Grèves were cautious when Macario Vitalis first arrived. He could barely speak French, had no money, and was at first “seen as a penniless Bohemian, rather than an artist”. But he was welcomed with the means of that time—first with a tent for him to sleep in, then in a small house without much material comfort. He kept on painting, as he felt impressed by the beauty of the coasts, of the sea and by the unique lighting of the region. He often went fishing, in order to put food on his plate, but he would also trade his paintings for food. Slowly but surely, the inhabitants got to know him better. They discovered and appreciated his art. His style changed as well and he adopted neo-impressionist and often pointillist features. Blue tones were predominant, and his skies were streaked with pink and yellow. He painted happy landscapes, which were often set in the spring. He did not depict the storms we get on our shores but rather the welcoming and warm sea. He liked to make portraits of his friends and of typical characters (such as “the fishmonger” and “the fortune teller”), with women in traditional outfits. He was also inspired by religious subjects, and would paint several variations on traditional themes of that time, such as the Crucifixion or the Virgin and Child.

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Figure 217. Vitalis Painting at the Plestin-les-Grèves Townhall

An Honorary Citizen From the 1960s onwards, Vitalis kept blending in more and more. He became friends with many inhabitants of Plestin-les-Grèves, including the Daniels, who often included him in their family’s everyday life. His ties with the population became stronger and stronger. He loved being invited at other people’s houses and would go as far as giving drawing lessons to the local schoolchildren. His paintings started becoming famous and being sold—restaurants and hotels would buy them to decorate their premises and, in 1968, the city hall ordered two large frescoes from him, which would depict the landscapes and monuments of the village. In 1975, he was made an “honorary citizen of the city of Plestin-les-Grèves”. He went back to the Philippines in 1963, but he missed the tranquility and the freedom he felt in his Plestin home. He went back to Plestin as the art world and international critics started to discover him. 338

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In June 1982, a team of journalists came to interview him in Plestin, with a view to producing a documentary film that would later be shown in the Philippines. This movie widely contributed to his fame in his country. On that same year, a great party was organized in Plestin to celebrate his 84th birthday, in the presence of the Ambassador of the Philippines. His friend Lucien Prigent, a sculptor from a nearby village in the Trégor area, carved his bust in wood and gave it to him as a present.

Figure 218. Vitalis sculpture by Lucien Prigent

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Figure 219. Postcard sent by Claude Tayag to a family friend sharing his sketch of Vitalis during his first meeting with the painter on 2 November 1979 in Plestin-les-Grèves, France.

In 1984, his first great exhibition was organized in Plestin, with the support of the Philippine Embassy. It was followed by another one in Manila in 1986, and later in 1987 and 1988. But Macario Vitalis finally left Plestin-les-Grèves in June 1986, as he understood that due to his old age, it would be more reasonable for him to be closer to his family and his country. He died in the Philippines three years later.

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Figure 220. Vitalis Portrait by Wig Tysman, 1986 (Courtesy of Claude Tayag)

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Macario Vitalis, A Friend That Is Still Alive Today, many residents of Plestin-les-Grèves fondly remember Macario Vitalis, an unusual character who has been part of their everyday life for almost 38 years. When asked about him, they will talk about his love for life, his generosity, about when he would sell a painting, about the meals with good wine that they shared and which he loved to cook himself, and about the friendly evenings they spent together. In July 2016, the town wanted to celebrate both the time this great painter spent in Plestin-les-Grèves and the friendship the population showed him—a retrospective entitled “Macario Vitalis, les années Plestin (1946-1984)” (Macario Vitalis, the Plestin years (1946–1984) was thus organized. Some fifty paintings were quickly identified amongst the possessions of the inhabitants, who spontaneously volunteered to lend them and share their memories and anecdotes about the life of Vitalis. The Embassy of the Philippines honored this event with the presence of the Ambassador and the Consul. Macario Vitalis is still alive in the hearts of the inhabitants of Plestin-les-Greves. You only have to enter the city hall to find his presence there: the two large frescos he painted can be found in the wedding hall and, further away, two other paintings of his can be seen, including the wonderful portrait of a young girl in traditional costume. Finally, the bust of Macario Vitalis watches over the town with his mischievous look from a very good spot: the office of the mayor himself.

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VI

VITALIS AND THE PHILIPPINE EMBASSY

Much like his neighbors in Plestin-les-Grèves, the Philippine

Embassy in Paris is fortunate enough to own a Marcario Vitalis painting. Donated to the Embassy by the artist in 1963, the painting— Bayanihan, an explosion of colors and recalls idyllic farm life in the Philippines—is displayed prominently at the official Residence of the Ambassador at 17bis Avenue Foch at the 16e Arrondissement and never fails to draw the admiration of those who see it.

Figure 221. 18 January 1963, Philippine Embassy in Paris, France. L-R: Philippine Chargé d’Affaires Amb. Felipe Mabilangan, Sr. with artist, Macario Vitalis. (Photo / Ada Ledesma Mabilangan)

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Figure 222. Bayanihan by Macario Vitalis. Painting donated by the artist to the Philippine Embassy in Paris; currently on display at the Official Residence of the Philippine Ambassador in Paris. Oil on canvas, size 78 x 138 cm.

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Macario Vitalis’ encounter with the Embassy did not happen by chance. In the early 1960s, he attended the Paris performances of the Bayanihan Dance Company. He befriended the dancers and captured their images, costumes and dances in the paintings he made thereafter. It was perhaps because of this experience that he later on reached out to the Embassy and the Filipino community. The Philippine Embassy responded and sponsored an exhibition at the Académie Diplomatique Internationale in June of 1981. This exhibition showcased Philippine Contemporary Art and marked that year’s celebration of Philippine Independence. The exhibition featured Vitalis together with five other Filipino artists then living in France and London—Ben Cab, who was then based in London, Juvenal Sanso, Ofelia Gelvezon-Téqui, Egai Fernandez, and Nena Saguil. In 1985, the Embassy made possible the participation of Vitalis and Saguil at the Rencontre Artistique Picturale Internationale jointly sponsored by the Café de la Paix and the Grand Hôtel, two Parisian institutions closely identified with La Belle Époque.

Figure 223. 12 June 1981, Académie Diplomatique Internationale in Paris, France. L-R: Ada Ledesma Mabilangan, Nena Saguil, Amb. Felipe Mabilangan, Jr., Juvenal Sanso, BenCab, Egai Fernandez, and Ofelia Gelvezon-Téqui (Photo/Ada Ledesma Mabilangan)

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Fast forward to 2017, the Philippine Embassy together with the PhilPost and La Poste chose the paintings of M a c a r io  V it a lis  (Bayanihan)  a nd  that o f  Fre nch pa inte r Jacques Villon—who influenced Vitalis early in his career—for the commemorative stamps celebrating 70 years of Philippines–France diplomatic relations, a fitting representation of the close people-topeople relations these two artists had between each other.

Figure 224. First day cover issued by La Poste to celebrate 70 years of Philippines-France diplomatic relations, June 2017.

Figure 225. First day cover issued by PhilPost showing se-tenant block of 12 stamps of the Vitalis and Villon paintings, June 2017. 346

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VII

PHILIPPINE ARTIFACTS AND ARTWORKS SHOWCASED IN HISTORIC EXHIBITION AT THE MUSÉE DU QUAI BRANLY

As a testament to their ever-deepening bilateral relations, the

governments of France and the Philippines—along with several key players in both countries in the fields of commerce, culture and the arts—had committed themselves to staging in 2013 what would be described as the “biggest exhibition on the Philippines held in France and even in Europe for more than 20 years.”43

From an idea of two museum directors who met through the Asia-Europe Museum Network (ASEMUS)44—Stéphane Martin and Corazon Alvina45—and an elaborate plan which took more than five years to complete, the grand Paris exhibition entitled, “Philippines, archipel des échanges (Philippines: Archipelago of Exchanges)” had been born. The concept was then transformed into reality when a memorandum of agreement on it was signed in Manila by the Philippine Government and French Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault, who was in the Philippines for an official visit from 19 to 21 October 2012, the first one ever by a French head of government.46 Opening to the public in 2013, on the Philippine Day of Valor on April 9, and running until France’s national day, the Bastille Day on July 14, the exhibition was artistically arranged in more than 2,000 square meters of space in Paris’ Musée du Quai Branly.47 The choice of venue was in itself a coup as Musée du Quai Branly is considered as the premier national museum in France that features the arts and cultural heritage of indigenous peoples around the world.48 Representing Philippine President Benigno S. Aquino III, Vice President Jejomar Binay joined French Prime Minister Jean- Marc Ayrault in inaugurating the exhibition on 8 April 2013. Curated by Constance de Monbrison and Corazon Alvina, the exhibition featured more than 300 pieces on the arts and culture of the Cordilleras and of the coastal communities, mostly in 347

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Figure 226. Facade of the Musée du Quai Branly featuring the exhibition. (Photo / Juan Wyns)

Figure 227. French Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault and Philippine Vice President Jejomar Binay inaugurate "Philippines, archipel des échanges (Philippines: Archipelago of Exchanges)" [Archives nationales_000143_20160365_376 @ Premier Ministre, reportages photographiques Jean-Marc Ayrault]

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Southern Philippines.49 Other key organizers of the exhibition were Hélène Fulgence and Yves Le Fur, Musée du Quai Branly’s Director of Exhibitions and Cultural Productions and Director of Heritage and Collections Department, respectively.50 The Philippine National Commission for Culture and the Arts considered it as “the first major exhibition dedicated to the Philippines showing the Philippines’ Austronesian roots and maritime culture before the arrival of Europeans through selected pieces from various collections in the Philippines, United States, Belgium, the Netherlands, Spain and Austria.”51 One could say that the exhibition, and the surrounding cultural activities52 that were held around it, was an impeccable performance of a large symphony orchestra, with the different musicians being the various Philippine, European, and American institutions and individuals that played in harmony to create this obra maestra. Key Supporters With the support of the highest level of governments of the Philippines and France, the exhibition had been able to bring together a number of important public and private entities, as well as remarkable individuals including some heads of government, parliamentarians, ministers, world-renowned chefs, artists, academicians, and journalists. Philippine government participation in the exhibition was impressive, having the top support of the Department of Foreign Affairs, the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, the Department of Agriculture, the National Museum of the Philippines, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Philippine Central Bank), the Department of Tourism and the Finance Department’s Bureau of Customs.53 Philippine Senator Loren Legarda had lent her support to the project as well, most especially in the production and dissemination of the exhibition catalogues which were published in English and in French.54 Then Philippine Ambassador to France, Cristina Ortega, French Ambassador to the Philippines Gilles Garachon, and the Embassies of the Philippines in Paris and of France in Manila also played instrumental roles that contributed to the success of the exhibition.55 349

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The Exhibition The exhibition featured the collections of three Philippine museums: the National Museum of the Philippines, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, and the Ayala Museum. The National Museum of the Philippines in particular, lent fourteen objects, many of which had never left Philippine shores including the priceless National Cultural Treasures, specifically, the Oton Death Mask and the Palawan Zoomorphic Ear Pendant. The loaned artifacts ranged widely in both space and time, originating from the Batanes islands in the far north to Sarangani in the island of Mindanao in the south, and from 2,000-3,000 BC until the mid-20th century.56 Apart from the Musée du Quai Branly’s collection which included many fine ornaments and some very important bulul57 wooden sculptures, some American and European museums—those of which collected artifacts from the end of the nineteenth century or the very beginning of the twentieth century—also lent some of their collections. The American Museum of Natural History had the collection of Laura Watson Benedict, the pioneer of Mindanaoan anthropology. The Field Museum had those of Faye-Cooper Cole among others, and the Yale Art Gallery had then recently received the important Thomas Jaffe Collection, which included a number of splendid sculptures from the Luzon Cordillera. In Europe, the Vienna Museum für Völkerkunde, the Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde in Leiden, and the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Madrid had historical collections brought to Europe by administrators and researchers at the end of the nineteenth century.58 There were also private lenders including several individuals and families from Europe, as well as from the US, and the Philippines. Three lenders were from Brussels, one from Madrid, four from San Francisco, eleven from the Philippines59 and eleven from France—Patrick Caput, Michel Durand-Dessert, Christian Erien, Alexandre Espenel, Fred Feinsilber, Yann Ferrandin,  Max   Itzikovitz, David Lebard, Alain Schoffel,  Judith Schoffel and Pierre  de Vallombreuse.60

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VIII

ART AND ENVIRONMENT: CAPTURING LIFE'S PERPETUAL FLUX SCULPTOR IMPY PILAPIL IN NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE

Filipina sculptor Impy Pilapil follows a notable list of Filipino

artists who have made their mark in France. Pilapil's contribution of a 3-meter high, 800 kilogram sculpture of stone and steel has found its home at the Square Martial Massiani, a public park in the City of Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. The City of Neuilly-sur-Seine is a prominent French commune found just west of Paris in the department of Hauts-de-Seine.

Figure 228. The Impy Pilapil sculpture titled FERN is the first contemporary Filipino sculpture to be installed in a public space in France.

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The sculpture, entitled FERN, is the first contemporary Filipino sculpture to be installed in a public space in France. It was donated by the Philippine government to the City of Neuilly-sur-Seine on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between the Philippines and France. Ambassador Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro, together with Neuilly-sur-Seine Mayor Jean-Christophe Fromantin formally inaugurated the sculpture on 5 April 2018.

Figure 229. Ambassador Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro delivers her remarks at the inauguration ceremony of FERN with Neuilly-sur-Seine Mayor Jean-Christophe Fromantin.

The choice of Pilapil and her sculpture by the Philippine government for this historic installation is primarily based on the symbolism of FERN and that the sculptor is a woman, evidence of gender mainstreaming in Philippine art. FERN, in the words of the artist, "becomes my voice in resonating with the magnificence of nature." FERN reminds everyone that if politics used art to communicate values, this particular art piece will remind everyone to protect the environment and respect the only planet we have.

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Impy Pilapil’s Statement on FERN

Life is in perpetual flux. 
It surrounds us no matter where we are and envelops us in its embrace. It is ever present even in this urban world that we have battered and shaped to conform to our whims. In the midst of this incessant din, nature never ceases to remind us of its presence. However, in this era of constant and instant information, it is still taken for granted. What we have built over generations can be toppled in mere seconds by a natural disaster. Volcanoes spewing molten rock and ash have wiped out civilizations. Yet, the very soil from the aftermath of these eruptions is also the most fertile on Earth that in turn, helps nature rebuild anew. We, as an integral part of this ever-changing planet, are not just weary passengers on a rock hurtling through space. We are the stewards of this world, and what we do in our lifetimes affects everyone and everything that comes after us. The responsibility to care for living things in any way, shape, or form falls on our proverbial shoulders. As an artist mindful of our environment, Art is the medium that becomes my voice in resonating with the magnificence of nature. The unfurling frond of FERN signifies new life beginning. Using steel underlines how mankind can conscientiously use technology to emulate nature, and exist alongside it in symbiosis. The color white imbues the pure and pristine innocence of new beings coming into existence -- a parallel to choices we make in revitalizing our lifestyles to ensure a brighter tomorrow. Through this sculpture, I aim to invoke contemplation and willful awareness for environmental preservation that I hope would develop between people from different walks of life. This goal is a difficult one that requires a greater collective effort. FERN brings to light the force of nature that is LIFE—projecting a presence that will kindle a definite attitude to cooperatively come together for a more sustainable and harmonious future on earth.

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Figure 230. Filipina sculptor Impy Pilapil (left) at her atelier.

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As both France and the Philippines are leading voices on the issue of climate change, this sculpture holds particular significance as it is a testament to the commitment of the two countries in preserving the environment. The choice of installing the sculpture in a park that is open to all and especially to children, gives the location a symbolic aspect.

Figure 231. Members of the diplomatic community join Ambassador Lazaro and Mayor Fromantin for the formal launching of the FERN sculpture.

The installation of the sculpture affirms that art is indeed universal, illustrating the vibrant exchange of cultures, transmission of universal values of truth, naturalness, authenticity, respect, and spontaneity in relations among peoples and nations.

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IX

PHILIPPINE-FRENCH COOPERATION IN PREHISTORIC ARCHAEOLOGY by Omar Choa, PhD Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, France

Southwestern Philippines: The Tabon Caves Complex

L

ocated on the southwestern coast of Palawan, the Tabon Caves Complex is a vast network of over 200 caves and rockshelters that honeycomb the majestic limestone formations of Lipuun Point (Figure 232). The complex is extremely rich in archaeological remains that span 40,000 years of human presence in the region. The most significant of these remains are the Late Pleistocene human bones discovered in the eponymous centerpiece site of the complex, Tabon Cave (Figure 233).61 They currently constitute the oldest fossils that are confirmed to belong to our own species, Homo sapiens, in the entire Philippine archipelago. Tabon Cave has concentrated and symbolized PhilippineFrench collaboration in prehistoric archaeology over the past thirty years. This collaboration is embodied by the fruitful partnership built and nurtured by Dr. Eusebio Dizon of the Philippines and Prof. François  Sémah of France, mainly across three institutions: the National Museum of the Philippines, the University of the Philippines-Diliman, and the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle (the French National Museum of Natural History). Although the partnership initially centered around scientific research, notably the study of the Tabon fossils by Dr. Florent Détroit and Dr. Christophe Falguères,62 it eventually blossomed to develop multiple dimensions. With support from the French government, students, researchers, and professors crossed the Eurasian continent in both directions as part of academic exchanges. Meanwhile, European funding enabled the organization of events that brought together international participants and members of local communities to learn prehistoric archaeology and heritage management hands-on. The 356

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Figure 232. The towering limestone cliffs of Lipuun Point, draped in luxuriant tropical vegetation and circumscribed by pristine coastal landscapes. (Photo / Yōsuke Kaifu)

Figure 233. The Tabon Cave frontal bone, dated to 16,500 ± 2,000 years ago. (Photo / Florent Détroit) 357

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partnership gave birth to two major international projects: HOPsea (Human Origins Patrimony in Southeast Asia),63 and PREHsea (Managing Prehistoric Heritage in Southeast Asia).64 Both projects covered a wealth of activities, including conferences, field trips and field schools, master’s modules, workshops and training, intensive programs, public exhibitions, and scientific publications, including master’s and PhD theses.

Northern Philippines: Callao Cave and Kalinga French scientists are also involved in exciting research projects at Cagayan Valley in northern Luzon, on the northern fringes of the Philippine archipelago. At Callao Cave in Peñablanca, a team led by Dr. Armand Salvador Mijares of the University of the Philippines-Diliman discovered a metatarsal (a foot bone) that dates to 67,000 years ago.65 Palaeo anthropological analysis of the fossil was notably performed by Dr. Florent Détroit of the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, who also worked at Tabon Cave. The team identified the fossil as belonging to the human genus, Homo. However, it remains unclear as to whether it also belongs to our species, Homo sapiens, due to remarkable similarities with other human species like Homo habilis and Homo floresiensis. In any case, the find is currently the oldest known human fossil in the Philippines and is among the most significant in Island Southeast Asia. At the open-air site of Kalinga in nearby Rizal, Dr. Thomas Ingicco of the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle and his team uncovered a set of stone tools, a near-complete skeleton of Rhinoceros philippinensis bearing evidence of butchery, and a host of other animal remains, all dating to around 700,000 years ago. These revolutionary findings were recently published in the prestigious scientific journal Nature,66 a recognition of their significance for Southeast Asian and world prehistory. They not only push back the earliest known human occupation of the Philippine archipelago by several hundreds of thousands of years (by an as-yet undetermined species!), but also reveal how the roots of maritime navigation in the region stretch way back to pre-modern humans. Dr. Ingicco’s research project, MARCHE (Archaeological Mission in the Philippines—Origins, Nature, and Diversity of the First Settlements of the Philippines) was funded by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He and the members of his team also received support from various Philippine and French 358

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institutions, including the National Museum of the Philippines, the University of the Philippines-Diliman, the Municipality of Rizal, the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (French National Center for Scientific Research), Sorbonne Universités, the Société des Amis du Musée de l’Homme (Friends of the French Museum of Mankind), the Embassy of France in Manila, and others. The success of these collaborations opens up promising perspectives and paves the way for future cooperation in prehistoric archaeology between the Philippines and France.

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X

UNIVERSITY EXCHANGES BETWEEN FRANCE AND THE PHILIPPINES by Fr. Pierre de Charentenay, SJ Former Loyola Chair at Ateneo de Manila, now living in Marseilles, France

International exchanges consist of many different characteristics: it is

primarily diplomatic, studying and elaborating new relations between countries, alliances and agreements. It is also economic, in order to facilitate new developments and assure the well-being of the nation in its external exchanges. But we often forget the cultural dimension of diplomacy. It is a long-term, less visible action, but in the long run, it is very important, because it creates the requisite environment for economy and diplomacy to promote new relationships. Since it is not directly and immediately useful for the exercise of power, it is often not a priority. In times of budget reductions, cultural diplomacy suffers the deepest cuts, but it would be a big mistake to do so since it is often the way of renewal and creativity in relations between countries. Relations between the Philippines and France include these three dimensions. Although there is a great distance between the two countries located in two different continents and separated by diverse histories and cultures, it is interesting to note how the cultural relations between the Philippines and France has been sustained through university exchanges. This demands a knowledge of the language of Molière for the Filipino who goes to Paris or Lille. Some students usually balk at learning another language, but then they quickly realize how language enriches and facilitates the entrance into a different culture. A whole new world of understanding opens up to them. The purpose has clearly been to offer an alternative to the almost exclusive connection of the Philippines with the Anglophone world and especially, the American universities. It is easier to go back and forth to the US because of the similarity of language, but the connection with France opens up a completely new cultural and intellectual world, that of continental Europe. It has not been organised against universities of America, but with the idea to 360

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introduce an alternative. The purpose was to offer the possibility of studying in another intellectual framework—the French intellectual tradition—a different sense of rationality, a great heritage of intellectual knowledge. The relation to the individual, to history, to theoretical points of views are different. The insistence on reason and rationality sets aside a whole way of feelings and pragmatism. The pedagogical way of learning is also diverse, less pragmatic, more theoretical. Sociological studies will be less quantitative, and more qualitative, sometimes even philosophical. The ethic of truth does not follow the same path. The variety of schools of thought do not correspond to each other exactly, but that creates a new opening for discovery, of intellectual understanding of human relations. The experience of sharing the joy of another culture gives new light to the student about his own way of living, his own values which he thought were universal but are, in fact, particular—linked to Philippine history and culture. He is able to know oneself and his own country better. So, the university exchanges, for instance, from Ateneo de Manila to the Catholic University of Lille or to Sciences Po in Paris, mean more than just learning a language. It gives the opportunity to enter into an intercultural dialogue which will allow new relationships with another nation. It opens oneself to a larger understanding of the world and his own country.

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XI

THE TEACHING OF THE FILIPINO LANGUAGE TO FRENCH NATIONALS by Elisabeth Luquin Head of the Filipino Section CASE67 (Center for Southeast-Asian Studies; CNRS-EHESS-INALCO) INALCO68 (National Institute for Oriental Languages and Cultures)

Anthropologists know how important it is to use one’s own language

as languages are the key for mutual understanding. The Philippines chose one of its 175 Austronesian69 languages as its national language; due to the number of vernacular languages, the process was not easy after the two colonizations—Spanish and American. In 1965, Marina Quirolgico-Pottier created the Filipino language section at the French National Institute for Oriental Languages and Civilizations (INALCO). INALCO offers 54 Bachelor of Arts (BA) degrees in languages such as Arab, Chinese, Hindi, Japanese, and Russian. The faculty of South-East Asian and Pacific languages teaches all indigenous Southeast Asian languages such as Bahasa Indonesia, Burmese, Filipino, Khmer, Laotian, Thai and Vietnamese, south Pacific languages such as Drehu (New-Caledonia) and Tahitian, plus an initiation to local languages such as Cham (Vietnam) or Mon (Peninsular Southeast Asia). There are no other universities in Europe with a BA in Philippine Studies offering a complete curriculum, including language, literature, history, geography, economy and anthropology. The Filipino language is the core BA subject, however an introduction to Cebuano and to Ilocano—the two other main languages of the archipelago—can be taken up by the students. Let’s present the Filipino section through its students and teachers. Every year there are around twenty students. Around ten in the 1 year, four to six in the second year and two to four in the 3rd Year. The students have different purposes in studying Filipino, partly st

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according to their origins: French nationals with Filipino parents (called heritage students at the University of Hawaii at Manoa), French nationals with French and Filipino parents, and students with both French parents. The latter are pursuing social or political sciences studies or business, and want to acquire basic knowledge of Filipino. The heritage students often wish to learn or improve their knowledge of their parents’ language whether those have Filipino-Tagalog as a mother tongue or not. Furthermore, many French nationals married to Filipinos enroll in Filipino classes to better communicate with their spouse and to understand the country’s culture. The section also welcomes ERASMUS70  students from Frankfurt University. Graduating INALCO students can enroll as exchange students with the University of the Philippines in Diliman, from which teachers from the Filipino department are invited to Paris. Four teachers compose the teaching team for the BA71—one associate professor teaching Filipino grammar,72 literature and anthropology, one Filipino-Tagalog speaker teaching grammar, oral, modern texts, and sentence compositions part-time, and two parttime lecturers for the introduction to Cebuano and Ilocano. The difficulty in learning the Filipino language for the French nationals lies on the topicalisation system of the language that makes it completely different from the French language. The grammatical subject—or topic—is moving in a Filipino sentence. It can either be the actor, the object, the beneficiary of the action, the localization or the instrument. Though English is used by a large number of Filipinos, to communicate in their national language is worthwhile as well. The teaching of three Philippine languages as foreign languages at INALCO is a unique opportunity in France as in Europe.

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XII

SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A COOPERATIVE PLATFORM BETWEEN THE PHILIPPINES AND FRANCE

The Filipinos and the French do not share a common language,

culture, or history, but they share a common humanitarian tradition. For Filipinos, it is seen in bayanihan. For the French, it is seen in their active civil society which has given birth to global foundations such as Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), the founders of the “without borders” movement work. So it was not a surprise that Gawad Kalinga resonated among the French, particularly its youth. Since 2010, Gawad Kalinga has welcomed over 1,500 French interns and volunteers in various Gawad Kalinga communities all over the Philippines. Every year, the number keeps on growing. In 2017, Gawad Kalinga welcomed 275 French interns and volunteers to the Philippines. Established in 2003 by Tony Meloto, Gawad Kalinga's mission is to bring 5 million Filipinos out of poverty by 2024. Gawad Kalinga intends to do this in three phases of seven-year periods: •The first phase (2003 to 2010) focuses on the restoration of the dignity of the marginalized through the construction of Gawad Kalinga villages. As of today, there are around 2,500 villages all over the Philippines and another 500 all over Indonesia, Cambodia and Papua New Guinea. •The second phase (2010 to 2017) focuses on the creation of enterprises for Gawad Kalinga communities through social business incubators, the first of which was the Gawad Kalinga Enchanted Farm in Angat, Bulacan. After the Enchanted Farm, 25 other incubators are expected to be put up in various Gawad Kalinga communities all over the country. •The third phase (2017 to 2024) focuses on the scaling up of small enterprises developed in the incubators. An excellent 364

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Figure 234. French volunteers to the Gawad Kalinga (Olivier Girault-GK Europe)

success story is Bayani Brew, a line of farm fresh tea drinks incubated at the Enchanted Farm. Today Bayani Brew is available at Rustan’s Supermarkets. Now that Gawad Kalinga is in between the second and third phases, the main focus is on social entrepreneurship. Simply put, a social enterprise is one which responds to a social or environmental problem while generating profit. It often targets those at the bottom of the pyramid (BoP), not out of charity, but because it makes perfect business sense to develop solutions and innovations for this large market. The Gawad Kalinga model clearly resonates among the French, particularly millennials who are just starting their careers. Everyday, the Philippine Embassy in Paris receives more and more visa applications for Gawad Kalinga interns and volunteers, all eager to make meaningful change in the lives of others, and consequently, in their own lives. Some of the first Gawad Kalinga volunteers are now back in France, after having volunteered in the Philippines, and they have started putting up their own social enterprises and even incubators 365

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for social enterprises, such as Ticket for Change and MakeSense. Some return to France to finish their studies and then leave again for the Philippines to spend a longer time in Gawad Kalinga. It has reached a point where the Philippines and France are sending almost the same number of students in both directions. According to the French Embassy in Manila, they issue around 250 student visas to Filipinos every year. According to Gawad Kalinga, they welcome around 250 French interns every year. While Filipino students come to France to study business, management, engineering and French as a foreign language, among others, French students go to the Philippines to learn about social entrepreneurship. In February 2018, the School of Entrepreneurial and Experiential Development (SEED) at the Gawad Kalinga (GK) Enchanted Farm welcomed its first batch of French students.

The world is changing and the role of the enterprise is changing with it. Profit, sustainability and social utility are no longer mutually exclusive, and Gawad Kalinga has been a pioneering influence in this field, building bridges between the Philippines and France in the process.

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XIII

TRACING THE HISTORY OF THE FILIPINO DIASPORA IN FRANCE First Wave

In the mid-19th century, many affluent Filipinos went to Europe

to study and do business. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, which shortened the travel time from the Philippines to Europe from two years to just over a month, made the travel to Europe very convenient. Spain was considered as the natural choice destination for these Filipinos since it was not considered a foreign country. However, geographical proximity eventually brought many of the Filipinos based in Spain to France. The first wave of Filipinos in France was composed of intellectuals, artists and businessmen. José Rizal, Juan Luna, the family of the Pardo de Taveras are prime examples of each of these categories. Many of the Filipinos who found their way to Paris came from rich backgrounds and able to afford the high cost of living. Those less affluent would rely on their family and social networks to find suitable lodging and even to borrow money from. Rizal's experience in Paris is one testament to this. For this generation of Filipinos, the benefits of living in France were the knowledge learnt and the principles imbibed—liberty, equality, and fraternity—that eventually influenced the Philippine Revolution. Second Wave During the Philippine Revolution of 1896, many rich Filipino families escaped the ensuing chaos by emigrating to France. There were also those who had family members involved in the revolution and who found their way to France to escape from Spanish persecution.73 The two world wars and the ensuing peace in between also brought Filipinos to France. There were also those who served alongside their 367

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American counterparts and would eventually stay in France. As an example, artist Macario Vitalis (see earlier article) opted to stay in France after WWII. Interregnum Following the independence of the Philippines from the United States in 1946 until the 1970s, Filipinos visited France as part of their tour of Europe or as a stop-over enroute to the United States. They would normally stay for two to five days on average.74 A visa-free agreement signed between the two countries in May 1970 facilitated people-to-people exchanges between the Philippines and France. During this period, Filipinos who lived in France were a handful. They were mainly students, artists, religious people, professionals in the fashion world, and those working for the Embassy, OECD,75 UNESCO76 and their families. Third Wave The 1970s saw a shift in the labor export policy of the Philippine government which gave way to an increased number of Filipino contract workers in the Middle East who worked either as technical (for the men) or as service staff (for the women). Some of these worked for French companies who had operations in Middle East and Africa. When war in Lebanon broke out in 1975, the Iranian Revolution of 1979 transpired, and the Iran-Iraq war of 1980 began, many of the workers working in these countries fled to France together with their employers. France was the nearest country without a visa requirement and where demand for service staff was high. Filipinos entered France as tourists under the visa-free agreement and continued to work for their employers without valid French labor permits. The number of Filipinos in France, many of whom were married women, thus started to increase. The Philippines-France no-visa agreement was abrogated in November 1980 to prevent the entry of "false" tourists and France strictly applied this policy.77 Furthermore, the question of illegal workers took center stage in the French presidential election of 1981 amidst the rising unemployment in France. These two developments inevitably created problems for the burgeoning Filipino community in France. 368

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In 1981, there were about 1,500 Filipinos in France who worked as service staff. A significant improvement in their status came about as a result of the Socialist victory in the presidential elections of May 1981. President François Mitterrand's government proclaimed an amnesty for all foreign workers who arrived in France not later than 31 December 1981. This enabled the illegal workers to legalize their status in the country through the new administration's labor reforms allowing migrants to obtain residence cards and work permits. About 90% of the total number of Filipino workers who qualified under the regulations secured residence cards and labor permits enabling them to remain in the country as registered foreign workers.78 Fourth Wave A great number of the Filipino workers who obtained legal status managed to bring in their family members, relatives and friends. They came in as tourists in the 1980s in spite of the limited validity of their tourist visas and ignored the fact that they could no longer be eligible for integration into the migrant work force of France. This gave rise to the prevalence of Filipinos coming from the same clan, barangay,79 town or province. Armed with only a three-month tourist visa for France or a one-year student visa as a French language student, Filipino workers (some of them with college degrees) continued to come to France in the hope of finding employment. However, they ended up as undocumented workers employed, in most cases, by foreign residents and well-to-do French families. This emigration flow has continued well into the first two decades of the 21st century and there seems to be no let-up. France remains attractive to Filipino economic migrants because of its socialist policies where wages are much higher than those received by Filipino overseas workers in the Middle East and the rights of migrants are protected even if they are undocumented. The charm of living in France, especially in Paris, also adds to the allure of working in France. From a peak of about 60,000 in 2006, there are now about 25,000 Filipinos in France. The creation of the Schengen area, a borderless Europe in 1995, has facilitated the movement between European countries of Filipinos looking for work. This has made keeping an accurate number of Filipinos in France very difficult.

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Currently, the Filipino community in France is very diverse. There are a growing number of students, artists, clergy and the religious, business people, and those working in the IT, fashion and haute couture, law, and accountancy sectors. However, a great majority of the community is still undocumented and mostly employed in the personal services sector (household workers, cooks, babysitters, drivers, stewards) concentrated in the cities of Paris, Nice, and Marseilles. From one or two associations in the 1970s,80 there are now over a hundred varied Filipino organizations in France categorized into: church-related, socio-cultural, sports, provincial, and businessoriented groups. In Paris, the Comité Général des Associations Philippines en France, serves as an umbrella organization. Filipino Students in France France is now a favored destination for a growing number of Filipino students. No longer saddled by language barriers, Filipino universities send their groups of students on exchange programs. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) sends its teachers for masteral and doctoral studies and research. A century later, France continues to beacon the Filipino youth. The Second and Third Generation With almost half a century in France, the community has now produced its second and third generation. These are Filipinos born in France of either purely Filipino parentage or interspersed with other nationalities. It is this group of young people who are now making their mark. Some have become athletes, lawyers, accountants, and IT practitioners. Some are taking advantage of the excellent educational system of France and are studying for higher degrees. While their numbers are still comparatively low, it is this group that holds the key to the future of the Filipino community in France. Filipinos as Part of the French Migrant Community The Filipino community is just a small part of the larger French migrant population composed of communities from former French colonies in Africa and Southeast Asia. It is also a relatively "young" 370

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community compared with the other Southeast Asian communities and thus has not yet grown to the point that it can penetrate French officialdom. However, the Filipino community can pride itself that the Filipinos are well-respected because of their good work ethics, religious affiliation, work competence, and ability. It is a matter of time when the Filipino-French community will be a great contributor to France as other Filipino communities have done in the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, among others.

CHAPTER NOTES 1 Email dated 2 September 2017 from Savin Yeatman-Eiffel, descendant of Gustave Eiffel.

Ayala at 175.

2

Lachica, Eduardo. "Ayala: The Philippines' Oldest Business House." Makati, Philippines: Filipinas Foundation Inc., 1984, page 72. 3

From the collection of Savin Yeatman-Eiffel.

4

5 Felix Roxas left the Philippines for Europe in 1840 where he spent most parts studying at the Real Academia de Nobles Artes de San Fernando in Madrid. Roxas would return to the Philippines in 1854 to practice architecture. Roxas happened to be an uncle of Zobel through marriage.

Mundo ni Maestro Escolta quoted in http://bluprint.onemega.com/mundo-nimaestro-escolta/ Retrieved on 25 July 2018. Many attribute the San Sebastian Church as Gustave Eiffel's work. However, this has been disputed by Filipino historian Ambeth Ocampo. 6

Savin Yeatman-Eiffel, op cit.

7

Espasyo-Journal of Philippine Architecture and Allied Arts, page 3.

8

Savin Yeatman-Eiffel, op cit.

9

10 11

Including the Ayala Bridge (1890).

Lachica, loc. cit.

12 Paris hosted the World Expositions in 1855, 1867, 1878, 1889, 1900, and 1937. An exposition normally lasts for six months.

Paris hosted the International Colonial Exposition in 1931. Marseilles, a city in the south of France, hosted the first and second International Colonial Exposition in 1906, and again in 1922. 13

Some of the exhibitors given awards were: in 1867, the Bronze awards were given to Isidro de Lara from Tayabas for his Palm Oil, Guichars from Manila for unrefined sugar, José Martinez of Pampanga for raw sugar. In 1878, Regino Garcia of Manila won the Gold Prize for his exhibition of 120 classes of palay (rice). 14

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The Salon was originally organized in 1667. From 1748 to 1890, the Salon was held either annually or biennially. 15

16 In 1889, Cámara de Comercio de Manila won the Gold Prize for its exhibition of cinnamon and cocoa from Zamboanga, coffee from Batangas and La Laguna, crystalline white and matte sugar, plywood from Iloilo, palay from Capiz and Pactoria, rice from Pampanga, Macan Pangansinán and Zambales.

Also known as Ayala & Compaña (Spanish) or Ayala et Cie (French). This company is the precursor of the Ayala Corporation. 17

18 Paz Luna, sister of Trinidad and Felix Pardo de Tavera and wife of Juan Luna, exhibited laces, net, embroidery and trimmings while Dolores (Nellie) Boustead exhibited embroidered piña cloth. 19 The Catalogue général officiel de l'Exposition Universelle Internationale de 1889, page171, lists Tavera's work as bust of Sebastian Eleano and Mlle Thérésa.

Ibid., page. 166, lists Hidalgo's work as L'Enfer du Dante.

20

Entries regarding the Philippine participation to the various Paris expositions are from Ana Belén Lasheras Peña's España en París. La Imagen Nacional en las Exposiciones Universales, 1855-1900. Santander: Universidad de Cantabria, 2009. 21

Other Filipino painters who exhibited at the Salon de Paris were Felipe Roxas in 1866 for the works Le Soir and Paysage; Rafael Enriquez in 1880 for a portrait of a lady in a black satin dress; and Felix Pardo de Tavera in 1930 for the works La Gemma—a bas relief made of black marble and La Sainte Face made of glass paste. In 1891 and 1892, Juan Luna exhibited at the Salon de la Société nationale des BeauxArts [Paris]. 22

23

Salon de 1889 Catalogue illustré, Peinture & Sculpture, pages 36 and 59.

24 In Juan Luna's letter to Rizal dated 8 August 1891, he said that he had "become a member of La Sociéte des Beaux-Arts, an appointment which I did not expect and which gives me the advantage of exhibiting as many as ten pictures at the Champ de Mars, without going through the jury, which is very strict in admission." Rizal's Correspondence with Fellow Reformists (1882-1896) Vol. II Book III, page 575. 25 Rizal's letter to his family dated 16 May 1889 in Pakikipagsulatan Ni Rizal Sa Kanyang mga Kasambahay (1879-1896) [Rizal's Correspondences with his Family Members], Vol. II, pages 371-372. English translation used for the research by Aileen Mendiola-Rau.

Rizal's classmate in Ateneo, Filipino revolutionary.

26

Rizal's letter to Fernando Canon dated 2 May 1889 in Rizal's Correspondence with Fellow Reformists (1882-1896) Vol. II Book III, page 328. 27

28 While Felix Pardo de Tavera is also a doctor, it is not likely that Rizal would exhibit a bust of him. Trinidad is the likely choice because he is better known of the two brothers and Felix also exhibited plaster busts at the Salon. 29 30 April 1889 letter to Mariano Ponce in Rizal's Correspondence with Fellow Reformists, page 326.

Rizal's letter to his family dated 16 May 1889, loc.cit.

30

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Rizal's letter to his family dated 21 September 1889, op.cit., pages 377-380.

31

Le Petit Journal, "Le Pavillon des Iles Philippines   : chef-d'œuvre d'évocation," 25 August 1931, page 5.

32

Fabián de la Rosa was given a scholarship to study at the Académie Julien, a private art school for painting and sculpture in Paris. He was most likely in Paris between 1908 and 1910.

33

Julian Felipe was born on 28 January 1861 in Cavite. He was a patriot who joined the Philippine Revolution in 1896 which led to his imprisonment at Fort Santiago together with the “13 Martyrs of Cavite”. The 13 Martyrs were eventually executed but Felipe was released on 2 June 1897.

34

The composition was played on the piano by Julian Felipe. Aside from Aguinaldo, the others present on that day were General Mariano Trias, Baldomero Aguinaldo, and other revolutionary leaders.

35

Katipunan is a society founded in 1892 to fight against the abuses of the Spaniards and to secure independence from Spain. The Magdalo is the faction of Emilio Aguinaldo while Andres Bonifacio headed the Magdiwang faction.

36

Lupang Hinirang is supposedly the second national anthem. The first one was the “Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan” which was commissioned by Andres Bonifacio in 1897. This hymn was composed by Julio Nakpil. Because Aguinaldo’s faction in the Katipunan won over Bonifacio’s, it was Julian Felipe’s hymn that was played on 12 June 1898.

37

Marcela Agoncillo, is the wife of Felipe Agoncillo who was Aguinaldo’s envoy to France during the period of the negotiations of the Treaty of Paris. Lorenza is her daughter while Josefina Herbosa de Natividad is the niece of José Rizal.

38

The first movement of Julian Felipe’s composition is being attributed to the Marcha Real, the Spanish national anthem. For the second movement, influences of Giuseppe Verdi’s Triumphal March from Aida could be heard.

39

The Malolos Banquet Dinner Menu Card was obtained by Museum de Oro through a donation to the late FR. Francisco R. Demetrio, S.J., the director of the Museo de Oro, by the heirs of Don Vicente Elio y Sanchez. Dr. Elio was a schoolmate of Dr. José Rizal at the Ateneo de Manila and had been invited to attend the Malolos Convention in 1898. Dr. Elio's collection included his copy of the dinner menu along with his paintings and writings.

40

According to renowned culinary historian Felice Sta. Maria. http://malacanang. gov.ph/7833-cuisine-and-the-ratification-of-independence/

41

Mr. Christian Jeffroy is the incumbent Mayor of Plestin-les-Grèves and Ms. Jeanne Eliet is the President of the Municipal Cultural Office of Plestinles-Grèves.

42

http://parispe.dfa.gov.ph/newsroom/embassy-updates/145-secretary-del-rosariovisits-philippine-exhibition-in-paris

43

“Philippines, archipel des échanges (The Philippines, Archipelago of Exchanges)”. (n.d). Tribal Art Magazine (Special Issue #4), Belgium: Primedia sprl, p. 7.

44

Musée du Quai Branly President Stéphane Martin and the then National Museum of the Philippines Director Corazon Alvina.

45

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46 https://ph.ambafrance.org/Official-Visit-of-Prime-Minister-Jean-Marc-Ayrault-tothe-Philippines-October. 47 http://parispe.dfa.gov.ph/newsroom/embassy-updates/145-secretary-del-rosariovisits-philippine-exhibition-in-paris 48 Afable, P. O., Monbrison, C. D., & Alvina, C. S. (2013). Philippines: An archipelago of exchange. Arles: Actes sud, Preface. 49 http://parispe.dfa.gov.ph/newsroom/embassy-updates/145-secretary-delrosario-visits-philippine-exhibition-in-paris 50 Afable, P. O., Monbrison, C. D., & Alvina, C. S., loc. cit., Acknowledgements page. 51 http://ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/in-focus/philippine-exhibition-opensat-quai-branly-museum-in-paris/ 52 The Musée du Quai Branly had a number of academic and cultural events that revolved around the exhibition that ranged from an international symposium and a roundtable discussion, to musical performances, film screenings and various types of guided tours and workshops for different audiences. From Primedia sprl, Belgium; Special Issue #4 Tribal Art Magazine “Philippines, archipel des échanges (The Philippines, Archipelago of Exchanges)”, p. 53-54. 53 “Philippines, archipel des échanges (The Philippines: Archipelago of Exchanges), op.cit, p. 14-15. 54 http://parispe.dfa.gov.ph/newsroom/embassy-updates/183-philippinesarchipel-des-echanges

Afable, P. O., Monbrison, C. D., & Alvina, C. S., loc. cit., Preface

55

Ibid.

56

57 “Philippines, archipel des échanges (The Philippines: Archipelago of Exchanges), loc. cit., p. 13.

Ibid., p. 14.

58

59 Afable, P. O., Monbrison, C. D., & Alvina, C. S., loc. cit., Acknowledgements page.

Ibid.

60

Détroit, F., Dizon, E., Falguères, C., Hameau, S., Ronquillo, W., Sémah, F., 2004. Upper Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Tabon Cave (Palawan, Philippines): description and dating of new discoveries. Comptes Rendus Palevol 3, pp. 705–712. 61

Dizon, E., Détroit, F., Sémah, F., Falguères, C., Hameau, S., Ronquillo, W., Cabanis, E., 2002. Notes on the morphology and age of the Tabon Cave fossil Homo sapiens. Current Anthropology 43, pp. 660–666. 62

http://hopsea.mnhn.fr/

63

http://www.prehsea.eu/

64

Mijares, A.S.B., Détroit, F., Piper, P., Grün, R., Bellwood, P., Aubert, M.,

65

374

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Champion, G.,Cuevas, N., de Leon, A., Dizon, E., 2010. New evidence for a 67,000-year-old human presence at Callao Cave, Luzon, Philippines. Journal of Human Evolution 59, pp. 123–132. Ingicco, T., van den Bergh, G.D., Jago-on, C., Bahain, J.-J., Chacón, M.G., Amano, N., Forestier, H., King, C., Manalo, K., Nomade, S., Pereira, A., Reyes, M.C., Sémah, A.-M., Shao, Q., Voinchet, P., Falguères, C., Albers, P.C.H., Lising, M., Lyras, G., Yurnaldi, D., Rochette, P., Bautista, A., de Vos, J., 2018. Earliest known hominin activity in the Philippines by 709 thousand years ago. Nature 557, pp. 233–237. 66

67 In French Centre Asie du Sud-Est and in Filipino Centro ng Timog-Silangang Asya.

In French Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales and in Filipino Pambansang Surian ng mga Wika at Kabihasnang Silanganin. 68

69 The Austronesian languages compose the largest linguistic family. They are spoken from the Easter island to Madagascar passing through Polynesia, Melanesia and the northern coast of Papua New-Guinea, Micronesia, the archipelago of the Philippines and Indonesia.

European Region Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students.

70

Inalco offers also specific diplomas and a non-graduating status.

71

Most of the grammar teaching method and materials are based on the works of retired Pr. Teresita Ramos and Schachter & Otanes. I am currently writing a Filipino manual in French. 72

The family of Francisco L. Roxas, was one such example. Francisco Roxas was an adviser to the administration of Governor-General Ramon Blanco y Erenas. Nevertheless, he was one of the first to be arrested when the Philippine Revolution broke out in August 1896. Felix Roxas, The World of Felix Roxas  Anecdotes and Reminiscences of a Manila Newspaper Columnist. Filipiniana Book Guild, 1970. Page 120. 73

74

Philippine Embassy Annual Report 1963.

75 From 1970 to date, there were 15 Filipinos employed at OECD in various positions. Of the 15, 12 of them were women. Email of Mr. Nadav Shental to the Philippine Embassy dated 25 July 2018. 76 From 1960 to 2018, UNESCO has employed 84 Filipino staff members. 42 of them were assigned at the headquarters and 42 in the field. Of the 42 staff members appointed at the headquarters in Paris, 28 were women and 17 of which were at the Director and International professional level. Broken down by years: from 1960- 1979, there were 38 Filipinos in Unesco; 1980-1999, there were 31; 2000-July 2018, there are 15 Filipinos. Letter of Annick Grisar to the Philippine Embassy dated July 2018. 77

Philippine Embassy Annual Report for 1980, page. 17-18.

78

Philippine Embassy Annual Report for 1981.

79

A barangay is the smallest administrative region in the Philippines.

80

Kasandiwa and Sandigan. 375

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EPILOGUE

376

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE FUTURE

The past 70 years of bilateral relations between the Philippines

and France transpired in an era characterized by significant global historical changes. The end of World War II saw the rise of multilateral systems and institutions such as the United Nations as well as regional groupings such as the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the European Union. This period also bore witness to rapid and groundbreaking scientific and technological advances. It also ushered in the rise of Asia as an important political and economic region to reckon with. The diversity between the Philippines and France appears to be wide but the past 70 years of bilateral relations have gradually narrowed the gap. There have also been a number of earlier historical ties that have reinforced bilateral relations. The reciprocal summit visits in the Philippines and France in 2014 and 2015 have generated momentum with various bilateral agreements signed and mechanisms instituted which have served to invigorate bilateral relations even further. However, there is still a lot of room to foster greater understanding with each other to nurture and build a partnership for the future. The manifold challenges of the next 70 years are what both countries need to consider in charting a roadmap that could bring bilateral relations to an even higher plane. On the domestic front, the Philippines and France are both faced with the demands of improving their economies, social services, increasing employment, and strengthening social cohesion, among others. Globally, the 377

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challenges of climate change, extremism and terrorism, and the adherence to international law continue to impact on their respective national discourses. On a political level, the convening of the bilateral political consultation in December 2017 in Manila is an initial, singular excellent indication that joint cooperation is moving on various fronts. The Philippines is a developing country in a resurgent Asia, pursuing an independent foreign policy. On the other hand, France is a developed country in Europe, which is a global political and economic power. Both countries operate under shared ideals of freedom and democracy. With the Philippines being one of the more vibrant democracies in Asia, the Philippines and France can forge and deepen cooperation in areas of mutual interest and common challenges particularly on the principles of multilateralism such as the fight against terrorism and its growing presence in cyberspace, and promoting environmental protection and sustainable development and migration among others. Economically, the Philippines, with its consistently high growth rates and a growing market of more than 100 million people, has partnered with a number of French infrastructure companies and been host to many other French companies. Looking forward, economic relations between the Philippines and France are expected to benefit from each other's competitive advantages in specific sectors of interest. Economic cooperation has been moving strategically in areas such as aerospace, manufacturing, agribusiness, shared services, design, creative industries, and innovation, among others. Being a center for design, food, aeronautics and technology, France will continue to be a global platform for these Philippine products and services to be featured in the international market. The Philippines, on the other hand, still up to this time, largely untapped by France, will play an important part in its internationalization efforts as France tries to reach out to the Asia Pacific region by banking on its growing supply chain and the expertise of the Philippine workforce. Finally, it is in the area of people-to-people exchanges where cooperation is most dynamic and exciting. In the field of education, there is an increasing number of Filipino students pursuing studies in France because of the competitive advantage on tuition fees, increasing use of the English language as a medium of instruction and as a new center for higher education. There is likewise an increasing 378

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number of French students who have undertaken internships and volunteer projects in the Philippines on social innovation and entrepreneurship, which will undoubtedly bring closer bonds and a better appreciation of the common challenges and opportunities that both countries face and hope to answer. As the new generation of the Philippine diaspora in France continues to thrive, the second and third generation Filipino-French youth will hopefully serve as important bridges to promote a deeper understanding of both our cultures and peoples. Indeed, the prospects for the next 70 years of Philippines-France relations cannot be anything but bright and promising.

379

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LIST OF AGREEMENTS

380

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PHILIPPINES-FRANCE BILATERAL AGREEMENTS TITLE

STATUS

Treaty of Friendship between the Republic of the Philippines and the French Republic

Signed: 26 June 1947, Paris For PH: Elpidio Quirino, Vice President and Secretary of Foreign Affairs For FR: Georges Bidault, Minister of Foreign Affairs

Exchange of Notes constituting an agreement on the reciprocal waiver of visa requirements for holders of diplomatic or special passports of either country visiting the territory of the other

Signed: 8 March 1963 and 24 April 1963, Paris Entry into Force: 1 June 1963

Air Transport Agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines

Signed: 29 October 1968, Paris For PH: Gauttier Bisnar For FR: Augustin Jordan Entry into Force: 30 September 1969

Agreement for the Abolition of Visas of Short Duration between France and the Philippines

Signed: 21 May 1970, Manila Entry into Force: 1 July 1970

Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement modifying the schedule of routes annexed to the Air Transport Agreement between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines

Signed: 26 October 1971 and 17 November 1972, Manila Entry into Force: 17 November 1972

Convention between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income

Signed: 9 January 1976, Kingston For PH: Cesar Virata, Minister of Finance For FR: Jean-Pierre Fourcade, Minister of the Economy Ratified: 26 July 1978 Entry into Force: 24 August 1978

381

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TITLE

STATUS

Agreement for Cooperation in the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the Republic of France

Signed: 11 June 1976, Manila

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the Republic of France for the Promotion of French Investments in the Philippines

Signed: 14 June 1976, Versailles Entry into Force: 14 July 1976

Agreement on Scientific and Technical Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of France

Signed: 18 November 1978, Paris For PH: Carlos P. Romulo, Minister of Foreign Affairs For FR: Louis de Guiringaud, Minister of Foreign Affairs Entry into Force: 14 February 1980

Agreement of Cultural Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the Republic of France

Signed: 18 November 1978, Paris For PH: Carlos P. Romulo, Minister of Foreign Affairs For FR: Louis de Guiringaud, Minister of Foreign Affairs Entry into Force: 14 February 1980

Financial Protocol between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the Republic of France

Signed: 31 October 1979, Paris Entry into Force: 31 October 1979

Agreement on Consolidation of Debts between the Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of France with Annexes

Signed: 4 February 1985, Paris Entry into Force: 4 February 1985

Agreement on Consolidation of Debts between the Republic of the Philippines and France Pursuant to the Agreed Minutes of the Paris Club dated January 22, 1987

Signed: 14 September 1987, Paris Entry into Force: 14 September 1987

Financial Protocol between the Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of France

Signed: 8 April 1988, Manila Entry into Force: 8 April 1988

382

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TITLE

STATUS

Protocol of Grant between the Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of France

Signed: 8 April 1988, Manila Entry into Force: 8 April 1988

Memorandum of Understanding of the First Session of the Philippine-French Joint Commission on Cultural, Scientific and Technical Cooperation

Signed: 14 December 1988, Manila For PH: Federico M. Macaranas, Assistant Secretary for International Cooperation on Science and Technology, Department of Foreign Affairs For FR: S. Le Caruyer de Beauvais, Deputy Director General for Technical, Scientific and Technical Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Memorandum of Understanding on Social Security System between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the Republic of France

Signed: 12 July 1989, Paris Entry into Force: 1 November 1994

Agreement between the Republic of France and the Republic of the Philippines Relating to a Grant of Agricultural Products

Signed: 13 July 1989, Paris Entry into Force: 13 July 1989

Convention on Social Security between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic

Signed: 7 February 1990, Manila For PH: Manuel T. Yan, Acting Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs For FR: Jacques Le Blanc, Ambassador of France to the Philippines Entry into Force: 1 November 1984

Financial Protocol between the Republic of the Philippines and the French Republic

Signed: 9 February 1990, Manila Entry into Force: 9 February 1990

383

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TITLE

STATUS

Financial Protocol between the Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of France

Signed: 12 July 1990 Entry into Force: 21 December 1990

Financial Protocol between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic

Signed: 7 December 1990, Manila Entry into Force: 7 December 1990

Protocol of the Second Joint Commission of Cultural Scientific and Technical Cooperation

Signed: 6 March 1991, Paris Entry into Force: 6 March 1991

Financial Protocol between the Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of France

Signed: 6 September 1991, Paris Entry into Force: 6 September 1991

Agreement on Consolidation of Debts between the Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of France

Signed: 6 September 1991, Paris Entry into Force: 6 September 1991

Financial Protocol for the Purchase of French Goods and Services Related to the Implementation of Project Listed in Annex

Signed: 8 December 1993, Paris Entry into Force: 8 December 1993

Agreement between the Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of France Bearing an Additional Clause on Consolidation of Debts Concluded between the two Governments on September 6, 1991

Signed: 21 December 1993, France Entry into Force: 21 December  1993

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the Republic of France on the Reciprocal Promotion and Protection of Investments

Signed: 13 September 1994, Paris For PH: Rizalino S. Navarro, Secretary of Trade and Industry For FR: Edmond Alphandéry, Minister of the Economy Entry into Force: 13 June 1996

384

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TITLE

STATUS

Financial Protocol between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic

Signed: 13 September 1994, Paris For PH: Roberto De Ocampo, Secretary of Finance For FR: Edmond Alphandéry, Minister of the Economy

Cooperation Agreement between the Metropolitan Manila and the Region of Île-de-France

Signed: 14 September 1994, Paris For PH: Ismael A. Mathay, Jr. For FR: Michel Giraud

Arrangement between the Secretary of National Defense of the Republic of the Philippines and the Minister of Defense of the French Republic related to Defense Cooperation

Signed: 14 September 1994, Paris

Memorandum of Agreement between the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Paris Chamber of Commerce and Industry

Signed: 18 May 1995, Paris For PH: Jose Luis U. Yulo For FR: Hubert Flahault

Protocol to the Tax Convention between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic signed on January 9, 1976

Signed: 26 June 1995, Paris Entry into Force: 31 March 1998

Financial Protocol between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the French Republic

Signed: 18 December 1995, Paris Entry into Force: 18 December 1995

MOU for the establishment of the PH-France Business Council

Signed: 27 June 1996

385

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TITLE

STATUS

Financial Protocol between the Republic of the Philippines and the French Republic

Signed: 15 January 1997, Manila Entry into Force: 15 January 1997

Financial Protocol between the Republic of the Philippines and the French Republic

Signed: 22 January 1998, Manila Entry into Force: 22 January 1998

Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in Labor and Migration between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the Republic of France

Signed: 18 October 2007, Paris For PH: Alberto G. Romulo, Secretary of Foreign Affairs For FR: Brice Hortefeux, Minister of Immigration, National Identity and Co-development

Joint Statement on Filipino Professionals and Student Exchange between the Philippines and France

Signed: 18 October 2007

Memorandum of Agreement for the establishment of a pilot program for the teaching of French in various public schools in Metro Manila

Signed: 28 September 2009

Loan Agreement between Agence française de développement and the Government of the Republic of the Philippines

Signed: 15 February 2010

Protocol Amending the Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income

Signed: 25 November 2011, Makati City

386

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TITLE

STATUS

Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines represented by the National Economic and Development Authority and the Agence française de développment (AFD) on AFD’s Development Cooperation Activities in the Philippines

Signed: 23 May 2012, Manila For PH: Rolando G. Tungpalan, Deputy Director General, NEDA For FR: Grégory Clemente, Director, Asia Department

MOA on a pilot project for a biomass rice straw-burning small power station, between Enertime France, and UPLB and Phil Rice

Signed: 19 October 2012, Manila

Agreement between Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic on the Philippines Exhibition at the Quai Branly Museum

Signed: 19 October 2012, Manila

Memorandum of Agreement to institutionalize the teach of French as a foreign language in 13 secondary schools in the Republic of the Philippines.

Signed: 6 December 2012

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Aeronautical Authorities of the Republic of the Philippines and the Aeronautical Authorities of the French Republic.

Signed : 15 January 2014, Paris

Official Development Assistance (ODA) loan agreement amounting to USD150 million signed between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Agence française de développement (AFD-French Development Agency)

Signed: 16 April 2014

387

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TITLE

STATUS

Film cooperation agreement between the Centre national du cinéma et de l’image animée (France) and the Film Development Council of the Philippines (FDCP)

Signed in 2014, Cannes

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic Relating to Air Services

Signed: 17 September 2014, Paris

Administrative Arrangement between the Chairman of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts of the Republic of the Philippines and the Minister of Culture and Communication of the French Republic on the 2014-2017 Executive Program of the Agreement of Cultural Cooperation between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic

Signed: 17 September 2014, Paris

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Academic Collaboration between Development Academy of the Philippines (DAP), Philippines and École nationale d’administration (ENA), France

Signed: 17 September 2014 For PH: Antonio Kalaw, President of DAP For FR: Nathalie Loiseau, Director of ENA

Memorandum of Understanding on Philippines-France Cooperation in the area of Higher Education and Research

Signed: 26 February 2015, Manila For PH: Albert F. Del Rosario, Secretary of Foreign Affairs For FR: Laurent Fabius, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Government of the French Republic on Tourism Cooperation

Signed: 26 February 2015, Manila For PH: Ramon Jimenez, Jr., Secretary of Tourism For FR: Laurent Fabius, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development 388

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TITLE

STATUS

Joint Declaration on the Enhanced Partnership between the Republic of the Philippines and the French Republic

Signed: 26 February 2015

Memorandum of Understanding between the Bases Conversion and Development Authority (BCDA) and Vivapolis

Signed: 1 December 2015, Paris For PH: Arnel Paciano D. Casanova, Esq., President and CEO, BCDA For FR: Michèle Pappalardo, Sustainable Cities Senior Adviser to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development

Arrangement between the Secretary of National Defense of the Republic of the Philippines and the Minister of Defense of the French Republic related to Defense Cooperation

Signed: 11 May 2016, Manila For PH: Voltaire T. Gazmin, Secretary of National Defense For FR: Thierry Mathou, Ambassador of France to the Philippines

CHED-PhilFrance Scholarship Agreement

Signed: 4 January 2017

389

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

390

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voyage […] [The mission of the Cybèle to the Far-East, 1817-1818, travel journal…], ed. by Pierre de Joinville, Paris, É. Champion, 1914, 248 p. Laplace, Cyril-Pierre-Théodore, Voyage autour du monde par les mers de l’Inde et de la Chine exécuté sur la Corvette de l’État "La Favorite", pendant les années 1830-32 [Travel around the world through India and China seas, made on the State corvette "La Favorite" during the years 1830-32], Paris, Imprimerie Royale, 1833, vol. 1., 558 p. —, Voyage autour du monde par les mers de l’Inde et de la Chine, exécuté sur la corvette de l’État "La Favorite", pendant les années 1830, 1831 et 1832 […] Atlas hydrographique [Travel around the world through India and China seas, on the state corvette "La Favorite", during the years… hydrographic Atlas], Paris, Imprimerie royale, 1833, 4 vol., 11 maps. La Pérouse, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de, Voyage de La Pérouse autour du monde pendant les années 1785, 1786, 1787 et 1788 [Travel of La Pérouse around the world during the years…], Paris, Nouvelle Bibliothèque des Voyages, 1832, 4 vol. Larcher, Capitaine de vaisseau, Projet d’établissement aux Philippines et à la Cochinchine, envoié au Directoire Exécutif [Project for an establishment in the Philippines and Cochinchina sent to the Executive Directory], Paris, 16 Fructidor an V (2 September 1797), in Henri Cordier, Mélanges d’histoire et de géographies orientales [Melanges of Oriental history and geography], vol. III, Paris, Jean Maisonneuve & Fils, 1922, pp. 145-151. Le Gentil de la Galaisière, G., Voyages dans les mers de l’Inde, fait par ordre du Roi à l’occasion du passage de Vénus sur le disque de soleil le 6 juin 1761, & le 3 du même mois 1769 [Travels to the Indian seas, by order of the King, at the occasion of the passage of Venus on the sun disc, on June 6th 1761, & the 3rd of the same month 1769], Paris, Imprimerie Royale, 1781, vol 2, part III, 366 p. Lesseps, Jean-Baptiste Barthélémy de, Journal historique du voyage de M. de Lesseps, consul de France, employé dans l’expédition de M. le comte de La Pérouse en qualité d’interprète du roi […] [Historical Journal of M. de Lesseps, Consul of France, hired for the expedition of the Comte de La Pérouse as the King’s interpreter], Paris, Impr. royale, 1790, 2 vol., 280 & 380 p. Lê, Nicole-Dominique, Les Missions étrangères et la pénétration française au Viêt-Nam [The Missions Étrangères and French penetration into Viêt Nam], Paris, Mouton, 1975, 228 p. Mallat, Jean, Archipel de Solou ou Description des groupes de Bassilan [The Sulu archipelago or description of Basilan Islands], Paris, Pollet, 1843, in-8°, 160 p. —, Les îles Philippines, considérées au point de vue de l’hydrographie et de la linguistique, ou Description des mers, des côtes, des détroits... ; suivie d’un coup d’oeil sur les idiomes de ces îles, d’un recueil de phrases, de dialogues et d’un vocabulaire français, tagalog et bisaya [Philippines islands, considered from the point of view of hydrography and linguistics, or Description of the seas, coasts, straits…; followed by a glance on the idioms of these islands, a collection of sentences, dialogs, and a French, Tagalog and Bisaya vocabulary], Paris, Pollet et Cie , 1843, XII-108-60 p. Manesson Mallet, Alain, Description de l’Univers [Description of the Universe], Paris, 1683, 5 vol. 393

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Mirabeau, Honoré-Gabriel de Riquetti de, « Extrait de la Cédule royale sur la Nouvelle Compagnie des Philippines [Excerpt of the Royal Order on the New Philippines Company] », in De la Banque d’Espagne dite de Saint Charles, Paris, 1785, p. cxiii-clxii Montero y Vidal, José, Historia general de Filipinas desde el descubrimiento de dichas islas hasta nuestras días [General History of the Philippines since the discovery of the Islands until present day], Madrid, M. Tello, vol. III, 1887, 663 p. Officiers de l’État-Major du Général de Division Aubert & Commandant Supérieur des Troupes du Groupe de l’Indochine, Histoire militaire de l’Indochine française des débuts à nos jours (Juillet 1930) [Military History of Indochina, from the beginning to present], Hanoi / Haïphong, Imprimerie d’Extrême-Orient, vol. 1, 1930, 233 p. Olave, Lieutenant Colonel Serafín, Cuestión de Cochinchina, Aclaraciones [Issue of Cochinchina, Explanations], Madrid, 1862, 31 p. Pallu de la Barrière, Léopold, Histoire de l’expédition de Cochinchine en 1861 [History of the expedition to Cochinchina], Paris, Berger-Levrault, 1888, 365 p. Ponchalon, Colonel Henri de, Indo-Chine : souvenirs de voyage et de campagne, 1858- 1860, Tours, Alfred Mame, 1866, 336 p. Proust de La Gironière, Paul, Aventures d’un gentilhomme breton aux îles Philippines [The adventures of a Breton Aristocrat in the Philippines Islands], Paris, 1855, reprint Les Portes du Large, 2001, 278 p. Renouard de Sainte-Croix, Félix, Voyages aux Indes Orientales, aux îles Philippines, à la Chine, avec des notions sur la Cochinchine et le Tonquin, aux années 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806 et 1807 [Travel to the East Indies, Philippines, China, with elements on Cochinchina and Tonkin…], Paris, Clament, 1810, vol. 2, 387 p. Sonnerat, Pierre, Voyage à la Nouvelle Guinée, dans lequel on trouve la description des lieux, des observations physiques et morales, et des détails relatifs à l’histoire naturelle [Travel to New Guinea, in which one finds the description of the places, the physical and moral observations, and the details relating to natural history …], Paris, Ruault, 1776, 206 p. Thévenot, Melchisédech, Relations de divers voyages curieux qui n’ont point esté publiées ou qui ont esté traduites d’Hacluyt, de Purchas… [Relation of various surprising travels that have not yet been published or that were translated from Hacluyt, Purchas...], Paris, Sébastien Cramoisy & Sébastien Mabre-Cramoisy, 1664, vol. II. Thorel de La Trouplinière, Chevalier, Voyages et campagnes dans les mers de l’Inde et à l’Océan Pacifique à bord des frégates la Canonnière, la Caroline, la Vénus, la Néréide [Travels and campains to the Indian seas and Pacific Ocean, on the frigates ….], Paris, 1822, 24 p. Thuần, Cao Huy, Christianisme et colonialisme au Vietnam, Paris, PhD thesis, Faculty of Law & Political Sciences, 1972, 563 p. Vaillant, Vice-amiral Auguste-Nicolas, Voyage autour du Monde exécuté pendant les 394

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années 1836 et 1837, sur la corvette La Bonite […] Relation du voyage par A. de La Salle…, [Travel around the world made in the years 1836 and 1837, on the corvette La Bonite … Relation of the travel by…], Paris, A. Bertrand, 1845-1852, 3 vol. Vial, Paulin, Les Premières années de la Cochinchine, colonie française [The first years of Cochinchina, French colony], Paris, Challamel Aîné, vol. 1, 1874, 380 p. Yvan, Dr. Melchior, Voyages et récits [Travels and relations], Bruxelles, Meline, Cans & Cie, vol. 1., 1853, 323 p. 4. Other historical works Brebion, A., Dictionnaire de bio-bibliographie générale, ancienne et moderne de l’Indochine française [Dictionary of general bio-bibliography, ancient and modern, of French Indochina], ed. by A. Cabaton, Paris, Société d’éditions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales, 1935, 446 p. Briot, Claude, « J.B.D.N. d’Après de Mannevillette, hydrographe de la Cie des Indes, auteur du Neptune Oriental », 2007, http://www.le-havre-grandsnavigateurs-claudebriot.fr/411049280. Cortada, James W., "Spain and the French Invasion of Cochinchina", Australian Journal of Politics & History No. 20/3, 1974, pp. 335-345. Durand, Guy & Klein, Jean-François, « Une impossible liaison ? Marseille et le commerce à la Chine, 1815-1860 [An impossible linkage, Marseilles and the China trade]  », Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine, No. 57/1, 2010, p. 139- 167. Isorena, Efren B., “Maritime Disasters In Spanish Philippines: The ManilaAcapulco Galleons, 1565–1815”, International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies, vol. 11 No.1, 2015, p. 53-83. Majul, C.A., Muslims in the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, University of the Philippines Press, 1973, 392 p. Nardin, Denis, “La France et les Philippines sous l’Ancien Régime [France and Philippines under the Ancient regime]”, Revue française d’histoire d’outre-mer, 1976, vol. LXIII/230, p. 5-43. —, “Un Français aux Philippines : La Gironière [A Frenchman in the Philippines :…]”, Archipel No. 14, 1977, p. 15-18. —, “Les Français à Basilan, un projet de colonisation avorté [The French in Basilan, a failed project of colonization]”, Archipel No. 15, 1978, p. 29-40. Poussou, Jean-Pierre, Bonnichon, Philippe & Huetz de Lemps, Xavier, Espaces coloniaux et espaces maritimes au XVIIIe siècle [Colonial and Maritime Spaces in the 18th century], Paris, SEDES, 1998, 368 p. Prentout, Henri, L’Île de France sous Decaen, 1803-1810 : essai sur la politique coloniale du Premier Empire et la rivalité de la France et de l’Angleterre dans les Indes orientales [The Île de France under Decaen, 1803-1810: essay on the colonial policy of the First 395

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Empire and the competition between France and England in the East Indies], Paris, Hachette, 1901, 688 p. Salmon, Claudine, “La mission de Théodose de Lagrené et les enquêtes sur les textiles d’Insulinde (1844-1846) [Théodose de Lagrené’s Mission and the Inquiries on Insulindian Textiles…]”, Archipel No. 75, 2008, pp. 167-197. Sintes, Luis Alejandre, La guerra de la Cochinchina, cuando los españoles conquistaron Vietnam [The Cochinchina war, when the Spaniards conquered Vietnam], Barcelona, Edhasa, 2006, 510 p. Thomaz, Luis Filipe F.R., “The image of the Archipelago in Portuguese cartography of the 16th and early 17th centuries”, Archipel No. 49, 1995, p. 79-124. —, “Precedents and parallels of the Portuguese cartaz system", in Pius Malekandathil & Jamal Mohammed, eds, The Portuguese, Indian Ocean and European Bridgeheads: Festschrift in Honour of Prof. K.S. Mathew, Lisboa, Fundaçao Oriente & Tellicherry, Institute for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities of Meshar, 2001, p. 6785. Warren, James F., The Sulu Zone, The Dynamics of External Trade, Slavery and Ethnicity in the Transformation of a Southeast Asian Maritime State, Singapore, Singapore University Press, 1981, 390 p.

PART II 1. Writings of José Rizal Antonio de Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas [Events of the Philippines Islands], critical edition by José Rizal, foreword by Ferdinand Blumentritt, Paris, Libreria de Garnier Hermanos, 1890, 474 p. José Rizal, Dos diarios de juventud (1882-1884), Madrid, Ediciones Cultura Hispánica, 1960, 107 p. José Rizal, Diarios y memorias, Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, 339 p. Cartas entre Rizal y Otras Personas [CROP], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, 360 + 21 p. Cartas entre Rizal y los Miembros de la Familia, primera parte, 1876-1887 [CRMF I, 1876-1887], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, p. 1-285 + (notes) 1-55. Cartas entre Rizal y los Miembros de la Familia, segunda parte, 1887-1896 [CRMF II, 1887-1896], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, p. 287-560 & (notes) 56 - 100. Cartas entre Rizal y sus Colegas de la Propaganda, primera parte, 1882-1889 [CRCP I, 1882-1889], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, 17 + 442 p. Cartas entre Rizal y sus Colegas de la Propaganda, segunda parte, 1889-1896 [CRCP II, 1889-1896], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, 873 + 53 p. Cartas entre Rizal y el Profesor Fernando Blumentritt, primera parte, 1886-1888 [CRPFB 396

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I, 1886-1888], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, 306 + 48 p. Cartas entre Rizal y el Profesor Fernando Blumentritt, segunda parte, 1888-1890 [CRPFB II, 1888-1890], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, 306 + 48 p. Cartas entre Rizal y el Profesor Fernando Blumentritt, tercera parte, 1890-1896 [CRPFB III, 1890-1896], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, 873 + 53 p. Mga Talâ sa Paglalakbay Mga Alaala at Iba Pa, 1878-1896, Manila, Pambansang Komisyon ng Ika-Isandaang Taon ni José Rizal, 1961, 420 p. Reminiscences and Travels of José Rizal, Manila, National Historical Institute, 1977, 409 p. Rizal's Correspondence with Fellow Reformists (1882-1896), Manila, National Heroes Commission, 1963, 749 p. 2. Rizal’s biography Craig, Austin, Lineage, Life and Labors of José Rizal, Philippine Patriot, A Study of the Growth of Free Ideas in the Trans-Pacific American Territory, Manila, Philippine Education Company, 1913, 287 p. —, The Story of José Rizal, the Greatest Man of the Brown Race, Manila, Philippine Education Publishing, 1909, reprint Bexley Publications, 2006, 52 p. —, The Filipinos’ Fight for Freedom, True History Of The Filipino People During Their 400 Years' Struggle, Told After the Manner of José Rizal, Manila, Oriental commercial, 1933, 408 p. De Ocampo, Esteban A., Rizal as a bibliophile, Manila, Bibliographical society of the Philippines & UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines, 1960, 56 p. Goujat, Hélène, Réforme ou Révolution  : Le projet national de José Rizal (1861-1896) pour les Philippines, Paris, Connaissances et Savoirs, 2010, 789 p. Retana, W. E., Vida y escritos del Dr. José Rizal, Madrid, Algunas Publicaciones Sobre Filipinas, Librería General de Victoriano Suárez, 1907, 512 p. Reyes, Raquel R., Love, Passion and Patriotism: Sexuality and the Philippine Propaganda Movement, 1882-1892, Singapore, NUS Press, 2008, 304 p. Schumacher, John N., “Rizal and Blumentritt”, Philippine Studies vol. 2, no. 2, 1954, p. 85-101. —, The Making of a Nation: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Filipino Nationalism, Quezon City, Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1991, 269 p. Teodoro, Noel V., “Rizal and the Ilustrados in Spain”, Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, Vol. 8, Nos. 1-2, 1999, p. 65-85. Villanueva, Francisco, Reminiscences of Rizal's Stay In Europe, s.d., ca. 1930, 66 p. 397

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Viola, Maximo, Mis Viajes con el Dr. Rizal [My travels with…], Madrid 1913, reprinted in José Rizal, Diarios y memorias [Diaries and memoirs], Manila, Edición del Centenario, 1961, p. 310-336. 3. French language works on the Philippines during Rizal’s time A. de G., “Un Parisien aux Philippines”, Le Petit Français illustré, journal des écoliers et des écolières [The Illustrated Little French, journal for school boys and girls], September 8, 1900, p. 483-486. Hauser, Henri, “L’œuvre américaine aux Philippines [The American work in the Philippines]”, Revue politique et parlementaire, 11th year, 1904, t. XL, April-MayJune, p. 126-139. Pinto de Guimaraes, Dr. A., “La terreur espagnole aux Philippines [Spanish Terror in the Philippines]”, La Revue des revues, vol. XXVI, 1898, p. 187-202. Plauchut, Edmond, “L'Archipel des Philippines et la piraterie, récit de mœurs et de voyages [The Philippines archipelago and piracy, tales of manners and travels]”, Revue des Deux Mondes, May 1st, 1869, p. 932-964. —, “L'Archipel des Philippines — I. Le climat et les races [The Philippines archipelago — I. Climate and races]”, Revue des Deux Mondes, March 1877, p. 447-464. —, “L'Archipel des Philippines — II. Les mœurs, l’instruction [— II. Manners, education]”, Revue des Deux Mondes, April 1877, p. 893-913. —, “L'Archipel des Philippines —III. L’industrie, le commerce, la situation politique [— III. Industry, trade, political situation]”, Revue des Deux Mondes, June 1877, p. 885-923. —, “L’insurrection des Philippines [Insurgency in the Philippines]”, Cosmopolis, No. 17, May 1897, p. 475-488. —, “Aux Philippines — Première partie ; Deuxième partie ; Troisième et dernière partie”, Bibliothèque universelle et Revue suisse, 104th year, vol. XVI, 1899, p. 5-25; 247-263 & 554-578. Sainte-Croix, Camille de, review of Turot’s book in “Aguinaldo et les Philippines”, Revue franco-allemande, Deutsch-französische Rundschau, Paris, 1901, No. 49, p. 22-27. Turot, Henri, Aguinaldo et les Philippins, les hommes de révolution [Aguinaldo and the Filipinos, men for revolution], Paris, Librairie Léopold Cerf, 1900, 344 p. —,“La guerre aux Philippines [War in Philippines]”, Le Tour du Monde, Journal des voyages et des voyageurs, March 10, 1900, p. 109-120.

398

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4. Masonry Álvarez Lázaro, Pedro F., La masonería, escuela de formación del ciudadano: la educación interna de los masones españoles en el último tercio del siglo XIX [Masonry, school of education to citizenship: the internal education of the Spanish masons in the last third of the 19th century], Madrid, Universidad Pontificia Comillas de Madrid, 2012, 468 p. —, Páginas de historia masónica [Pages on the History of Masonry], Santa Cruz de Tenerife, IDEA, 2006, 444 p. Cuartero Escobés, Susana & Ferrer Benimeli, José Antonio, “José Rizal y la masonería [José Rizal and Masonry]”, El lejano oriente español : Filipinas (siglo XIX). Actas [The Spanish Far East: The Philippines (19th century). Acts], 1997, pp. 599-618. Fajardo, Reynold S., The Brethren: Masons in the Struggle for Philippine Independence, Manila, E.L. Locsin and the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the Philippines, 1998, 259 p. —, Dimasalang: The Masonic Life of Dr. Jose Rizal, Manila, Supreme Council of the Philippines, 1998, 122 p. Ferrer Benimeli, J.A., dir., La masonería en la España del siglo XIX [Masonry in Spain during the 19th century], Valladolid, Junta de Castilla y León, Consejería de Educación y Cultura, 1987, 2 vol., 936 p. Ferrera Cuesta, Carlos, “Segismundo Moret y la conspiración masónica [Segismundo Moret and the masonic conspiracy]”, in J. A. Ferrer Benimeli, ed., La masonería española en la época de Sagasta, XI Symposium Internacional de Historia de la Masonería Española [The Spanish Masonry at the time of Sagasta, 11th International Symposium on the History of the Spanish Masonry], Logroño, 2007, vol. I, pp. 455-470. Guanter, Manuel Adán, “Una logia de filipinos en Madrid, "Solidaridad" n.º 53 (1887-1895) [A Filipino lodge in Madrid, …]”, in J.A. Ferrer Benimeli, dir., La masonería en la España del siglo XIX, Valladolid, Junta de Castilla y León, Consejería de Educación y Cultura, 1987, p. 471-480. Kalaw, Teodoro, Philippine Masonry, its Origin, Development, and Vicissitudes Up to Present Time (1920), an English translation from Spanish by Frederic H. Stevens & Antonio Amechazurra, Manila, McCullough, 1956, 250 p. Ligou, Daniel, ed., Congrès maçonnique international du Centenaire, 1789-1889 [International Masonic congress of the Centenary, 1789-1889], Paris & Genève, Champion & Slatkine, 1989, XXII + 175 p. Ortiz de Andrés, María Asunción, Masonería y democracia en el siglo XIX: el Gran Oriente español y su proyeccion politico-social (1888-1896) [Masonry and democracy in the 19th century: the Spanish Far East and its politico-social projection (1888-1896)], Madrid, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, 1993, 391 p.

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Schumacher, John N., S.J., “Philippine Masonry to 1890”, in Id., The Making of a Nation: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Filipino Nationalism, Quezon City, Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1989, p. 156-167. —, “Filipino Masonry in Madrid, 1889-1896”, Id., The Making of a Nation: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Filipino Nationalism, Quezon City, Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1989, p. 168-177. 5. Other Sources Bædeker, K., Paris et ses Environ - Manuel du Voyageur, Paul Ollendorff, Paris, 1894, 362 p.

PART III 1. 1800-1914 Bensacq-Tixier, Nicole, Histoire des diplomates et consuls français en Chine (1840-1912) [History of French diplomats and consuls in China…], Paris, les Indes Savantes, 2008, 730 p. Camagay, Maria-Luisa, French Consular Dispatches on the Philippine Revolution, Manila, University of the Philippines Press, 1997, 207 p. Cordier, Henri, “La première Légation de France en Chine (1847) [France’s First Legation in China…]”, extract of T'oung Pao, Second Series, Vol. 7, No. 3, Leiden, Brill, 1906, 20 p. —, “La reprise des relations de la France avec l'Annamsous la Restauration”, Mélanges d'histoire et de géographie orientales, vol. 2, Paris, Jean Maisonneuve & fils, 1922, p. 172-210. —, “Le consulat de France à Hué sous la Restauration [France consulate in Hué during the Restoration period]”, Mélanges d'histoire et de géographie orientales, vol. 2, Paris, Jean Maisonneuve & fils, 1922, p. 211-368. —, “La mission Dubois de Jancigny dans l'Extrême-Orient (1841-1846) [Dubois de Jancigny’s mission to the Far East]”, Revue de l'histoire des colonies françaises, 1916, 2nd quarter, p. 9-232 ; reprint in Mélanges d’histoire et de géographie orientales, vol. IV, Paris, Jean Maisonneuve & Fils, 1923, p. 66-265. Crampon, Ernest, report to the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, exerpts in Revue des vins et liqueurs et des produits alimentaires pour l'exportation, January 1886, p. 110-112. Degros, Maurice, “La création des postes diplomatiques et consulaires français de 1815 à 1870, 2e partie [The creation of French diplomatic and consular office from 1815 to 1870, part 2]”, Revue d’histoire diplomatique, No. 1-2, 1988, pp. 2564, 67-175 id. —, “La création des postes diplomatiques et consulaires français de 1815 à 1870, 400

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3e partie [Ibid., part 3]”, Revue d’histoire diplomatique, No. 3-4, 1986, p. 219-273. Gazette des Tribunaux, August 25, 1876, p. 1-2. Guimarães, Angela, Uma relação especial, Macao e as relações luso-chinesas, 1780-1844 [A special relation, Macau and the Portuguese-Chinese relations], Lisbon, Ediçao CIES, 1996, 327 p. Encyclopédie des gens du monde, répertoire universel Paris, Presses Mécaniques de E. Duverger, 1842, vol. XVII/2, p. 462-463. Herbette, Maurice, Une ambassade turque sous le Directoire [A Turkish Embassy under the Directoire], Paris, Librairie Académique Didier Perrin & Cie, 1902, 343 p. Mercier, V. (S.J.), Campagne du "Cassini" dans les mers de Chine, d’après les rapports, lettres et notes du commandant [François ] de Plas, Paris, Retaux-Bray, 1889, 433 p. Ministerio de Ultramar (Ministry of Overseas affairs, Madrid), Archivo Histórico Nacional, Madrid, ES-28079-AHN-UD-178138-ES-28079-AHN-UD-1701963. Muller, Gregor, Colonial Cambodia's 'Bad Frenchmen': The Rise of French Rule and the Life of Thomas Caraman, 1840-87, London, Routledge, 2009, 294 p. Recueil général des lois et des arrêts en matière civile, criminelle, administrative et de droit public, Paris, Bureaux de l’administration du Recueil, 1879, p. 250-252. Revue du notariat et de l'enregistrement, Paris, 1876, p. 768-777. Salles, A., J.-B. Chaigneau et sa famille [J.-B. Chaigneau and his family], Hué, Bulletin des amis du vieux Hué, janvier-mars 1923, 200 p. Santiago, Luciano P.R., “The Heart of Norodom: The State Visit of the King of Cambodia in 1872”, Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, vol. 18, No. 3, 1990, p. 185-200. Sec ktīnīrāshuṅkuṅ, King Norodom’s travel to Kong [i.e. Macao, Hongkong, Manila and Singapore], Khmer manuscript, palm leaves, unpublished, 1872, Paris, Bibliothèque de l’EFEO. 2. 1914-1980 Annotated bibliography on President Manuel A. Roxas (An), http://repository. mainlib.upd.edu.ph /pmarf/download. php?fileid=30. Brands, H. W., Bound to Empire: The United States and the Philippines, Carys, Oxford University Press, 1992, 400 p. Fall, Bernard B., Viet Nam, dernières réflexions sur une guerre [translated from Last Reflexions on a War], Paris, Robert Laffont, 1968, 192 p. Foreign Service Institute, Diplomatic Agenda of Philippine Presidents, 1946-1985, Manila, 1985, 476 p.

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Goscha, Christopher E., Thailand and the Southeast Asian Networks of The Vietnamese Revolution, 1885-1954, Abingdon & Copenhagen, Routledge & NIAS, 1999, 418 p. —, “Alliés tardifs : les apports techniques des déserteurs japonais au Viet-Minh durant les premières années de la guerre franco-vietnamienne [Late allies: technical contributions of Japanese deserters to Vietminh soldiers during the first years of the French-Vietnamese war]”, Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, 2001/2, n° 202-203, p. 81-109. Guéraiche, William, Manuel Quezon, les Philippines de la décolonisation à la démocratisation [Manuel Quezon, Philippines from decolonization to democratization], Paris, Maisonneuve & Larose, 2004, 314 p. —, Philippines contemporaines [Contemporary Philippines], Paris & Bangkok, les Indes Savantes & IRASEC, 2013, 624 p. Hamburger, Kenneth, “Le rôle du ‘bataillon de Corée’ dans la guerre de Corée [The role of the Korea Battalion in the Korean War]”, Revue historique des armées, No. 246, 2007, p. 65-76. Joaquin, Nick, The Aquinos of Tarlac, An Essay on History as Three Generations, Metro Manila, Solar Publishing Corporation, complete and unexpurgated edition, 1986, 365 p. Kerkvliet, Benedict T., The Huk Rebellion. A study of Peasant Revolt in the Philippines, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1977, 305 p. Malay, Armando, “Bolshevism in the colonies: Indochina and the ‘Philippine example’”, Asian Studies, p. 16-36. Ministère des Affaires étrangères & Soutou, Georges-Henri, eds., Documents diplomatiques français [French Diplomatic Documents], 1946, tome I—1er janvier-30  juin, Paris, Commission de publication des documents diplomatiques français & Peter Lang, 2003, 987 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1946, tome II — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 2004, 876 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1947, tome I —1er janvier-30 juin, Id., 2007, 1127  p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1947, tome I — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 2007, 1124 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1947, tome II — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 2009, 1040 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1948, tome I — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 2011, 1010 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1948, tome II — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 2013, 1089 p.

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—, Documents diplomatiques français, 1949, tome I — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 2014, 1050 p. —,  Documents diplomatiques français, 1949, tome II — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 2014, 2014, 736 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1950, 1er janvier-31 décembre, Id., 2015, 1234 p. Ministère des Affaires étrangères & Vaïsse, Maurice, eds., Documents diplomatiques français, 1954, tome I — 1er janvier-30 juin, Paris, 2003, 987 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1955, tome I— 1er janvier-30 juin, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1987, 849 p. Ministère des Affaires étrangères & Duroselle, Jean-Baptiste, Documents diplomatiques français, 1955, tome II — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 1988, 1027p. Ministère des Affaires étrangères &Vaïsse, Maurice, eds., Documents diplomatiques français, 1956, tome I — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 1988, 1109 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1956, tome II — 1er juillet-23 octobre, Id., 1989, 697 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1956, tome III —24 octobre-31 décembre, Id., 1990, 642 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1957, tome I — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 1990, 1008 p. —, Documents diplomatiques français, 1957, tome II — 1er juillet-31 décembre, Id., 1991, 1019 p. Mohamed-Gaillard, Sarah, L'archipel de la puissance : la politique de la France dans le Pacifique Sud [The archipelago of power: France’s policy in the South Pacific], Bruxelles, Peter Lang, 2010, 428 p. Philippines Office of Legal Affairs – Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA-OLA) and the Library Services of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, Philippine Treaties Online — List, http://210.5.104.56/treaty/. “Proclamation No. 184, s. 1950”, Official Gazette, http://www.officialgazette.gov. ph/1950/05/12/proclamation-no-184-s-1950/. Philippine Diary Project, Diary entries from Philippine history (The), http:// philippinediaryproject.com/ Ramsey, Edwin Price & Rivele, Stephen J., Lieutenant Ramsey's War: From Horse Soldier to Guerrilla Commander (Memories of War), Brassey's, 1990, 333 p. Revue de la France Libre, n° 126, June 1960. Roxas, Manuel (President), “Remarks of President Roxas on the occasion of the Presentation by the French Minister to the Philippines, Gaston Willoquet, 403

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of his letter of credence, February 7, 1947”, Official Gazette, http://www. officialgazette. gov.ph /1947/02/07/remarks-of-president-roxas-on-the-occasionof-the-presentation-by-the-french-minister-to-the-philippines-gaston-willoquet-ofhis-letter-of-credence. Steinberg, David J., The Philippines, a Singular and a Plural Place, Boulder, Westview, 1994, 288 p. Vaïsse, Maurice, La Grandeur : Politique étrangère du général de Gaulle (1958-1969) [The Grandeur: the Foreign Policy of général de Gaulle], Paris, Arthème Fayard, 1998, 726 p. Willoquet, Gaston, Histoire des Philippines [History of the Philippines], Paris, Presses Universitaires de France (PuF), coll. « Que sais-je ? », 1961, 128 p. 3. Treaty of Paris De Ocampo, Esteban A., and Alfredo B. Saulo. First Filipino Diplomat: Felipe Agoncillo, 1859-1941, Manila, National Historical Institute, 1994. De Viana, Augusto V. The Development of the Philippine Foreign Service During the Revolutionary Period and the Filipino-American War (1896-1906): A Story of Struggle from the Formation of Diplomatic Contacts to the Philippine Republic. Vol. 2. The Antoninus Journal. A Multidisciplinary Journal of the UST Graduate School. 56 p., February 2016.  http://graduateschool.ust.edu.ph/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/TheAntoninus-Vol2-05AVDeviana.pdf accessed on 30 April 2018. Harper's Pictorial History of the War with Spain, with an introduction by Maj. Gen. Nelson A. Miles, New York, Harper & Bros., 1899. La Croix, Aux Philippines, 16 July 1898 edition. L'Aurore, Les États-Unis et l'Espagne, 1 September 1898, page 2. L'Aurore, Nos Dépêches, 26 October 1898 Le Matin, Le Délégué Philippin, 27 April 1899 page 1. Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Documents diplomatiques, Négociations pour la paix entre l'Espagne et les États-Unis, 1898, Imprimerie Nati. http://archive.org/stream/ documentsdiplom13trgoog/documentsdiplom13trgoog_djvu.txt accessed on 26 April 2018. Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Archives diplomatiques, Papiers d'agents, Jules Cambon 43PAAP37 pages 236-238. Letter of Ambassador Jules Cambon addressed to French Foreign Minister Théophile Delcassé dated 1 July 1898. Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Archives diplomatiques, Papiers d'agents, Jules Cambon 43PAAP37 pages 470-472. Letter from the French Embassy in Washington Mr. Thiébaut to Ambassador Jules Cambon dated 29 November 1898. Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Archives diplomatiques, Papiers d'agents, Jules Cambon 43PAAP37 pages 215-265. Letter of Ambassador Jules Cambon addressed to 404

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French Foreign Minister Théophile Delcassé dated 19 August 1898. Roy, Philippe, Mémoire des rues, Paris 9e Arrondissement, 1900-1940, Parigamme. The San Francisco Call, Insolence of the Philippine Insurgents, 17 October 1898, p. 1. 4. SEATO Brands, H. W., Bound to Empire: The United States and the Philippines, Carys, Oxford University Press, 1992, 400 p. Claudio, Lisandro E., Liberalism and the Postcolony: Thinking the State in 20th-Century Philippines, Singapore, NUS Press, 2017, 248 p. Falk, Richard A., ed., The Vietnam War and International Law, Volume 3: The Widening Context, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1972, 951 p. Foreign Service Institute, Diplomatic Agenda of Philippine Presidents, 1946-1985, Manila, 1985, 476 p. Guéraiche, William, Philippines contemporaines [Contemporary Philippines], Paris & Bangkok, les Indes Savantes & IRASEC, 2013, 624 p. Journoud, Pierre, De Gaulle et le Vietnam, 1945-1969, Paris, Tallandier, 2011, 543 p. Joyaux, François, “La Conférence de Manille, 24-25 Octobre 1966”, Politique étrangère, vol. 31/5, 1966, p. 534-541. Kim, Young Kee, “Report No. 79 from Young Kee Kim to Syngman Rhee”, April 7, 1956, http://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/ document/123259. Kimball, Jeffrey, “The Nixon Doctrine: A Saga of Misunderstanding”, Presidential Studies Quarterly Vol. 36, No. 1, Presidential Doctrines, 2006, pp. 59-74. Lee, Jae-Bong, “US Deployment of Nuclear Weapons in 1950s South Korea & North Korea's Nuclear Development: Toward Denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula”, The Asia-Pacific Journal, Japan Focus , vol. 7/ 8, February 17, 2009, 17 p. Nixon, Richard, "President Nixon's Speech on ‘Vietnamization’”, https://www. nixonlibrary.gov/forkids/speechesforkids/silentmajority/silentmajority_ transcript.pdf Prashad, Vijay, The Darker Nations, a People’s History of the Third World, New York & London, The New Press, 2007, 384 p. Vaïsse, Maurice, La Grandeur  : Politique étrangère du général de Gaulle (1958-1969) [The Grandeur: the Foreign Policy of général de Gaulle], Paris, Arthème Fayard, 1998, 726 p. Vellut, Jean-Luc, The Asian Policy of the Philippines, 1935-1963, Ph.D. dissertation, Canberra, Australian National University, 1964, 392 p.

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PART IV Annual Report of the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Paris, 1962-1963. Annual Report of the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Paris, 1982. Annual Report of the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Paris, 1979. Annual Report of the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Paris, 2007. Annual Report of the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Paris, 2008. Embassy of France in Manila, Official Visit of Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault to the Philippines, October 19 to 21, 2012, https://ph.ambafrance.org/ Official-Visit-of-Prime-Minister-Jean-Marc-Ayrault-to-the-PhilippinesOctober. Retrieved 3 February 2018. Embassy of France in Manila, State Visit of President François Hollande to the Philippines on 26-27 February 2017, https://ph.ambafrance.org/State-Visit-ofFrench-President. Retrieved 3 February 2018. Le Monde, "Je voudrais resserrer les liens entre la France et les Philippines, nous déclare S.E.M. Elpidio Quirino," June 14, 1947. http://www.lemonde. fr/archives/article/1947/06/14/je-voudrais-resserrer-les-liens-entre-la-franceet-les-philippines-nous-declare-s-e-m-elpidio-quirino_1892811_1819218. html?xtmc=quirino&xtcr=85 Retrieved on 30 April 2018. Burial of President John F. Kennedy at Arlington National Cemetery https://www. jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKWHP-ST-C422-87-63.aspx accessed on 28 April 2018. Interview with Mr. François de Bortoli, International Cooperation Senior Director of Airbus, 7 and 8 March 2017. Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Archives diplomatiques, 28-23-4. Report on the Meeting between General Charles de Gaulle and Vice President Emmanuel Pelaez, 8 February 1963. Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Archives diplomatiques, E247-1. Telegram from the French Consulate in Manila Mr. Gaston Willoquet to the Minister of Foreign Affairs dated 29 March 1947 pages 080-081. Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Archives diplomatiques, E247-1. Telegram from the Ministre des Affaires Étrangères Asie-Oceanie to Haussaire Saigon dated 19 May 1947, page 118. Ministère des Affaires étrangères, Archives diplomatiques, E247-1. Report on the official conversation between Mr. Georges BIDAULT and Mr. Elpidio QUIRINO, the Vice President and Secretary of Foreign Affairs of the Philippines on 13 June 1947, pages 147 -149. Philippines Office of Legal Affairs—Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA-OLA) and the Library Services of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, Treaties Online. Presidential Management Staff, “France: A Symbolic Meeting” in Her People’s Emissary, (Office of the President, June 1992), pp. 17-18. 406

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Proclamation No. 184, s. 1950”, Official Gazette, http://www.officialgazette.gov. ph/1950/05/12/proclamation-no-184-s-1950/. Retrieved 30 May 2018. Salvador Lopez, “Diplomat and Nationalist” in Elpidio Quirino The Judgement of History, Manila, President Elpidio Quirino Foundation, 1990. Speech of President Ramos at a dinner hosted by Foreign Minister Alain Juppé of France on President Ramos’ official visit to France, 13 September 1994, http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/1994/09/13/speech-of-president-ramos-at-adinner-hosted-by-foreign-minister-alain-juppe-of-france-on-president-ramos-visitto-france/ William Guéraiche, Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, No. 209 (JanuaryMarch 2003), p. 103-117.

PART V Conference for the Establishment of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. The Frederick Printing Co., Ltd., London, www. unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0011/001176/117626e.pdf Malacanang Presidential Museum and Library https://www.flickr.com/ photos/govph/sets/72157658746879360/with/21136488333/Retrieved on 05 February 2018. Report of the Working Group on the Declaration on Human Rights. Commission on Human Rights Second Session, United Nations Economic and Social Council, www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=E/CN.4/57. The Executive Board of UNESCO. 18th Edition, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2016, Paris, www.unesdoc.unesco.org/ images/0024/002442/244246e.pdf. Various Reports of the Philippine Delegation to UNESCO, 2014-2017.

PART VI 1. On Gustave Eiffel Ayala at 175 from https://issuu.com/accomm/docs/ayala_at_175_mag. Retrieved on 25 July 2018. Britannica. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2018, from https://www.britannica.com/ biography/Gustave-Eiffel Email Correspondence between the Philippine Embassy in Paris and Savin Yeatman-Eiffel, descendant of Gustave Eiffel, August-September 2017. Excerpts from the "Mundo ni Maestro Escolta" http://bluprint.onemega.com/ mundo-ni-maestro-escolta/. Retrieved on 25 July 2018. Filipinas Heritage Library Retrato Collection. 407

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Fonds Gustave Eiffel at the Archives nationales du monde du travail de Roubaix. Fonds Gustave Eiffel at the Musée d'Orsay. Mundo ni Maestro Escolta quoted in http://bluprint.onemega.com/mundo-nimaestro-escolta/ Retrieved on 25 July 2018. Lachica, E. (1984). Ayala: The Philippines' Oldest Business House. Makati, Philippines: Filipinas Foundation Inc. Roxas, F. (1970). The world of Felix Roxas: Anecdotes and Reminiscences of a Manila Newspaper Columnist. Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild. Tomacruz, G. L. (2014-2015). Infrastructures of Colonial Modernity: Public Works in Manila from the late 19th to the early 20th Centuries. ES.PA.SYO, Journal of Philippine Architecture and Allied Arts, 6, 01-25. 2. On Expositions Baschet, Ludovic ed. Salon de 1889, Catalogue illustré, Peinture & Sculpture, Librairie d'Art, Paris, 1889. Exposition Universelle Internationale de 1889, Catalogue général officiel, Tome premier, Groupe I, œuvres d'art, Lille, Imprimerie L. Danel, 1889. Le Petit Journal, "Le Pavillon des Îles Philippines : chef-d'œuvre d'évocation," 25 August 1931, page 5. Pakikipagsulatan Ni Rizal Sa Kanyang mga Kasambahay (1879-1896) [Rizal's Correspondences with his Family Members], Vol. II. Peña, Ana Belén Lasheras. España en París. La imagen nacional en las Exposiciones Universales, 1855-1900, Santander, Universidad de Cantabria, 2009. Plan complet de l'Exposition Paris, 1889, Bernardin-Béchet & Fils, Paris, 1889. Rizal's Correspondence with Fellow Reformists (1882-1896) Vol. II Book III. 3. On the National Anthem Agoncillo, Teodoro A. History of the Filipino People, Quezon City, Garotech Publishing, 1990, 637 p. Halili, Maria Christine. Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc., 2004. 4. On the Malolos Banquet Cuisine, and the Ratification of Independence, Presidential Museum Library, malacanang.gov.ph/7833-cuisine-and-the-ratification-of-independence/. Accessed on 8 August 2018. Palanca, Clinton, The Gullet: Dispatches on Philippine Food, Anvil Publishing, Inc., 2016. Wilcox, Marrion, Harper's History of the War in the Philippines, New York, Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1900. 408

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5. On the Philippine Exhibition Afable, P. O., Monbrison, C. D., & Alvina, C. S. (2013). Philippines: An Archipelago of Exchange. Arles: Actes sud. “Philippines, Archipel des échanges/The Philippines, Archipelago of Exchanges”. (n.d). Tribal Art Magazine (Special Issue #4), Belgium: Primedia sprl. https://ph.ambafrance.org/Official-Visit-of-Prime-Minister-Jean-Marc-Ayrault-tothe-Philippines-October. Accessed on 28 February 2019. http://parispe.dfa.gov.ph/newsroom/embassy-updates/145-secretary-del-rosariovisits-philippine-exhibition-in-paris . Accessed on 28 February 2019. http://ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/in-focus/philippine-exhibition-opensat-quai-branly-museum-in-paris/, Accessed on 28 February 2019. http://parispe.dfa.gov.ph/newsroom/embassy-updates/183-philippines-archipeldes-echanges. Accessed on 28 February 2019. 6. On ArchAeology Détroit, F., Dizon, E., Falguères, C., Hameau, S., Ronquillo, W., Sémah, F., 2004. Upper Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Tabon Cave (Palawan, Philippines): description and dating of new discoveries. Comptes Rendus Palevol 3, pp. 705-712. Dizon, E., Détroit, F., Sémah, F., Falguères, C., Hameau, S., Ronquillo, W., Cabanis, E., 2002. Notes on the morphology and age of the Tabon Cave fossil Homo sapiens. Current Anthropology 43, pp. 660–666. Mijares, A.S.B., Détroit, F., Piper, P., Grün, R., Bellwood, P., Aubert, M., Champion, G., Cuevas, N., de Leon, A., Dizon, E., 2010. New evidence for a 67,000-year-old human presence at Callao Cave, Luzon, Philippines. Journal of Human Evolution 59, pp. 123– 132. 7. On the Filipino Diaspora Annual Report of the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Paris, 1963. Annual Report of the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Paris, 1980. Annual Report of the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Paris, 1981. Annual Report of the Embassy of the Republic of the Philippines in Paris, 2017. Email exchanges between UNESCO and the Philippine Embassy, July 2018. Email exchanges between OECD and the Philippine Embassy, July 2018. Roxas, Felix. '"The World of Felix Roxas: Anecdotes and Reminiscences of a Manila Newspaper Columnist," Manila, Filipiniana Book Guild, 1970. 409

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

410

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The Philippine Embassy would like to thank

for its support in making this book a reality.

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F rance AFNIL Airbus Air France Alstom Ambassade de France aux Philippines et en Micronésie Archives de Nantes Archives de Paris Archives du Ministère de l'Europe et des Affaires Étrangères- La Courneuve Archives Municipales de Saint-Etienne Archives Nationales Archives nationales du monde du travail (Roubaix) Association Génériques Basilique Notre-Dame de Fourvière Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris Bibliothèque nationale de France Christelle Gonzalo Coface Conservation du château de Versailles Direction générale des douanes et droits indirects Direction générale du Trésor Eliane Bidegain Eric Ledoigt Florent Détroit 412

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Grande chancellerie de la Légion d’honneur Institut Georges Pompidou Institut national des langues et civilisations orientales (INALCO) InterContinental Paris Le Grand Jon Hutchinson Lafarge La Maison de Camille La Poste Laurent Cazes Le nouvel Économiste Mairie de Plestin-les-Grèves Mairie de Puteaux Mairie de Neuilly-sur-Seine Missions Étrangères de Paris Musée des civilisations de l'Europe et de la Méditerranée (MUCEM) Musée d'Orsay Musée du Quai Branly-Jacques Chirac Musée Goya - Musée d'art hispanique Office Culturel Municipal de Plestin les Grèves Olivier Girault - GK Europe Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques (OCDE) Photographie Présidence de la République Pierre Chabaud, photographe des services du premier ministre Réunion des Musées Nationaux-Grand Palais

413

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Sanctuaire de Lisieux Savin Yeatman-Eiffel Société de Géographie UNESCO

P hilippines

Ada Ledesma Mabilangan Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas - Money Museum Carlos P. Romulo Foundation Claude Tayag De La Salle University Derrick Villa Emmanuel Pelaez Foundation Erlinda Montillo-Burton, Ph.D. Eufemio Agbayani III Eugene Caole Eugenio Lopez Foundation Inc. Felice Prudente Sta. Maria Filipinas Heritage Library Foreign Service Institute Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) Impy Pilapil Jorge B. Vargas Museum and Filipiniana Research Center

414

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Karen Nina Lacsamana Carrera Lopez Museum and Library Makati Business Club Museo de Oro at Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro Museo nina Marcela Mariño at Felipe Agoncillo National Commission on Culture and the Arts National Historical Commission of the Philippines National Library of the Philippines National Museum of the Philippines Ninoy & Cory Aquino Foundation Office of Representative Imelda R. Marcos Our Lady of Chartres Convent Pardo de Tavera Library and Special Collections of the Rizal Library of the Ateneo de Manila University Philippine Airlines Philippines-France Business Council President Elpidio Quirino Foundation Presidential Broadcast Staff Radio-Television Malacanang Video Library Renato S. Rastrollo Roy Ponce Ruth T. Terania Sr. Flordeliza Deza, SPC STMicroelectronics The Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the Philippines 415

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Wang Regalado Wig Tysman

O ther C ountries

Archivo General Militar de Madrid Biblioteca Nacional de España Bibliotecas Públicas Municipales de España Climate Vulnerable Forum Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) Library Juan Wyns Keystone Pictures USA/ZUMAPress.com Miguel de Cervantes Virtual Library Foundation Museo Naval de Madrid U.S. Library of Congress UN News Centre Yōsuke Kaifu

416

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PROJECT TEAM

417

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Ambassador Ma. Theresa P. Lazaro Minister and Consul General Aileen S. Mendiola-Rau Minister and Consul Jesus Enrique G. Garcia II First Secretary and Consul Christina Gracia D. Rola-McKernan First Secretary and Consul Hans Mohaimin L. Siriban Third Secretary and Vice Consul Rapunzel A. Acop Commercial Attaché FROILAN Emil D. Pamintuan CONTRIBUTORS Professor Marie-Sybille de Vienne Ambassador Christian Lechervy Fr. Pierre de Charentenay, SJ Mr. Anton T. Huang Mayor Christian Jeffroy Ms. Jeanne Eliet Professor Elisabeth Luquin Omar Choa, PhD T E C H N I C A L S U P P O RT T E A M Ms. Maria Katrina S. Bartolo Mr. Henry Bulatao Ms. Laetitia Groszman Ms. Hazel O. Imperial Ms. Eunika Leyva-Tiongco Mr. Mark Michael Vincent L. Marbella Mr. Franz Jedd ALIANDER Ramos Ms. Pisces Joy C. Razon Ms. Anna liza S. Salvador RESEARCH INTERNS

asso

Ms. Johanna Marie Irene Angot Mr. Charles Edward Hull III Ms. Catherine P. Luda Ms. Lizel Roque Ms. Mary S 418

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419

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420

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THE DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PHILIPPINES AND FRANCE DID NOT MERELY BEGIN OVER 70 YEARS AGO.

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