Science with the Arab World SWAW Increasing Arab Scientistsâ€™ Participation in International Research in Science and R&D Projects
Table of contents Executive Summary................................................................................................ 1 1
Conference Structure................................................................................... 6
The Organisation.......................................................................................... 6
Conference Themes..................................................................................... 7
Innovation Policy.......................................................................................... 7
ICT and Infrastructure.................................................................................. 8
Life Sciences and Agriculture....................................................................... 8
Knowledge Transfer and Investment........................................................... 9
The Follow-up............................................................................................ 11
Annexes: Annex 1................................................................................................................. 12 Annex 2................................................................................................................. 13 Endnotes.............................................................................................................. 16
Executive Summary The primary forces that are shaping our world today are the irreversible effects of science and technology (S&T), in particular, modern information technology on the structure of development and business processes and on the values, judgment and preferences of citizens in all parts of the world. Knowledge and information are now the main drivers of economic performance. Research in S&T is essential for countries to realise their full social and economic potential. In this context, international science collaboration is crucial to ensure that countries increase their capacity for and have full access to scientific research and technological know-how. Arab countries should further promote science policies that foster the participation of Arab scientists in global S&T research programmes. â€œScience with the Arab Worldâ€? (SWAW) aims to increase and improve Arab scientistsâ€™ participation and collaboration in international science and research and development (R&D) projects. SWAW intends to bring together decision-makers, businesses and scientists from the Arab world and elsewhere. The conference will discuss the challenges and opportunities for the creation of knowledge-based societies in Arab countries; present existing initiatives aiming to establish R&D collaboration with Arab countries; discuss science policies and initiatives capable of improving R&D collaboration with Arab countries; and introduce instruments to evaluate science policies.
SWAW will focus the discussion on areas most promising for international cooperation and relevant to the Arab region, including innovation policy, water management, information communications technology (ICT) and infrastructure, Life Sciences and agriculture, and knowledge transfer and investment. Related to these themes, SWAW will aim to create new synergies between non-Arab and Arab sciencebased organisations; promote the use of the patent system to improve technology transfer; and put in place a dissemination system to provide access to information about science partners in Arab countries. To achieve the above, SWAW will establish a help desk that will be active during and after the conference. The help desk will create a database for scientists who want to participate in collaborative projects relevant to the Arab region as well as a web portal for scientists to network. Along with linking Arab scientists with the international scientific community, the help desk will mobilise resources for Arab scientists including by helping them fill out applications for funding to develop their science and R&D projects. Arab scientists and others will also gain access to policy makers and R&D programme managers and have the opportunity to establish public/private partnerships. The overall objective of SWAW is to increase the participation and collaboration of Arab-based scientists in international science and R&D projects to enhance social and economic development and foster new business and employment opportunities in Arab countries.
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1. Introduction The conference â€œScience with the Arab Worldâ€? (SWAW) will explore how science and technology (S&T) organisations based in the Arab region can increase and improve their participation and collaboration in international science and research and development (R&D) projects. Recognising that knowledge and information are now the main drivers of productivity and economic growth, the conference will bring together Arab and international scientists, experts in the areas of science project management, dissemination, partnering, intellectual property & patents, research management and the commercialisation and exploitation of research results. The conference will link decision-makers, businesses and scientists to discuss policies that foster the production, distribution and use of knowledge and information by scientists in the Arab world. SWAW will examine methodologies for improving science programme participation by scientists and researchers in Arab nations. Speakers will include senior policy makers from Arab countries and around the world, eminent scientists, science and research project managers, experts in proposal preparation and IP and patent specialists. Many organisations and initiatives, public and private, already exist which have a similar purpose as SWAW. The conference aims to raise awareness about these initiatives and bring people together to maximise the benefits of each initiative.
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The Third World Academy of Science (TWAS) identified international science collaboration as one of the key aspects for a reform of science policies in Arab countries.1 In fact, well managed collaboration is paramount for successful scientific research projects in developing as well as in developed countries. The key social and economic challenges of today can only be met by sharing S&T knowledge and information between diverse actors in a world characterised by complexity, fragility and ever greater synchronicity. Strategic insights cannot be acquired passively, they are best developed through continuous interaction with research peers and with the most knowledgeable people in the field. The EU, US and emerging economies, among others, place much emphasis on promoting, establishing and implementing strategic research collaboration. Moreover, the open approach to innovation means that private and public science-based organisations are increasingly willing to share their knowledge and intellectual property with partners instead of keeping knowledge and results away from potential competitors. In fully recognising the importance of knowledge networks and partnerships, Arab countries need to be a part of this process and have full and equal access to global research collaboration opportunities. S&T policies in Arab countries need to be formulated to maximise scientistâ€™s performance in the promotion of knowledge-based economies, which are directly based on the production, distribution and use of knowledge and information. Arab scientists are currently inadequately represented in international research projects, in particular those supported by public funds from the EU, US and elsewhere. This is in part due to the lack of technical skills in building the necessary research capacities, networks and partnerships, and the difficulties in dealing with intellectual property rights, contract management, technology transfer and research dissemination. Furthermore, the science systems in the Arab region are highly fragmented and cooperation between Arab scientists is scarcely taking place.
In all efforts to improve science collaboration, the unique nature of the Arab cultural, historic and religious context and its particular challenges and opportunities must be duly taken into account.
of the scientific diaspora, including by increasing science collaboration and investing in research programmes in the region that harness the expertise, resources and networks of Arab scientists.
Because of long periods of political instability and conflict, the regionâ€™s leaders have focused on security and military concerns rather than investing in human resources, modern infrastructure and education. As a result, these systems do not offer incentives for the creation and diffusion of knowledge. The search for new knowledge is not adequately supported. The flow of information and free communication, within the Arab world and with the outside world, is often restricted.2 In recent years, many countries in the region are adopting policies for knowledge-based development strategies, minimising bureaucracy and refocusing efforts to invest in infrastructure and services. A conference aiming to improve science collaboration must therefore engage in a dialogue with policy makers to discuss measures that will help the Arab region thrive in the sciences.
Arab countries also face sustainability challenges such as water scarcity, pollution and overpopulation. Due to climate change, the situation will be worse in the near future and it will be necessary to act so as to prevent humanitarian tragedies. It is foreseeable that conflicts caused by the lack of water will arise and droughts will cause a decline in food production. S&T can offer answers to some of the most urgent issues, but without the participation of scientists from the countries concerned every project can only lead to short term results.
In addition, the growing need for scientific talent worldwide has led to an increasing brain drain in the Arab world that has made it more and more difficult to find experienced scientists to fill vacant positions in universities, research centres and industry. According to the Arab Expatriate Scientists Network, currently less than 10 percent of Arab scientists move back to the region after completing studies and training abroad.3 Moreover, the Arab World has contributed 31 percent of skilled migration from developing states to the West, including 50 percent of doctors, 23 percent of engineers and 15 percent of scientists.4 To maximise the social and economic potential of S&T in the Arab region, it will be crucial to engage the scientific diaspora.5 In the past, Arab scientists have had limited access to scientific publications and networks and were hindered from learning about the latest research and connecting with their peers elsewhere. This fact made it more difficult to overcome the fragmentation of Arab research systems.6 To reverse the brain drain, Arab countries must find ways to tap into the knowledge
Meanwhile, the opportunities for science collaboration with Arab scientists have never been better: The declaration of the Arab League of 29 March 2006 (Khartoum Declaration) stressed the importance of science, and the leaders called on Arab nations to increase their research capacity, enact policies to promote quality in science and encourage public/private research partnerships. Some Arab nations have taken action and are investing increasingly in higher education and science. In Saudi Arabia, the Shoura Council proposed the establishment of a National Council for Scientific Research with an annual budget of US$266 million. Egypt is already doing well in the publication of scientific articles and has adopted an Action Plan for Scientific Cooperation with the EU. Jordan, Syria and Egypt have a very long tradition in agricultural research and water management and excellent research is carried out in these fields. Finally, the Gulf States are investing increasingly in S&T: Qatar is allocating 2.8 per cent of gross domestic product to fund S&T research in Qatar, and the UAE is spending $10 billion to establish research centres of excellence and scholarship programmes to promote capacity building in the region. New cutting edge technologies, for example biotechnology and nanotechnology, offer the Science with the Arab World 3
possibility to catch up faster with developed countries. Several Arab countries have realised this opportunity and are investing in these new technologies. Egypt for example is developing a nanotechnology centre, together with IBM. Arab countries are finding innovative solutions to tackle many of the current sustainability issues and the Arab Academy of Science and Technology has set up the Arab Biotechnology Network. The Internet and modern ICT make it far easier and cheaper to acquire and share knowledge. For example, patent databases, which store the knowledge of most technologies, are freely accessible. Additionally, it is easier to cooperate on a virtual platform than ever before. Moreover, the Arab countries have a rich history of science and innovation. Scientists from Arab countries have brought inventions and knowledge to humanity
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which are still essential for our every day life. Examples range from agriculture to chemical processes and pump technology. This rich culture of scientific endeavour and enquiry is something to be proud of and which can be revived. All measures to support Arab states have to be put in place carefully, meet the highest standards and be evaluated on the impact they have. In the past, many measures have proved to be inefficient or even counter-productive. The same is true about science collaboration with Arab countries; therefore, indicators and benchmarking methodologies have to be used and developed to ensure that science collaboration is beneficial for all partners. This includes traditional methods such as peer review and benchmarking, as well as research and policy evaluation methods to assess past and future impacts of policies and projects.
2. Objectives The SWAW conference will aim to achieve the following: • Discuss challenges and opportunities for the creation of the knowledge-based society in Arab countries; • Present or discuss existing initiatives and ongoing activities aiming to foster R&D cooperation in the Arab Region; • Discuss science policies and initiatives capable of improving R&D collaboration with Arab countries; • Introduce instruments to evaluate science policies and initiatives; • Create new synergies between European, US, Asian and other global science-based organisations and those in the Arab region; • Promote the use of the patent system to improve technology transfer; • Put in place a dissemination system and enabling ICT environment to provide access to information and knowledge about science partners in Arab countries; • Raise the participation of Arab-based scientists in international collaborative research projects; and • Improve links between international research programmes and business to foster economic growth in Arab countries.
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3. Conference Structure The conference will consist of plenary sessions dealing with horizontal aspects of science collaboration with Arab countries such as science policy and technology transfer, workshops focusing on scientific subjects relevant for Arab countries, such as water scarcity, agriculture and Life Sciences, and roundtables dealing with specific initiatives. The conference will provide opportunities for scientists to network, form partnerships and submit proposals for funding. It will take place in English and all sessions will be translated in Arabic.
3.1 Attendance SWAW will aim to attract 800-1000 participants by bringing together: • Arab and international scientists, with particular focus on Arab scientists working abroad; • Experts in the areas of science project management, dissemination, partnering, intellectual property & patents, research management and the commercialisation and exploitation of research results; • Arab and international policy and decision makers; • International development partners; and • International and Arab private sector and civil society organisations.
3.2 The Organisation: Time The conference will take place in Winter 2013/14. Venue The conference will take place in an Arab country with appropriate facilities. This must include conference facilities for 1000 people, sufficient accommodation and good flight connections. Selection of speakers and roundtables The selection will be carried out by a board of experts, which will consist of eminent scientists mainly from Arab countries as well as international experts who are involved in science cooperation with Arab countries. The keynote speakers will be selected in a first step. The other speakers and the roundtable topics will be selected through a call for papers which will be published in international and Arab scientific journals and web publications, blogs, online groups etc. The selection criteria will be scientific excellence, relevance for science cooperation with Arab countries and originality. Publicising A conference website will be created in January 2013. To disseminate the information about the conference widely and to attract policy makers from all over world, preparatory events in Brussels, Washington and/or Beijing are envisaged. Articles on science cooperation with Arab countries will be published in specialised and mainstream media. Accommodation and Travel The conference organisation will negotiate special rates with a number of hotels and, if possible, an airline which serves the city of the conference. Depending on the amount of funds the conference organisation has at its disposal, the flight and accommodation costs of the scientists participating in the conference will be funded.
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4. Conference Themes All scientific fields are of value for the Arab region and they should all be supported. However, SWAW must focus on fields that are particularly promising in their potential for international collaboration and for solving societal issues relevant to the Arab region.
4.1. Innovation Policy The quality and outcomes of national innovation systems depend on various factors such as a welleducated work force, research infrastructure and interconnection with other science systems. As pointed out in the 2005 Arab Human Development Report, the state plays a particularly important role in developing public policies and directions and in establishing institutions and systems capable of creating and diffusing innovation in society. For a country to build a knowledge-based economy or at least to narrow the gaps with developed countries, it is important that it adopts a coherent national framework to promote S&T in consultation with the country’s scientists.7 Innovation policy today is very complex and ranges from scientific priorities, funding programmes and surrounding policies, to higher education, labour laws for scientists, knowledge transfer, investment in infrastructure, intellectual property, private sector participation, etc. In developing as well as in developed countries, successful science policies are heavily influenced by social values and culture and by prevailing economic, legal and political systems and structures.8 The conference aims to present and discuss science policies capable of improving the science base and increase science cooperation with Arab countries. This will also include instruments to evaluate and measure the different policies regarding their impact on R&D in Arab countries.
More specifically, SWAW will: • Present and discuss science policies for Arab countries; • Present science policies, programmes and initiatives of international organisations and non-Arab countries aiming to improve the Arab science base; • Explore best practices in science policy evaluation to assist policy makers in developing tools and methodologies that will serve as a guide for improving scientific capacity and overall competitiveness; and • Explore lessons learned from innovation centres around the world.
4.2. Water The Middle East and North Africa are the most water scarce in the world and in recent years the amount of water available per person has declined dramatically. 9 The region consumes more water than is naturally renewed and with shrinking reserves and the increase of droughts this can have dramatic consequences in the near future. Hence, new approaches and the use of new practices and technologies are required to ensure that the region will have sufficient water to sustain its population. The region is home to some of the best hydraulic engineers in the world, manages sophisticated irrigation and drainage systems, and has spearheaded advances in desalination technology. Across the region, governments are implementing innovative policies and institutional changes that are already showing promising results. However, the situation remains difficult and more efforts are necessary. Water management is therefore an excellent field for collaboration. Not only is it highly relevant for the Arab region and many other regions in the world, but Arab scientists also have knowledge and experience that is very valuable. Science with the Arab World 7
Moreover, technologies from many different sectors, such as biotechnology, nanotechnology and ICT, offer solutions that can be adapted for water resource management in Arab countries. SWAW therefore aims to: • Analyse S&T solutions to the major water management problems; • Present technologies and scientific projects in the field of water; and • Present existing cooperative R&D programmes and projects in the field of water management and facilitate future collaboration.
4.3. ICT and Infrastructure Information communication technologies (ICT) are a key tool in terms of driving development, particularly in the developing world. ICT is the foundation of any meaningful economic growth as it plays a very important role in any nation’s ability to access, adapt, produce and apply information to develop human capacities. In any technology sector, ICT is necessary to keep up with recent developments and to participate in collaborative research. A good ICT infrastructure offers countless opportunities for the business community, especially in R&D projects. Companies and individuals can communicate, share information and cooperate in real time wherever they are located. Scientific literature is accessible through the Internet and research findings can be easily disseminated. Today, many technologies are available at low costs and, through satellite technology, remote areas can be connected without high investments in cable infrastructure. Many Arab countries are still lacking an appropriate IT infrastructure, which is one of the reasons why it is difficult for scientists to tap into national or global scientific expertise. It is absolutely crucial 8 Science with the Arab World
that Arab countries improve their ICT infrastructure to enable science cooperation and effective science dissemination. Technology advancements in ICT will also help improve the activities of government and public sector organisations. As the Arab world moves towards e-government, ICT improvements will play a crucial role in improving government processes, reducing costs, connecting citizens to local and national government, building external interactions and increasing transparency. To this end, SWAW will: • Demonstrate the potential of ICT for governments and Arab science-based organisations; • Present existing cooperative R&D projects in the field of ICT; • Facilitate future R&D collaboration in the field of S&T; and • Showcase existing ICT application and services such as e-health, e-agriculture, etc.
4.4. Life Sciences and Agriculture Life Sciences - the science that uses living organisms and/or their constituent parts to replace or augment products or processes - have developed rapidly during the last 20 years. They have been identified as the leading technology of the 21st century with tremendous potential to address economic, social and environmental issues afflicting the poor in developing countries.10 The possible applications cover many industrial sectors including agriculture, health, etc. The huge potential of Life Sciences has motivated several Arab countries to invest in this sector. For instance, Saudi Arabia has committed vast R&D funding to the Life Sciences sector11 and the UAE launched the Dubai Biotechnology and Research Park (DuBiotech) in 2005 dedicated to Life Sciences. Life Sciences might be particularly important for solving some of the most urgent sustainability issues in
the Arab region as well as monitoring and conserving natural resources and curbing the negative impacts of human involvement. Indeed, biotechnology (the application of technical advances in Life Sciences to develop commercial products) offers the best alternative solution to the problems created by the Asian-type green revolution in agriculture. For instance, biotechnology provides solutions to: the constraints associated with biotic stressors (mainly insect pests, diseases and weeds) and biotic constraints (mainly poor soil fertility, drought and salinity); the negative impact of agricultural practices on the environment; and the slow pace of advancement in conventional breeding approaches. It also provides for the nutritional value enhancement of food crops (bio-fortification), remedies for soil erosion and desertification, and the reduction of the costly and damaging use of pesticides, herbicides, fungicides etc. In fact, biotechnology is “the only or the best tool of choice for restoring marginal ecological zones - left behind by the green revolution but home to more than half of the world’s poorest people dependent on agriculture and livestock” (UNDP, 2001)12. Therefore, SWAW aims to: • Present collaborative research projects in Life Sciences with Arab scientists; • Explore how to improve science collaboration in the Life Sciences; and • Present Arab research capabilities in agriculture.
4.5. Knowledge Transfer and Investment The World Bank Institute in a recent book, Building Knowledge Economies: Advanced Strategies for Development (October 2007), stated that the four pillars of the knowledge economy are: 1) economic and institutional regime; 2) education; 3) information and communication technology; and 4) infrastructure and innovation. Innovation systems consist of organisations that can tap into the stock of global knowledge, assimilate and adapt it to create
local knowledge that can be translated through engineering into usable technologies and processes. Many Arab countries have adopted technology policies and tried to trigger technology transfer from developed countries through foreign direct investment (FDI). However, these policies were not able to promote a sustainable technology transfer and support the national innovation system.13 To create a knowledge-based society, Arab countries must establish mechanisms that enable the practical application of knowledge through the development of products or services. Countries can learn from past initiatives that were unable to turn the acquired knowledge into marketable products. Best practice demonstrates that technology transfer policies that support the commercialisation of research results must cover all stages of the development chain. For example, the EU has launched several studies and initiatives to: improve the protection of research results via intellectual property rights (IPR) 14; transfer knowledge15 and technology through the exchange of scientists; generate spin-offs16 of technology-based firms; agree on research contracts and the licensing of technology; and, finally, finance schemes for the commercialisation of research results such as venture capital and start-up funds.17 The 2005 Arab Human Development Report has identified many weaknesses in the Arab innovation system such as weak links between R&D institutions and the production and service sectors.18 However, some Arab countries since then have realised the problem and have invested in business incubators and human resources to improve technology transfer. For instance, Egypt’s Ministry of Trade and Industry recently established a chain of specialised technology centers ranging from plastics, design to engineering to make the Egyptian industry become more knowledge-based.19 SWAW aims to discuss strategies for knowledge transfer and wants to pay particular attention Science with the Arab World 9
to improving the links between public research institutions and the private sector. Policy makers, experts in intellectual property, technology transfer and research dissemination as well as partners from the private sector will explore how technology transfer and the exploitation of research results can be improved in the Arab world. More specifically, SWAW will focus on the following topics: • IPR & Patents: finding the right intellectual property regime for supporting innovation, the use of patent information, and intellectual property strategies for Arab countries; • Technology Transfer: technology transfer methodologies and mechanisms such as incubators; • Financing: venture capital and start-up funds; and • Dissemination: dissemination structures, promoting best practices for information collection, science media, and the use of ICT.
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5. The Follow-Up To address the development challenges facing Arab countries, the conference will continue to sustain the participation and collaboration of Arab scientists in international science and R&D projects. With this aim, SWAW will cooperate with existing institutions and support on-going initiatives by establishing a permanent help desk to assist in the following ways:
Database The initiative will establish a database with scientists from Arab countries and elsewhere who are interested in participating in collaborative research projects relevant for the Arab world. The database can build on efforts done by various other organisations or individuals (e.g. TWAS and the work carried out for the conference including the call for papers). The database will also include research institutions and programmes, existing initiatives and relevant legal documents and guidelines.
Online portal The initiative will exploit the Internet to its full potential. A web portal will serve as a contact point and search facility for scientists to facilitate networking and collaborative research. Scientists can obtain information about research programmes, which are open for participation, and about other organisations and initiatives that can support them. The online portal will start operating in Arabic, English and French.
Public/Private Partnerships The initiative will promote the establishment of science and R&D partnerships between the public research base and industry in Arab countries. Public/ private partnerships, where public and private actors jointly contribute financial, research, human and infrastructure resources, can invigorate education, conduct research of mutual interest, capitalise on the results of the research for the benefit of society as well as increase the transition to the knowledgebased economy. A help-desk will facilitate meetings between governments, industry, research institutes and universities to establish such partnerships.
Support for proposal submission including IP issues The initiative will promote and facilitate the implementation of proposals for science and R&D projects made by Arab scientists abroad or in the Arab region. A help desk will provide guidance and support in linking Arab scientists with the appropriate partners and institutions to submit and develop S&T proposals related to the conference themes.
Access to policy makers The initiative will facilitate access to policy makers and R&D programme managers. This will enable Arab scientists to promote their research priorities and projects and give their inputs into the research agendas of international research programmes. We will help conference participants meet staff from international and national institutions such as the European Commission, the US National Science Foundation, and the International Development Research Center (IDRC) to discuss research needs of Arab countries with them. Science with the Arab World 11
Annex 1 Timeline (tentative) Activities
Proposal submissions & approvals Appointment of board of experts First draft of programmes and selection of key note speakers Online portal to go online Organisation of preparatory events Media campaigning Sub regional workshops: - Western region - Eastern region Second meeting of board of experts Call for papers Publication & dissemination of conference papers Invitation of conference participants Conference
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Annex 2 Organisations to be involved (tentative): From the Arab Region:
• National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (NIOF) • National Research Centre (NRC)
• Arab League
• Misr University for Science and Technology
• United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia
• Arab Academy of Science and Technology and Maritime Transport
• Arab Science & Technology Foundation
• Delta University of Science and Technology
• The Egypt Foundation for Technology Education (EFTED)
• Funding Agencies • Science Academies
Algeria • Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research • Université Constantine 1 • University of Science and Technology Houari Boumediene • Université des Sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran
Bahrain • Arabian Gulf University
• Mubarak City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications
Jordan • Royal Scientific Society • Ministry of Water & Irrigation – Water Authority of Jordan (WAJ) • National Center for Agricultural Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT) • The Hashemite University • University of Jordan – Water and Environment Research and Study Center (WERSC)
• University of Bahrain
• Yarmouk University – Center for Theoretical and Applied Physics (CTAPS)
• Bahrain Centre for Studies and Research
• Jordan University of Science and Technology
• Ain Shams University – Institute of Environmental Studies and Research • Cairo University
• Gulf University for Science and Technology
• Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI)
• Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research • Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science
• Desert Research Center (DRC)
• Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute
• American University of Beirut
• Egyptian Network for Innovative Technology (ENIT)
• The National Council for Scientific Research (CNRS)
• Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation – National Water Research Center (NWRC)
• The American University of Science and Technology, Beirut Science with the Arab World 13
• University of Tripoli
• Sudan University of Science and Technology
• The National Board for Scientific Research
Morocco • Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (CNRST) • Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II • Institut National de Recherche Agronomique • Université Mohammad V • Superior Institutions of Science and Technology
Syria • Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands (ACSAD) • Higher Institute for Applied Science and Technology (HIAST) • International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) • University of Damascus
• Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research (MASCIR)
• Centre de Biotechnologie de Borj Cédria
• Knowledge Oasis Muscat • National Research Council • Sultan Qaboos University
• Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax (CBS) • Centre de Recherches et Technologies de l’Eau • Centre International des Technologies de l’Environnement (CITET) • Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Tunis (ENIT)
• Institut des Régions Arides (IRA)
• Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Agriculture – Department of Agriculture and Water Research
• Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT)
• Scientific and Applied Research Centre (SARC) • Qatar Science and Technology Park
• University of Sciences, Technologies and Medicine of Tunis
• Hamad Bin Khalifah University
United Arab Emirates
• Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development
• Centre for Arab Genomic Studies (CAGS)
• Qatar National Research Fund
• Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research
• Royal College of Applied Science and Technology
• King Faisal University • King Saud University • King Abdullah University of Science and Technology • King Abdullah City for Science and Technology • Ministry of Communication and Information Technology 14 Science with the Arab World
• Plaza of Intelligence and Innovation City • Masdar Institute of Science and Technology • Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Foundation • Dubai Biotechnology and Research Park (DuBiotech)
Yemen • University of Science and Technology, Sana’a • Sana’a University • Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research • Ministry of Water and Environment
International Organisations • UNESCO • WHO • TWAS • FAO • IFPRI • ILO • International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA) • International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) • International Centre for Science and High Technology (ICS)
• Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (AFESD) • Arab Knowledge and Management Society (AKMS) • Arab Organisation for Agricultural Development (AOAD) • Arab Water Council (AWC) • AAAS • Center for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe (CEDARE) • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India • European Commission • European Federation of Biotechnology – European Action on Global Life Sciences (EAGLES) • European Patent Organization • European Parliament • European Science Foundation • German Agency for Technical Cooperation • Institute Pasteur
• International Council for Science (ICSU)
• Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
• International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
• Japan Science and Technology Agency
• International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)
• Korean Science and Technology Policy Institute
• International Research Institute for Climate and Society
• National Science Foundation
• Global Water Partnership • Médecins du Monde • Research Triangle International (RTI International) • World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
Regional Organisations • Arab Center for Agricultural Development • Arab Information and Communication Technology Organisation
• Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW) • The Science and Technology Policy Asian Network • Scientific and Technical Council of Turkey (TÜBITAK) • The International Development Research Center (IDRC), Canada • The Society for the Advancement of Science and Technology in the Arab World (SASTA) • US PTO Science with the Arab World 15
Endnotes 1 S&T in the Arab World: An Agenda for Action. 2 Arab Human Development Report 2003. 3 Qatar Tribune, “Less than 10 percent of Arab Scientists Return Home,” November 24, 2011.
12 UNDP. 2001. Human development report 2001: Making new technologies work for human development. Oxford University Pres, Oxford New York; UN Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA. 13 AHDR 2005, p. 99.
4 UNDP & Mohammad Ben Shafid Al Maktoum Foundation, Arab Knowledge Report 2009, Towards Productive Intercommunication for Knowledge.
14 European Commission Communication entitled “Improving knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry across Europe”; EU’s Patent Strategy.
5 Calestous Juma, Learn to Earn, A World of Science in the Developing World, Supplement to Nature for the 25th anniversary of TWAS.
15 European Commission Communication entitled “Improving knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry across Europe”; European Institute of Technology (EIT).
6 Jana El-Baba, Networking, Research, Development and Innovation in the Arab Countries, United Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA). 7 Ismael Serageldin, Joining the Fast Lane, A World of Science in the Developing World, Supplement to Nature for the 25th Anniversary of TWAS. 8 Arab Human Development Report 2005 (AHDR 2005). 9 World Bank Report, Making the Most of Scarcity: Accontability for Better Water Management Results in the Middle East and North Africa. 10 Raine Hermans, Alicia Löffler, Scott Stern, Biotechnology in Innovation in Global Industries: U.S. Firms Competing in a New World. 11 Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority (SAGIA), Life Sciences Investment Opportunities.
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16 Spin-offs are generally understood to be small, new technology-based firms whose intellectual capital originated in universities or other public research organisations. 17 EU Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme. 18 AHDR 2005. 19 Egypt Technology & Innovation Centers, Ministry of Trade and Industry. 21 December 2012. <http://www.tic.gov.eg>
ÂŠ 2013 BTC Strategy Group