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Neil Armstrong

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Neil Armstrong Neil Armstrong

USN/NASA Astronaut Status

Retired astronaut

Born

August 5, 1930 Wapakoneta, Ohio, U.S.

Previous occupation

Naval aviator, Test pilot

Time in space

8 days, 14 hours and 12 minutes

Selection

1958 MISS; 1960 Dyna-Soar; 1962 NASA Astronaut Group 2

Missions

Gemini 8, Apollo 11

Mission insignia

Moon landing

Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930 in Wapakoneta, Ohio) is a former American astronaut, test pilot, university professor, and United States Naval Aviator. He is the first person to set foot on the Moon. His first spaceflight was aboard Gemini 8 in 1966, for which he was the command pilot. On this mission, he performed the first manned docking of two spacecraft together with pilot David Scott. Armstrong's second and last spaceflight was as mission commander of the Apollo 11 moon landing mission on July 20, 1969. On this mission, Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar surface and spent 2½ hours exploring while Michael Collins remained in orbit in the Command Module. Armstrong is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was in the United States Navy and saw action in the Korean War. After the war, he served as a test pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) High-Speed Flight Station, now known as the Dryden Flight Research Center, where he flew over 900 flights in a variety of aircraft. As a research pilot, Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100 Super Sabre A and C aircraft, F-101 Voodoo, and the Lockheed F-104A Starfighter. He also flew the Bell X-1B, Bell X-5, North American X-15, F-105 Thunderchief, F-106 Delta Dart, B-47 Stratojet, KC-135 Stratotanker and Paresev. He graduated from Purdue University.


Neil Armstrong

Early years Son of Stephen Koenig Armstrong and Viola Louise Engel, Neil Armstrong was born in Wapakoneta, Ohio.[1] [2] He is of Scots-Irish and German descent. Stephen Armstrong worked for the Ohio government, and the family moved around the state repeatedly for the next 15 years, living in 20 different towns. Armstrong had two siblings, June and Dean. His father's last forced move was to Wapakoneta in 1944. By this time, Armstrong was active in the Boy Scouts and he eventually earned the rank of Eagle Scout. As an adult, he would be recognized by the Boy Scouts of America with their Distinguished Eagle Scout Award and Silver Buffalo Award.[3] In Wapakoneta, he attended Blume High School. In 1947, Armstrong began studying aerospace engineering at Purdue University, where he was a member of Phi Delta Theta[4] and Kappa Kappa Psi[5] . He was only the second person in his family to attend college. He was also accepted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), but the only engineer he knew (who had attended MIT) dissuaded him from attending, telling Armstrong that it was not necessary to go all the way to Cambridge, Massachusetts for a good education.[6] His college tuition was paid for under the Holloway Plan; successful applicants committed to four years of study, followed by three years of service in the United States Navy, then completion of the final two years of the degree. At Purdue, he received average marks in his subjects, with a GPA that rose and fell over the eight semesters. He received a Bachelor of Science degree in aeronautical engineering from Purdue University and a Master of Science degree in aerospace engineering from University of Southern California. He holds honorary doctorates from a number of universities.

Navy service Armstrong's call-up from the Navy arrived on January 26, 1949, and required him to report to Naval Air Station Pensacola for flight training. This lasted almost 18 months, during which time he qualified for carrier landing aboard the USS Cabot and USS Wright. On August 12, 1950, he was informed by letter he was now a fully qualified Naval Aviator.[7] His first assignment was to Fleet Aircraft Service Squadron 7 at NAS San Diego (now known as NAS North Island). Two months later he was assigned to Fighter Squadron 51 (VF-51), an all-jet squadron. He would make his first flight in a jet, a F9F-2B Panther on January 5, 1951. Six months later, he made his first jet carrier landing on the USS Essex. The same week he was promoted from midshipman to ensign. By the end of the month, the Essex had set sail with VF-51 aboard, bound for Korea, where they would act as ground-attack aircraft.[8] He made over 600 flights in a variety of aircraft. Armstrong first saw action in the Korean War on August 29, 1951, as an escort for a photo reconnaissance plane over Songjin. Five days later, he was shot down for the only time. The principal targets for his armed reconnaissance flight were freight yards and a bridge on a narrow valley road south of the village of Majon-ni, west of Wonsan. While making a low bombing run at about 350 mph (560 km/h) in his F9F Panther, Armstrong's plane was hit by anti-aircraft gunfire. The plane took a nose dive, and sliced through a cable strung about 500 ft (150 m) up across the valley by the North Koreans. This sheared off an estimated six feet (2 m) of its right wing.

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Armstrong was able to fly the plane back to friendly territory, but could not land the plane safely due to the loss of the aileron, which left ejection as his only option. He planned to eject over water and await rescue by navy helicopters, so he flew to an airfield near Pohang. Instead of a water rescue, winds forced his ejection seat back over land. Armstrong was picked up by a jeep driven by a roommate from flight school. It is unknown what happened to the wreckage of No. 125122 F9F-2.[9] Over Korea, Armstrong flew 78 missions for a total of 121 hours in the air, most of which was in January 1952. He received the Air Medal for 20 combat missions, a Gold Star for the next 20, and the Korean Service Medal and Engagement Star.[10] Armstrong left the navy on August 23, 1952, and became a Lieutenant, Junior Grade in the United States Naval Reserve. He resigned his commission in the Naval Reserve on October 20, 1960.[11]

A portrait of Armstrong taken November 20, 1956 while he was a test pilot at the NACA High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards Air Force Base, California.

Armstrong returned to Purdue after he separated from the Navy, and his best grades at the university came in the four semesters following his return from Korea. He pledged the Phi Delta Theta fraternity after his return, where he wrote and co-directed their musical as part of the all-student revue. His final GPA was 4.8 out of 6.0.[12] He was also a member of Kappa Kappa Psi National Honorary Band Fraternity. Armstrong graduated with a bachelor's degree in aeronautical engineering in 1955. While at Purdue, he met Janet Elizabeth Shearon, who was majoring in home economics. According to the two there was no real courtship and neither can remember the exact circumstances of their engagement, except that it occurred while Armstrong was working at the NACA's Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. They were married on January 28, 1956 at the Congregational Church in Wilmette, Illinois. When he moved to Edwards Air Force Base, he lived in the bachelor quarters of the base, while Janet lived in the Westwood district of Los Angeles. After one semester, they moved into a house in Antelope Valley. Janet never finished her degree, a fact she regretted later in life.[13] The couple had three children together – Eric, Karen, and Mark.[14] In June 1961, Karen was diagnosed with a malignant tumor of the middle part of her brain stem. X-ray treatment slowed its growth but her health deteriorated to the point where she could no longer walk or talk. Karen died of pneumonia, related to her weakened health, on January 28, 1962.[15]

Test pilot After he graduated from Purdue, Armstrong decided to try to become an experimental, research test pilot. He applied at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics High-Speed Flight Station at Edwards Air Force Base, which had no open positions and forwarded the application to the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. Armstrong began working at Lewis Field in February 1955.[16]


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On his first day at Edwards, Armstrong flew his first assignments, piloting chase planes on drops of experimental aircraft from converted bombers. He also flew the converted bombers, and on one of these missions had his first flight incident at Edwards. Armstrong was in the right-hand seat of a B-29 Superfortress on March 22, 1956, which was to air-drop a Douglas Skyrocket D-558-2. As the right-hand seat pilot, Armstrong was in charge of the payload release, while the left-hand seat commander, Stan Butchart, flew the B-29. As they ascended to 30,000 ft (9 km), the number four engine stopped and the propeller began windmilling in the airstream. Hitting the switch that would stop the propeller spinning, Butchart found the propeller slowed but then started spinning again, this time even faster than the other engines; if it spun too fast, it would fly apart. Their aircraft needed to hold an airspeed of 210 mph (338 km/h) to launch its Skyrocket payload, and the B-29 could not land with the Skyrocket still attached to its belly. Armstrong and Butchart nosed the aircraft down to pick up speed, then launched the Skyrocket. At the very instant of launch, the number four engine propeller disintegrated. Pieces of it careened through part of the number three engine and hit the number two engine. Butchart and Armstrong were forced to shut down the number three engine, due to damage, and the number one engine, due to the torque it created. They made a slow, circling descent from 30000 ft (9000 m) using only the number two engine, and landed safely. Armstrong's first flight in a rocket plane was on August 15, 1957, in the Bell X-1B, to an altitude of 11.4 miles (18.3 km). He broke the nose landing gear when he landed, which had happened on about a dozen previous flights of the aircraft due to the aircraft's design.[17] He first flew the North American X-15 on November 30, 1960, to a top altitude of 48,840 ft (14.9 km) and a top speed of Mach 1.75 (1,150 mph or 1,810 km/h). In November 1960 Armstrong was chosen as part of the pilot consultant group for the X-20 Dyna-Soar, a military space plane. On March 15, 1962 he was named as one of six pilot-engineers who would fly the space plane when it got off the design board.[18] Armstrong

was

involved

in

several

incidents that went down in Edwards folklore and/or were chronicled in the memoirs of colleagues. The first was an X-15 flight on April 20, 1962, when Armstrong was testing a self-adjusting control system. He flew to a height of 207,000 ft (63 km), (the highest he flew before Gemini 8), but he held the aircraft nose up too long during descent, and the X-15 literally bounced off the atmosphere back up to 140,000 ft (43 km). At that altitude, the atmosphere is so thin that Armstrong stands next to the X-15 ship #1 after a aerodynamic surfaces have no effect. He research flight. flew past the landing field at Mach 3 (2,000 mph, or 3,200 km/h) and over 100,000 ft (30.5 km) altitude. He ended up 45 miles (72 km) south of Edwards (legend has that he flew as far as the Rose Bowl). After sufficient descent, he turned back toward the landing area, and barely managed to land without striking Joshua trees at the south end. It was the longest X-15 flight in both time and distance of the


Neil Armstrong ground track.[19] A second incident happened when Armstrong flew for the only time with Chuck Yeager, four days after his X-15 adventure. Flying a T-33 Shooting Star, their job was to test out Smith Ranch Dry Lake for use as an emergency landing site for the X-15. In his autobiography, Yeager wrote that he knew the lake bed was unsuitable for landings after recent rains, but Armstrong insisted on flying out anyway. As they made a Touch-and-Go, the wheels became stuck and they had to wait for rescue. Armstrong tells a different version of events, where Yeager never tried to talk him out of it and they made a first successful landing on the east side of the lake. Then Yeager told him to try again, this time a bit slower. On the second landing they became stuck and according to Armstrong, Yeager was in fits of laughter.[20] Many of the test pilots at Edwards praised Armstrong's engineering ability. Milt Thompson said he was "the most technically capable of the early X-15 pilots." Bruce Peterson said Armstrong "had a mind that absorbed things like a sponge." Those who flew for the Air Force tended to have a different opinion, especially people like Chuck Yeager and Pete Knight who did not have engineering degrees. Knight said that pilot-engineers flew in a way that was "more mechanical than it is flying," and gave this as the reason why some pilot-engineers got into trouble: their flying skills did not come naturally.[21] On May 21, 1962, Armstrong was involved in what Edwards' folklore called the "Nellis Affair." He was sent in an F-104 to inspect Delamar Lake, again for emergency landings. He misjudged his altitude, and also did not realize that the landing gear hadn't fully extended. As he touched down, the landing gear began to retract. Armstrong applied full power to abort the landing, but the ventral fin and landing gear door struck the ground, which damaged the radio and released hydraulic fluid. Without radio communication, Armstrong flew to Nellis Air Force Base, past the control tower, and waggled his tail, the signal for a no-radio approach. The loss of hydraulic fluid caused the tail-hook to release, and upon landing he caught the arresting wire attached to an anchor chain, and careened along the runway dragging chain. Thirty minutes were needed to clear the runway and rig an arresting cable. Meanwhile, Armstrong telephoned Edwards and asked for someone to pick him up. Milt Thompson was sent in a F-104B, the only two-seater available, but a plane Thompson had never flown. With great difficulty, Thompson made it to Nellis, but a strong crosswind caused a hard landing and the left main tire suffered a blowout. The runway was again closed to clear it. Bill Dana was sent to Nellis in a T-33 Shooting Star, but he almost landed long. The Nellis base operations office decided that it would be best to find the three NASA pilots some transport back to Edwards, to avoid any further problems.[22] Armstrong made seven flights in the X-15. He reached a top altitude of 207,500 ft (63.2 km) in the X-15-3, and a top speed of Mach 5.74 (4,000 mph or 6,615 km/h) in the X-15-1, and he left the Dryden Flight Research Center with a total of 2,450 flying hours in more than 50 types of aircraft.

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Astronaut selection and early training There was no defining moment in Armstrong's decision to become an astronaut. In the months after the announcement that applications were being sought for the second group of astronauts, he became more and more excited about the prospect of the Apollo program and the prospect of investigating a new aeronautical environment. Many years later, it was disclosed that Armstrong's astronaut application had arrived about a week past the June 1, 1962 deadline. Dick Day, with whom Armstrong had worked closely at Edwards, worked at the Manned Spacecraft Center, saw the late arrival of the application, and slipped it into the pile before anyone noticed.[23] At Brooks City-Base at the end of June he underwent a medical exam that many of the applicants described as painful and at times seemingly pointless.[24]

Armstrong in an early (pre-Gemini) spacesuit.

Deke Slayton called Armstrong on September 13, 1962 and asked if he was interested in joining the astronaut corps as part of what the press dubbed "the New Nine". Without hesitation, Armstrong said yes. The selections were kept secret until three days later, although newspaper reports had been circulating since the middle of summer that year that he would be selected as the "first civilian astronaut".[25]


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Gemini program Gemini 8

Recovery of the Gemini 8 spacecraft from the western Pacific Ocean.

The crew assignments for Gemini 8 were announced on September 20, 1965, with Armstrong as Command Pilot with Pilot David Scott. Scott was the first member of the third group of astronauts to receive a prime crew assignment. The mission launched March 16, 1966. It was to be the most complex yet, with a rendezvous and docking with the unmanned Agena target vehicle, the second American (and third ever) extra-vehicular activity (EVA) (Armstrong himself dislikes the term "spacewalk") by Scott. In total the mission was planned to last 75 hours and 55 orbits. After the Agena lifted off at 10 a.m. EST, the Titan II carrying Armstrong and Scott ignited at 11:41:02 a.m. EST, putting them into an orbit from where they would chase

the Agena.[26] The rendezvous and first ever docking between two spacecraft was successfully completed after 6.5 hours in orbit. Contact with the crew was intermittent due to the lack of tracking stations covering their entire orbits. Out of contact with the ground, the docked spacecraft began to roll, which Armstrong attempted to correct with the Orbital Attitude and Maneuvering System (OAMS) of the Gemini spacecraft. Following the earlier advice of Mission Control, they undocked, but found that the roll increased dramatically to the point where they were turning about once per second, which meant the problem was in their Gemini's attitude control. Armstrong decided the only course of action was to engage the Reentry Control System (RCS) and turn off the OAMS. Mission rules dictated that once this system was turned on, the spacecraft would have to reenter at the next possible opportunity. It was later thought that damaged wiring made one of the thrusters become stuck on. Throughout the astronaut office, there were a few people, most notably Walter Cunningham, who publicly stated that Armstrong and Scott had ignored the malfunction procedures for such an incident, and that Armstrong could have salvaged the mission if he had turned on only one of the two RCS rings and saved the other for mission objectives. These criticisms were unfounded – no malfunction procedures were written and it was only possible to turn on both RCS rings, not one or the other. Gene Kranz wrote, "the crew reacted as they were trained, and they reacted wrong because we trained them wrong." The mission planners and controllers had failed to realize that when two spacecraft are docked together they must be considered to be one spacecraft.[27] Armstrong himself was depressed and annoyed that the mission had been cut short, which cancelled most mission objectives and robbed Scott of his EVA. Armstrong did not hear the criticism of other astronauts, but he did speculate after the flight that RCS activation might


Neil Armstrong not have been necessary had the Gemini capsule stayed docked to the Agena – the Agena's attitude control system possibly could have been used to regain control. Gemini 11 The last crew assignment for Armstrong during the Gemini program was as backup Command Pilot for Gemini 11, announced two days after the landing of Gemini 8. Having already trained for two flights, Armstrong was quite knowledgeable about the systems and was more in a teaching role for the rookie backup Pilot, William Anders. The launch was on September 12, 1966 with Pete Conrad and Dick Gordon on board. The pair successfully completed the mission objectives, while Armstrong served as CAPCOM. Following the flight, President Lyndon B. Johnson asked Armstrong and his wife to take part in a 24-day goodwill tour of South America. Also on the tour were Dick Gordon, George Low, their wives, and other government officials. They traveled to 11 countries and 14 major cities. Armstrong impressed everyone involved when he greeted dignitaries in their local language. In Brazil he talked about the exploits of the Brazilian-born Alberto Santos-Dumont, regarded in the country as having beaten the Wright brothers with the first flying machine.

Apollo program On January 27, 1967, Armstrong was in Washington, D.C. with Gordon Cooper, Dick Gordon, Jim Lovell and Scott Carpenter for the signing of the United Nations Outer Space Treaty. The astronauts chatted with the assembled dignitaries until 6:45 p.m. Carpenter went to the airport, and the others returned to the Georgetown Inn, where they each found messages to phone the Manned Spacecraft Center. They learned of the deaths of Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee in the Apollo 1 fire during these telephone calls. Armstrong and the group spent the rest of the night drinking scotch and discussing what had happened. [28] On April 5, 1967, the same day the Apollo 1 investigation released its report on the fire, Armstrong assembled with 17 other astronauts for a meeting with Deke Slayton. The first thing Slayton said was, "The guys who are going to fly the first lunar missions are the guys in this room." According to Eugene Cernan, Armstrong showed no reaction to the statement. To Armstrong it came as no surprise — the room was full of veterans of Project Gemini, the only people who could fly the lunar missions. Slayton talked about the planned missions and named Armstrong to the backup crew for Apollo 9, which at that stage was planned to be a high-Earth orbit test of the Lunar Module-Command/Service Module combination. After design and manufacturing delays in the Lunar Module (LM), Apollo 9 and Apollo 8 swapped crews. Based on the normal crew rotation scheme, Armstrong would command Apollo 11. To give the astronauts experience with the way the LM flew, Bell Aircraft built two Lunar Landing Research Vehicles, which were later converted to Lunar Landing Training Vehicles (LLTV). Nicknamed the 'Flying Bedsteads', they simulated the one-sixth g of the Moon by using a turbofan engine to cancel out most of the craft's weight. On May 6, 1968, about 100 feet (30 m) above the ground, Armstrong's controls started to degrade and the LLTV began banking. He ejected safely (later analysis would suggest if he had ejected 0.5 seconds later, his parachute would not have opened in time). His only injury was from biting his tongue. Even though he was nearly killed on one, Armstrong maintains that without the LLRV and

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Neil Armstrong LLTV, the lunar landings would not have been successful as they gave commanders valuable experience in the behavior of lunar landing craft. Apollo 11 After Armstrong served as backup commander for Apollo 8, Slayton offered him the post of commander of Apollo 11 on December 23, 1968, as 8 orbited the Moon. In a meeting that was not made public until the publication of Armstrong's biography in 2005, Slayton told him that although the planned crew was Armstrong as commander, lunar module pilot Buzz Aldrin and command module pilot Michael Collins, he was offering the chance to replace Aldrin with Jim Lovell. After thinking it over for a day, The Apollo 11 crew portrait. Left to right are Armstrong, Michael Armstrong told Slayton he would Collins, and Buzz Aldrin. stick with Aldrin, as he had no difficulty working with him and thought Lovell deserved his own command. Replacing Aldrin with Lovell would have made Lovell the Lunar Module Pilot, unofficially ranked as number three on the crew. Armstrong could not justify placing Lovell, the commander of Gemini 12, in the number 3 position of the crew. Initially, Aldrin thought that he would be first to walk on the Moon, based on the experience of Gemini; during that program, the pilot conducted the EVAs while the command pilot, who had greater responsibilities and less time to train for an EVA, stayed on board. However, when that actual procedure was tried with suited-up astronauts in an Apollo LM mockup, the LM was damaged – in order for Aldrin (LM Pilot) to get out first, he had to climb over Armstrong (commander) to get to the door. A March 1969 meeting between Slayton, George Low, Bob Gilruth, and Chris Kraft determined that Armstrong would be the first person on the Moon, in some part because NASA management saw Armstrong as a person who did not have a large ego. A press conference held on April 14, 1969 gave the design of the LM cabin as the reason for Armstrong being first; the hatch opened inwards and to the right, making it difficult for the lunar module pilot, on the right-hand side, to egress first. Slayton added, "Secondly, just on a pure protocol basis, I figured the commander ought to be the first guy out. . . . I changed it as soon as I found they had the time line that showed that. Bob Gilruth approved my decision."[29] At the time of their meeting, the four men did not know about the hatch issue. The first knowledge of the meeting outside the small group came when Kraft wrote his 2001 autobiography.[30] On July 16, 1969, Armstrong received a crescent moon carved out of Styrofoam from the pad leader, Guenter Wendt, who described it as a key to the Moon. In return, Armstrong

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gave Wendt a ticket for a "space taxi" "good between two planets". Voyage to the Moon During the Apollo 11 launch, Armstrong's heart reached a top rate of 109 beats per minute. He found the first stage to be the loudest — much noisier than the Gemini 8 Titan II launch – and the Apollo CSM was relatively roomy compared to the confinement of the Gemini capsule. This ability to move around was suspected to be the cause of space sickness that had hit members of previous crews, but none of the Apollo 11 crew suffered from it. Armstrong was especially happy, as he had been prone to motion sickness as a child and could experience nausea after doing long periods of aerobatics. The objective of Apollo 11 was to land safely rather than touch down with precision on a particular spot. Three minutes into the lunar descent burn he noted that craters were passing about two seconds too early, which meant the Eagle would likely land beyond the planned landing zone by several miles. As the Eagle's landing radar acquired the surface, several computer error alarms appeared. The first was a code 1202 alarm and even with their extensive training Armstrong or Aldrin were not aware of what this code meant. However, they promptly received word from CAPCOM in Houston that the alarms were not a concern. The 1202 and 1201 alarms were caused by a processing overflow in the lunar module computer. As described by Buzz Aldrin in the documentary In the Shadow of the Moon, the overflow condition was caused by his own counter-checklist choice of leaving the docking radar on during the landing process. Aldrin stated that he did so with the objective of facilitating re-docking with the CM should an abort become necessary, not realizing that it would cause the overflow condition. Armstrong took over manual control of the LM, found an area which to him seemed safe for a landing and touched down on the moon at 20:17:39 UTC on July 20, 1969.[31] Some accounts of the Apollo 11 landing describe the LM's fuel situation as having been dire, with only a few seconds remaining when they touched down. Armstrong had landed the LLTV with less than 15 seconds left on several occasions and he was also confident the LM could survive a straight-down fall from 50 feet (15 m) if needed. Analysis after the mission showed that because of the moon's lower gravity, fuel had sloshed about in the tank more than anticipated, which led to a misleadingly low indication of the remaining propellant; at touchdown there were about 50 seconds of propellant burn time left.

Aldrin took this picture of Armstrong in the cabin after the completion of the EVA.

When a sensor attached to the legs of the still hovering Lunar Module made lunar contact, a panel light inside the LM lit up and Aldrin called out, "Contact light." As the LM settled on the surface Aldrin then said, "Okay. Engine stop," and Armstrong said, "Shutdown." The first words Armstrong intentionally spoke to Mission Control and the world from the lunar surface were, "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed". Aldrin and Armstrong celebrated with a brisk handshake and pat on the back before quickly returning to the checklist of tasks needed to ready the lunar module for liftoff from the Moon should an emergency unfold during the first moments on the lunar surface.[32] [33] [34]


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First Moon walk

Postage stamp commemorating Apollo 11. Armstrong is not honored "by portrayal" in accordance with U.S. Postal Service criteria pertaining to postage stamps not [35] honoring living people.

“

thumbNeil Armstrong describes the lunar surface before setting foot on it.Although the official NASA flight plan called for a crew rest period before extra-vehicular activity, Armstrong requested that the EVA be moved earlier in the evening, Houston time. Once Armstrong and Aldrin were ready to go outside, Eagle was depressurized, the hatch was opened and Armstrong made his way down the ladder first. He placed his left foot on the surface at 2:56 UTC July 21, 1969, then spoke the following words:

That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.

�

It has long been assumed that Armstrong had mistakenly omitted the word "a" from his famous remark ("one small step for a man"), rendering the phrase a contradiction, as man in such use is synonymous with mankind. Armstrong is quoted as saying that he "would hope that history would grant me leeway for dropping the syllable and understand that it was certainly intended, even if it was not said – although it might actually have been." It has since been claimed that acoustic analysis of the recording reveals the presence of the missing "a".[36] A digital audio analysis conducted by Peter Shann Ford, an Australia-based computer programmer, claims that Armstrong did, in fact, say "a man", but the "a" was inaudible due to the limitations of communications technology of the time.[37] [38] [39] Ford and James R. Hansen, Armstrong's authorized biographer, presented these findings to Armstrong and NASA representatives, who conducted their own analysis.[40] The article by Ford, however, is published on Ford's own web site rather than in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, and linguists David Beaver and Mark Liberman at Language Log were skeptical of Ford's claims.[41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] Armstrong has expressed his preference that written quotations include the "a" in parentheses.[47]


Neil Armstrong

Armstrong's first words were declared after he said "I'm going to step off the LM now." He then turned and set his boot on the surface.[48] When Armstrong made his proclamation, Voice of America was rebroadcast live via the BBC and many other stations the world over. The global audience at that moment was estimated at 450 million listeners,[49] out of a then estimated world population of 3.631 billion people.[50] The simple "one small step..." statement came from a train of thought that Armstrong had after launch and during the hours after landing.[51]

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Armstrong prepares to take the first step on the Moon.

About 15 minutes after the first step, Aldrin joined Armstrong on the surface and became the second human to set foot on the Moon. The duo began their tasks of investigating how easily a person could operate on the lunar surface. Early on they also unveiled a plaque commemorating their flight, and also planted the flag of the United States. The flag used on this mission had a metal rod to hold it horizontal from its pole. Since the rod did not fully extend, and the flag was tightly folded and packed during the journey, the flag ended up with a slightly wavy appearance, as if there were a breeze.[52] On Earth there had been some discussion as to whether it was appropriate to plant the flag at all, something about which Armstrong did not care. He did think that any flag should have been left to drape as it would on Earth, but decided it wasn't worth making a big deal about. Slayton had warned Armstrong that they would receive a special communication, but did not tell him that President Richard Nixon would contact them just after the flag planting. Aldrin later gave the flag planting and

Armstrong works at the Apollo Lunar Module in one of the few photos showing him during the EVA.

subsequent phone call from President Nixon as reasons why there were no intentional photographs of Armstrong. In the entire Apollo 11 photographic record, there are only five images of Armstrong partly shown or reflected. Aldrin said plans were to take a photo of Armstrong after the famous image of Aldrin was taken, but they were interrupted by the Nixon communication. There were just over five minutes between these two events. The mission was planned to the minute, with the majority of photographic tasks to be performed by Armstrong with their single Hasselblad camera.

After helping to set up the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment Package, Armstrong went for a walk to what is now known as East Crater, 65 yards (60 m) east of the LM, the greatest distance traveled from the LM on the mission. Armstrong's final task was to leave a small


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package of memorial items to deceased Soviet cosmonauts Yuri Gagarin and Vladimir Komarov, and Apollo 1 astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee. The time spent on EVA during Apollo 11 was about two-and-a-half hours, the shortest of any of the six Apollo lunar landing missions. Each of the subsequent five landings were allotted gradually longer periods for EVA activities. The crew of Apollo 17, by comparison, spent over 21 hours exploring the lunar surface. Return to Earth After re-entering the LM, the hatch was closed and sealed. While preparing for the liftoff from the lunar surface, Armstrong and Aldrin discovered that in their bulky spacesuits, they had broken the ignition switch for the ascent engine. The ascent engine had no switch to fire. Using part of a pen, they pushed the circuit breaker in to activate the launch sequence. Aldrin still possesses the pen which they used to do this. The lunar module then continued to its rendezvous and docked with Columbia, the command and service module, and returned to Earth. The command module splashed down in the Pacific ocean and the Apollo 11 crew was picked up by the USS Hornet (CV-12). After being released from an 18-day quarantine to ensure that they had not picked up any infections or diseases from the Moon, the crew were feted across the United States and around the world as part of a 45-day "Giant Leap" tour. Armstrong then took part in Bob Hope's 1969 USO show, primarily to Vietnam, where some soldiers asked questions about how a man could be sent to the Moon while they were still stuck fighting the war. Tabloid newspapers printed stories that romantically linked Armstrong to Connie Stevens who was also on the tour, but the reports were unsubstantiated.[53] In May 1970, Armstrong traveled to the Soviet

The Apollo 11 crew and President Richard

Nixon. Union to present a talk at the 13th annual conference of the International Committee on Space Research. Arriving in Leningrad from Poland, he traveled to Moscow where he met Premier Alexey Kosygin. He was the first westerner to see the supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 and was given a tour of the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Center, which Armstrong described as "a bit Victorian in nature." At the end of the day, he was surprised to view delayed video of the launch of Soyuz 9. It had not occurred to Armstrong that the mission was taking place, even though Valentina Tereshkova had been his host and her husband, Andriyan Nikolayev, was on board.[54]


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Life after Apollo Teaching Armstrong announced shortly after the Apollo 11 flight that he did not plan to fly in space again. He was appointed Deputy Associate Administrator for aeronautics for the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (DARPA). He served in this position for only 13 months, and resigned from it and NASA as a whole in August 1971. He accepted a teaching position in the Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Cincinnati. He decided on Cincinnati over other universities,

Neil Armstrong Hall of Engineering at Purdue University.

including his alma mater, Purdue University, because it had a small Aerospace department – he hoped that the faculty members would not be annoyed that he came straight into a professorship without a doctorate. His highest qualification was a Master's in aerospace engineering from the University of Southern California.[55] He began the work while stationed at Edwards years before, and he finally completed it after Apollo 11 by presenting a report on various aspects of Apollo, instead of a thesis on simulation of hypersonic flight. The official job title he received at Cincinnati was University Professor of Aerospace Engineering. After teaching for eight years, he resigned in 1979 due to other commitments and changes in the university structure from independent municipal school to state-school.[56]

NASA accident investigations Armstrong served on two spaceflight accident Armstrong on July 16, 1999 at the Kennedy investigations. The first was in 1970, after Apollo Space Center. 13. As part of Edgar Cortwright's panel, he produced a detailed chronology of the flight. Armstrong personally opposed the report's recommendation to re-design the service module's oxygen tanks, the source of the explosion.[57] In 1986 President Ronald Reagan appointed him to the Rogers Commission, which investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster of that year. As vice-chairman, Armstrong was in charge of the operational side of the commission.[58]


Neil Armstrong

Business activities After Armstrong retired from NASA in 1971, he avoided offers from businesses to act as a spokesman. The first company to successfully approach him was Chrysler, for whom he appeared in advertising starting in January 1979. Armstrong thought they had a strong engineering division, plus they were in financial difficulty. He acted as a spokesman for other companies, including General Time Corporation and the Bankers Association of America. He only acts as a spokesman for United States businesses.[59] Along with spokesman duties, he also served on the board of directors of several companies, including Marathon Oil, Learjet, Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company, Taft Broadcasting, United Airlines, Eaton Corporation, AIL Systems, and Thiokol. He joined Thiokol's board after he served on the Rogers Commission; Challenger was destroyed due to a problem with the Thiokol-manufactured Solid Rocket Boosters. He retired as chairman of the board of EDO Corporation in 2002.[60]

Personal life The first man to walk on the Moon was also approached by political groups from both ends of the spectrum. Unlike former astronauts and United States Senators John Glenn and Harrison Schmitt, Armstrong has turned down all offers. Personally, he is in favor of states' rights and against the United States acting as the "world's policeman."[61] In 1971, Armstrong was awarded the Sylvanus Thayer Award by the United States Military Academy at West Point for his service to the country. In 1972, Armstrong was welcomed into the town of Langholm, Scotland, the traditional seat of Clan Armstrong. The astronaut was made the first freeman of the burgh, and happily declared the town his home. The Justice of the Peace read from an unrepealed 400-year-old law that required him to hang any Armstrong found in the town.[62] In the fall of 1979, Armstrong was working at his farm near Lebanon, Ohio. As he jumped off of the back of his grain truck, his wedding ring caught in the wheel, tearing off his ring finger. However, he calmly collected the severed digit, packed it in ice, and managed to have it reattached by microsurgeons at the Jewish Hospital in Louisville, Kentucky.[63] While skiing with friends at Aspen, Colorado in February 1991, he suffered a mild heart attack. It came a year after his father had died and nine months after the death of his mother.

15


Neil Armstrong

Armstrong's first wife of 38 years, Janet, divorced him in 1994. [64] . He met his second wife, Carol Held Knight, in 1992 at a golf tournament. Seated together at the breakfast, she said little to Armstrong, but a couple of weeks later, she received a call from him asking what she was doing. She replied she was cutting down a cherry tree, and 35 minutes later Armstrong was at her house to help out. They were married on June 12, 1994 in Ohio, and then had a second ceremony at San Ysidro Ranch in California.

16

Quincy Jones presents platinum copies of "Fly Me to the Moon" (from It Might as Well Be Swing) to Neil Armstrong and Senator John Glenn.

Since 1994, Armstrong has refused all requests for autographs, after he found that his signed items were selling for large amounts of money and that many forgeries are in circulation. Often items reach prices of US$1,000 on auction sites like eBay. Signed photographs of the Apollo 11 crew can sell for $5,000. Any requests sent to him receive a form letter in reply saying that he has stopped signing. Although his no-autograph policy is well-known, author Andrew Smith observed people at the 2002 Reno Air Races still try to get signatures, with one person even claiming, "If you shove something close enough in front of his face, he'll sign."[65] Along with autographs, he has stopped sending out congratulatory letters to new Eagle Scouts. The reason is that he thinks these letters should come from people who know the Scout personally.[66] Usage of Armstrong's name, image, and famous quote has caused him problems over the years. He sued Hallmark Cards in 1994 after they used his name and a recording of "one small step" quote in a Christmas ornament without permission. The lawsuit was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount of money which Armstrong donated to Purdue. The case caused Armstrong and NASA to be more careful about the usage of astronaut names, photographs and recordings, and to whom he has granted permission. For non-profit and government public-service announcements, he will usually give permission. In May 2005 Armstrong became involved in an unusual legal battle with his barber of 20 years, Marx Sizemore. After cutting Armstrong's hair, Sizemore sold some of it to a collector for $3,000 without Armstrong's knowledge or permission. Armstrong threatened legal action unless the barber returned the hair or donated the proceeds to a charity of Armstrong's choosing. Sizemore, unable to get the hair back, decided to donate the proceeds to the charity of Armstrong's choice.[67] Some of Armstrong's ancestors come from Ballygawley, County Tyrone in Northern Ireland.[68]


Neil Armstrong

17

Legacy Armstrong has received many honors and awards, including the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Congressional Space Medal of Honor, the Robert H. Goddard Memorial Trophy, the Sylvanus Thayer Award, and the Collier Trophy from the National Aeronautics Association. The lunar crater Armstrong, 50 km (31 miles) from the Apollo 11 landing site, and asteroid 6469 Armstrong[69] are named in his honor. Armstrong was also inducted into the Aerospace Walk of Honor and the Astronaut Hall of Fame.

Michael Collins, President George W. Bush, Armstrong, and Aldrin in the White House Oval Office during celebrations of the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 flight, July 21, 2004

Throughout the United States, there are more than a dozen elementary, middle and high schools named in his honor.[70] Many places around the world have streets, buildings, schools, and other places named for Armstrong and/or Apollo.[71] In 1969, folk songwriter and singer John Stewart recorded "Armstrong", a tribute to Armstrong and his first steps on the moon. Purdue University announced in October 2004 that their new engineering building would be named Neil Armstrong Hall of Armstrong and presidential dog Barney in the White Engineering in his honor.[72] The building House Garden Room, July 2004 cost $53.2 million and was dedicated on October 27, 2007. Armstrong was joined by fourteen other Purdue Astronauts at the ceremony.[73] The Neil Armstrong Air and Space Museum is located in his hometown of Wapakoneta, Ohio, although it has no official ties to Armstrong, and the airport in New Knoxville where he took his first flying lessons is named for him.[74] Armstrong's authorized biography, First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong, was published in 2005. For many years, Armstrong turned down biography offers from authors such as Stephen Ambrose and James A. Michener. He agreed to work with James R. Hansen after reading one of Hansen's other biographies.[75] The press often asks Armstrong for his views on the future of spaceflight. In 2005, Armstrong said that a manned mission to Mars will be easier than the lunar challenge of the 1960s: "I suspect that even though the various questions are difficult and many, they are not as difficult and many as those we faced when we started the Apollo [space program] in 1961." Armstrong also recalled his initial concerns about the Apollo 11 mission. He had believed there was only a 50 percent chance of landing on the moon. "I was elated, ecstatic and extremely surprised that we were successful", he said.


Neil Armstrong

18

See also • • • • •

 Space accidents and incidents  Mission Control Center  Project Mercury  Space Shuttle program  List of Eagle Scouts (Boy Scouts of America)

Bibliography •  Hansen, James R. (2005). First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-5631-X. •  Kranz, Gene (2000). Failure is not an Option: Mission Control From Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0079-9. •  Andrew Smith (2005). In Search of the Men Who Fell to Earth: Moondust. Bloomsbury. ISBN 0-7475-6368-3. •  Francis French and Colin Burgess (2007). In the Shadow of the Moon: A Challenging Journey to Tranquility, 1965-1969. •  Thompson, Milton (April 1992). At The Edge Of Space: The X-15 Flight Program. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1-56098-107-5. •  Sherrod, Robert (1975-07-30). "Men for the Moon" NASA. http:/ / history. nasa. gov/ SP-350/ toc. html.

[76]

. Apollo Expeditions to the Moon.

•  Jones, Eric (1995). "One Small Step" [77]. Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. http:/ / www. hq. nasa. gov/ office/ pao/ History/ alsj/ a11/ a11. step. html. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. •  Cornish, Scott; Rahman, Tahir, McLeon, Bob, Havekotte, Ken, Reznikoff, John. "Neil Armstrong Signature Exemplars" [78]. CollectSpace.com. http:/ / www. collectspace. com/ resources/ autographs_armstrong. html. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. •  Cambridge Biographical Dictionary (1990). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

External links • • • • •

 Neil Armstrong's Official NASA Biography [79]  Neil Armstrong Honored as an Ambassador of Exploration  Book New Yorker [81]  Cosmos magazine, October 2006 [82]  Neil Armstrong- U.S. Spaceflight History Biography [83] Preceded by Ellsworth Bunker

arz:‫جنورتسمرا لين‬

Sylvanus Thayer Award recipient 1971

[80]

Succeeded by Billy Graham


Neil Armstrong

External links [1]  "History of Wapakoneta" (http:/ / www. wapakoneta. net/ history. html). http:/ / www. wapakoneta. net/ history. html. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [2]  Hansen, pages 49–50. [3]  "Distinguished Eagle Scouts" (http:/ / members. cox. net/ scouting179/ Eagle Distinguished. htm). Troop & Pack 179. http:/ / members. cox. net/ scouting179/ Eagle%20Distinguished. htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-20. [4]   (http:/ / www. phideltatheta. org/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=15& Itemid=118) Phi Delta Theta international site [5]   (http:/ / www. kkpsi. org/ prominentmembers. asp) Kappa Kappa Psi website [6]  Hansen, p. 55. [7]  Hansen, ch. 7. [8]  Hansen ch. 8. [9]  Hansen, ch. 9. [10]  Hansen, page 112. [11]  Hansen, p. 118. [12]  Hansen, p. 61. [13]  Hansen, pages 124–127. [14]  Hansen, p. 128. [15]  Hansen ch. 14. [16]  Hansen, ch. 11. [17]  Hansen, page 145. [18]  Hansen, p. 173. [19]  Hansen, pages 178–184. [20]  Hansen, pages 184–189. [21]  Hansen, pages 138–139. [22]  Hansen, pages 189–192. [23]  Hansen, page 195. [24]  Hansen, p. 203. [25]  Hansen, p. 201–202. [26]  Hansen, ch. 19. [27]  Kranz, p. 174. [28]  Lovell, Jim; Kluger, Jeffrey (2000). Apollo 13. Houghton Mifflin. pp. 24–25. ISBN 0-618-05665-3. [29]  Expeditions to the Moon, chapter 8, p. 7. [30]  Hansen, chapter 25. [31]  Jones, Eric M.. "The First Lunar Landing, time 109:24:48" (http:/ / www. history. nasa. gov/ alsj/ a11/ a11. step. html). http:/ / www. history. nasa. gov/ alsj/ a11/ a11. step. html. The accuracy to the second of Apollo 11 events differs in different NASA logs. [32]  Jones. "The First Lunar Landing, time 1:02:45" (http:/ / www. history. nasa. gov/ alsj/ a11/ a11. landing. html). http:/ / www. history. nasa. gov/ alsj/ a11/ a11. landing. html. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. [33]  "Mission Transcripts, Apollo 11 AS11 PA0.pdf" (http:/ / www. jsc. nasa. gov/ history/ mission_trans/ apollo11. htm). http:/ / www. jsc. nasa. gov/ history/ mission_trans/ apollo11. htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. [34]  "Apollo 11 Mission Commentary 7-20-69 CDT 15:15 - GET 102:43 - TAPE 307/1" (http:/ / history. nasa. gov/ alsj/ a11/ a11transcript_pao. htm). http:/ / history. nasa. gov/

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Neil Armstrong alsj/ a11/ a11transcript_pao. htm. [35]  "Charter" (http:/ / www. usps. com/ communications/ organization/ csac. htm). Citizens Stamp Advisory Committee. United States Postal Service. January 2007. http:/ / www. usps. com/ communications/ organization/ csac. htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [36]  Goddard, Jacqui (2006-10-02). " One small word is one giant sigh of relief for Armstrong (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ us_and_americas/ article657515. ece)". The Times. http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ us_and_americas/ article657515. ece. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [37]  Ford, Peter Shann (2006-09-17). "Electronic Evidence and Physiological Reasoning Identifying the Elusive Vowel "a" in Neil Armstrong's Statement on First Stepping onto the Lunar Surface" (http:/ / www. collectspace. com/ news/ news-100306a. html) (reprint). CollectSpace.com. http:/ / www. collectspace. com/ news/ news-100306a. html. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [38]  " Software finds missing 'a' in Armstrong's moon quote (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061004151135/ http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2006/ US/ 09/ 30/ moon. quote. ap/ index. html)". CNN.com (Associated Press). 2006-10-01. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2006/ US/ 09/ 30/ moon. quote. ap/ index. html) on 2006-10-04. http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061004151135/ http:/ / www. cnn. com/ 2006/ US/ 09/ 30/ moon. quote. ap/ index. html. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [39]  " Software revises Armstrong's moon quote (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ US/ wireStory?id=2512668)". ABCNews.com (Associated Press). 2006-09-30. http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ US/ wireStory?id=2512668. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [40]  Smith, Veronica (2006-10-02). "Armstrong's Moon landing speech rewritten" (http:/ / www. cosmosmagazine. com/ node/ 717). Cosmos Magazine. Agence France-Presse. http:/ / www. cosmosmagazine. com/ node/ 717. Retrieved on 2007-08-29. [41]  Language Log. "One small step backwards" (http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003630. html). http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ %7Emyl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003630. html. (including audio) [42]  Language Log. "One 75-millisecond step before a "man"" (http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003632. html). http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ %7Emyl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003632. html. [43]  Language Log. "Armstrong's abbreviated article: the smoking gun?" (http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003634. html). http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003634. html. [44]  Language Log. "Armstrong's abbreviated article: notes from the expert" (http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003635. html). http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ %7Emyl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003635. html. [45]  Language Log. "First Korean on the moon!" (http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003639. html). http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003639. html. [46]  Language Log. "What Neil Armstrong said" (http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003645. html). http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003645. html. [47]  Carreau, Mark (2006-09-29). "High-tech analysis may rewrite space history" (http:/ / www. chron. com/ disp/ story. mpl/ front/ 4225505. html). Houston Chronicle. http:/ / www. chron. com/ disp/ story. mpl/ front/ 4225505. html. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.

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Neil Armstrong [48]  David Harland Exploring the Moon: The Apollo Expeditions. 1999, ISBN 1-85233-099-6 [49]  Alan L. Heil. Voice of America: A History. 2003, ISBN 0-231-12674-3 [50]  "Information Please world statistics" (http:/ / www. infoplease. com/ year/ 1969. html). http:/ / www. infoplease. com/ year/ 1969. html. Retrieved on 2007-10-02. [51]  Hansen, James (2006-10-03). "Armstrong's Abbreviated Article: Notes from the Expert" (http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003635. html). Language Log. http:/ / itre. cis. upenn. edu/ %7Emyl/ languagelog/ archives/ 003635. html. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [52]  Greene, Nick. "A Lunar Odyssey" (http:/ / space. about. com/ cs/ missions/ a/ apollo11_3. htm). Apollo 11 Mission. About.com. 3. http:/ / space. about. com/ cs/ missions/ a/ apollo11_3. htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [53]  Hansen, pages 566–582. [54]  Hansen, pages 582–584. [55]   "Apollo 11 Crew Information" (http:/ / www. hq. nasa. gov/ alsj/ a11/ a11. crew. html). Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. NASA. 2005-11-01. http:/ / www. hq. nasa. gov/ alsj/ a11/ a11. crew. html. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [56]  Hansen, pages 590–594. [57]  Hansen, pages 60–603. [58]  Hansen, pages 610–616. [59]  Hansen, pages 595–596. [60]  EDO Corporation (2000-02-08). EDO Corporation CEO James M. Smith to become Chairman upon retirement of Neil A. Armstrong (http:/ / www. edocorp. com/ pr2002/ 02r0208. htm). Press release. http:/ / www. edocorp. com/ pr2002/ 02r0208. htm. Retrieved on 2006-07-01. [61]  Hansen, pages 600–601. [62]  Hansen, p. 13. [63]  Sawyer, Kathy (1999-07-11). "Armstrong's Code" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-srv/ national/ longterm/ space/ armstrong1. htm). The Washington Post Magazine. http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-srv/ national/ longterm/ space/ armstrong1. htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-29. [64]  CBS News web site (http:/ / www. cbsnews. com/ stories/ 2005/ 11/ 03/ 60minutes/ main1008288_page3. shtml) [65]  Smith, p. 134. [66]  Hansen, p. 623. [67]  Rosenberg, Jennifer (2005-06-05). "Barber Sold Neil Armstrong's Hair" (http:/ / history1900s. about. com/ b/ a/ 176268. htm). About.com. http:/ / history1900s. about. com/ b/ a/ 176268. htm. Retrieved on 2007-08-29. [68]  Allen, Sam (1985). To Ulster's Credit. Killinchy, UK. pp. 123. [69]  "Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets (5001)-(10000): 6469 Armstrong" (http:/ / scully. cfa. harvard. edu/ ~cgi/ ShowCitation. COM?num=006469). IAU: Minor Planet Center. http:/ / scully. cfa. harvard. edu/ ~cgi/ ShowCitation. COM?num=006469. Retrieved on 2008-07-26. [70]  "Search for Public School" (http:/ / nces. ed. gov/ ccd/ schoolsearch/ school_list. asp?Search=1& InstName=neil+ armstrong& SchoolID=& Address=& City=& State=& Zip=& Miles=& County=& PhoneAreaCode=& Phone=& DistrictName=& DistrictID=& SchoolType=1& SchoolType=2& SchoolType=3& SchoolType=4& SpecificSchlTypes=all&

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Neil Armstrong IncGrade=-1& LoGrade=-1& HiGrade=-1) (HTML). http:/ / nces. ed. gov/ ccd/ schoolsearch/ school_list. asp?Search=1& InstName=neil+ armstrong& SchoolID=& Address=& City=& State=& Zip=& Miles=& County=& PhoneAreaCode=& Phone=& DistrictName=& DistrictID=& SchoolType=1& SchoolType=2& SchoolType=3& SchoolType=4& SpecificSchlTypes=all& IncGrade=-1& LoGrade=-1& HiGrade=-1. Retrieved on 2007-07-10. [71]  " Ireland: What's in a name? Cold, hard cash (http:/ / property. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ life_and_style/ property/ article804378. ece)". The Times. 2002-12-22. http:/ / property. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ life_and_style/ property/ article804378. ece. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [72]  Holsapple, Matt (2004-10-16). "Purdue launching Neil Armstrong Hall for engineering's future" (http:/ / news. uns. purdue. edu/ html3month/ 2004/ 041016. Jischke. Armstrong. html). Purdue University News. Purdue University. http:/ / news. uns. purdue. edu/ html3month/ 2004/ 041016. Jischke. Armstrong. html. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [73]  Venere, Emil (2007-10-27). "Neil Armstrong Hall is new home to Purdue engineering" (http:/ / news. uns. purdue. edu/ x/ 2007b/ 071027CelArmstrongDedication. html). Purdue University News. Purdue University. http:/ / news. uns. purdue. edu/ x/ 2007b/ 071027CelArmstrongDedication. html. Retrieved on 2008-01-05. [74]  Knight, Andy (Winter 2000). "To the moon: Armstrong space museum offers history lessons on space travel" (http:/ / www. cincinnati. com/ visitorsguide/ stories/ 012800_moon. html). Cincinnati.Com. http:/ / www. cincinnati. com/ visitorsguide/ stories/ 012800_moon. html. Retrieved on 2007-08-28. [75]  John McGauley (14 October 2005). "Discovering the Man Behind 'First Man'" (http:/ / www. collectspace. com/ news/ news-013003b. html#100305). collectSPACE.com. http:/ / www. collectspace. com/ news/ news-013003b. html#100305. [76]  http:/ / history. nasa. gov/ SP-350/ toc. html [77]  http:/ / www. hq. nasa. gov/ office/ pao/ History/ alsj/ a11/ a11. step. html [78]  http:/ / www. collectspace. com/ resources/ autographs_armstrong. html [79]  http:/ / www. jsc. nasa. gov/ Bios/ htmlbios/ armstrong-na. html [80]  http:/ / www. nasa. gov/ vision/ space/ features/ armstrong_ambassador_of_exploration. html [81]  http:/ / www. newyorker. com/ critics/ books/ ?051003crbo_books [82]  http:/ / www. cosmosmagazine. com/ node/ 717 [83]  http:/ / www. spaceflighthistory. com/ apolloprogram. htm#armstrong Source: http:/ / en. wikipedia. org/ w/ index. php? oldid=274709188 Contributors: 666999abc, 68Kustom, 9eyedeel, Aboutmovies, Abrech, Abyssadventurer, Accurizer, Achero, Addshore, AdjustShift, Adowlen, Aflaksp, Ageekgal, Aitias, Ale jrb, AlefZet, Alexander lau, Alexfusco5, AlexiusHoratius, Allstarecho, Amitp06, Anastrophe., Andareed, AndonicO, Andrew Levine, Andrij Kursetsky, Andy120290, AndyMUFC, Angus Lepper, Animum, Annscanada, Anonymi, Antandrus, Apparition11, AppleWithABite, ArielGold, Aruton, Ashley Pomeroy, Assassin011, Avono, B1atv, Backslash Forwardslash, Badgernet, Baiji, Bambuzled, Banjodog, Bark, Barliner, Bassmasta1993, Beetstra, Beinglefthanded, Bettia, Big Bird, Billy bob17452, Black Kite, BlastOButter42, Blehfu, BlinkingBlimey, Blueboy96, Blueice 77, Bobo192, Bongwarrior, Bonjedward, Borritoman, Brazil924, Brianga, BrokenSphere, Brougham96, Brysonsuxpeople, Bsmith90jdick85, Bubba73, Bubzyz, Béka, C0N6R355, CWY2190, CWii, Caltas, Calvinthekillerthai, CambridgeBayWeather, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanadianLinuxUser, Canley, Cantiorix, Capricorn42, Captain Rotundo, Captain panda, Carter, Caspercrower, Catgut, Check-Six, Chriswiki, ClanCC, Colonies Chris, Cometstyles, Connorowns, Cool mule, Coolmule01, Cryptoski, Ctetc2007, D4g0thur, DJ Clayworth, Dagobahyoda, Dahliarose, Danny, DarkFalls, Darth Panda, Davewho2, Davewild, Davidwr, DeadEyeArrow, DearPrudence,

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Neil Armstrong Dekisugi, Deltabeignet, DerHexer, Dferw, Dhaluza, Dillard421, DimTsi, Dimadick, Discospinster, Disneyvillainman, DiverseMentality, Dman727, Doctoroxenbriery, Doodshmood, Dopey180, Dorftrottel, Doug Sacks, Dougweller, Dredlox, Driftwood87, Drivenapart, Dsealy, Dspark76, Dspradau, Dycedarg, Dysepsion, EJF, ESkog, Earser, Edward, Eeekster, Effecto, Eleos, Elgrandehomie, Elipongo, Elonka, Enigmaman, Enviroboy, Epbr123, Eric-Wester, Ertdredge, Evil Monkey, Exor674, Extrempker3, Ezhiki, FCSundae, Farosdaughter, FastLizard4, Feddhicks, Firetrap9254, Fnlayson, Football79, Freedomeagle, FrenchIsAwesome, GRBerry, Gadget850, Gaius Cornelius, Georg luke, Georgiamed, Ghwood, Gogo Dodo, Goochers, Good Olfactory, GreenReaper, GregorB, Griot, Grisha25, Gurch, Gwen Gale, Gyarrr1992, H4RrY, HPJoker, HaeB, Halosean, Happyme22, Haukurth, Hennessey, Patrick, HenryLi, Hersfold, Hmains, Hoof Hearted, HouAstros1989, Hsearles, Huwmanbeing, IHaveTheMasterPlanIamTheMan, IPAddressConflict, IRP, Iain99, Iamledgend, Icedevil14, Ideastoday, Idrisqu, Ikluft, Iloveemily789, Indosauros, Ingsoc, Insanity Incarnate, Into The Fray, Io Katai, Iridescent, Isbell.michael4, It Is Me Here, Ixfd65, J-boogie, J.delanoy, JForget, JMigliazzo, JNW, JaGa, JackofOz, Jackol, James864, Jamesontai, Jasonrbgh, Jatkins, JavierMC, Jaya51994, Jeff G., Jennavecia, Jerzy, Jiddisch, Jim, Jimp, Jknowles88, Jmcc150, JoelSavory, John, John Doe42, John254, Johnisagoodman565, Jonhttt, Joseph Solis in Australia, Jpu1000, Jrrocker99, KJS77, KamuiShirou, Kannonuk4, Karl2620, Katalaveno, Katieh5584, Kbh3rd, Keilana, Kernel Saunters, Kiddster93, King of Hearts, Kipala, Kjoonlee, KrakatoaKatie, Kris Classic, Kubigula, Kumioko, Kunphuzed, Kuru, LWF, La Pianista, Lambiam, Laplaya27, Lars T., Latawnya, LeaveSleaves, Lenfin, Leon7, Leonard^Bloom, Leujohn, Levine2112, Lightmouse, Lights, Lollipopman13510, Longhair, LorenzoB, Luna Santin, MBK004, Magicidiot12345, Magnoliasouth, Majorly, Mandarax, MarcoTolo, Marcus Brute, Markus Kuhn, Masterchief21, Masterpiece2000, Matt Deres, MattieTK, Mattmm, Maxim, Maxis ftw, Mayumashu, Mazumpn, McSly, Mehman s, Memset, Mendaliv, Mercury, Michael Greiner, Michael J, Michaelbusch, Midgley, Miguel.mateo, MilborneOne, Milominderbinder2, Miranda, Mononomic, Moonside, MrKIA11, Mysdaao, N5iln, NAHID, NHRHS2010, Natalie Erin, NawlinWiki, Neurolysis, Neutrality, Nivix, Nneonneo, Noclevername, Nonameleft55, Oda Mari, Oli Filth, OrphenCB, Ossmann, Otherlleft, Ouzo, OverlordQ, Oxymoron83, PGWG, POLA0929JR, Pax:Vobiscum, Pb30, Peasaep, Persuter, Pharaoh of the Wizards, Philip Trueman, PhilipO, Pinkadelica, Pip2andahalf, Plasticup, Plummer277, Plummer2777, Poindexter Propellerhead, Polluxian, Polly, Poopel1234, Possum, Prashanthns, PrestonH, PseudoOne, Pseudomonas, Puchiko, Pumpkinshirt, Pure jack30, QuadrivialMind, RC-0722, RCEberwein, RJaguar3, RS1900, RainbowOfLight, RandomP, Ray Chason, Recurring dreams, Remember, Rillian, Rjwilmsi, Rlevse, Robert Skyhawk, Robma, Rock chick1610, Rogerd, Roleplayer, Russavia, S3000, SJP, Sam Korn, Sanjay12345cx, Sarah.jaya, Sbfw, Scanbus, Scarian, Sceptre, SciurinĂŚ, Scorpion0422, Scott Mingus, Setanta747, Shimgray, Shirulashem, Shizzzler, Shlishke, Shortie0712, Shovonma17, Sintaku, Sionus, Sirex98, Skarebo, Skb8721, Skizzik, SkyeWaye, Slakr, Smeira, Snowolf, Spartan-James, Spencer, Srushe, Ssbohio, StaticGull, Steinsky, StephenBuxton, Steve Crossin, Stmoose, Struway2, Studerby, Suckitreallyhard, SwirlBoy39, THobern, Tedickey, Tempodivalse, TerraFrost, The man who is a man, Theologist, Thewikipedian, Thingg, This flag once was red, Tigga en, Tintinspartan, Tiptoety, Tizzle999, Toddst1, Tohd8BohaithuGh1, Tomburbine, Tony1, Tonybaby, Toon05, Treize sasatzki, Tristam29, Tuncrypt, Tvoz, Ukexpat, Ulteraman, Um2121, Una Smith, Until It Sleeps, Useight, Utcursch, Vaniac, Versus22, Vianello, Vigneshtsv, Voyagerfan5761, Vsmith, Waggers, Waycool27, Whoosher, Wikigoddesseatspie, Willking1979, Wolfkeeper, Woohookitty, Wulf Isebrand, Wwoods, Xbvca, Xcmn, Xevious, Xoloz, Xp54321, Yeahirock1111, Yyhglouy666, Zack Holly Venturi, Zollyjolly, Zrice03, Zxcdcdfde, Zzuuzz, 987 anonymous edits

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License License Version 1.2, November 2002 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

0. PREAMBLE

The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications made by others. This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free software. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.

1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law. A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another language. A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them. The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none. The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words. A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque". Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only. The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text. A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.

2. VERBATIM COPYING

You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may publicly display copies.

3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public. It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.

4. MODIFICATIONS

You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version: A.  Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission. B.  List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement. C.  State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the publisher. D.  Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. E.  Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to the other copyright notices. F.  Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. G.  Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice. H.  Include an unaltered copy of this License. I.  Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.

24


License J.

 Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. K.  For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein. L.  Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. M.  Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included in the Modified Version. N.  Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section. O.  Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers. If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles. You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a standard. You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work. In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects. You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.

7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.

8. TRANSLATION

Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail. If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

9. TERMINATION

You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance.

10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See http:/ / www. gnu. org/ copyleft/ . Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.

How to use this License for your documents To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page: Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License". If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this: with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.

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Neil Armstrong  

neil armstrong

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