Opisyal na lingguhang pahayagan ng mga mag-aaral ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas - Diliman Tomo 90, Blg. 21 Enero 17, 2013
Features ASPHALT ROADS, BUILDINGS OF GLASS AND CONCRETE, AND TENDED LANDSCAPES. THESE ARE EXACTLY THE FEATURES ENVISIONED IN THE AURORA PACIFIC ECONOMIC ZONE AND FREEPORT, WHICH COULD USHER DEVELOPMENT IN THE PROVINCE —OR MERELY ITS FAÇADE.
FALSE PRETENSES Punong Patnugot Kapatnugot
Patnugot sa Balita Patnugot sa Lathalain Patnugot sa Grapix
Huwebes 17 Enero 2013
Tagapamahala ng Sirkulasyon Sirkulasyon
Mga Katuwang na Kawani
WHEN THE PHILIPPINE economy achieved recordbreaking performance last year, the Aquino government was quick to take credit, announcing with much hubris that finally, the Filipino people have a reason to celebrate. The year 2012 left significant achievements for the Philippine economy— record-high stock exchange rates, the peso gaining the highest value against the US dollar in four years, and an unprecedented 7.1 percent growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) or the total amount of goods and services the country produces. Financial experts have also expressed their optimism for 2013, predicting an intensified influx of capital and even possible promotion of the Philippines to the coveted investment grade status. Yet, outside the marbled halls of the Stock Exchange and elegant interiors of corporate board rooms, growth remains elusive for most Filipinos who struggle to put food on the table every day. Indeed, instances of “economic prosperity” manufacture at least two realities: a country on the road to progress or one bound to further destitution.
For instance, there is little reason to rejoice on the recent GDP growth, especially when it was largely facilitated by government spending and public construction—a recurring trend whenever national elections loom—and not increased consumer consumption. Clearly, the economic boom was caused by the government’s infusion of huge sums of money in the economy, and not because Filipinos were able to spend more. Economic prosperity is not trickling down the greater population. While large corporations listed at the Philippine Stock Exchange reported an 18percent rise in net income to P377.12 from P319.97 from January 2012 to September 2012, around 102 small establishments closed primarily for its inability to compete, according to independent research institution IBON Foundation. No matter how the government insists, no illusion of progress could conceal the grim truth that poverty continues to enslave majority of Filipinos. Based on the latest Social Weather Stations self-rated poverty survey, the number of families
considering their selves poor swelled to 54 percent or 10.9 million households, from the 47 percent or 9.5 million last August. The country’s employment situation also worsened, as the number of jobless Filipinos surged to 6.8 percent in October 2012 from 6.4 percent in October 2011, according to the National Statistics Office. IBON estimates even a higher unemployment rate at 10.5 percent or 4.42 million Filipinos. With little improvement, the number of underemployed Filipinos has remained staggeringly high at 7.16 million in October 2012. Not even the prospects of a credit rating upgrade hold significant meaning, especially when decades of reliance to foreign investments have not translated to long-lasting benefits such as creation of stable and high-paying jobs, and development of basic industries needed to accelerate and sustain economic growth. As the peso’s value continues to rise, the vulnerability of the Philippine economy is further exposed for its dependence on external and volatile sources. An increase in peso’s value inevitably affects the income of Overseas Filipino Workers and their
families, and would spell adverse consequences to those engaged in export industries. Indeed, such economic situation becomes favorable only to the country’s elite and their cohorts— a hard truth that shatters any pretense of inclusive development. As the rich exchange champagne toasts, poor peasants continue to till lands that do not own, and workers continue to toil under unjust working conditions. Ushering inclusive and people-centered development does not end with positive economic indicators. Real progress requires sweeping and radical reform, which should include genuine agrarian reform that will stimulate the ailing agriculture sector, and renewed efforts towards national industrialization that could provide decent and stable jobs for more people. In the end, the worsening economic disparity among different brackets of society does not imply growth or development. Rather, it only fuels further discontent among the people who have long suffered in an economic setup that favors the few.
Pamuhatan Silid 401 Bulwagang Vinzons, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas Diliman, Lungsod Quezon Telefax 981-8500 lokal 4522 Email email@example.com Website philippinecollegian.org Kasapi Solidaridad: UP Systemwide Alliance of Student Publications and Writers’ Organizations, College Editors Guild of the Philippines Ukol sa Pabalat Dibuho ni Ysa Calinawan
Ang kasalatan sa kabuhayan ng sambayanan ang tunay na krisis ng demokraysa. UP AND THE CRISIS OF DEMOCRACY On genuine democracy as the advancement of the livelihood and welfare of the people Francis Ronald Perez March 15, 1990
As the Philippine Collegian celebrates its 90th year, we revisit lines from prized editorials that defined the publication’s tradition of critical and fearless journalism.
‘Econ progress not felt by poor’ – IBON Jelor Gallego
Despite reports of economic progress and political reform, President Benigno Aquino III has failed to institute genuine reforms that will lead to inclusive development and democratic governance, according to independent think tank IBON Foundation in its year-end BirdTalk, a bi-annual forum on the country’s economic and political situation. “Two-and-a-half years of profits without prosperity, persistence of undemocratic politics, and a lack of fundamental pro-people reforms have reaffirmed the country’s duality, a Philippines for the rich and another for the poor,” IBON stated in its report.
Blackout. Nagdaos ang #NotoCyber CrimeLaw coalition ng isang presscon sa UP Law Center noong Enero 12, ilang linggo bago mawalan ng bisa ang temporary restraining order na ipinatupad ng Supreme Court sa Republic Act 10175.
‘Faulty economics’ While the third quarter of 2012 posted a 7.1-percent increase in gross domestic product (GDP), IBON reported that “growth” was accomplished at the expense of small businesses and the Filipino working class. “Amid higher unemployment and bankruptcy for smaller establishments, big businesses posted increase in profits,” IBON said. Of the 102 establishments which reported closure in 2012, 97 had below 100 employees. In contrast, big corporations listed at the Philippine Stock Exchange posted an 18-percent increase in net income, from P319.97 billion in January 2012 to P377.12 billion in September 2012. In terms of industries, sectors credited for growth are those that are driven by foreign capital and debt, IBON reported. Agriculture accounted only for 10.7 percent of the GDP, its smallest contribution in history, while manufacturing is at 21.8 percent, which is as low as its share in the 1950s. Meanwhile, IBON explained that the economic “boom” in the
past year was largely driven by government spending. During the same period, private households spent less on food and non-alcoholic beverages and spent more on basic services, such as water and electricity, IBON reported. In the past year, the government also further advanced privatization schemes through publicprivate partnerships (PPPs), citing higher electricity rates, higher service rates in public hospitals, and impending hikes in water and mass railway transport this year. Meanwhile, at the end of 2012, land distribution under the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program Extension with Reforms (CARPER) was five years behind schedule. “From July 2010 to
September 2012, [the Aquino administration] distributed only 14,942 hectares of land per month… 65 percent of [which] was owned by government… and not by big landlords,” according to IBON.
Labor woes Supposed economic growth also did not translate to job creation, IBON noted. Data from the National Statistics Office instead show that even growing sectors posted high numbers of layoffs, such as in the wholesale and retail trade industry which grew seven percent in the third quarter but recorded 728,000 job losses as of October 2012. Government data reveal that general unemployment slightly increased from 6.4 percent in October 2011 to 6.8 percent in
October 2012, while underemployment improved nominally but remained high at 7.16 million or 19 percent as of October 2012. Currently, government computations for unemployment exclude discouraged job hunters. According to IBON data, the real unemployment rate is currently at 10.5 percent, which translates to 4.42 million jobless Filipinos. Meanwhile, for those employed, wages remain below decent living costs, with the P456 minimum wage in National Capital Region (NCR) being eroded by inflation to a real value of P363.64, based on 2006 prices. According to IBON estimates, a family of six in the NCR needed of P1,038 every day in November 2012 to have decent food, shelter,
Online, offline protests greet start of Cybercrime Law oral arguments Hundreds of protesters from various sectors flocked outside the Supreme Court on January 15, the day of the high tribunal’s four-hour hearing on the oral arguments of the petitioners against Republic Act No. 10175 or the Cybercrime Prevention Act (CPA). The protesters called for the indefinite extension of the temporary restraining order (TRO) on the CPA until the SC repeals the said law. Issued a month after President Benigno Aquino III signed the CPA into the law, the 120-day TRO is set to expire on February 6. Various youth and student groups also held a vigil the pre-
vious night, while netizens launched a simultaneous campaign under the unified hashtag #NoToCybercrimeLaw. “We have been fighting the Cybercrime Law since the beginning, and we are determined to vanquish it no matter what,” said Kabataan Partylist President Terry Ridon. Meanwhile, five lawyers represented the 16 petitioners against CPA and laid out arguments before the SC on why the dubbed “eMartial Law” infringes upon the constitutional rights to freedom of speech and due process. Lawyer Harry Roque argued that several provisions of the CPA are “too broad” and “too vague,”
explaining that such infirmity in the law can result to the infringement to certain civil liberties. Meanwhile, Bayan Muna Representative Neri Colmenares explained why prosecution and penalties under Sections 6 and 7 are unconstitutional. Section 6 and 7 of the CPA effectively imposes higher penalties for all crimes listed in the Revised Penal Code when committed with the use of information and communication technologies. Technology law expert Jesus Disini Jr. discussed how Section 12 authorizes the government to collect the traffic data from service providers in real-time, while Philip-
pine Bar Association legal counsel Rodel Cruz spoke against Section 19, which authorizes the Department of Justice to shut down websites with “harmful content.” Human rights lawyer Julius Matibag addressed Section 5(a) and (b) which penalizes people who attempt to commit or wilfully aid any cybercrime offense. “The protest action today is [only] the beginning of a protracted battle against Aquino’s E-Martial Law. On January 22, the Office of the Solicitor General will be defending the government’s position on the matter, and we will be back here to express our utmost disgust,” Ridon said.
clothing, and a small amount of savings and money for leisure. However, instead of adjusting wages to meet decent living costs, Aquino is implementing a wage system which gives private companies the prerogative to determine how much workers are entitled to receive, IBON said. Under the two-tier wage system (2TWS), workers will receive a lower floor wage set by the regional wage boards and allows companies to determine an additional “productivity allowance” based on an “agreement” between the management and the employees. “Overall, economic growth affected only a minority of the population namely the business sectors. The government must ensure that this growth translates to job creation and should boost the manufacturing and agriculture sectors,” said IBON Executive Director Jazminda Lumang.
‘Malfunctioning democracy’ The country’s political landscape in 2012 was characterized by the Aquino administration’s consolidation of its political power through building a democratic and pro-poor façade while advancing foreign and domestic elite interests, IBON reported. While the administration bolstered its image through its banner anti-corruption campaign and its multi-billion shortterm conditional cash transfer program, far-reaching bureaucratic reforms remain absent, IBON said. Aside from fostering favourable conditions for foreign investors and domestic big business to gain profits, the Aquino Continued to page 4
BALITA Huwebes 17 Enero 2013
GASC adopts CRSRS without amendments
BALITA Huwebes 17 Enero 2013
The 31st Student Regent (SR) will be chosen in April using the 16 year-old Codified Rules for SR Selection (CRSRS) which was adopted without amendments by the General Assembly of Student Councils (GASC) on December 23 at UP Los Baños (LB). The CRSRS is a student-drafted set of rules which govern the annual process of selecting the next SR, the sole student representative in the Board of Regents (BOR), the university’s highest decision-making body. Of the total 37 local and university student councils (SCs) across the UP system in attendance, 21 voted “yes” to uphold the CRSRS, six voted “no,” while 10 abstained from voting. The UP Baguio University Student Council (USC) and the UP Diliman (UPD) College of Social Sciences and Philosophy (CSSP) SC initially proposed two key amendments to the CRSRS: the inclusion of a minimum academic requirement for SR nominees and a new “one-council, onevote” system. Both councils however withdrew all their respective proposed amendments. The said councils questioned the integrity of the GASC after the UP Manila (UPM) USC pointed out “automatic” revisions in the 2011 CRSRS which reflect the updated provisions on the new voting powers of UP Cebu (UPC), UP Manila (UPM) School of Health Sciences (SHS) in Koronadal and UPM SHS in Baler, Aurora. “[The] CRSRS document we handed out to our constituents was no longer the applicable document being discussed in the GASC, since it was… automatically being amended without our knowledge,” said UPD CSSP SC Chair Carlo Brolagda. UPC previously had one vote in the SR selection but now wields two votes after being declared an
autonomous unit in 2010, while the said UPM SHS campuses, which previously had no voting powers, were given a vote each in the CRSRS. Delegates of the CSSP SC and the UPB USC said they were not
against the new votes accorded to the said units but maintained that these “revisions” should have been first approved by the GASC. SR Cleve Kevin Robert Arguelles ruled that such necessary revisions
are not considered as amendments and thus do not need prior approval of the body. The GASC junked an appeal from the UPM USC, with 18 councils in favour of Arguelles’s ruling, eight in favour of the appeal, and six in abstention. Smash. Lady Maroon Medelene Ramos jump smashes the ball in a doubles match with Joanna Peña against the Lady Eagles at the Rizal Memorial Sports Complex in Manila on January 13. UP aced ADMU with a score of 4-1 in its first outing in the UAAP Women’s Lawn Tennis Tournament.
CRSRS amendments have been proposed before the GASC throughout the years but have been defeated by the majority vote, with the exception of the proposed amendments before the 2005 GASC, which was approved but repealed in the succeeding year. In a 2008 systemwide referendum, following the passage of the UP Charter, 19,068 UP students, or 73 percent of the total 26,118 students who participated, ratified the CRSRS.
‘Econ progress not felt by poor’ - IBON Continued from page 3
administration also sought to get full support from the United States. IBON noted the series of high-level visits and exchanges between the two governments and the Aquino administration’s concession to a wider and virtually permanent US military presence in the country. “The Aquino administration will be distinguished for ushering in a new era of a greater US military presence in the country and of more formal mechanisms for US intervention in domestic economic and political matters,” IBON said. Meanwhile, state-sponsored human rights violations still persist, with 132 extrajudicial killings, 12 disappearances, 298 political prisoners, 72 torture cases, and 46 illegal arrests recorded from July to December 2012, according to IBON estimates. “[Aquino] is approaching [his] midterm with little to show in terms of remedying the country’s malfunctioning democracy, instituting far-reaching reform, and realizing a more progressive vision of the country,” IBON concluded.
UP Booters fail to break Ateneo winning streak, 1-0
The UP Booters’ impressive offense and defense play fell short of breaking the Ateneo de Manila University Blue Booters’ winning streak so far this season, as Ateneo managed to goal towards the end of the match, 1-0, in the men’s football division of the University Athletic Association of the Philippines (UAAP) held at the Erenchun Field at Ateneo on January 13. The first half of the game kicked off to an aggressive start with an
attempt by the Maroons at the Ateneo goalpost within the first minute. An early attempt by Ateneo almost got through at the seventh minute with a goal that hit the upright, while Ateneo’s goalie Yu Murayama parried an almost sure goal by the Maroons at the 35th minute. The second half saw Ateneo switching to a more aggressive strategy, while the Maroons responded with a tighter defense.
Maroon Booter and 2nd year Sports Science (SS) major Gabriel Mendoza led a frenzied offense at the 60th minute and went oneon-one with Murayama but failed to score a goal. Maroon Booter and 5th year SS major Deo Segunial later attempted another goal with a header that was blocked by Ateneo. The stalemate was almost broken when Blue Booter Emman Paredes managed to bypass the
State U defense but his kick went straight to UP’s keeper. The stalemate finally ended at the 85th minute when Blue Booters rookie Carlo Liay was able to turn around the offense and score a goal. The Blue Booters were able to maintain their lead despite UP’s lastminute attempts to score. “We thought we were dominating, just not scoring but they were able to pierce through [our defense]. We just have to prac-
tice some more and gain back our confidence,” said UP football coach Andres Crisanto Gonzales. Three points are allotted for a win in football, two points for a draw, and zero for a loss. The result of this match keeps Ateneo in the first place with 16 points after 5 wins and one draw. The defending champion from last season, UP still remains within the top four with seven points after two wins and one loss.
Non-UP contractuals push for 13th month pay benefit Jul Mar Esteban
The All-UP Workers Union (AUPWU) will submit a letter this week to UP Diliman (UPD) Chancellor Caesar Saloma to push for the inclusion of 13th month pay benefits in the employment contracts of over 300 UPD contractual workers who are not considered official employees of the university. While the UPD administration grants Christmas bonuses of around P2,500 to P5,000 to non-UP contractuals every year, these amounts are not specified in the said workers’ contracts and are subject to the availability of funds and discretion of administrative officials, said AUPWU – Diliman President Noel Marquina. Non-UP contractuals are employees whose contracts do not stipulate an employee-employer relationship with UP and thus are not legally entitled to benefits such as the 13th month pay. Such an arrangement however is unfair, as non-UP contractuals perform jobs similar to regular UP employees, such as research support, facilities maintenance, and clerical services, said UP Staff Regent Jossel Ebesate. Like many government units and agencies, the university hires employees as non-UP contractual workers to keep costs at a minimum and offset the effects of insufficient state subsidy, Ebesate explained. To jumpstart the negotiations with the administration, the AUPWU plans to call a meeting with the Union Management Consultancy Body, a committee composed of union and administration representatives who discuss employee-related issues and concerns. The union hopes the negotiations would result in the form of new provisions on 13th month pay and other benefits in the contracts, the insertion of an employee-employer relationship clause, or salary adjust-
ments to reflect monetary benefits, said Marquina. Ultimately, however, the AUPWU is advocating for the regularization of non-UP contractual workers, which would best ensure rights and benefits are properly accorded to UPD employees. “[Hopefully,] this action may [also] serve as a precedent for other UP units,” Marquina added. According to Maurine Ann Victorino, a non-UP contractual working as an emergency research assistant at the Office of the Student Housing for four years, an employer-employee relationship clause in her contract would also entitle her to benefits she currently does not enjoy, such as health and social security insurance. At the minimum, however, the inclusion of a mandatory 13th month pay in her contract would help in augmenting her daily salary of P792, especially since she does not receive any salary on non-working days during the Christmas season other than the non-compulsary Christmas bonus, Victorino added.
BALITA Huwebes 17 Enero 2013
INUTILE. Progressive groups hold a protest outside the Department of Justice on January 8 during the first meeting of the government’s human rights “superbody” against extrajudicial killings. The protesters insisted that the Inter-agency Committee on Extra-Legal Killings, Enforced Disappearances, Torture and Other Grave Violations of the Right to Life, Liberty and Security of Persons is unnecessary in solving human rights cases especially when the counter insurgency program of the administration is still in effect because it will not prevent violations done by the state agencies.
APB-Masig ruckus ends in SDT charges George Mitchell Guerrero Members of the Alpha Phi Beta (APB) and Alpha Sigma (Masig) fraternities face charges of actionable misconduct before the Student Disciplinary Tribunal (SDT), after members of the said fraternities were involved in a brawl at the Masig tambayan near the East Wing gate of Palma Hall on December 11. In a joint complaint filed at the SDT on December 18, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy (CSSP) Dean Michael Tan and CSSP Student Council Chair Carlo Broglada said the frat men violated Section 1 of Rule 1 of the UP Revised Rules and Regula-
tions Governing Fraternities, Sororities, and Student Organizations. Under the said rule, “participating in any rumble, engaging in fisticuffs with, or physically attacking a member of other fraternities, sororities or student organizations” are punishable by expulsion from the university. According to UP Diliman Police (UPDP) reports, six to seven APB members allegedly attacked the Masig tambayan, where about 10 Masig members were staying, at around 1:20 PM. Security guard Amor Badjao said she attempted to stop the ensuing clash, while security guard Ferdinand Marcos
radioed the UPDP and prevented one fraternity member from beating an opponent. The involved frat men dispersed before UPDP officers arrived, said Badjao in her report. The confrontation stemmed from a “misunderstanding” between two members of the opposing fraternities, said Masig Political Committee Head Garret Paris. Both parties however refused to elaborate further. The SDT, the complainants, and both fraternities refused to divulge the identities of those involved in the case, citing Section 7 of the 2009 Code of Student Conduct which
More than 2 years after UP botanist’s death
DOJ yet to resolve Leonard Co case
Jul Mar Esteban UnTIL the Department of Justice (DOJ) finally reaches a resolution on the case of botanist Leonard Co, who was allegedly killed by army men two years ago, the family of the former UP professor still cannot file any formal charges against the suspects. On December 18, the Commission on Human Rights (CHR) recommended the filing of administrative and criminal charges against two commanding officers and eight soldiers of the 19th Infantry Battalion of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). According to the CHR’s own investigations, Co and his two research assistants were conducting an inventory of native tree species
in the forests of Kananga, Leyte in November 2010, when they were killed by soldiers who mistook them for insurgents. The CHR refuted earlier claims by the AFP that there was a crossfire between the military and alleged “communist rebels” when the incident happened. In 2010, an independent investigation by scientist group Advocates of Science and Technology for the People also revealed that bullet marks left on the trees imply that the trajectory came from only one direction and that the soldiers aimed directly at the victims. “This was a tragedy that [would] not have happened if the [military] had been more diligent in observ-
ing international humanitarian law in protecting the lives and safety of civilians,” the CHR said in a statement. The DOJ, however, has yet to determine the appropriate charges against the suspects, even if 60 days have passed since Co’s lawyer Atty. Evalyn Ursua filed a motion for resolution in November 2012, said UP professor and Justice for Leonard Co Movement convenor Giovanni Tapang. The DOJ’s inaction could only be explained either by the government’s lack of political will to deliver justice to human rights victims or by the military’s pressure on the DOJ, said Ursua. “[President Benigno Aquino III], in his inaugural speech, enjoined the
whole bureaucracy to serve in [his] ‘Tuwid na Daan.’ I [am] not demanding [anything] less than that. I am just expecting that the death of my husband and his companions be given a fair, just, and speedy trial,” said Co’s wife Glenda. DOJ Secretary Leila De Lima must also be held accountable for the long delay in justice for the victims, which runs contrary to her earlier promise to expedite the release of the preliminary investigation results, Ursua added. “If we leave the DOJ to its own devices, the case will take a long time to be resolved. We should continue pushing for justice,” said Justice for Leonard Co Movement Coordinator Niel Caidic.
places details of case records under confidentiality. The filing of the cases is a welcome “exercise of [following] due process” and an opportunity to prove that Masig members “took no part” in the incident, said Paris. APB, on the other hand, decried the publicity of the filing of charges as “sensationalism.” Both fraternities said any punishment must come after exhaustive investigation. “We would prefer to [discuss incidental facts] in a proper forum, following the proper process,” said an APB spokesman who requested anonymity. Within a few hours after the incident, leaders of both fraternities contacted each other through UP Barkada, an alliance of 17 fraternities and student group Student Alliance for the Advancement of Democratic Rights in UP, said Paris. Both parties agreed to a truce through a one-page document signed by APB Lord Chancellor Dino Regalario and Masig Lord Chancellor Anton Sison. Truces, however are only “interim arrangements” and are necessary because of the absence of an administrative body which can mediate between fraternities. Fraternity-related violence forms part of a greater culture of violence, UPD University Student Council Councilor Aryanna Canacan said. She cautioned against sensationalizing the incident and said student councils and organizations themselves must initiate projects to reform relations between fraternities.
MATATANAW MULA SA MALAYO ang isang mahabang prusisyon. Sa paglapit, mapapansin ang 50-metrong lubid na nakatali sa isang karosang lulan ang rebulto ng itim na Kristo —ang bida ng pista sa araw na iyon. May 20 nakadilaw na lalaki ang nakaangkas sa karosa; sinasalo’t ipinupunas nila sa rebulto ang nagliliparang mga tuwalya at panyo bago itapon ang mga ito pabalik sa dagat ng mga deboto na nag-uunahang makaakyat at makahalik sa itim na Kristo. Ganito ang eksena sa prusisyon ng pista ng Poong Itim na Nazareno tuwing Enero 9. Unang sinimulan ang prusisyong ito noong ika-17 siglo bilang paggunita sa Traslación o ang paglipat sa rebulto ng Nazareno mula sa Intramuros papuntang Quiapo Church. Noong nakaraang linggo, unang beses kong sumama sa prusisyon na dati ay sa telebisyon ko lamang napapanood. Hindi pa man bumubukang liwayway, sinimulan ko nang maglakbay patungong Quiapo. Napansin ko sa paglalakad na may pagkakatulad ang hitsura ng mga deboto. Lahat sila, may dalang maliliit na rebulto ng Nazareno, mga banner na nakatahi ang katagang “Hijos del Señor Nazareno” o “Mga Anak ng Poong Nazareno,” may mga hawak na mga bulaklak at kandila, o kaya nama’y nakasuot ng mga dilaw at maroon na t-shirt kung saan nakaimprenta ang mukha ng Nazareno. Katulad ni Kristo nang siya’y umakyat sa bundok ng Golgotha, wala ring saplot sa paa ang mga deboto sa prusisyon. Tila ba sinisimbolo nito ang kanilang pagiging malapit sa realidad ng kahirapang naranasan din ni Kristo noon.
Ayon sa mga deboto, nakagagaling ng sakit at nagdadala ng suwerte ang mga tuwalyang naipahid sa istatwa. Kuwento ni Mang Philip, isa sa mga nakasalubong kong deboto na tatlumpung taon nang dumadalo sa pista, ang biyaya ng Nazareno ang dahilan ng pagkakaroon niya ng trabaho at paggaling ng anak niyang may sakit. Kaya habang papunta sa Luneta, naisipan kong bumili na rin ng maliit na tuwalyang may print ng mukha ni Nazareno. Patapos na ang misa nang makarating ako sa Quirino Grandstand. Natanaw ko ang Nazareno sa tabi ng entablado. Nakarating ako sa gitna ng dagat ng mga deboto, at nang matapos ang misa, ipinawagayway ng pari ang mga tuwalya’t panyo—senyas na gagalaw na ang karosa ng Nazareno. Sumabog ang malakas na hiyawan ng mga tao. “Magkakatrabaho na kayo! Magkaka-asawa na kayo! Makakapag-abroad na kayo!” sigaw ng pari sa mikropono habang tumutugtog ang “Nuestra Padre Jesus Nazareno.” Pamilyar ang mga katagang iyon ng pari—iyon din kasi ang mga propesiya ng tagumpay na naririnig ko sa mga manghuhula sa Quiapo. Kahit saan ako lumingon, bentang-benta ang kasiyahang dulot ng milagrosong Nazareno, na tila ba nalalapit na ang pagsibol ng masaganang buhay kapalit ng walang maliw na pananalig ng mga tao. Ako man, hindi na rin nakapagpigil at nakisabay na rin sa pagtalon, nakiwagayway ng tuwalya at humiling na magkaroon ng nobyo, makapagtapos sa kolehiyo, at maging suwerte sa buong taon. Sa harapan ko, may debotong biglang sumigaw ng “Ayan na! Ayan na!” nang magsimulang gumalaw ang karosa. Nagkagitgitan ang mga tao, at sa isang iglap, naipit ako sa
gitna ng nagsisiksikang kalalakihan. Dito na ako nagsimulang manlamig at matakot na baka magkaroon ng stampede. Kaya naman kahit natatangay na ako palapit sa lubid na humihila sa karosa, kinalaban ko ang bugso ng mga deboto’t hinanap ko ang bakal na humaharang sa mga nanonood. Nang makaabot sa harang, nagpatulong ako sa isang deboto na sumampa palabas dito. Mula sa likod ng harang ko na lamang sinundan ang parada ng poon. Tinangka kong ibato ang binili kong tuwalya sa mga tagapunas, ngunit nahulog lamang ito sa gitna ng naggigitgitang mga deboto. Bumili ulit ako ng dalawang tuwalya at iwinagayway ang mga ito sa ere. Kahit sa gilid ng kalsada, mamamasid ang mga debotong may kanya-kanyang pangangailangan: mga walang trabaho o walang asawa, mga magulang na gustong tumaas ang grado ng kanilang mga anak, mga propesyunal na gustong mag-abroad, mga estudyanteng gustong makapasa, at pati mga dayuhang photographer na naakit sa magulong palabas. Isa pa si Reggie, 18, sa mga debotong nakausap ko noong araw na iyon. Katulad ko, unang beses din niyang dumalo sa pista ng Nazareno. Hiling niyang magkatrabaho, maging maayos ang alitan nila ng kanyang ina, at na hindi siya magkasakit sa buong taon. Gusto niyang makasampa ng tatlong beses sa karosa—isa para sa bawat hiling. Kuwento niya, ibang klase raw ang ligaya sa pagsampa, lalo’t mahirap at masakit makipaggitgitan sa mga tao. Tiwala siyang matutupad ang mga hiling niya kapalit ng hirap na kanyang tinitiis para mapatunayan ang debosyon niya sa poon. Pitong tao ang nakita kong nahimatay at isinugod sa medic. Gayunman, hindi alintana at bagkus ay hinihikayat pa ng
TA N UN G M M -T AN AYA IL AO IT G M YU NG N IM PR AN N-M D BU A P NA US M IL IN N O INA NA ISY AN YO AD N AS NG KA Z ON O NG AG M G K ABI BA M ARE N MA P SA KU AR AS NG N ATA NO G HI ILIP TA NG APA AG RI SA. GA — PIS RAP IN O N YO T T AN TW NG L AN TA , , IM G H NG UN NA AA AL U NA G I NG AH IW P AY SU N N NIT LA TIN P EN AG IN N RI AT A N SA KA U OO I A R T N A N LA GA N SUW AN LI AN UR NG KO I K G LA B A I N E RI Y A RT G D SA NG ST NA A A N E KO G , O IIB . AN G
Huwebes 17 Enero 2013
simbahan ang t a u n a n g histeryang ito ng milyun-milyong deboto. Naalala ko tuloy ang pagkahayok kong abangan ang mga horoscope ni Zenaida Seva sa telebisyon noong high school, ang pagpapagulong ng prutas ng aking ina tuwing Bagong Taon, at ang paniniwala ng aking lola sa kumakating palad tuwing tataya siya sa lotto. Para bang sa mga pangyayaring ito, nauuna lagi ang bias sa mga pamahiin at metapisikal na paniniwala. Kahit walang malinaw na kaugnayan sa realidad, laging naitatali ang mga panata’t paniniwalang ito bilang ugat ng maraming kaganapan sa mundo. Sa natunghayan kong prusisyon, ang simbahan mismo ang nagtakda sa ritwal na dapat sinusunod ng mga deboto. Sa Kristiyanismo, kinikilala ang pagsasabuhay sa simple, hindi makasarili, at matulunging karakter ni Kristo. Kaiba ito sa kasalukuyang paniniwalang ipinalalaganap ng simbahan na magpakasakit at manalig upang matugunan ang kanilang mga kahilingang umasenso sa buhay. Kahit sa panahon ng Mahal na Araw, makikita ang mga taong pinapalo at sinusugatan ang mga sarili bilang penitensiya sa kanilang mga kasalanan. Kahit pa sabihing isinasabuhay nila ang sakit na naranasan ni Kristo, malayo ito sa aral ng Bibliya na alagaan umano ang sariling katawan. Nang napagod na ang mga mata ko sa kapapanood ng parada, umuwi na akong bitbit ang mga
biniling tuwalya. Hindi ako umaasang matutupad ang mga hiling ko dahil lamang isa ako sa 9 na milyon kataong tumalon at humiyaw noong araw na iyon. Ngunit para sa mga kasama kong deboto, hindi magtatagal at masusuklian din ang kanilang paniniwala’t pagsamba. Sa tuwing binabalikan ko ang hitsura ng mga deboto, lalo kong naisip na malayong-malayo sila sa mapagpalayang karakter ng itim na Kristo—ang santong kawangis ng mga Pilipinong sunog ang balat, ang santong naiiba dahil hindi ito kulay porselana. Dulot ng bulag na paniniwala at ritwal ng panatisismong pinalalaganap ng simbahan, tila nakakaligtaan na ang pangunahing katangian ng Poong Nazareno na tumataliwas sa kumbensyon ng ordinaryong relihiyosong rebulto. Kung babalik man ako sa susunod na taon, ihihiling ko na lang na magising na sa katotohanan ang mga Pilipino. *pasintabi kay Maryo J. de los Reyes
THE BEAUTEOUS WATERY landscape of Tawi-Tawi was not enough to keep the movie afloat. Even the hallowed presence of a Superstar did not merit it due consideration. When the scales have been tipped, it is always the highest grossing fare that gets a longer run in the cinemas. “I was saddened by this unfortunate turnout of events in the festival. I had to speak up through the media and during the awards night not to pull out ‘Thy Womb’ from the theatres and give it a chance to be seen by the movie going public,” said director Brillante Ma Mendoza. More than an issue of art versus commerce, what remains is the lack of avenues for independent filmmakers to thrive. As with other art forms, cinema needs its own space, one where it can showcase its virtuosity and foster a passionate audience.
Movies and a Memory The Metro Manila Film Festival (MMFF) has dramatically changed since it was first envisioned by Antonio Villegas, then Mayor of Metro Manila, to be an avenue to showcase the finest works of Filipino filmmakers back in the early 70’s. Perhaps, this is no longer the same festival that introduced Filipino viewers to the profundity of Ishmael Bernal’s “Himala,” to the harshness of Lino Brocka’s “Insiang,” or to the depraved ecstasy of Celso Ad Castillo’s “Burlesk Queen.” Since the early 2000s, when the MMFF has started awarding the best picture trophies to the top-grossing films in competition, it seemed like its whole paradigm shifted—this no longer served as a festival for filmmakers but a festival for producers. This still proved to be beneficial for the local film industry, for the heightened sense of competition propelled major studios to produce more palatable films for the public. A decade hence, there has been an onslaught of films with wise-cracking fairies,
amulet-bearing macho men, and child-centered fanfare that graced the festival. Yet, this shift ultimately displaced the independent filmmakers whose basic intention was to showcase their films. “I just want a fair share of the opportunity to be one of the films that will be allowed to be shown without the fear of being pulled [out] at least within the duration of the festival,” Mendoza adds. By comparison, national cinemas of other countries try to accommodate both mainstream releases and arthouse films. Not only are dedicated venues for cinema state-sponsored, but also the actual film making itself. In the Philippines, there remains a sizeable audience for arthouse cinema yet the dedicated venues where they can foster this passion remain limited. Even though film appreciation is slowly gaining ground in the country, the idea of local cinematheques still seem rather foreign, perhaps as foreign as its French predecessor.
An Old Man and His Projector “An art form requires genius. People of genius are
THE ALLURE OF CINEMA HAS SMITTEN PEOPLE FOR DECADES. IN AN AGE GONE DIGITAL, THE IMPORTANCE OF DEDICATED SPACES FOR THE HIGHER APPRECIATION OF CINEMA STANDS CONTESTED. YET ALL OVER THE WORLD, PEOPLE STILL SEEM TO FLOCK THE CINEMATHEQUES, PERHAPS TO ADD A TINGE OF OZU OR AT LEAST A DASH OF BAZIN TO THEIR EVENINGS.
always troublemakers, meaning they start from scratch, demolish accepted norms and rebuild a new world.” It is from this method of madness that Henri Langlois gave birth to the first cinematheque in France, a testament to the French people’s insatiable love for cinema. The cinematheque is a cinephile’s paradise. Langlois, being a voracious cinephile himself, knew that a dedicated venue is needed for the perpetuation and higher appreciation of cinema. At once a screening house for classic and contemporary films, the cinematheque also serves as a film repository and a breeding ground for film enthusiasts and aspiring auteurs. The likes of Truffaut, Godard, Chabrol and Resnais were once called “children of the cinematheque,” always at the front row of packed screenings at the Cinematheque Francaise. “The very concept of cinematheques is different from [that of a cineplex]. In order for cinematheques to work, it must be run like a church. It must be a church, where people flock religiously to experience cinema. Cinema needs a church, and that essentially is the cinematheque,” says Lav Diaz, a prolific Filipino film director. Truly, for the most passionate of film collectors and viewers, cinema is already a religion, one imbued with its own valuable artifacts, sacred rituals, infallible doctrines, and sites of pilgrimage. Perhaps it is every
cinephiles dream to traverse the aisles of the Cinematheque Francaise, in the same vein that they might want to possess the entire Criterion Collection for their personal stash. This higher appreciation for cinema is yet to be cultivated in the country. As it stands, the Philippines is the last country to have its own national film archive. Through the efforts of the Film Development Council of the Philippines (FDCP), local cinematheques have recently been established in Baguio, Davao, Iloilo, and Marawi. In two years’ time, it will have grown to 16 cinematheques in 16 regions in the Philippines. By showing a wide range of selections, from classics to contemporary mainstream releases, arthouse to animation, the cinematheque tries to move beyond its elitist stigma to create a venue-centered activity that fosters film viewing as a communal experience. Rather than seeing movie going as a luxury afforded by a select few, it should be seen as a shared experience that helps define and strengthen our culture.
Beyond Nostalgia More than an object or a commodity, cinema is an event and an experience. The cinematheque reduces cinema to its bare essentials of having a set time and space, projection equipment and, most importantly, an audience. As with churches, cinematheques also desire to be a common fixture in our communities. The lack of dedicated venues for the experience of cinema addresses not a gap in the local film industry, but a gap in culture. “This system needs visionary leadership, one that fully understands the importance of cinema in our culture. If there is no great love for culture there, then that would be problematic. It would just be a patched-up project,” Diaz adds. Perhaps it is a leadership as mad as Langlois’, who collected, restored and showcased every kind of film regardless of taste. As he famously stated, “to love cinema is to love life, to really look at this window on the universe.” At this point of having a global, virtual cinematheque, where films are easily accessible online and through portable digital devices, the relevance of the cinematheque as a dedicated venue stands contested. The potency of the cinematheque to foster communal and cultural awareness in the Philippines is still not fully explored. The cinematheque, at its core, holds the connection between the past and the future of cinema. The archiving and showcasing of films gone by and films to be are never for its own sake, but for the sake of the imagination. More than collecting traces of the past and textures of the present, the cinematheque can ultimately shape the future of cinema, one rife with artistic potential and revolutionary aspirations.
*With apologies to Giuseppe Tornatore
KULTURA Huwebes 17 Enero 2013
NABUBUHAYAN ANG MALUNGKOT na mga mata ni Mildred Abiya kapag napag-uusapan ang love story nila ng kanyang asawa. Nakangiti siya habang ikinikuwento kung gaano katorpe si Rene Boy “RB” Abiya noong magkasintahan pa lamang sila. Sobrang kabado raw si RB nang minsang magdate sila sa Sunken Garden kaya hindi nito naiabot sa kanya nang maayos ang regalong singsing. “Sayang ng moment,” aniya. Palabiro man at palangiti, mahirap kaligtaan ang bigat at lungkot sa boses at postura ni Mildred. Ngunit kahit na hindi ako ang unang reporter na hinarap niya noong araw na iyon, walang pagod at tuloy-tuloy pa rin niyang inilalahad ang kuwento ng LATHALAIN kanyang asawa na kasalukuyang BALITA nakakulong para sa kasalanang Huwebes hindi naman nito ginawa. 17 Enero Palibhasa bihirang maibalita Miyerkules 2013 sa mga pahayaga’t telebisyon 27 Hunyo 2012 ang tungkol sa mga insidente ng human rights violation (HRVs) – lalo na sa mga probinsya – hindi pamilyar ang pangalan ng asawa ni Mildred, na ngayon ay kabilang na sa 176 na naitalang bilanggong pulitikal sa bansa noong 2012. Kaya naman pansamantalang iniwan ni Mildred ang kanyang trabaho bilang guro sa Cagayan Valley (CV) upang lumuwas tungong Maynila upang maipaalam sa mga tao ang kuwento ng asawa niyang human rights worker.
Paunang imbestigasyon Hindi makapaniwala si Mildred na darating ang panahon na ang asawa niya mismo ang magiging biktima ng mga kaso ng HRVs. Noon pa man kasi, ang parehong dedikasyon nila ni RB sa pagtatanggol sa karapatang pantao na ang naging pandayan ng kanilang pag-iibigan. Kapwa miyembro ng magkaibang human rights group
sina Mildred at RB. Nagkakilala sila noong taong 2008 nang magkaroon ng pulong sa UP Diliman ang grupong KarapatanCV, na kinabibilangan ni Mildred, at grupong Lakas ng Kabataan Para sa Bayan-CV, na kinabibilangan naman ni RB. Pinaplano nila noon ang pagbisita sa mga bilanggong pulitikal sa CV, na kalauna’y napalaya dahil sa paglabang isinagawa ng kanilang mga grupo. Nag-aaral si RB sa Polytechnic University of the Philippines noon, samantalang sa CV naman nakabase si Mildred. “We would meet in UP every time na nasa Manila ako. [Kumakain kami] sa SC, tapos tatambay sa Vinzons, sa ilalim ng mga puno, sa harap ng mga dorm,” kuwento niya. Bukod sa pagiging human rights worker, pareho ring pangarap na makapagturo nina Mildred at RB, na miyembro rin ng Alliance of Concerned Teachers, isang grupong nagsusulong sa karapatan ng mga titser. Bago hinuli si RB, kapwa silang nag-aaral ng post-graduate sa isang pamantasan sa CV. Kasabay nito, nagtatrabaho rin si RB bilang municipal coordinator ng Department of Social Work and Development (DSWD) sa Baggao, Tuguegarao. Magtatatlong taon nang kasal sina Mildred at RB, ngunit magkahiwalay nilang sinalubong ang bagong taon. Nasira ang mga plano nila para sa media noche nang dakpin si RB ng mga pulis noong Disyembre 28, 2012, at sapilitang ipiniit sa Ifugao Provincial Jail.
Sinumpaang salaysay Naglalakad si RB pabalik sa kanilang bahay mula sa palengke nang harangin siya ng isang grupo ng mga pulis. Mahigpit na hinawakan ng isang pulis ang kanyang kaliwang braso, at saka idineklara ang kanyang pagkaaresto “sa salang pagpaslang.” Ipinakita rin kay RB ang kopya ng warrant of arrest na tumutukoy sa isang taong nakatira sa Meycauayan, Bulacan. “Wala kaming ni isang kamag-anak doon,” ani Mildred. Noong araw na iyon, hindi pumayag si RB na sumama sa mga pulis hangga’t hindi niya nakakausap si Mildred. Bilang human rights worker, pamilyar sa kanya ang mga kaso ng sapilitang pagdakip, at alam niya ang posibleng kasapitan ng kanyang pagkaaresto. Nang makausap na ni Mildred ang mga awtoridad, hindi niya sila napigilan na ikulong si RB. Hindi pa rin nila matiyak kung ano ang tunay na sala ni RB, hanggang sa sinabi sa kanila ng mga pulis kinabukasan na may nagaakusang kasama daw si RB sa mga miyembro ng New People’s Army (NPA) na sumalakay sa mga sundalo noong Abril 25, 2012. Isa raw umano si RB sa mga pumatay sa 11 sundalo sa nasabing engkwentro. Agad namang pinatunayan ng amo ni RB na si DSWD Chief of Human Resources Fely Labugen na legal na empleyado ng
gobyerno si RB mula Nobyembre 2011. Batay din sa daily time record niya sa trabaho, nasa opisina si RB nang maganap ang insidente. Sa kabila ng malinaw na ebidensya, kasalukuyan pa ring nakapiit si RB. Ngunit hindi lamang si RB ang biktima ng HRV na nananatiling nakakulong sa kabila ng kawalan ng malakas na ebidensya laban sa kanila. Isa ang security guard na si Roland Panesa sa mga hinula ng pulisya sa Quezon City. Kahawig daw kasi niya si Benjamin Mendoza, isang mataas na opisyal ng NPA-Southern Tagalog, na may pabuyang higit P5 milyon sa oras na mahuli. Bukod sa pagkakahawig, wala nang iba pang ebidensya ang nagtuturo na iisa lamang sina Roland at Benjamin. Kung tutuusin, mapalad pa sina RB at Roland dahil nananatili silang buhay sa mga kulungan, samantalang may 12 na kaso ng sapilitang pagkawala at 72 na kaso ng torture ang naitala ng Karapatan sa ilalim ng termino ni Pangulong Noynoy Aquino. Taliwas ang mga talang ito sa deklarasyon ng Malacanang na pinahahalagahan nila ang karapatang pantao ng mga Pilipino. Habang ibinabalandra nila ang pagtutuon ng pansin ng militar sa karapatang pantao sa mga palisiyanggaya ng Oplan Bayanihan, nananatili pa rin ang mga katulad ni RB at Roland na mga biktima ng HRV.
Pagbaba ng hatol “To our knowledge, we have no political prisoners. We frown on ex-
tralegal killings,” ani Presidential Spokesman Edwin Lacierda noong anibersaryo ng Martial Law noong nakaraang taon. “Kahit kalian naman, sinungaling at mapanlinlang ang Malacanang,” ani Mildred. Noong nakaraang taon din mismo, umabot sa 166 ang kaso ng arbitraryong pagpaslang, at pumalo sa 158 ang bilang ng mga bilanggong pulitikal, ayon sa Karapatan. Maging ang empleyado ng gobyerno gaya ni RB ay hindi nakaligtas sa mga nasabing paglabag sa karapatang pantao, na labis na ikinalulungkot at ikinagagalit ni Mildred. “Sinira ng mga pangyayaring ito ang aming mga plano sa buhay,” aniya. Napilitan si Mildred na tumigil sa pag-aaral para maibuhos ang kanyang oras sa pagpapalaya kay RB. “Wala kami tuloy pagkukunan ng pinansya ngayon para tustusan ang aming mga pangangailangan at nasaid pa ang kakarampot naming ipon,” aniya. Mukhang matagal na panahon din ang hihintayin bago matupad ang plano nilang mag-asawa na magkaanak. Kuwento ni Mildred, nagkasakit siya noong unang taon ng kanilang pagsasama kaya hindi agad sila nagkaanak. Ngayong taon sana nila balak na bumuo ng pamilya. “Sinira ng gobyernong ito ang buhay namin pero hindi ako papayag na magtagumpay sila.” Patunay sina Mildred at RB na walang katotohanan ang mga pahayag ng gobyerno ukol sa kalagayan ng karapatang pantao sa bansa. Maging mga human rights advocate kagaya ni RB ay nagiging biktima mismo ng mga HRV—at walang puwang upang hayaan na lamang natin na mas dumami pa ang pamilyang masira dahil sa mga paglabag na ito.
In October 2012, investments in ecozones rose to P128.2 HUNDREDS OF “Sa pagdating ng billion or 5.4 percent from S P E C TATO R S mga mananakop million for P121.6 billion the previous FLOCKED TO UP ay unti-unti kam2013, says year, according to PEZA. Diliman to witness ing naitaboy sa kaguSenator Sergio However, promises of the annual Lantern batan at kabundukan. Sa Osmeña III. economic progress in Parade that showcased pagpasok ng mga proyektong Finance Assisprovinces with ecozones are creatures and objects [tulad ng APECO], muling tant Secretary Ma. hardly assured, especially brought to life through nanganganib na kami ay Teresa Habitan also when there is no significant points out that the art, the various displays mapalayas sa aming mga improvement in poverty national government loses illuminating the usually lupain,” says Kalipunan ng mga alleviation. For instance, poverty money, estimated at P3 billion dark Academic Oval. Katutubong Mamamayan ng incidence in Pampanga, where Clark annually, from the incentives it Amidst the seemingly Pilipinas in a press statement. Special Economic Zone is located, gives to foreign investors. endless sea of lanterns, Presently, constructions of a increased to 6.7 percent from 4.9 a group of participants 198-meter seaport, extension of Ecozones transform rural percent from 2003 to 2009. wearing white shirts and Casiguran airport runway to 1.5provinces into urbanized business For the same time span, parks, but development is not straw hats looked out-of- kilometer, and rehabilitation of the poverty incidence also rose in Batan- reflective of the living condiplace in the festive event. Nagtipon-Madala Road are in full gas where First Philippine Industrial tions of the local residents. Yet, They weren’t embodying some swing. Recently, 28 families were Park is located to 14 percent from 13.8 obscure concept, nor playing displaced as a result of the Casiguthe government seems keen to out some role. They were real ran airport runway extension alone. percent, according to National Stapush through development of farmers who endured and IBON estimates around 1,086 farm- tistics Coordination Board. Despite ecozones such as APECO— marched the 370-kilometer ing and fishing families and indigenous the surge in investments, the living fitting to the Aquino distance from Casiguran, Aurora people’s communities or 5,430 conditions of peoples in the provinces government’s thrust of publicto inform the UP community of the individuals will be displaced on the full remain significantly unchanged. private partnerships. Since APECO’s creation in 2 0 0 7 , threat they face with the construction implementation and operation of APECO. In the end, APECO becomes the national government has spent the latest manifestation of of the Aurora Pacific Economic Zone and INEVITABLE BARGAINS almost P2 billion, and Freeport (APECO). the government’s skewed As early as 2010, various contentions has allocated P353 APECO is a special economic zone development paradigm — against APECO such as land ownership (ecozone) or an area developed and reliance of our economy and rural displacement have been raised funded by the national government to to foreign investors, to government, however, to no avail. This usher development in selected areas by instead of supportprompted the 125 Casiguran farmers to promoting commercial and agro-based ing local industries bring their concerns to Malacanang, at the industries. hinged on improvdoorstep of the seat of power. “Access ng tao sa opportunities ang main ing the welfare of APECO’s expansion has resulted to thrust ng APECO…income opportunities the people. legalize grabbing of lands owned by for local farmers can reach to P30,000 from farmers despite owning Certificates harvests. The market solely on agricultural of Land Ownership Awards and Forest industries such as high-valued crops is Stewardship Certificates, says Salvador already around US$500 million,” says France, convenor of Resist APECO! Defend APECO Deputy Administrator Ken Avestruz. the Aurora Movement (Resist APECO). As a consequence however, APECO’s Aside from the issue of land grabbing, development entails the displacement of stable employment is threatened as locals in Casiguran and the possible loss of the APECO will convert agricultural lands livelihood due to change in land usage and into industrial and commercial complexes. employment oppourtunities. “APECO offers jobs for the Casiguran As far as APECO’s proponents are [farmers] in planting natural ingredients, concerned, development comes with a high-valued crops and medicinal herbs cost—a price unwillingly paid by the people among many other job opportunities,” of Aurora. says Avestruz. UNDER CONSTRUCTION Critics however, doubt the sustainability of APECO is an expansion of the such jobs. “Sa offer ng APECO na trabaho, mga Aurora Special Economic Zone (ASEZA), college graduate ang kanilang mga hahanapin, a 497-hectare ecozone covering two so [wala pa ring kasiguraduhang trabaho] para agricultural barangays in Casiguran. sa mga magsasaka at mangingisda,” says France. ASEZA was created through Republic Act Indeed, if APECO’s planned industries are any (RA) 9490 passed into law in 2007, and indication, prospects of employment seem dim for sponsored by Senator Edgardo Angara, an the people of Casiguran. established politician in Aurora. Also, rice supply in Aurora is threatened as During ASEZA’s operation, various productive rice lands will be converted to noninfrastructures such as the Casiguran agricultural land use: the province will lose 961 to 1,281 airport with a 1.2-kilometer runway, and metric tons of rice feeding 4,336 families, according the 120-kilometer Baler-Casiguran highway to IBON. were constructed. At the guise of paving the road to development in In 2009, Angara authored RA 10083 that the provinces, ecozones like APECO have promised to renamed ASEZA to APECO and expanded alleviate poverty and improve people’s living conditions. Yet, the its area to 12,923 hectares. Such expansion country’s experience with ecozones significantly highlights who annexed three more barangays, which truly benefit to such setups. geographically form a peninsula including LOPSIDED GAINS 11,900-hectare ancestral domain of the indigenous To date, there are 273 operating ecozones nationwide and 104 peoples Dumagats and Agtas. ecozones currently being developed like APECO, according to According to Avestruz, APECO intended to Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA). preserve the peninsula from illegal loggers as the RA 7916, legislated under the Ramos administration, provided the land mass serves as a natural barrier to protect the legal framework in the creation and operation of ecozones aiming to seaport planned to be constructed. speed up economic growth through exports, according to IBON. However, APECO authorities violated the rights of Ecozones seek to provide an attractive climate for foreign investors the indigenous peoples when the ecozone expanded to engage business in ecozones by giving them incentives such as exthe area without consulting them, says Jennifer Guste, emptions from Corporate Income Tax for 5 years, and export taxes. independent think-tank IBON researcher.
LATHALAIN Huwebes 17 Enero 2013
BAGONG TAON, BAGONG BUHAY
OPINYON Huwebes 17 Enero 2013
MARAMING KAHILINGAN, PANGARAP at pag-asa ang nabubuo sa isipan natin sa pagpasok ng bagong taon. Mula radyo, TV, hanggang Facebook, maririnig natin ang iba’t ibang angas ng halos lahat ng taong gusto ng pagbabago sa mga buhay nila. At siyempre, pansin na pansin din sa mga kalsada, sa mga nakapaskil na tarpaulin, at maging sa mga tulay o creek ang iba’t ibang deklarasyon ng pangako’t pangarap na may kaakibat na naglalakihang mukha at pangalan ng mga taong tatakbo ngayong eleksyon. Nitong nakaraang Pasko at bagong taon, kaliwa’t kanan ang mga pagbati ng “Maligayang Pasko at Bagong taon” sa tapat ng bahay namin. Nakakabadtrip nga kasi pare-parehong mga mukha lang ang bumabati nang paulit-ulit sa lahat ng sulok at kanto sa barangay. Todo ngiti ‘yung mga ate na nag-aabot ng pagkain sa bawat bahay. At kapag napansin nila sa mukha mo ang pagdududa, sasabihin nilang “Galing po ito kay Ma’am Chururu, magpasalamat ka na lang.” Kaloka, obligado pa akong magpasalamat? Pero sige, salamat na rin sa libreng pagkain. Kahit ‘yung maayos na kalsada na binubungkal na naman, may nakasulat sa gilid na “Pasasalamat kay Chururu.” Kahit sa loob ng tricycle, mananalamin ka na nga lang, kukunin pa ‘yung espasyo para sa buong mukha mo ng sticker ng isang pulitiko—kasama ang
pamilya niya sa litrato, ultimo apo sa tahod. Kulang na lang, palitan na rin nila ang mukha ni Rizal sa piso. Akala mo naman, walang nakakaalam na sa bawat project na ini-sponsor nila sa kalye, may kanya-kanyang porsyento sila ng pera na naibubulsa. At ang iba, wala nang pagpapanggap kung ibalandra ang mga mukha nila sa TV. Kanya-kanyang komersyal ‘yan o isyu para lang mapag-usapan.
Hindi naman ako kontra sa mga diskarte nila para makilala sila ng publiko, pero minsan talaga, OA na. Kahit nga walang kinalaman sa kampanya nila, makalabas lang sa TV, solb na. Sana ipinambili na lang nila ng grocery at ipinamigay sa mga pamilya ‘yung ipinambayad nila sa printing ng poster, ‘di ba? Hindi naman ako kontra sa mga diskarte nila para makilala sila ng publiko, pero minsan talaga, OA na. May mga kamag-anak din ako sa probinsya na tatakbo sa darating na eleksyon. Minsan, iniisip ko, bakit pa nila kailangang tumakbo
para lang makatulong sa kapwa? Pero siyempre, sino ba naman ako para makipagtalo sa kanila. May sarili din siguro silang dahilan kung bakit gusto nilang umupo sa isang posisyon sa gobyerno— hindi ko lang alam kung ano ‘yun, o kung tiyak nga bang mabuti ang kanilang intensyon. Tuwing parating na kasi ang eleksyon, mahirap nang mahalata kung sino ‘yung mga sinsero at sino ang mga nagpapanggap lang. Paano, ang daming bumabait at kulang na lang pag-alayan ang bawat botante ng pansit gabi-gabi na parang santo. Aamuhin nila tayo ng matatamis na mga salita, papangakuan ng mga bagay na matagal na namang dapat nasa atin. At kahit alam nating wala rin namang malaking pagbabagong naganap noong mga nakaraang taon, hindi pa rin natin matanggihan ang mga regalong ibinigay nila tuwing panahon ng kampanya. Masyado na nga siguro tayong nasanay sa ganitong gawi. Sabi nga nila, bahagi na ng kultura natin itong kultura ng pasikatan, sulutan ng boto, at pakikinig sa mga pangakong tiyak naman tayong hindi matutugunan ng pagkapanalo ng kahit sinong kandidato. Pero kahit naman ang kultura, maaari ding magbago. Darating din sa puntong hindi na tayo makakapagpigil at magsasawa rin tayo.
NANG MAGING TAO ANG TULA UNA, HUHULMAHIN KO ANG IYONG mukha. Ang buhok mong maikli, ang noo mong malapad, ang matangos mong ilong, ang itim mong mga mata na mabibilog, ang hiwa sa iyong kaliwang kilay, ang makapal mong labi, ang malalaki mong tenga, ang mahaba mong mukha na hugis oval, ang makinis mong pisngi, ang leeg mong simputi ng niyebe, at ang nunal mo sa batok. Lahat nakakapanghina, lahat nakaka-turn on. Pagkatapos, maglalakbay ang aking mga kamay sa iyong balikat, sa matitigas mong buto sa dibdib, sa malalaman mong mga tinapay sa dibdib, sa maliliit mong suso na kulay kayumanggi, sa buto ng iyong tadyang na bakat sa balat, sa mga braso mong sintigas ng iyong dibdib, at sa mga kamay mong mauugat na naglalakbay din sa iyong tiyan na pinalilibutan ng anim na hanay ng malaman na kalamnan pababa sa iyong maputing pusod. Hinuhulma kitang matipuno, matikas, at matigas habang unti-unting nabubuo ang kabuuan mo. Madulas ang pababa mula sa iyong pusod, walang harang sa maiitim na talahib papunta sa kaibuturan ng iyong kabuuan. Bumubuhos ang iyong tagiliran patungo sa balakang hanggang sa malahamon mong mga hita na nang-aakit na kurutin, kagatin—ubusin. Aagos ang aking kamay pababa sa nakakakiliti mong tuhod at sa makikinis
mong binti na kakapiranggot ang tumutubong buhok. Dahan-dahang dadausdos ang aking mga daliri papunta sa iyong paa na singhaba ng iyong braso, at maglalaro sa mga daliri mong sinlambot ng balat ng sanggol. Kung ibabaligtad kita, bubungad sa akin ang likod mong tila binuhusan ng pulot at gata. Isa kang malaking manikin na tinalupan ng matamis at maputing balat. Madulas ang likod mo galing sa pawis na tumutulo papunta sa matatambok mong puwitan, tila mga hinating mansanas na idinikit lamang sa iyong likuran.
Ang katawan mo ang salitang matagal ko nang gustong sabihin sa madla
Ibabalik ko ang aking mga daliri paakyat sa ubod ng iyong kabuuan. Madulas ang tangkay na siyang nagbibigay-buhay sa nakadikit ditong mga kayumangging ubas. Lahat ay dumadaloy papunta sa pinakatinatago mong sulok. Mahihimlay ako nang sandal sa iyong kaibuturan at ipipikit ang aking mga mata sa nakakaantok na amoy ng iyong katawan.
Sa ganoong paraan kita bubuuin —mabusisi, mapayapa. Isa kang Adonis na perpekto ang hubog. Hindi nakakaumay, hindi nakasasawa. Sa tuwing titikman ko ang bawat sulok mo, laging sumisipa ang lasa mong matamis, mapait, maasim, maalat. Ihihiga kita sa sahig at pagmamasdan. Malaya ang iyong katawan. Wala kang itinatagong dapat ikahiya. Ang katawan mo ang salitang matagal ko nang gustong sabihin sa madla. Ganun siguro ang isang manlilikha, sa paglao’y nawawaglit din ang hiya. Nakapako sa kisame ang blangko mong mga titig, nakaratay sa sahig ang walang buhay mong katawan. Hihiga ako sa tabi mo at hahagurin ang iyong buhok. Paano nga ba binubuhay ang isang tuod? Madiin kong idinampi ang aking palad sa iyong dibdib. Unti-unti kong susuyuin ang iyong katawan hanggang sa maramdaman ko ang iyong init. May tila isang balani na aakit sa aking labi patungo sa iyong labi. At sa sandali ng pagdampi, susuklian mo rin ang aking halik. Matagal tayong magkakadikit sa sahig na iyon. Hihilingin kong hindi na tayo magkahiwalay pa. Sapagkat ikaw ang tulang nagkatawang-tao, nabuhay upang samahan akong maglakbay sa mundo ng mga ‘di magkakaugnay na salita.
LAKAS TAMA Ang kuwento ng pag-ibig ay kamusta at paalam*
“POGI E,” SABI NG NANAY KO nang tanungin ko kung bakit niya nagustuhan ang absentee kong tatay. “Tsaka malinis ang kuko sa paa.” Nasa Pilipinas pa si Mama nang mapagusapan namin ang love story nila ng tatay ko. Kuwento niya, nakita raw niya ang tatay ko sa isang bar sa Katipunan. Sinabi raw niya sa mga kaibigan niya na pogi “’yung lalaking may balbas” sa kabilang table, at bigla raw silang naghiyawang parang mga biik. Napansin ng kabilang mesa ang huntahan nila. Long story short, natapos ang gabi nang may ka-holding hands na si Mama. Ayaw niyang sabihin kung paano nagtapos ang kanilang love story, o kung paano niya nalamang palalakihin niya ako nang mag-isa. “Basta alam ko lang. Gago ‘yun e.” “Pero nagustuhan mo?” “Pogi ang mga gago e,” sabi niya, sabay tawa, na nasundan ng pangaral na huwag na huwag daw akong magpapabuntis, gago man o hindi ang lalaki. Maaga namang nagpakasal ang lolo’t lola ko, pero kahit si Mama, walang ideya kung paano sila nagkakilala. “Hindi ko sila tinatanong ng mga ganyan,” sabi niya. Bata pa ako nang lumipat si Lolo sa bahay namin matapos mamatay si Lola. Noong mga panahong ‘yun, halos hindi gumagalaw si Lolo mula sa pagkakaupo niya sa sala, hawak-hawak ang maliit na jar kung saan nakalagay ang abo ni Lola. Hindi siya nagsasalita, hindi siya sumasabay sa amin kumain. Tinanong ko si Mama kung ganoon ba kamahal ni Lolo si Lola at ayaw niyang maghiwalay sila. Oo daw, sabi ni Mama. “Pero nambabae din ‘yan. Nagsisigawan din sila dati, akala lang nila walang nakakarinig.” Masyado nga sigurong cynical ang nanay ko sa pag-ibig. At sa kasamaang palad, siya ang tangi kong role model pagdating sa mga ganitong bagay. Hayskul pa lang, naiinis na ako sa mga kaklase kong nag-uusap tungkol sa mga crush nila. Lalo pang kumukunot ang noo kapag naririnig kong nagbibigay sila ng code name sa mga gusto nilang lalaki. May Eugene at Lee Shauran para sa mga pogi, at Majin Buu para sa mga medyo malaman. Hindi naman sa pagiging ageist, pero dahil mga bata pa kami noon, nagpapanting din ang tenga ko sa mga magkarelasyon na magkaiba ang year level. Nakakatayo kaya ng balahibo kapag makarinig ka ng “I love you po.” Parang may mali. At kahit pa walang “po,” hindi ako naniniwala na posible ang tunay na pag-ibig sa pagitan ng mga babaeng nagsisimula pa lang tubuan ng suso, at sa mga lalaking pumipiyok pa ang boses. Pero hindi ibig sabihin noon na wala akong mga nagugustuhan. Kahit galit ako sa mundo, hindi rin ako bato. ‘Yun nga lang, mahirap para sa akin na lunukin ang konsepto ng habangbuhay. Wala pa kasing kuwento ng pag-ibig ang nasaksikhan kong nagtagumpay sa totoong buhay. Para sa akin, may katapusan ang lahat—ang mga umagang iisang tao lang ang motibasyon mo para bumangon sa kama, ang mga gabing pakiramdam mo tungkol sa ‘yo ang lahat ng masasayang kanta. “Kahit nga si Summer, umibig din bago natapos ang pelikula,” sabi sa akin ng isang kaklase, na naging ka-text, at ngayo’y constant na kasama sa mga lakad. Siguro nga tama siya. Ngayong taon, sige, susubukan kong hindi matakot na magbakasakali.
*mula sa kantang Slo Mo ng Eraserheads
Textback Kung ikaw si Jinkee, anong maipapayo mo kay Pacquiao matapos ang kanyang pagkatalo? kung ako si jinkee,sasabihin ko kay manny “it’s ok manny u did ur best but ur best is not enough” 201259139 jaob bsstat first of all, i’d never want to be jinkee. second, i’m going to advise pacquiao, as an avid patron of philippine boxing, that he should still fight at least one more match next year. hopefully a mayweather fight, because i believe the filipino spirit never retires until there’s the last but ultimate victory. its just his 5th loss. boxing greats lose some time, like flash elorde who had 27 losses. 2012-21271 BA Hist manny, tayo nlang magsakitan, ibang lalaki pa hanap m eh. Tampo ako nyan. 201128846 bs chemistry. Ang mapapayo ko kay pacquiao kung ak0 si jinkee eh tama na yung laban. he already made hist0ry and a lasting legacy. that is en0ugh. pero kung that’s his passion, nkasuporta lang kaming family niya at ang buong Pilipinas. :D 2012-00756 Ram0n, BS ECE manny, wag kang hapit! kasi ang hapit, naaano,..nakakatulog..dapat laging tama ang timing.. anyways, nalaman kong may karibal ako kay ate SA sa mainlib..haha..kaya heto na.. ate SA..mahal na mahal kita! hahaha..
nam uten15521 geodengg Magretire na siya kasi baka sign na ni God yun since nagsimula siyang matalo simula ng naging christian siya. :) 201008810 hindi mabubura ng isang pagkatalo ang mga panalo at karangalang ibinigay mo para sa bayan. tuloy ang laban Pacman! 08-24039 Badz BSEE manny, life isn’t about winning. it’s about the kaching kaching! 200572540 jers ma.awol Jinkee to Manny: okay lang yan babe. Yung mga taumbayan na lang i-KO natin para atin ang buwis nila. Haha. May pambili pa din ako ng Hermes. Ayoko kaya ng ecobag ‘no!? 1260592 mac bschem Bukod sa bumbilya, ano sa tingin mo ang kumukutikutitap at bumubusi-busilak tuwing pasko? ung mga ngiti ng mga taong in love. 201128846 Syempre! maliban sa mga xmas lights tuwing pask0, yung ngiti ng pinakamamahal k0 yung pinakakumukutitap! Hehe. :D Iloveyoubeeik! *powerhug* 2012-00756 Ram0nk0k0k, BS ECE Ang iba pang kumukutitap ay ang mga mata at pakiramdam ng mga may love life ngayong pasko dahil sa SPARKS. :””> Balang araw, mafifeel din namin yan. Haha! 20126XXXX RMB :)
tuwing Pasko, sinasalubong ng kumukuti-kutitap kong mga mata ang bumubusi-busilak na kalooban ng aking mga ninong/ninang. pambayad na rin yan ng utang. XD 0824039 Badz BSEE One-sided sparks ng emotional lives ng mga tao. Kislap. . . Kislap. 201231449 kumukuti-kutitap at bumubusibusilak ang ngiti ng long time crush ko tuwing nakikita ko siya. she always looks so radiant. di lang ngayong Pasko, kundi buong taon. :”> 08-**046 mga mata ng mga kapitalistang sadyang nakaabang sa makakamal na kita sa komersyalisidong diwa ng kapaskuhan! 0854326 Comments RC Guerrero, i always read your column. You’re also one of the reasons why I grab collegian. May pagkaNEGA ang persona ng mga sinusulat mo pero in a ‘hot’ way. -2008-58**2* Grabe. Sobrang nakarelate ako sa CHRISTMAS BONUS ni Marjohara Tucay. Mabuhay ang mga nag iibigan! 201265036 Maskom Kumukutikutitap ang mga morning glory as in muta at mga laway. ansarap matulooog! 05-72540 ma.awol Sagutan for 2012-21271: how did the muslims become aggressors? and why were the muslims pushed towards extremism? also why the american interference in the region? and what are the palestinian muslims but semites, the same race as jews,only converted into islam. does this qualify them as aggressors too? and why only choose between muslim extremists and americans? do the extremists represent all arabs and muslims in the middle east? Pabati Pabati naman kay SA sa main lib. Computer room. Na art studies major. Nakaduty noong december 12, 2012. Mga 11 am. Crush kita. 200805315. hi kay rose na b-day sa dec. 21, 2012. pati na rin sa barkada ko sa laguna! SUPER CUTE ng pasko po ng isko po comics.swak na swak this season. Mayk,12-48782 super c0ol ng kule! :) Merry Christmas to my girl friends Gill, HG, and Ate Aloha. To clingyness and beyond! Hahaha. 10*97** Shami BS App Phys
Next week’s questions: 1. Kung miyembro ka ng Anonymous Phils, anong website ang ihahack mo at ano ang ilalagay mo rito? 2. Sino ang gusto mong ahasin ngayong year of the snake at bakit? Key in KULE <space> MESSAGE <space> COMPLETE STUDENT NUMBER <required> NAME AND COURSE (optional) and send to
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Ang Pagsusuri: Pagkilatis sa mga susunod na Lingkod Bayan Mga Iskong Tatak Botante, simulan na natin Ang Pagsusuri sa ika-17 ng Enero, 1:00-5:00 ng hapon sa UP Diliman Law Theater. Makilahok sa talakayan ng mga kakandidatong Senador sa mga isyu tungkol sa “Electoral and Party-List System” tulad ng Campaign Finance, Political Dynasties, Party-List System, at “Economic and Foreign Affairs Issues” tulad ng Oil-Deregulation, Visiting Forces Agreement, Scarborough Shoal, Foreign Ownership, OFWs. Para sa iba pang mga detalye, bisitahin lamang ang http://www.facebook. com/tatakbotante o makipag-ugnayan sa numerong 0905-4502488. Matalino. Matalas. Malayas. Tatak botante! National Congress on Good Governance 2013 The UP National College of Public Administration and Governance Student (NCPAG) Government, in partnership with the NCPAG League of Organizations, proudly presents the National Congress on Good Governance (NCGG) 2013. NCGG is an annual and nationwide gathering of Public Administration student for a 3 day congress aimed to empower and train leaders of tomorrow. NCGG will conduct seminars and workshops focusing on application of PA theories into real outputs, with the theme “Applying Public Administration Theories of Planning and Budgeting in Program and Project Development for Education, Employment, and the Environment. The event will be from January 18 – 20, 8:00am-7:00pm at the NCPAG Assembly Hall, UP Diliman. For more information, like our Facebook page (www.facebook.com/NCGG philip pines), contact Chess at 09168403333 or through firstname.lastname@example.org. THE E-WASTE PROJECT: E-waste Mo, E-dukasyon Ko !!! UP Circuit invites you to be part of The E-waste Project, a series of ewaste drives in different schools for the rehabilitation of Sta. Lucia High School Computer Laboratory. It is also a campaign to raise awareness on the issue of e-waste management, which currently lacks attention here in the Philippines. Just donate your defective computers and computer parts, batteries, cables, appliances, and other gadgets to The E-waste Project on January 15-18, 2013 located at the Engineering Lawn or any other drop-off points found at the website. See posters and print ads for more details or like us on facebook @ www.fb.com/TheEwasteProject or visit us @ upcircuit.org/TheEwasteProject . Delicious Spanish Week Set On its 48th year, The UP Círculo Hispánico presents ¡Saborífico! La Gastronomía del Mundo Hispanohablante, the Spanish Week that will showcase the Spanish and HispanoAmerican gastronomy. Join in our Food Eating Contest, Quiz Bee, and La Tomatina. Witness our exhibit at Gal 2 Faculty Center from January 22-26, 2013. Win cash prizes in Manilakbay III: The UPCH Amazing Race around Manila on January 26! For more details, contact Nice at 09163656867 and Ralph at 09279642146 or visit www.facebook.com/upcirculohispanico. ¡Nos vemos!
Eksenang Peyups Awkward moments at the Grand Assemblage of Sisterakas y Chakas I know this is so 2012, but these juicy tidbits are so classic it’s a shame to just keep it to ourselves. Chos. Awkward moment #1: It’s almost midnight and the debates are so not done yet. Meanwhile, kailangan nang lumipat ng venue, so the Grand Mameshka was suggesting this amphitheatre just a few kilometres away. Naloka na lang ang madla when an ateh raised her very legitimate conzern. “But what about the beggars? They’re gonna pester us to death!” Awkward moment #2: So there were couples everywhere, but maybe none as showbiz as this two blue delegates who are lovey-dovey for all the world to see. Everyone was probably thinking how disgusting the spectacle is, but this red delegate finally couldn’t take it anymore and finally made a statement directed at the couple: “Wow, magtabi na lang nga kasi kayo para mas malaya kayong makapaglandian.” Mas winner though ang retort ni Koyah who is rumoured to have been rejected as the next blue bet for USC Chair in favour of a prettier gurlaloo: “Sana masaya ka sa ginagawa mo ha. Kasi ako masayang masaya sa buhay ko!” Flips hair ang walks out of the room. Awkward moment #3: And speaking of this “prettier” gurlaloo who is being pegged as the successor of the current grand mameshka, super funny lang ang mga dumb blone moments ni atey. At one point, there’s a motion to move the venue and continue the debates, and then si ate, clueless lang forever on how to cast her vote according to her party’s interests. So sobrang kinabahan lang si ate during caucus when she was asked to be the first to cast her vote. With rivers of sweat running down her face, she finally said “yes” cluelessly. Imagine grand mameshka’s face as if to say, “Humanda ka mamaya sa aking shungaers ka.” Get free publicity! Send us your press release, invitations, etc. DON’T TYPE IN ALL CAPS. And go easy on the…punctuations?! dOn’t uSe tXt LanGuage pLs. Provide a short title. 100 words max. Email us at email@example.com CONTACT US! Write to us via snail mail or submit a soft copy to Rm. 401, Vinzons Hall, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Email us firstname.lastname@example.org. Save Word attachments in Rich Text Format, with INBOX, NEWSCAN or CONTRIB in the subject. Always include your full name, address and contact details.
OPINYON Huwebes 17 Enero 2013