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Maui Salt and Sage Magazine

Know Your History

Kalani’ōpu’u and Maui


by Peter T. Young

alani’ōpu’u was born about 1729, his brother was Keōua; his son was Kiwala’ō; he was the grandfather of Keōpūolani. At the death of Alapa’inui, about 1754, a bloody civil war followed, the result of which was that Alapa’i’s son Keaweopala was killed, and Kalani’ōpu’u, descended from the old dynasty, became king of Hawai’i. (Alexander) Kalani’ōpu’u, from the very beginning of his reign, made repeated attempts to conquer the neighboring island of Maui. He held portions of the Hāna district and the Ka’uiki area in 1775, when, in the war between Hawai’i and Maui, he commanded a raid in the Kaupō district. (Thrum) While Kalani’ōpu’u was at Hāna he sent his warriors to plunder the Kaupō people. Kahekili was king of Maui at that time, when Kahekili’s warriors met

those of Kalani’ōpu’u at Kaupo, a battle developed between the two sides. It was known as the Battle of Kalaeoka’īlio; Kalani’ōpu’u’s army was routed and returned to Hāna. Kalani’ōpu’u promised revenge and, in 1776, he again went to battle against Kahekili. This battle (known as the Battle of Sand Hills or Ahalau Ka Pi’ipi’i O Kakanilu’a) was recorded as one of the most bloody. Unfortunately, Kalani’ōpu’u was not aware of the alliance between Kahekili and the O‘ahu warriors under Kahahana, the young O‘ahu chief, and these numerous warriors were stationed at the sand dunes of Waikapū and also at a place close to those sand dunes seaward of Wailuku. Kalani’ōpu’u’s army was annihilated as they entered the sand hills of Wailuku.

In a desperate act to save what was left, Kalani’ōpu’u requested that his wife, Kalola, plead for peace from her brother Kahekili. However, knowing that Kahekili would not look upon her with favor, Kalola suggested their son, Kiwala’o be sent instead. Kahekili welcomed Kiwala’o; for a time, after the great Sand Hills battle in Wailuku, peace and tranquility returned. Although often defeated, Kalani’ōpu’u managed to hold the famous fort of

after the great Sand Hills battle in Wailuku, peace and tranquility returned... Ka’uiki in Hana for more than twenty years. (Alexander) At the time of Captain Cook’s arrival (1778-1779), the Hawaiian Islands were divided into four kingdoms: the island of Hawai’i under the rule of Kalani’ōpu’u, who also had possession of the Hana district of east Maui; Maui (except the Hāna district,) Moloka’i, Lāna’i and Kaho’olawe, ruled by Kahekili; O’ahu, under the rule of Kahahana; and Kaua’i and Ni’ihau, Kamakahelei was ruler. At that time, Kalani’ōpu’u was on the island of Maui. Kalani’ōpu’u returned to Hawai’i and met with Cook on January 26, 1779, exchanging gifts, including an ’ahu’ula (feathered cloak) and mahiole (ceremonial feather helmet.) Cook also received pieces of kapa, feathers, hogs and vegetables.In return, Cook gave Kalani’ōpu’u a linen shirt and a sword; later on, Cook gave other presents to Kalani’ōpu’u, among which one of the journals mentions “a complete Tool Chest.” After the departure of the Resolution and Discovery, Kalani’ōpu’u left the bay and passed to Ka’ū, the southern district of Hawai’i, having in his charge the young Ka’ahumanu. (Bingham) Back on Maui, Kahekili asked “How can the fortress of Ka’uiki become a level plain?” “The fortress of Ka’uiki depends upon its water supply. Cut that off and Ka’uiki will surrender for want of water.” “What is the best way to do this?” “Let the chiefs, guards, and fighting men cut off the springs of Punahoa. … Let them cut them all off at night. When the people are dying of thirst and can get no water, then they may be slaughtered.” (Kamakau) In about 1781, Kahekili was able, by a well-planned campaign, to regain possession of the Hana district and this marked the beginning of the disintegration of Kalani’ōpu’u’s kingdom. (Kuykendall) Kalani’ōpu’u died shortly thereafter (1782.) Before his death, Kalani’ōpu’u gave an injunction to Kiwala’o and Kamehameha, and to all the chiefs, thus: “Boys, listen, both of you. The heir to the kingdom of Hawaii nei, comprising the three divisions of land, Ka’ū’, Kona and Kohala, shall be the chief Kiwala’o. He is the heir to the lands.” (Fornander) “As regarding you, Kamehameha, there is no land or property for you; but your land and your endowment shall be the god Kaili (Kūka’ilimoku.) If, during life, your lord should molest you, take possession of the kingdom; but if the molestation be on your part, you will be deprived of the god.” These words of Kalani’ōpu’u were fulfilled in the days of their youth, and his injunction was

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realized. (Fornander) Following Kalani’ōpu’u’s death in 1782, and following his wishes, the kingship was inherited by his son Kīwala’ō; Kamehameha (Kīwala’ō’s cousin) was given guardianship of the Hawaiian god of war, Kūka’ilimoku.) Kiwala’ō and his chiefs were dissatisfied with subsequent redistricting of the lands; civil war ensued between Kīwala’ō’s forces and the various chiefs under the leadership of Kamehameha (his cousin.) In the first major skirmish, in the battle of Moku’ōhai (a fight between Kamehameha and Kiwala’o in July, 1782 at Ke’ei, south of Kealakekua Bay on the Island of Hawai’i,) Kiwala’o was killed. By 1790 Kamehameha I had gained enough control of the island of Hawaii that he could leave to join the war parties on Maui. Their canoe fleet ‘beached at Hana and extended from Hamoa to Kawaipapa” to battle Kalanikupule, son of Kahekili, and ruling chief of Maui while his father was on and ruled O’ahu. Later, Kamehameha, through the assistance of the Kona “Uncles” (Ke’eaumoku, Keaweaheulu, Kame’eiamoku & Kamanawa (the latter two ended up on the Island’s coat of arms;)) succeeded, after a struggle of more than ten years, in securing to himself the supreme authority over that island (and later, the entire Hawaiian Islands chain.)

surfing and the Hawaiian language. Successive generations of foreigners have sought to outlaw being Hawaiian at all. They also bought up land faster than the Kanakas could say “this isn’t right.” The Kanaka Maoli and the Born and Raised are not an exclusive group. They seek to be inclusive. All who love Maui and the “Aina, those who wish to steward and nurture her, heal her and bring her home as we all learn to share her. Many are returning to Maui from far away. One time tourists who had a love at first sight, travelers of the world who found “none bettah,” water folks, fisherman, farmers, and so on. Those who still believe it is their kuleana to contribute to Maui’s well-being in a myriad of ways: Spreading Aloha, nurturing the soil, cleaning up the ocean, cultivating community and envisioning Maui as a beautiful microcosm and model of sustainability for the world. Within these folks are those who’ve chosen to turn their backs on the US and the nine to five grind; the feeling that their lives had become “just doing time.” They spend their days on the beaches keeping them clean while scratching out a subsistence living. These are happy people free of social and societal limitations and restrictions. They’re quick to throw a shaka, share a meal, talk story or offer kind words that deepen the meaning of Aloha with every word and actions. Kanakas, tourists, travelers, shore casters and farmers. The tourists who get it, travelers who’ve felt no choice but to come back to Maui No Ka Oi, shore casters who’ve fed us for millenia; whose meditative and essential work inspires a closeness to the ocean and reminds us to relax, take the time to do it right, and smile knowing your home is one of the very best. Farmers new and old will now work toward healing Maui of the cancer of sugar cane, replant with things we need, and take the long view toward the Seventh Generation. All and all this can be seen as a divine collaboration, the composition of a new symphony, a song that will be easily sung without effort as we tread lightly into the future.


A Hui Ho!

Ua Mau Ke Ea O Ka A‘ina I Ka Pono

TalkingStory “On a white sandy beach in Hawaii” - Braddah IZ

We’re coming home to Maui; I you, he, she, they and us. Most importantly the Born and Raised are coming home to a new vision of Maui. A new vision much like the one held by the Kanaka Maoli ancestors; an independent Maui only interdependent with the greater Hawai’i Nei.

They’re quick to throw a shaka,

share a meal, talk story or offer kind words that deepen the

meaning of Aloha with every word and actions.

This would be a new/old Maui that grows, hunts, fishes and herds and ultimately feeds its own; a sustainable Maui. This Maui won’t need barges from the US, diesel fuel for electricity or a cultural identity defined by a foreign culture. These people have reawakened (or perhaps have just been silenced) to following Ua Mau Ke Ea O Ka ‘Aina I Ka Pono. Remember: The missionaries once outlawed the hula Maui Salt and Sage Magazine

WhaleWatching Albert LANIER

Humpback Whales share one characteristic with two legged mammals popularly known as human beings:They all love visiting Maui. The big difference is that Humpbacks weigh more than a ton and they arrive in the waters off the Valley Isle from December to May largely to breed. It must be said though that these huge but majestic creatures also seem to be having as a good a time in the ocean-surfacing, leaping and diving -as any American or Japanese tourist swimming and goofing off in a hotel pool.      Like many tourists, Humpback Whales travel thousands of miles ( a number of whales journey more than 3,000 miles from the waters off of Alaska) to visit Hawaii. However, Humpbacks usually stay for a few months-longer than the vast majority of visitors. Tourists of the Homo Sapiens variety who visit Maui are in luck since the island serves as the best location for watching Humpbacks enjoy island hospitality in liquid form.      While cruising about in the waves near Maui, Humpback Whales often engage in what is known as Spy-Hopping. Neither found in a James Bond movie or John Le Carre novel, Spy-Hopping occurs when a Humpback emerges out of the foamy spray and is at just the right height for an eye to rise above the waters in order to scan its immediate and surrounding aquatic environment.      Humpbacks use their powerful tails known as Flukes as a sort of natural outboard motor which powers them through the murky depths of oceans to find food and sustenance and then to mate and produce offspring. Flukes also serve as an I.D. card of sorts since Whale Researchers use the lower part of the Fluke to tell one Humpback from another and categorize such whales for scientific purposes.     

Researchers and scientists are not the only parties interested in taking boating trips to observe these whales in action.Watching Humpbacks frolicking in the waves has become a tourist attraction of sorts over the years-albeit of a seasonal variety. Mainland and Foreign tourists alike enjoy these magnificent mammals Spy-Hop and use their Flukes to move about the ocean.        There are a number of companies that offer whale-watching trips and packages including the Pacific Whale Foundation, Maui Princess and Blue Water. However, Federal Law requires that boat operators do not come within 100 feet so visitors expecting to get extremely up close and personal to Humpbacks may have rethink their expectations and fantasies.      Still, the sight of Humpback Whales jumping up from and back into the ocean or merely surfacing and descending from any vantage point can truly be an awe-inspiring sight for any visitor to Maui. It is enough to banish thoughts of Captain Ahab permanently from one’s mind.

Maui Salt and Sage Magazine

Photo: Karim Ilya


Kitchen Maui is a food truck that educates as it serves...”


If You Can’t

Beat’em, Eat’em

SUNNY SAVAGE is a wild foods advocate, who weaves a web of appreciation for the wild things. Her food truck Savage Kitchen Maui focuses on serving many wildcrafted invasive species, and she has developed a dynamic interactive mapping app that assists people around the state of Hawaii to identify, harvest and prepare those varied species. She is the author of Wild Food Plants of Hawaii, the first book highlighting foraging in Hawaii since Euell Gibbons’s book The Beachcomber’s Handbook in 1967. And, she is the energetic host of Hot on the Trail with Sunny Savage, an adventurous wild food cooking television series that now airs around the globe. Sunny comes from a long line of adventurers, and is a descendent of Thomas Savage who arrived on the second boat into Jamestown in 1607. Thomas Savage was 13 at the time and he became a favored son of Chief Powhatan and h is famous daughter Pocahontas, living with them for several years to learn the language and culture. By 30 years old Sunny had traveled to all 7 continents. These adventures included living in Antarctica for a year, working in the Dalai Lama’s temple in northern India, with Pygmy in the Congo, life aboard a sailboat for 3 years, and many more. She has a Bachelor’s of Science in Dietetics and a Master’s of Science in Nutrition Education. Savage Kitchen Maui is a food truck that educates as it serves - focusing on edible, invasive plants as a means to eat not just sustainably, but deliciously. Middle-eastern influence creeps into the rest of the menu, with a focus on schwarmas, falafel, and enough chickpea variations to shake a fist over. But don’t shake a fist, just open your hands - this is food that makes you feel as good as it tastes (which is great on both counts). Education never tasted so good. Maui Salt and Sage Magazine

“ONE LOVE” Together in Spirit.

The Beatitudes He said:


conditional love... comforts the spirit, warms the heart and nourishes the soul. May we embrace our love and faith and celebrate our cultural practices and traditions. From our “bowl”, heart, spirit, soul to yours... Ke Aloha Nui

Cree Indian Prophecy Warriors of the Rainbow

Last century, a wise old woman of the Cree Indian nation, named “Eyes of Fire”, had a vision of the future. She prophesied that one day, because some carry greed in their hearts, there would come a time when the earth being ravaged and polluted, the forests being destroyed, the birds would fall from the air, the waters would be blackened, the fish being poisoned in the streams, and the trees would no longer be, mankind as we would know it would all but cease to exist. There would come a time when the “keepers of the legend, stories, culture rituals, and myths, and all the Ancient Tribal Customs” would be needed to restore us to health, making the earth green again. They would be mankind’s key to survival, they were the “Warriors of the Rainbow”. There would come a day of awakening when all the peoples of all the tribes would form a New World of Justice, Peace, Freedom and recognition of the Great Spirit.

Elohi” beautiful again. These Warriors would give the people principles or rules to follow to make their path light with the world. These principles would be those of the Ancient Tribes. The Warriors of the Rainbow would teach the people of the ancient practices of Unity, Love and Understanding. They would teach of Harmony among people in all four corners of the Earth. Like the Ancient Tribes, they would teach the peoples how to pray to the Great Spirit with love that flows like the beautiful mountain stream, and flows along the path to the ocean of life. Once again, they would be able to feel joy in solitude and in councils. They would be free of petty jealousies and love all mankind as their brothers, regardless of color, race or religion. They would feel happiness enter their hearts, and become as one with the entire human race. Their hearts would be pure and radiate warmth, understanding and respect for all mankind, Nature and the Great Spirit. They would once again fill their minds, hearts, souls, and deeds with the purest of thoughts. They would seek the beauty of the Master of Life - the Great Spirit! They would find strength and beauty in prayer and the solitude of life... For more, please see:

The “Warriors of the Rainbow” would spread these messages and teach all peoples of the Earth or “Elohi”. They would teach them how to live the “Way of the Great Spirit”. They would tell them of how the world today has turned away from the Great Spirit and that is why our Earth is “Sick”. The “Warriors of the Rainbow” would show the peoples that this “Ancient Being” (the Great Spirit), is full of love and understanding, and teach them how to make the “Earth or

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3 “Blessed are the poor in spirit,     for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 4 Blessed are those who mourn,     for they will be comforted. 5 Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. 6 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, for they will be filled. 7 Blessed are the merciful, for they will be shown mercy. 8 Blessed are the pure in heart,     for they will see God. 9 Blessed are the peacemakers,     for they will be called children of God. 10 Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. 11“Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. 12 Rejoice and be glad, because great is your reward in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you. 2 He wen start fo teach um. He tell um: 3 “Da peopo dat know dey need God inside dea heart, Dey can stay good inside Cuz God in da sky, he dea King. 4 “Da peopo dat cry inside dea heart, Dey can stay good inside Cuz God goin kokua dem. 5 “Da peopo dat no need put demself first everytime, Dey can stay good inside Cuz God goin give um da whole world. 6 “Da peopo dat everytime really like do da right ting, Dey can stay good inside Cuz God goin help um do um. 7 “Da peopo dat pity da odda peopo, an give um chance, Dey can stay good inside Cuz God goin pity dem an give um chance too. 8 “Da peopo dat hundred percent fo God inside, Dey can stay good inside Cuz dey goin see God. 9 “Da peopo dat help da odda peopo come friends again, Dey can stay good inside Cuz God goin say, ‘Dey my kids.’ 10 “Da peopo dat do right, an suffa fo dat, Dey can stay good inside Cuz God in da sky, he dea King. 11 “You guys can stay good inside wen dey talk bad to you guys, an make you guys suffa, an dey talk any kine bout you guys, cuz you guys mines, but dey bulai. 12Dance an sing, cuz bumbye God goin have plenny good kine stuff fo you guys wea he stay inside da sky. Eh, jalike befo time, da guys God wen send fo talk fo him long time ago, had peopo dat wen make dem suffa too.

The Peace Prayer

Voices of the World

St. Francis of Assissi

In Hawaiian & English

E Haku, e hana `oe ia`u i he mea pa`ahana o Kou Maluhia, Lord, make me an instrument of Your Peace, aia i hea i ka makawela, e ha`awi mai au i ke aloha, where there is hatred, I may bring love, aia i hea i ka `ino, e ha`awi mai au i ka kalana, where there is injury, I may bring forgiveness, aia i hea i ka kû`ê`ê, e ha`awi mai au i ka lôkahi, where there is discord, I may bring harmony, aia i hea i ka hewa, e ha`awi mai au i ka `oia`i`o, where there is error, I may bring truth, aia i hea i ka kânalua, e ha`awi mai au i ka mana`o`i`o, where there is doubt, I may bring faith, aia i hea i ka hâ`ule ka mana`olana, e ha`awi mai au i ka mana`olana, where there is despair, I may bring hope, aia ia hea i ka pô`ele`ele, e ha`awi mai i ka la`akea, where there is darkness, I may bring light a me aia i hea i ka kaumaha, e ha`awi mai au i ka hau`oli. and where there is sadness, I may bring joy. Ê, ka Haku Lani O, Divine Master, E hô mai, mai `imi au e ho`onâ mai , akâ e ho`onâ aku, Grant, that I may not seek to be comforted, but to comfort, mai `imi e ho`omaopopo `ia mai , akâ e ho`omaopopo aku, not seek to be understood, but to understand, mai `imi e aloha mai `ia, akâ e aloha aku. not seek to be loved, but to love.

Oh, Great Spirit,

No ka mea Because ma ka ha`awi aku, ha`awi mai mâkou, it is in giving, that we receive, ma ka kalana, kalana mai mâkou, it is in forgiving, that we are forgiven, a ma ka make, hânau mâkou i ka Ola Mau Loa… and it is in dying, that we are born to Eternal Life… The Peace Prayer St. Francis of Assisi ~ Kaneka Palani o Akîki (Translation is still in progress.)

Ua Mau Ke Ea O Ka ‘Aina i Ka Pono”

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whose voice I hear in the winds and whose breath gives life to all the world, hear me. I am small and weak. I need your strength and wisdom. Let me walk in beauty and make my eyes ever behold the red and purple sunset. Make my hands respect the things you have made and my ears sharp to hear your voice. Make me wise so that I may understand the things you have taught my people. Let me learn the lessons you have hidden in every leaf and rock. I seek strength, not to be superior to my brother, but to fight my greatest enemy - myself. Make me always ready to come to you with clean hands and straight eyes, so when life fades, as the fading sunset, my spirit will come to you without shame. Lakota - Chief Yellow Lark, 1887



returns to the sea. It was bittersweet to see her getting so much rain this past winter only to know, by summer, she will have lost the fruits of her womb before they have reached maturity. Again my heart breaks, not only for her but for the pains of this world. The pirates have turned away from her now for they see no value in her. “I do, my sweet lady. I lift my bowl to honor yours.” When the whales come in winter to mate and to give birth, the mothers and their nurse maids come close to the reef in front of me and bear their young, as the

t’s a beautiful morning in March. There’s a nice breeze; the kind you pray for when you live on the beach. Too much wind and there goes the tent fly and tent poles, your eyelids feel like sandpaper, your skin, reptilian, boulders form in your nose, and everything you eat crunches in your mouth like glass. On the other

hand, if there is no breeze, Moses would be impressed by the plague of flying insects making it impossible to eat, sleep, or just sit. They come like the Zulu and you surrender to the fact that your out-manned and underarmed. I saw the sun come up over Haleakala this morning while breaking twigs and shredding paper to heat my morning coffee. The Cardinals are back and they chatter back and forth as they seem to disagree on the feng shui of the new nursery. My tent is clean and I have a comfortable spot in the middle where I can lean back and write while looking across the ocean to Kaho’olawe. She looks beautiful today, as if she’s all dressed up to go somewhere. You can see all of her curves and crevices, including the tip of “Navigator’s Point.” She’s radiant with color, a kaleidoscope of reds, yellows , greens and browns silhouetted by a bright blue sky with a white crown of puffy clouds. I believe the emerald sea is bowing to her today and it breaks my heart every time I’m reminded of how the military bombed her repeatedly until they had cracked her “bowl” and that she will never hold water or sustain life again. There is no place left for Kaho’olawe to store her water or to feed her offspring. The rain now just runs off and

males, in deeper water, display their power around Kaho’olawe, celebrating mating season and hoping to catch the eye of a fertile female. Whale season is nearly over now and I wonder if Kaho’olawe will mourn the absence of “The Great Record Keepers.” Water: Wai ( pronounced “Vy”) The life-giving fluid for all living things, Fresh water, refreshing to drink; juice, tea or lemonade. The veins and arteries of Mother Earth which flow from the highest peaks of her Crown Chakra, through the canyons and valleys down to the foothills, the prairies, the coastlines, and to the Ocean (the Kai), the saltwater where they are joined and come together; a perfect ebb and flow. They then become one heartbeat like the Buddhist yin and yang, reflecting the balance of all living things. The Earth, the ‘Aina, the land, the soil, the sand, stones and minerals; the ground we walk upon, for which, we have the honor and privilege, the “Kuleana”(the responsibility) to Maui Salt and Sage Magazine

care for it as it has taken care of us. Everything we see, taste, touch, feel, and hear all come from the Earth, are born of the Earth, with the Spirit energy of the Universe. “God,” “Father Sky,” “Spirit” both positive and negative, make up this beloved Earth and all which it bears. How can this not be Sacred to us? And further, Cherished, Honored, Respected, Devoted to, Loved and cared for? Everyday we walk up and down the beach and pick up plastic, handsful, sometimes buckets full. Everything from fishing line, forks, spoons, cups, plates, toys, bags, car parts, rubber, metal, batteries, etc. I could go on. Everything in our lives has become disposable, even human life. People: Babies, keiki, adolescents, young adults, middle-aged, elderly, the handicapped, the mentally and or physically ill. These are those “living Without Walls” on the beaches, in the forests, on the streets and in the mountains; unable to work enough to sustain themselves: Life has become too expensive for many to believe it’s even worthwhile to participate, with any quality of life. If you don’t possess a degree you must work two jobs. Which leaves no time for family or recreation. Many live in group homes, others live 3-4 to a room, some live 4 people to a studio, ten in a two bedroom. If you’re completely disabled on Maui you may receive 388 in cash and about 350 in EBT, government food subsidy, while you live on the beach, or shelter for a year and a half fighting with the federal government for the Social Security Insurance you paid into your whole life. And then, you get $700 per month, and $200 in food stamps. It will then take another year and a half to get your full benefits which you are entitle to once you are finally determined disabled by their doctors. In native societies, including Hawaiians and Native Americans, there was literally no such thing as homelessness. Everyone was of value to the whole and no one would be expected to go without. Everyone had value, something they could contribute to the whole, so nobody felt worthless or inferior, and with age came honor and respect for the wisdom they possessed. Senior housing is a 2-5 year waiting list, low-income is at least 1-2 years and almost no landlords will accept HUD. You’re as worthless in our society as bombed-out Kaho’olawe. A throw away human being. I’ve seen cancer victims, stroke victims,

people with extreme diabetes and other forms of debilitating diseases, die in homeless shelters and on the streets. People in their 60s and 70s living without walls, exposed to the elements and disease. These are the throw away, disposable people. The greater majority of people who are working are one paycheck or illness away from losing their way of life, from losing everything they’ve built their whole life and these people live in such great fear most of the time that are likely to strike out at, or turn their nose up, to people they know they could very easily become. It’s literally life on the razors edge. Many families with small children that lose one parent’s ability to work, usually due to illness, and the family breaks down. With the lack of supervision, family time and interaction children fall victim to what they see on TV and the breakdown of community. Not many people can support a family on one income, our kids want what other kids have and if their parents can’t afford it, they may find other means. Many may end up in jail or prison. Many people believe people who receive government assistance, SSI or subsidized housing, are milking the system. Maybe the system has been milking them. Not saying that there are not frauds among these, but there are a lot who have worked thirty years or more who have lost their ability, whether physically, mentally or some combination there of.

There are solutions

We need more low-income housing, senior housing, and healing centers, not more hotels, built for the sole purpose of benefiting the tourist industry, but for those who live here and serve the tourist industry, and other necessary aspects of our society. A new Veterans healing center, a sanctuary, if you will, where veterans can be housed, have access to mental, physical, spiritual health, services and support. This is exciting news. But why stop with veterans? A lot of people could benefit from such services. Many I’ve spoken with have wonderful ideas for creating viable alternatives. Creating small communities where people feel they have something viable to contribute, whether a skill or trade where they can supervise and train the next generation. (Continued on Page 18...) Maui Salt and Sage Magazine


Local Food

ne of my fondest memories growing up in Hawaii during the 60s and 70s was waking up early on Saturday morning, grabbing an empty cooler and heading to Chinatown for fresh fish, produce and other Asian specialty ingredients and cuisines.

Our venture would typically start with a visit to Liliha Bakery or Dutch Girl Bakery, both on Liliha Street. Their freshly baked pastries were so buttery, flaky and ono. It was just enough to keep our stomachs filled during our shopping adventure. Next stop, Chinatown, more specifically, Oahu Market. It was one of the very few places that opened at 6:00 am. Some of us went with dad and he headed down the seafood aisles checking out the day’s freshly caught fish which were often still in the process of being offloaded and prepared for displaying. Nearby, the live crabs and lobsters would be scavenging around in knee-high aluminum fish tanks. This was also our go to spot if anyone of us got separated. In the meantime, the rest of us strolled with mom as she headed towards the meat section. It was apparent that they each had their favorite vendors to start with, barring anything that may have caught their eyes along the way. Coupled with the fishing trips dad would take me on it was here, at a very young age, maybe 6 or 7 years old, I learned the steps on how to identify fresh fish. (More about that in another article.) By now, the Chinese Roast Pork, Chinese BBQ pork, and/ or Roast Duck (whole, half, or by the pound) would have been bought and paid for by mom. I always remembered her saying to the butcher “No fat! No burn!” And on very rare occasions, “No! Not dat one!” She knew what she wanted; the leanest and meatiest pieces and that’s exactly what she got. The transaction was never completed without accepting the free sample they provided. Soon she and the rest of my ohana would be joining us at the crab tanks.

cabbage (Gai Choy) and Bok Choy, while dad focused on anything he needed to compliment the fish he just bought. Now it was time to obtain the specialty sauces, spices and condiments that we would typically have stored in our pantry and anything else needed for the dishes dad planned on preparing that day such as dry mustard, fish sauce and dried shitake mushrooms and raw peanuts. Our escapade was not complete unless we picked up some couple of custard pies from Lee’s Bakery on King St. and manapua (steamed pork buns) and pork hash from Char Hung Sut on N. Pauahi St. Although the custard pies were saved for dessert, the dim sum was enough to keep us tied over until dinner. Once we got home, we unloaded the SUV and stayed out of the kitchen unless called upon, usually to empty the trash, wash some dishes or grab a couple of porcelain serving platters from the China cabinet. We all knew that dad was in charge of the kitchen. Here’s one of the simplest, quickest and ono dish dad always prepared BOK CHOY & SPROUTS w/ AVOCADO SALAD Serving Size: 6 - 8 SALAD INGREDIENTS 2 TBS sesame oil 4 cloves garlic, minced or grated, or more to taste 2 tsp fresh ginger root, minced or grated 1 tsp chili paste (optional) 10 heads baby bok choy, ends trimmed and leaves separated 2 c bean sprouts (or 1 pkg Taro Brand Mung Bean Sprouts) 2 TBS oyster sauce GARNISH INGREDIENTS

by Rory Kealohai



Our attention would shift to fresh produce section where we would pick up Chinese parsley (cilantro), green onions, bean sprouts, Chinese mustard

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Cool in the refrigerator for 30 mins - 1 hour Prior to serving, add garnishes and shake dressing.

1 medium size avocado, cubed 1/4 c green onions, chopped DRESSING INGREDIENTS 3/4 cup Japanese Rice vinegar 3/4 cup soy sauce 3/4 cup sugar 1 TBS grated ginger 1 tsp sesame oil 1 tsp toasted sesame seeds

DRESSING INSTRUCTIONS Combine all dressing ingredients in a jar with a tight-fitting lid. Close the lid, and shake until well mixed and sugar is dissolved. Refrigerate.

SALAD INSTRUCTIONS: Heat oil in a large skillet over high heat. Cook and stir garlic, ginger, and chili paste in hot oil until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Stir bok choy into garlic mixture, add water, cover the skillet, and cook until bok choy wilts and is desired texture, about 2 minutes. Add bean sprouts and oyster sauce and toss for about 30 seconds. Cover and remove from heat.

SERVING SUGGESTIONS: Be creative and don’t hesitate in adding any or all of the following complimentary garnish ingredients. • Mandarin Oranges • Toasted Walnuts, Almonds or Cashews • Dried Cranberries • Cubed or Sliced Meats such as Char Siu, Roasted Chicken or Chinese Roast Pork • Chinese Parsley (cilantro/coriander)

“Nearby, the live crabs and lobsters would be scavenging around in knee-high aluminum fish tanks.”

Experience Maui Tropical Plantation! The Plantation Tour will take you through the private grounds of the Plantation, showcasing a variety of native Hawaiian plants, tropical fruits, and fields of row crops. The tour also provides a live coconut husking demonstration. Tour length is about 45 minutes. DAILY TRAM TIMES; 10:00 AM, 11:00 AM, 12:00 PM, 1:00 PM, 2:00 PM, 3:00 PM AND 4:00 PM. Advance purchase tickets are not required. For early morning, weekday tours we do recommend calling ahead to ensure availability. Often if one tour is booked full, there will be availability on the following tour. Adult Tickets - $20.00 Child Tickets (ages 3-12) - $10.00 Tickets can be purchased online or in-person at the Tropical Market or Nut Roasting/Ticketing Kiosk. Tickets purchased online are non-refundable and may not be combined with any coupons or discounts. For groups of 15 or more, please contact us. Considering a morning tour? Visit Mill House Roasting Company for a coffee prior to your tour, then join us for lunch afterward at our Mill House Restaurant. Afternoon tour? Stop in for Happy Hour or plan to join us for dinner. Maui Tropical Plantation 1670 HONOAPI’ILANI HWY WAIKAPU, HI 96793

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The hook from

theheavens Known in ancient Hawaii as “the hook from the heavens”, a symbol of strength, good luck and safe travel across the waters. THE ORIGINS OF THE FISH HOOK

The belief originated from the Maori people of New Zealand, where it is known as “hei matau:” a bone or greenstone carving in the shape of a highly stylized fish hook. The fish-hook shape of the hei matau finds its origins in Maori tale, which denotes that the North Island of New Zealand was once a huge fish that was caught by the great mariner Maui using only a woven line and a hook made from the jawbone of his grandmother. Legend suggests that the shape of Hawke Bay is that of the hei matau, which caught in the fish’s side on the beach. The Maori name for the North island, Te Ika a Maui (“The fish of Maui”) reflects this belief. For the Maori, the Hei Matau is taonga (a cultural treasure). It characterizes not only their land, but also prosperity, fertility and safe passage over water. They also denote the importance of fishing to the Maori, and their relationship to Tangaroa god of the sea.


fish hook into the ocean, but when he tries to pull up the line, it seems to be caught upon something. Maui pulled and pulled until the hook appeared once more, but with it also comes an island! Well, Maui kept throwing the hook into the water until the main islands of Tongatapu, Ha’apai and Vava’u are all pulled from the

To the Hawaiian the meaning of the fish hook pendant came from the extraordinary respect Hawaiians have had for the ocean, which has provided sustenance and enabled travel. Hawaiian Life details the history of the Macau, as this pendant is called in Hawaii. Initially, the Macau was put to practical use in fishing. It is now frequently worn around the neck for its symbolic power and spiritual qualities. Fish hooks were used by island men and women to catch and gut fish, as well as catching and preparing other types of food. The main function for fish hooks today is to wish someone a successful future or good health. They are also used, of course, simply for adornment. The symbolism and value the fish hook presents spread all over the Pacific Ocean cultures.


In the old times, Maui obtained a fish hook from an old fisherman named Tongafusifonua. Plausibly, Maui went fishing. He dropped the Maui Salt and Sage Magazine

ocean. (Eua and some of the smaller volcanic islands were created separately by the god craftsman Tangaloa whose wood shavings fell from the sky.) At any rate, Maui names the largest island “Tonga” in honor of the old fisherman, and that island is now Tongatapu, with the capital city Nuku’alofa. But the demi God Maui isn’t done fishing yet! Pleased with his success, Maui kept fishing, eventually pulling up most of the islands of Tonga, as well as — depending upon the legend source — some of the islands in Hawaii, Samoa and Fiji.



American Samoan dependence on fishing goes back about 3,500 years when people first populated the Samoan archipelago. When distributed, fish and other resources move through a complex and culturally embedded exchange system that supports the food needs of Aiga (extended family) as well as the status of both Matai (chiefs) and village ministers.


Before Pacific Islanders would make fish hooks of fish bone, cow bone and from all sorts of material from the ocean. Today, with the increased demand on the fish hook necklaces, especially with in cultures of the surf, the hip, the multi-cultured, the believers of luckism, the collectors or as featured in Disney’s 2016 movie Moana with the demi God Maui and his magical fish hook; within the increased popularity of fish hooks in the mainstream, fish hook necklaces are now available in both hand carved or mass produced of large assortment of materials such as gold, silver, stainless steel, jade, wood, bone, resin & horn. Fish hook necklaces are not practical for fishing and yet they make pretty cool accessory. Wither you are a luckism believer or not, the fish hook remains a largely known symbol of beauty, strength, prosperity, fertility, safe travels & happy fishing; or just a cool what is that kind of necklace.

Three photos by Peggy Johnson and Philip Waikoloa depicting just a few facets of the awe and wonder. “Be as a child.”

FilthyFarm GirlInterview Subject: Soap by Betsy Lulu

Filthy Farm girl soap is a fantastic company based on the Big Island of Hawaii. I had the wonderful opportunity to interview Devin the co-founder of FFGS. Their soaps are 100% natural. The wide assortment of fun and delicious smelling soaps will be sure to catch not only your eye with their funky labels, but also leaving you clean and revitalized. Hi Devin, I’m Betsy! So nice to be able to chat with you today about Filthy Farm Girl!

The soaps are 100% handmade in Hawaii with no fragrance added. They contain all natural ingredients. The main ingredient in our soap is coconut oil. Our other ingredients you will find are Saponified Safflower oil, Kosher Vegetable Glycerin, Purified Water, Beeswax, ... Lemongrass Essential oil, Cedar Essential oil, Eucalyptus Essential oil, Ground Peppermint, Hemp oil, ...Rose Butter, Shea Butter, Peppermint Essential Oil, Palmrosa Essential Oil, Rosewood Essential Oil, Sorbital, Sorbitan Oleate, and Soy Protein.

1. What first inspired you to start up the filthy farm girl company?

The soaps are very moisturizing, and so gentle, especially on people with sensitive skin. After folks in I was (Devin) Hawaii are in the sun illustrating children’s all day getting crispy Environmentally friendly. books, and then one these soaps are perfect day I met a beautiful The company uses solar power for production, and are just what they girl on the beach who need to clean up with! so no green house emissions. happened to be a soap If they have skin issues, From the Big Island of Hawaii. maker. Together we our soap is very good created the various to use. Please see our soaps and started testimonials on Yelp. Filthy Farm Girls. We began making these cool labels We don’t have sales reps, and basically we just sell for the soaps as we produced them. The company our soaps in local farmers markets and whole foods began as a fun little project; which had us starting on Maui. out with 8 flavours. We sold them at the local farmers market here on the island. Just how does FFGS come up with new flavours? 2. Will you be launching any new soaps in the near Actually we have sometimes accidently mixed some future? Such as maybe stinky surfer? Dirty bride and flavours together and wola a new soap flavour is groom? made! We have just been mixing and pouring and then said to ourselves hey this smells good, shucks Right now we have 120 plus soaps. We do have that’s a new one! a bride and groom one that we sell, and a couple different surfer ones too. You can find all of our 5. What does the future of Filthy girl soap hold? products and pricing on our website.   We just want to continue having fun, and making 3. How many batches of soap are you able to soap that people really really truly love. We also make produce? What does a typical soap making day look custom labels for weddings, and parties on request. like?   Thank you very much Devin for taking time out of On a busy day we are able to make 100 pounds of your soap making day to speak with us! soap. We do make the soap fresh on Mondays and Thursdays here on the Big Island. Devin: You’re welcome! Talk to you later! 4. Why is filthy farm girl soap so unique? Besides the cool labeling. What natural ingredients benefit customers?

Check them out! You won’t be disappointed! Be sure to follow this fantastic company on facebook and twitter as well!!

“In Hawai’i, it’s all about respect.”

Surfing With Aloha Surfing Etiquette is the most important thing to learn before you set foot in the surf. These rules are not so much “rules” as they are a proper code of conduct designed to keep everyone in the water safe and happy. People who repeatedly break these rules are often given the stink-eye, a stern talking to, yelled at with obscenities, or just flat out beat up. New surfers should memorize these rules, and even veterans should take a refresher course now and then. Rule #1: Right of Way The Surfer Closest To The Peak Has The Right Of Way. The surfer closest to the peak of the wave has the right of way. This means if you’re paddling for a right, and a surfer on your left is also paddling for it, you must yield to him or her. There are a couple variations to this rule: If someone is up riding a wave, don’t attempt a late takeoff between the curl/whitewater and the surfer. If the surfer who’s riding the wave wants to make a cutback she’ll run right into you. Doing that is also called backpaddling, and it’s just as bad as dropping in. Just because the whitewater catches up to a surfer riding a wave doesn’t give you permission to take off down the line. Many talented surfers can outrun the section and get back to the face of the wave.

“In Hawai‚ we greet friends, loved ones and strangers with Aloha, which means with love. Aloha is the key word to the universal spirit of real hospitality, which makes Hawai‚ renowned as the world’s center of understanding and fellowship. Try meeting or leaving people with Aloha. You’ll be suprised by their reaction. I believe it and it is my creed. Aloha to you.”

Duke Paoa Kahanamoku

The Surfer Closest To The Peak Has The Right Of Way: A-Frames or Split Peaks: If two surfers are on either side of the peak, they each have the right of way to take off on their respective sides. It’s not generally accepted to take off behind the peak unless there’s nobody on the other side. These surfers should split the peak and go opposite ways. If a surfer riding a wave gets closed out with an impossible section or wipes out, the next surfer down the line can take off. If you’re a very new beginner I’d hold off on doing this anyway until you have a bit more experience. If a wave is breaking towards itself (a closeout) and two surfers are taking off at each other, yes both have the right of way but this is a perilous situation and it’s advisable to kick out early to avoid a collision.

Rule #2: Don’t Drop In On The Surfer Closest To The Peak Has The Right Of Way. This is related to Rule #1. This is probably the most important part of surfing etiquette. Dropping in means that someone with the right of way is either about to take off on a wave or is already riding Rule #3: Paddling Rules: Some common sense surfing etiquette rules that people don’t seem to realize are important. Don’t paddle straight through the heart of the lineup where people are surfing. Paddle out through the channel where the waves aren’t breaking and people aren’t surfing. Sometimes at spread out beach breaks this is hard, but usually there is a less crowded area to paddle through.

apology is appreciated, and goes a long way to reducing tension in crowded lineups. You don’t have to grovel at their feet (well, unless you did something horrible). Honestly, if you drop in on someone and then ignore them, it’s pretty stupid. This might seem like a lot of stuff to remember, but in time it will become second nature. Most surfing etiquette rules are common sense anyway. Have fun in the water!

Rule #4: Don’t Ditch Your Board: This is important, especially when it gets crowded. Always try to maintain control and contact with your board. Surfboards are large, heavy, and hard. If you let your board go flying around, it is going to eventually clock someone in the head. This means if you’re paddling out and a wall of whitewater is coming, you don’t have permission to just throw your board away and dive under. If you throw your board and there is someone paddling out behind you, there is going to be carnage. This is a hard rule for beginners, but if you manage to avoid picking up the habit of throwing your board you will be a MUCH better surfer. Rule #5: Don’t Snake “Snaking” is when a surfer paddles around another surfer in order position himself to get the right of way for a wave. He is effectively making a big “S” around a fellow surfer. While not immediately hazardous to your health, this is incredibly annoying. You can’t cut the lineup. Patiently wait your turn. Wave hogs don’t get respect in the water. Also, being a local doesn’t give you permission to ruthlessly snake visitors who are being polite. If they’re not being polite, well… Rule #6: Beginners: don’t paddle out to the middle of a packed lineup. This is kind of open to interpretation, but it still stands: if you’re a beginner you should try to avoid paddling out into the middle of a pack of experienced veterans. Try to go out to a less crowded beginner break. You’ll know you’re in the wrong spot if you get the stink-eye! Rule #7: Don’t be a wave hog. Just because you can catch all the waves doesn’t mean you should. This generally applies to longboarders, kayakers, or stand up paddlers. Since it’s easier to catch waves on these watercraft, it becomes tempting to catch them all, leaving nothing for shortboarders on the inside. Give a wave, get a wave.

As an example to our keiki, surf aloha

Rule #8: Respect the beach Don’t litter. Simple as that. Pick up your trash, and try to pick up a few pieces of trash before you leave even if it’s not yours. Rule #9: Drive responsibly The locals who live in the residential areas near the beach deserve your respect. Don’t speed or drive recklessly. Rule #10: If you mess up Nobody really mentions this in surfing etiquette lists, but if you mess up and accidentally drop in or mess up someone’s wave, a quick

Photo: Peggy JOHNSON

essentially the dolphin’s social lifestyle—probably contributed to the process. For example, the more a dolphin needed to communicate, benefiting its survival, the more its brain evolved to permit that interaction.

Dolphin intelligence... by Ocean DEFENDER Hawaii


Moving to the present, dolphins have brains that are about “five times larger for their body size when compared to another animal of similar size,” Marino said. “In humans, the measure is seven times larger— not a huge difference.” She concluded, “Essentially, the brains of primates and cetaceans arrived at the same cognitive space while evolving along quite different paths.”

ntelligence itself is a very loaded issue. It’s difficult to compare one individual’s brilliance with that of another within the same species, much less to attempt to compare intelligence among multiple species. Intelligence is just one component of a species’ survival, so one can argue that spiders have evolved to be as smart as they need to be for their species to continue, rats are as brainy as they need to be, and so on. If human standards for intelligence are applied to non-human animals, however, dolphins come very close to our own brain aptitude levels, suggests Emory University dolphin expert Lori Marino. She’s performed MRI scans of dolphin brains. The scans prove dolphin brains are: - big, relative to body size - intricate, with a neocortex “more highly convoluted than our own” - structured to allow for self-awareness and the processing of what Marino calls “complex emotions” All animals share the capacity for emotions, she explained, but the part of the dolphin brain associated with processing emotional information is particularly expanded. Why then did dolphins evolve to become so brainy? Marino and her colleagues have analyzed modern dolphins and remains of ancient marine mammals to help answer that question. The first jump in brain size happened 39 million years ago, when odontocetes (members of an order that includes dolphins, toothed whales, sperm whales, beaked whales and porpoises) diverged from their ancestral Archaeoceti group. When this split occurred, body sizes for some decreased and brain sizes increased, especially in the ancestors of modern dolphins. This coincided with the emergence of echolocation, so improved communication skills likely were tied to the brain size boost. Fifteen million years ago yet another brain growth spurt happened. Marino and her colleagues speculate that changes in social ecology—

As a footnote to the above, it’s important to remember that killer whales, also known as orcas, are actually the largest members of the dolphin family. Since this piece first ran, killer whales have been scrutinized due to a killer whale attack at SeaWorld. Trainer Dawn Brancheau died in the incident, which is still under investigation. Lori Marino recently commented on the death, telling the Los Angeles Times: “I’m not trying to second-guess what was in this particular whale’s mind. But, certainly, if we are talking about whether killer whales have the wherewithal and the cognitive capacity to intentionally strike out at someone, or to be angry, or to really know what they are doing, I would have to say the answer is yes.” Aloha

Graphic: National Geographic

Many people other than veterans have suffered great deals of trauma and suffer from PTSD. These people have had nervous breakdowns, lost children and spouses, lost friends and family to suicide, been raped, molested, beaten, etc. And some may have just lost their way of life, trapped within a society with very few rights-of-passage, and the guidance of elders that was once the very core of society. Many Hawaiians and Native Americans became so distraught with the breakdown of their families, communities and cultures that they took their own lives as result. All hope was lost. Many emergency personnel who have been on the domestic front lines, such as police, paramedics, firefighters, counselors, social workers, CPS, etc. need the same kind of services that are in the making for war veterans. They need community healing centers and sanctuaries with housing. People all over the world, not just on Maui, are in need of assistance and a new inspiration. We would like to see Maui be an example. It is our “Kuleana,” right and responsibility to care for all we have been blessed with. We need to give thanks and to give back. Mother Earth, Father Sky, God, The Great Spirit and everything in creation is sacred. Everything that gives life is sacred; from A-Z, from “Wai” to “Me.” Wai: The life-giving fluid of all things and in many forms; blood, semen, sap, amniotic fluid, etc. Wai gives life. Wai is life. We drink water in order to sustain our life; to keep our life’s blood flowing. Like us, everything relies on water. However, like us, her veins and arteries

(Continued from page 9...)

Interview with Ocean Defender’s Orian Kalama

First off I am the president and founder of Ocean Defender Foundation. My name is Oriana Kalama and Ive been a maui resident since 1989. I started this page and our non profit after learning what was happening to our oceans. I felt I had to do something to help what I loved so much, our oceans. At the time I started I had no idea what ocean acidification was, what shark finning was, I didn’t know we were running out of fish, I had no idea we had a problem with plastic pollution never the less we had a floating trash gyre above our islands. After learning about all of this I felt the urge to help so I created this page and started sharing pictures of the ocean creatures I loved so much and the creatures we so desperately need to protect and save from extinction. I had to share my love for them with the rest of the world and make them love them as much as I did. I also started sharing the solutions to our problems and the simple but efficient ways that we can all help on a daily basis. First I realized that the main problem we have as humans now if that we have lost our sense of compassion for all living things. Many have and that is the first problem we need to address in order to be able to help our planet. This is actually our mission statement: “ We want to restore the sense of love and compassion for the ocean and all its creatures using information and education to create awareness. We truly believe that becoming more compassionate towards the ocean creatures and the ocean will inspire people to make better choices as consumers. We believe that this love and compassion will help them become better citizens of the world. We have created all 17 chapters world wide for the Ocean Defender Ohana and right now we are working to create Ocean Defender China. This is the good news for this month.

get clogged, cut off, or diverted. She struggles to provide nourishment to we, the whole of humanity, and all that is in our charge. “Charge” not to mean, to rule over, use, violate, destroy, control, it means to lead in righteousness, with compassion, love, honor and respect for everyone and everything. It’s a beautiful day in April. The Kai is aqua marine, my favorite color on this earth. One of the Cardinals died today, We buried him by under the tree, yet through the sadness and difficulties I continue to wake up feeling grateful. I’m grateful for my partner Kimo who supports me when I’m down and makes me laugh every day. He’s my love and companion. And I’m also grateful for everything else I see, taste, smell, hear and feel and also that which I cannot. I give thanks to the people with “Turkey Medicine” (Native American for “Givers”), the people parked nearby on the beach who would give their last dollar if you were in need. These are the people who spent their lives giving and who gave and gave until they felt they had nothing left to give, they continue, because it is in their nature to do so. Tonight I’ll sit at the point and watch the sunset as I do nearly every night. I’ll again be grateful for the abundance the Great Spirit has laid upon the sand for me today and I’ll be grateful for the friends and experiences I’ve had, Living Without Walls.

Mahalos for reading. Aloha

We are always open to work with other non profit organizations and groups who share the same concepts, goals and ideas. Our planet and the ocean are facing innumerable threats at the moment. Its hard to say what is the worst of our problems because they are all very serious. Lets talk about a few of them and talk about how to help at the same time since this is our style. It makes no sense to whine and cry about our problems if we don’t offer solutions, the next step is to ACT together and do the right thing, make the right choices, every day of our lives from now on. Over fishing. I personally grew up by the sea and seafood was a big part of my diet. Now not so much. I had to drastically decrease. I teat myself to fish occasionally and only when i know where it was caught. I do not eat shrimp since I know that its the most devastating type of fishery there is creating 12 pounds of by catch per pound of shrimp. Plastic pollution.REFUSE, reduce, reuse, recycle all plastics. Help clean up even if its not your mess, our beaches and water ways need you. Ocean dead zones. (hypoxia) Chemicals and fertilizers are running off in to our oceans and literally creating so much algae that there is no more oxygen left for our fish to breath. This is no science fiction this is happening. Industrial farming for food crops and animals are the culprits. Here AGAIN is how our choices can truly make a differenceChoosing local organic versus industrial and decreasing your animal meat consumption. Choosing eco friendly and biodegradable products. Climate change/ Global warming Natural or not we can still help and once again the most efficient way would be with our daily actions and choices since they add up so quickly when multiplied by thousands, lets imagine millions. The equation here is to decrease you carbon foot print in any possible way you can, every day. Changing our laws pertaining the protection of our natural resources. The time to act is now and getting involved is one way to help positive changes. Starting in your home, and your neighborhood, your community, your town. If we don’t speak up and get involved nothing will ever change.


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