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T A B L E   O F C O N T E N T S Contributors Editor and over-all layout: Angela Natividad Writers: Sara Avillon Bianca Barin Anna Casugbu Redentor de la Rosa Rocky Deleste Marianne Allison Lee Angela Natividad Alec Parafina Kiko Roque Eric Sun Ramon Tambis Jr. Liam Tolentino Macky Villasis Danice Villestas Catherine Yang With the help of Mika Montaño In memory of Fr. Georges de Schrijver Each writer rendered  their own sections

3 In the Beginning: Creation in the Book of Genesis by Macky Villasis 6 Plato's Timaeus by Sara Avillon 8 Plato and the Music of the Spheres by Catherine Yang 12 Aristotle by Liam Tolentino 14 Cosmic Orchestration by Anna Casugbu 16 Copernicus and Heliocentrism by Eric Sun 18 Galileo by Kiko Roque 20 Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler by Bianca Barin 23 Aquinas the Peacekeeper by Alec Parafina  25 Newton by Marianne Lee 28 The Cosmic Explained: The General Theory of Relativity by Danice Villestas 30 The Many Worlds Interpretation by Rocky Deleste 32 What is the Universe Expanding Into? by Redentor de la Rosa 39 1915 and Beyond by Angela Natividad


This second proposition is disfavored by some physicists because it smacks of divine intervention and, more importantly, it leads to complicated questions such as: What is the universe expanding into? Supposedly, the discovery that space and time itself expands or that the universe is finite was one of the breakthroughs of the big bang. This was a discovery of science which shocked the Newtonian conception of infinite universe at the time. Although, in 1917 when Einstein was working on his equations and yielded a solution that predicted an expanding or contracting universe, he introduced the cosmological constant in order to maintain a static and finite universe. It was his contemporary, Fr. Georges Lemaitre, who, perhaps owing to his Christian belief in creation and, thus, on the finiteness of the universe, welcomed the idea of a finite and expanding universe. He “

provided a compelling solution to Einstein’s equations for the case of an expanding universe…. [and] put forward the thesis that the expanding universe must have originated from a “primeval atom” (initial singularity) that “in the beginning” exploded in a }} tremendous display of firework.” Soon, in 1929, Edwin Hubble gave empirical proof for the expansion of the universe leading Einstein to call his cosmological constant “the biggest mistake of my life.” The idea of a finite universe re-introduced the ancient philosophical puzzle wherein Lucretius rebutted Aristotle’s theory of a finite cosmos. He asked: If someone were at the edge of the universe and threw a spear, would the spear reach space beyond the edge? And, from there, one could again throw the spear and so on. This, Lucretius says,



A History of Our Heavens