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Euro-Mediterranean statistical cooperation

Final report Migration Statistics

November 2009

English


This publication has been drafted in the framework of MEDSTAT II, the Euro-Mediterranean regional statistical co-operation programme funded by the EU.

The MEDSTAT programme The European Union's policy toward the Mediterranean region is shaped by the Euro-Mediterranean partnership (or Barcelona Process) established as a result of the Barcelona Conference held in 1995. In the area of statistics, EU Member States and Mediterranean partners have intensified their relations since 1996 through the MEDSTAT regional statistical co-operation programme, financed under the MEDA regulation. With a budget of EUR 20 million, MEDSTAT I was implemented from 1996 to 2003. MEDSTAT II was launched in 2006 for a 45-month period with a budget of EUR 30 million. MEDSTAT aims to respond to the needs of the association agreements, particularly in relation to free trade, sustainable development and social development. It contributes to the supply of statistical information that is useful in monitoring the progress of Euro-Mediterranean co-operation. Its objective is to harmonise statistical methods in line with European and international norms and standards and to improve the coherence of data in the Mediterranean partner countries as well as their comparability with the statistical data of the EU and EFTA countries. MEDSTAT also aims to improve the quality of services provided to users by the national statistics institutes and the other partner bodies involved in the production of statistics. The provision of up-todate, reliable and relevant high-quality statistical data is vital for political decision making and to ensure good governance. From December 1996 until March 2003, MEDSTAT I covered several statistical sectors. Among them, the environment was the subject of a second project, MEDSTAT-Env II, which was implemented between 2003 and 2006. From January 2006 to November 2009, MEDSTAT II has worked on extending the qualitative work already done by organising training and by contributing technical resources to the information systems of national institutes and other statistics producers in the Mediterranean countries. Special attention is paid to the coherence of data, to their harmonisation and dissemination in nine statistical sectors: trade in goods and services, transport, migration, tourism, the environment, national accounts, social statistics, energy and agriculture. The programme currently involves 10 partners: Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, the occupied Palestinian territory, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey. This publication can be consulted in English and French at the following website address: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/medstat For further information, please contact: EUROPEAID-INFO-MEDSTAT2@ec.europa.eu

Disclaimer This publication has been drawn up with the help of the European Union. The publication's content is the sole responsibility of MEDSTAT II - Lot 2 and may under no circumstances be considered to be a reflection of the European Union's opinion. MEDSTAT II - Lot 2 is implemented by ADETEF in partnership with INSEE France, ISTAT Italy, ONSUK, KSH Hungary, INE Spain, INE Portugal, GUS Poland, Plan Bleu and Landsis

Reproduction rights This publication can be totally or partially reproduced providing the source is mentioned: Author: Giovanni Battista CANTISANI, Final report - Migration Statistics, Publication MEDSTAT II, Ed. ADETEF, November 2009 ISSN 1958-069X.


Final report Migration Statistics Author Mr Giovanni Battista CANTISANI, Long-term expert responsible for the Migration Statistics sector of the MEDSTAT II programme.

Table of contents

Acknowledgments Acronyms and abbreviations Introduction 1. The experience of regional work on migration statistics under MEDSTAT I (MED-Migr I Project) 2. Objectives for migration statistics under MEDSTAT II 3. The context for the implementation of activities 4. Activities undertaken under MEDSTAT II Migration 5. Main activities, best practices and results at national and regional level 6. Evaluation of activities and results and recommendations for the future Results of Final Questionnaire Evaluation and recommendations Annexes Annex 1. Detail of study visits Annex 2. Detail of technical assistance missions Annex 3. Detail of regional and international meetings Annex 4. Attendance of MPCs to meetings organised or supported by MEDSTAT II Annex 5. Main topics included in the Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS References

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3 4 6 7 9 10 14 22 69 69 70 74 75 76 77 78 79 81

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Acknowledgments The editor wishes to thank the MEDSTAT II National Coordinators for Migration and the other experts from the Mediterranean Partner Countries, the officers of EUROSTAT and other international institutions and the international experts who have provided reports and comments on this publication. Special thanks go to David Pearce and Nicolas Perrin for their helpful suggestions and assistance throughout the overall preparation of the publication. Thanks are also due to all the other national and international experts and representatives of European Commission, World Bank, UNECE, UNESCWA and other international and national and institutions and projects for their contributions to the MEDSTAT II activities for the Migration Sector and indirectly to some parts of this publication.

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Acronyms and abbreviations ADETEF AIDCO ALO BCS CAPMAS CARIM CAS CBS CGD CIRCA CLAD CNR-IRPPS CPR CSSR DG JLS CECLR DACS DGSG DGSN EC EIPA EMN EU EUI EUROSTAT FAFO GDGS GEMMA GFMD GTZ HCP/CERED HCP/DS HCSO IDOS IBF ICBS ILO ISMU INED INSEE IOM ISTAT

Assistance for Development of Exchange on Economic and Financial Technologies (France) EuropeAid Cooperation Office (EC General Direction) Arab Labour Organisation Border Cards System Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics (Egypt) Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (EUI) Central Administration for Statistics (Lebanon) Central Bureau of Statistics Center for Global Development Communication & Information Resource Centre Administrator (EC portal) Centre of Automatic Reading of Documents (Morocco) National Council of Research – Research Institute on Population and social Policies (Italy) Central Population Register Country Statistical System Report General Direction Justice, Freedom and Security (EC, acronym from the French label) Center for Equal Opportunity and Fight Against Racism (Belgium) Direction of Consular and Social Affairs (Morocco) General Direction of General Security (Lebanon) General Direction of National Security (Morocco) European Commission European Institute of Public Administration European Migration Network European Union European University Institute Statistical Office of the European Commission (EC General Direction) Fafo Research Foundation (Norway) General Direction of General Security (Lebanon) Enhancing Evidence Based Policy-Making in Gender and Migration (project) Global Forum on Migration and Development German Association for Technical Cooperation High Planning Commission, Center on Demographic Studies and Research (Morocco) High Planning Commission, Direction of Statistics (Morocco) Hungarian Central Statistical Office Immigration Statistical Dossier - Caritas Migrantes (Italy) IBF International Consulting Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics International Labour Organization Foundation on Initiatives and studies on Multiethnicity (Italy) National Institute on Demographic Studies (France) National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (France) International Organisation for Migration National Statistical Institute (Italy)

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LFS Labour Force Survey MED-HIMS Mediterranean Household International Migration Survey (proposed project) MED-Migr I MEDSTAT Migration Sub-Programme on International Migration Statistics MEDSTAT Euro-Statistical Cooperation (programme) MICS Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey MIREM Return Migration in the Maghreb (project) MPC Mediterranean Partner Countries MQ Model Questionnaires MS Member States NCO National Coordinator NDS National Demographic Survey NIDI Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute NSI National Statistical Institute NSS National Statistical System OECD Organisation for Economic and Social Development OFPRA French Office of Protection of Refugees and Stateless Persons ONS Office of/for National Statistics (Algeria and United Kingdom respectively) oPt occupied Palestinian territory PCBS Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics PDA Personal Digital Assistant POR Project Orientation Report PRS Population Register System RELEX General Direction External Relations (EC, acronym from the French label) RGPH General Census of Population and Housing SEM Southern and Eastern Mediterranean TA Technical Assistance THESIM Towards Harmonised European Statistics on International Migration (project) TRC Training course UCL-GÊDAP Catholic University of Leuwen, Study Group on Applied Demography UN United Nations UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe UNESCWA United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UNPOP United Nations Population Division (UNDESA) UNSD United Nations Statistics Division USAID United States Agency for International Development WKS Workshop or Work Session

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Introduction This publication was conceived as a mean to summarise and document the work carried out in the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) and at regional level under the MEDSTAT II Programme in the sector of Migration Statistics. In addition, the publication highlights the main activities and best practices undertaken in the sector at country level without the direct involvement of MEDSTAT II (see Chapter 5). Unfortunately, given the concentration of meetings and other activities in the final period of MEDSTAT II, namely the development of Model Questionnaires for coordinated migration surveys, as well as the deadline for translating the document from English to French, it was not possible for some experts of MPCs to provide the descriptions of some relevant national activities undertaken outside MEDSTAT II which are mentioned here. However, readers may generally find more detail in the ‘Guide on the Compilation of Statistics on International Migration in the EuroMED Region’, another MEDSTAT II publication providing information up to the end of 2008. The Guide also provides a summary of and link to the concepts, frameworks and recommendations underlying the measurement of international migration, mostly stocks and flows. It also covers the various administrative and statistical sources and methods and literature available to provide or inform estimates of international migration. The objectives and content of the Guide are reported in Chapter 5 of this publication. Both the Guide and this publication are available in English and French and may be downloaded at EUROSTAT website. Given the high number of activities undertaken under MEDSTAT II Migration from January 2006 to July 2009, the detailed documentation (e.g. final reports of study visits or regional meetings, reference and background documents) has necessarily been made accessible elsewhere. This material may be found on CIRCA / EUROSTAT, under the MEDSTAT II Temporary File Repository (http://forum.europa.eu.int/Public/irc/dsis/Home/main, userid: medstat2, password: circa007).

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1.

The experience of regional work on migration statistics under MEDSTAT I (MED-Migr I Project) Giambattista Cantisani and David Pearce (MEDSTAT II)

A seminar in Naples in 1996 highlighted international migration as a priority topic for regional cooperation between the European Union and the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) originating from the Barcelona Conference held in 1995, on the importance of sustained and balanced economic development in the Mediterranean basin as a whole. Thus, under the MEDA instrument, the MEDSTAT I Programme, a specific project (referred to as MED-Migr I hereinafter) was set up in 1996, in parallel with five other thematic projects on statistics. The goals of MED-Migr I were: - To improve cooperation between the National Statistical Institutes (NSIs) and partner institutions in the MPCs - To improve the technical skills of national experts - To increase the use of United Nations recommendations for statistics on international migration - To improve the quality, quantity and timeliness of statistics on international migration, i.e. statistics on yearly flows and stocks of international migrants in Mediterranean countries. The Project was implemented in two phases. Phase 1 (from 1996 to 1999) covered the following activities: - Review of the legal framework, existing data sources and statistics in each country (missions and published reports); - Identification of user needs; - Development of links between NSIs and other national agencies; - Provision of regional training and seminars; - Promotion of synergies with the parallel project for Tourism Statistics; - Recommendations for Phase 2 from Reviews. In addition to the statistical sources, the registers that are held by different national authorities and used almost exclusively for administrative, security and control, were considered. This phase included a round of country missions to the 12 countries then involved (Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, the occupied Palestinian territory, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey). A proposal for common work for further development for Phase 2 was recommended. Therefore, Phase 2 (from the end of 1999 to the beginning of 2003) was built on the following: - Inter-institutional regional meetings; - Country specific pilot projects for the better use of administrative sources (border cards and residence/work permits); - Experts’ meetings and specialised international workshops; - Development of methodologies for enhancing the administrative systems and improving the census and survey statistics, (see below on the three Actions) - Further development of synergies with Tourism Sector; and - Establishment of a data collection. In summary the feasibility of the inclusion of a migration module in the census, or other household surveys, was studied (Action A). The work resulted in an inventory and comparative overview of migration questions in the population censuses and in a proposal for estimating emigration through an emigration module. Concerning the use of administrative sources, countries

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were gathered into different groups, with some pilot countries undertaking in-depth analysis of the systems and fieldwork. From the technical viewpoint, the enhancement of the system of border cards (Action B) was complicated. For example although the appropriateness of some developed tools such as the new border cards implemented in Syria was evident, the issue was raised that too many resources would be required for the use of border card systems on a regular basis. More concrete results were achieved for the enhancement of systems of residence/work permits (Action C). For example, an in-depth analysis of the systems led to the development of manuals on using permit data for measuring international migration in the Maghreb countries, particularly in Morocco. Despite some limitations, the provision of tables increased progressively over time. Compared with previous exercises, during a data collection carried out in 2002 (Action E under Phase 2) better results were achieved for Cyprus, Israel, Malta and Turkey, i.e. countries already receiving requests for statistics for a few years under the UNECE or EU framework. Statistics on population stocks were partially provided, although the only or main source was the decennial population censuses. Very limited data on migration flows were provided, and only for UNECE countries. On the other hand, as a result of the inter-institutional collaboration promoted by the Project, some progress was achieved in the collection of statistics from residence and work permits. However, as a result of the limited availability and comparability of data, the collection was not published. The Project enabled the launch of fruitful cooperation within the countries and at regional level, with some improvements in statistical surveys and border card systems. Three manuals and a study of the three main actions above, comprising the main output of the Project, were edited in 2006(1). Other documentation was intensively disseminated by EUROSTAT through working papers and other means. The working papers are available on the EUROSTAT website. 1 These documents are available at Eurostat site, in section Publications under the theme of Population and social conditions (http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu).

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2.

Objectives for migration statistics under MEDSTAT II Giambattista Cantisani (MEDSTAT II)

Before the beginning of MEDSTAT II, a Task Force meeting for Migration held in Brussels in October 2005 brought together EuropeAid Cooperation Office and EUROSTAT officials, representatives of selected NSIs of the EU Member States, the representatives from each MED country – from the NSI and a ministry – and two MED-Migr I experts. This meeting recognised the potential of using administrative sources for statistical purposes, although the systems were faced with constraints related to computerisation, coding, adopted classifications, practices in registration procedures and the need for better cooperation among national agencies. In this context, each country expressed a wide range of specific needs, which included the request for equipment, technical assistance, training on data collection, methodology and analysis, and dissemination. Several topics for study were considered as highly interesting to the partner countries, such as the causes and scale of emigration or emigrants’ living conditions. A key request and an item of importance was a need to include migration modules in existing surveys. The MED-Migr I experience, and the conclusions of the 2005 Task Force, emphasised the need to focus on a general objective that could be realistically reached during a three-year period, i.e. “contributing to the improvement of the sustainable capacity of the Mediterranean national statistical systems to upgrade the production of statistics on migration”. Therefore, the Project’s preliminary objectives were as follows: 1. Strengthening NSI capacities to measure the flow of migrants and stocks through the exploitation of the administrative systems of residence and work permits; 2. Satisfying users’ needs by undertaking “qualitative” surveys; and 3. Satisfying ad hoc needs. Given the different national situations and priorities, the implementation of the same activities in each country and the achievement of common results, such as the production and transmission of given tables, were initially recommended in favour of work on a country-by-country basis, which would eventually be useful at the regional or sub-regional level. Thus, some of the five general objectives of MEDSTAT II, i.e. the institutional and inter-institutional strengthening, harmonisation, data exchange, visibility, service to the users, were not included in the original plans for the Migration Sector. Overall, activities were intended to raise the awareness and competences of national actors involved in the NSIs of MPCs, exchange experiences and good practices at the international level and provide ad hoc support. The challenge of the first objective was to strengthen inter-institutional cooperation and to convince national partners of the usefulness of developing a system to meet administrative needs and the statistical demands of migration. A tangible result was considered to be that the improvement of the systems for residence and work permits would lead to an enhanced use of statistics. Concerning the satisfaction of users’ needs through qualitative surveys, its attainment was linked to the existence of plans for surveys and available resources at country level, with no direct means available to help.

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3.

The context for the implementation of activities

3.1.

The MEDSTAT II approach and its Orientation Phase

Giambattista Cantisani (MEDSTAT II) and Youssef Courbage (MEDSTAT II / INED)

The MEDSTAT II programme was implemented through three parallel projects under the administrative supervision of EuropeAid Cooperation Office (AIDCO, Unit A3 - Centralised Operations for Europe, the Mediterranean and Middle-East) and the technical contribution of EUROSTAT (Unit D1 - Statistical Co-operation with European and Mediterranean Countries, and relevant thematic units). Unlike the past, the Programme used a demand-driven approach and country tailored implementation processes and put emphasis on ownership and durability of activities. The new approach meant that different activities and results could be pursued in each country/sector. The three parallel projects were awarded through a call for tender, as follows: - Lot 1 (Horizontal activities, for IS, Training, Logistics) to a consortium lead by GTZ(2); - Lot 2 (Vertical or thematic activities on Agriculture, Environment, Energy, Transport, National accounts, External trade, Tourism, Social Statistics, Migration) to a consortium lead by ADETEF(3); - Lot 3 (Procurement of equipment), to AGMIN-Italy. The initial period was devoted to set up and link the parallel projects and prepare the methodology for the starting working with the MPCs. During the spring/summer 2006 Orientation Missions were undertaken in all countries, apart from the occupied Palestinian territory. For each country the Key Experts and Short-Term Experts (STEs) of each sector undertook the Orientation Missions on behalf of MEDSTAT II. These international experts worked closely with the respective National Coordinators and other relevant actors in the NSIs and partner national authorities. Communication was also established between experts of different lots for the purposes of consistently defining the training courses, the sector work within the national strategies, the IT equipment and the data collection tools to be provided and implemented by the Programme. Concerning the Migration Sector, the field missions were undertaken as follows: 2 The Consortium lead by GTZ had the following partners: Sogeti (Luxembourg), Ariane II Groupe Transiciel (Lxembourg), EIPA (the Netherlands), Meteksan Sistem A.S. (Turkey), IBF (Belgium), CNAM (France), Statistics Lithuania, Ministère de l’Economie (Luxembourg). 3 The Consortium GIP ADETEF MEDSTAT II Lot 2 included INSEE-France, INE-Spain, INE-Portugal, ISTAT-Italy, ONS-UK, GUS-Poland, KSH-Hungary, Plan Bleu (France) and Landsis (Luxembourg) as partners.

Schema 1: Detail of Orientation Missions Country

Dates

Responsible experts (NCOs1 and MEDSTAT II experts)

Syria

2-6 April 2006

Fadel Alchick (CBS) and Giambattista Cantisani (MEDSTAT II)

Lebanon

24-28 April 2006

Lara Badre (CAS), Giambattista Cantisani and Youssef Courbage (MEDSTAT II)

Israel

8-11 May 2006

Ahmad Hleilel (CBS) and Giambattista Cantisani (MEDSTAT II)

Egypt

4-8 June 2006

Madiha Saleh Seliman (CAPMAS) and Samir Farid (MEDSTAT II)

Morocco

29 May – 2 June 2006

Abdelilah Zerrou (HCP/DS) and Giambattista Cantisani (MEDSTAT II)

Tunisia

20-23 June 2006

Habib Fourati (INS) and Giambattista Cantisani (MEDSTAT II)

Jordan

25-29 June 2006

Mohammed Al-Assaf (DOS) and Giambattista Cantisani (MEDSTAT II)

Algeria

27 June - 2 July 2006

Badia Derkouche (ONS) and Youssef Courbage (MEDSTAT II)

1. Omar Benbella, Bouchra Bouziani and Mohammed Duraidi were later nominated as NCOs of Algeria, Morocco and the occupied Palestinian territory respectively.

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3.2.

Main findings of Orientation Missions

Statistical and administrative sources The orientation work identified quite different national situations, although many similar aspects and needs could also be recognised. In general terms, statistics were somewhat poor and fragmented in terms of sources, definitions, coverage and frequency. The shortage of migration statistics primarily stemmed from the limited exploitation of the administrative systems. Most countries were compiling and publishing tables on arrivals and departures by different combination of variables based on border crossings that are not directly useful for measuring migration. The use of other administrative sources was poor, or limited, despite the possibilities offered by some good registration systems, especially for residence permits. International migration was covered and measured in different ways in population censuses and other household surveys. Four out of nine project countries, i.e. Egypt, the occupied Palestinian territory, Israel and Algeria, were at different stage in preparing their next censuses- scheduled in the period from November 2006 to December 2008. Also the inclusion of migration questions or modules in general household surveys or specialised household surveys dealing with migration varied widely between countries. Moreover, the implementation of the latter in Egypt (on emigration and return migration), the occupied Palestinian territory (on causes and determinants of emigration) as well as Jordan (impact of recent immigration) was regularly dependent on the availability of external funding. Institutions and inter-institutional frameworks Among the eight NSIs visited by MEDSTAT II experts, only Israel and Tunisia already had a migration unit or service. Several NSIs recently undertook or planned a recruitment or reorganization of staff, including the assignment of staff to migration. The knowledge of the background and methodological materials from the past (MEDSTAT I) appeared limited, due to the time since the end of MEDSTAT I (4 years), staff turnover and possible lack of information transmission. In general terms, staff needed specific training and information on migration data collection, international recommendations and statistical production. In some cases, logistical and communication difficulties such as limited or inadequate access to Internet were recognised. In most of the eight MPCs, the NSS for international migration were found to be insufficiently coordinated. This was because national committees and technical groups sometimes did not exist or were operating poorly. However, the relationship between national authorities was generally good, and there were conditions for improvement. All the NSIs intended to improve migration statistics by compiling more frequent and detailed data respecting as far as possible international recommendations. The Orientation Missions found interest in further cooperation, and the missions were appreciated as advocating development. On the whole, the register of residence permits at ministries of interior was the most reliable system. However, there were significant differences between countries. The knowledge, staff and means available at the administrative level were adequate for current tasks. IT internal support generally was strengthening helping to improve systems, but external funding was asked for. In some cases, sensible investments had been made to estimate illegal migration or to develop border systems (e.g. Morocco and Jordan respectively). In some cases there was a lack of understanding of the usefulness and the practical and operational implications for statistics.

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International cooperation Concerning the international cooperation, the most important initiatives were at the level of UNESCWA (namely the experts’ group of November 2005 for the development of migration statistics in the frame of next population censuses), IOM, ILO and bilateral assistance. Among other initiatives, CARIM(4) was distributing information and activities for the different countries of the Region, including online databases, documents and publications. ETF was at that time undertaking pilot studies on migration and human development focusing on Egypt and Tunisia within the Region. Demand from users The increasing interest in international migration statistics from national authorities, research centres, the media, the private sector and other entities were mostly due to the control and management of flows, programming, development and monitoring. Basic information on yearly flows of migrants, necessary for population projections and estimates, was widely required. At the regional level, the topics of most concern were emigration and nationals residing abroad. This was mostly attributable to cultural and socio-economic reasons, such as the possibility of facilitating emigrants’ investments in their country of origin. There was also interest in effective returning migration. In addition, immigration of foreigners was becoming more important.. The limited availability of statistics meant that even basic data requests often went unanswered. Some NSIs received fewer data requests because they were widely known to lack data, while in the same countries governmental agencies were clamouring for such statistics. At the international level, the main requests for statistics came from international institutions, non-governmental organizations, research centres and fora. Research activities Research on international migration was undertaken to variable degrees between countries. It was certainly more advanced in the Maghreb countries, such as Morocco. Institutes, universities and observatories working on migration were generally in touch with the NSIs. The missions noted some criticism on the lack of funding and the fragmentation of activities. Research centres and non-governmental organisations regretted the limitations of statistics or even the conflicting results, such as the number of nationals abroad derived from the consular registration of MPCs and from the censuses of EU receiving countries. Moreover, requests for detailed data, which were frequently addressed to selected EU Member States and other main destination countries, normally went unanswered because of the high costs. These centres strongly recommended closer collaboration between national and international data producers as well as a facilitated access to data. Conclusions Therefore, apart from strengthening the capacities and increasing national awareness, the joint orientation work proposed to increase the access to and the use of data internationally available and encouraged joint initiatives between countries. These possible activities would have required collaborative efforts among the Mediterranean and European countries and an improved international coordination. 4 CARIM (www.carim.org) is the Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration established at the Robert Schuman Center for Advanced Studies (European University Institute) initially as part of the Cooperation Project on Social Integration of Immigrants, Migration and the Movements of Persons (EuroMed Migration I) under the MEDA Programme.

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4.

Activities undertaken under MEDSTAT II Migration

4.1.

Programming, evaluation and re-orientation

Giambattista Cantisani (MEDSTAT II)

The results of orientation missions were used for establishing documents on country basis, i.e. the Country Statistical System Reports (CSSR) and the Project Orientation Reports (POR) and further analysed, compared, discussed and integrated in the work programme proposals. The sector work programs went through a Director Committee in December 2006 and then discussed, approved and evaluated by the MPCs and the EC in sector task forces and other meetings held since the first half of 2007. A parallel consultation helped to define the final provision of IT equipment for each country and sector. The programming, orientation and evaluation for the Migration Sector was ensured through two task forces held as follows:

Task Force 1, Brussels, 13-14 March 2007 Main topics: Evaluation of orientation work and approval of work program 2007-2008 Participating institutions/entities: AIDCO, RELEX, DG JLS, EUROSTAT, the NSIs and MoI of MPCs, MEDSTAT II Lot 1 and Lot 2

Task Force 2, Rome, 20-21 May 2008 Main topics: Evaluation of activities undertaken in 2007-2008 and approval of work program 2008-2009 Participating institutions/entities: AIDCO, EUROSTAT, the NSIs and MoI of MPCs, ISTAT, MoI-Italy, MEDSTAT II Lot 2

The Task Force A- B- C- D- E-

1 decided to focus on the following work components: Strengthening the capacity to produce migration statistics from administrative sources, Strengthening the capacity to implement migration modules in relevant household surveys and censuses, Improving national collaboration and awareness, Improving data production, exchange of international data and joint work, and Other training and assistance.

Thus, MEDSTAT II Migration started contributing with an inventory of the different needs, priorities, requests and timetables of the nine project countries. The work program drawn up by this task force was basically followed, apart from the postponement of two regional events, with missions in six out of the nine countries. Based on results of regional events held at beginning of 2008, the Task Force 2 supported a main regional initiative, i.e. the development of Model Questionnaires for coordinated household surveys on international migration to be undertaken, outside the MEDSTAT Programme, in a selection of MPCs (MED-HIMS(5)). 5 MED-HIMS stands for Mediterranean Household International Migration Surveys.

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Schema 2: Timetable of activities organised or supported by MEDSTAT II Activity

Year/Month Task Force 2006

2007

2008

2009

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4

Study Visits

TA missions

SY, LB IL, EG MA, JO, TN Algeria

TA from home

Regional events

Other events

Publications work

UNECE/ESTAT WS

Sector Orientation Report

Orientation Mission followup

Algeria

Egypt TKF 1 SY, LB*, JO, oPt Egypt Morocco

Mission follow-up

Jordan Lebanon Palestine MA-DZ-TN Israel

Egypt* Jordan Lebanon Jordan

Mission follow-up + Proposal of priority

TRC WKS

TKF 2

UNECE/ESTAT WS EUROMED Migr II

Egypt*

Mission followup

MA+SY oPt*, Syria* Jordan*

Mission followTRC remittances up

Model 5 Questionnaires 6 for MED-HIMS 7 8 9 * denotes TA missions (mostly) focusing on statistical operations

GFMD prep m.

Guide on the Compilation of Statistics on International Migration in the Euro-MED Region

WKS MQ1 Suitland WG RT DG JLS GEMMA WKS WKS MQ2 ESCWA WKS

Final Publication

At end, the Programme provided a series of 7 study visits, 14 technical assistance missions, 5 regional meetings, the support and participation to several international meetings, the development of Model Questionnaires, and the preparation of a guide on the compilation of migration statistics and this publication. These activities, which are presented at Schema 2, are summarised in the following sections.

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4.2.

Study visits

Key benchmarks 2007 2008

-

Study Study Study Study Study Study Study

visit visit visit visit visit visit visit

of of of of of of of

Egypt to Italy Jordan to Italy Lebanon to Italy and Belgium occupied Palestinian territory to Hungary Maghreb countries to France Israel to the Netherlands and Finland Morocco and Syria to Spain

The study visits of delegations of MPCs to the EU Member States were progressively organised according to country needs and mostly held in the first part of the Implementation Phase. Overall forty national delegates from both the NSIs and partner agencies were mostly received by the NSIs of 7 EU Member States, i.e. ISTAT (Italy), Statistics Belgium, INSEE (France), the Central Statistical Office of Hungary, Statistics Netherlands, Statistics Finland and INE-Spain, although also INE-Portugal has played a relevant role providing contributions to two regional training courses held in Lisbon and Wiesbaden. Apart from the NSIs, most the study visits wee received by different ministerial agencies and other national institutions of the respective EU Member States, having some relevance to the Migration Sector. Finally, significant contributions were provided by research centers, namely the University of Milan Bicocca / ISMU and CNRIRPPS in Italy, UCL-GéDAP in Belgium, INED and OFPRA in France, and Kopint-Tárki Institute for Economic Research in Hungary. Some detail on each study is provided in Annex 1. The study visits were deemed invaluable by the national delegates as they were informed about the usefulness of comprehensive legal provisions, administrative registration and systems, the possible opportunities offered by a more in-depth use of administrative data, and the methods adopted in host countries, particularly the common instruments and procedures implemented under the EU umbrella and survey methods suggested by academics. Among the various cases, the Center Sampling Method developed by Giancarlo Blangiardo (University of Milan Bicocca and ISMU) for surveys on immigrants and the new methodology for using individual records from border crossing registration formalised by Michel Poulain (UCL-GéDAP) based on a proposal of Key Expert. Thus, the study visit of CAS and the Direction Générale de la Sûreté Générale of Lebanon ended with the identification of a possible pilot work regarding the application of this new methodology for measuring yearly migration flows. Furthermore, also according to reports from the participants, the study visits of Egypt and Jordan to Italy contributed to improve the relationships between the pairs of countries. The study visit of the delegation from occupied Palestinian territory highlighted the positive attitude of the population towards registration procedures, the continued coordination between agencies and different types of registers as well as the prevalence of high statistical awareness. The joint study visit of Maghreb countries to France, which was unfortunately perturbed by a hard strike of public transportation system in Paris, facilitated the reciprocal exchange between participating countries. The visit of Israeli delegates contributed to the finalisation of the plans for the next integrated census and the identification of a strategy for producing and disseminating sector statistics according to national and international requirements. The study visit in Spain mostly helped to identify and discuss possible areas of bilateral cooperation between Morocco and Spain. Finally, these events helped to strengthen the relationship between the participating agencies of the MPCs and in some cases with host national authorities.

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4.3.

Technical Assistance and activities undertaken at country level

Key benchmarks 2006 2007 2008 2009

-

Population census in Egypt Missions to Syria, Lebanon (2), Jordan (2), Egypt (2) and Morocco Meeting with the occupied Palestinian territory Population census in the occupied Palestinian territory Missions to Jordan (2), Egypt, the occupied Palestinian territory and Syria Population censuses in Algeria and Israel Micro-census in Tunisia MICS3 in Lebanon National Demographic Survey in Morocco (first round)

During the Implementation Phase, the sector Key Expert and a wide and highly qualified team of STEs provided direct support to the MPCs mostly through missions. No missions were undertaken in Algeria, Israel and Tunisia, despite initial requests from the first two countries. Overall the number of missions was fewer in 2008 than in 2007, focusing primarily on proposals for emigration surveys in the second year, and ceased in 2009. In the final period, the resources available for the Sector were primarily used on the development of Model Questionnaires. The detail of Technical Assistance missions is provided in Annex 2. MEDSTAT II contributed to almost all national committees’ meetings and workshops directly involving national partners and promoted the processing of administrative data at the level of individual records. The experience demonstrated good responsiveness and cooperation by national agencies but not in all countries, mainly due to overlap with other ongoing operations, the involvement of several actors and staff turnover. Meanwhile, in most countries the development of administrative registration systems is continually evolving in a direction favourable to statistical purposes. Concerning individual countries, based on new inter-institutional relationships, Morocco and Lebanon started elaborating individual data records available respectively through the registration of residence permits and border cards data. This represents the most important result for the component of strengthening the use of administrative sources. Advancements in Morocco led to new tables being produced to assess data quality and a specification of data exchange for the near future. Apart from that, the Ministry of Interior of Morocco is radically restructuring most of administrative systems relevant for migration statistics, with the involvement of the Direction of Statistics (see specific report under Chapter 5). Unfortunately, given the definition of pilot work after the study visit, progress in Lebanon was limited by the lack of equipment necessary for the full implementation of the project and then the production of tables on annual migration flows. The access to individual records was also attempted in Egypt, where at the end there were some improvements to the current production of statistics. In Jordan and Syria, in spite of the high commitment of national partner agencies at key moments, developments towards better use of administrative data remained dependent on the possible reorganisation and new status of DOS, the staff turnover in the key department of Syrian Ministry of Interior and other conditions. Concerning Jordan, where the MEDSTAT II contribution was launched together with the Social Statistics Sector, developments in the Migration Sector were re-launched by DOS in May 2009 under UNFPA mandate with the involvement of Ayman Zohry, the Egyptian expert already contributing under MEDSTAT II. In Syria, data collected though the comprehensive border cards defined and introduced under MEDSTAT I still need to be valorised. On statistical operations, migration modules were prepared with MEDSTAT II assistance for the UNICEF-funded MICS3 in Lebanon and for the 2008 Census in Algeria, whilst contents of other

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surveys or modules were discussed with Jordan, Morocco and the occupied Palestinian territory. In addition, during 2008 the Programme supported Egypt, Jordan, the occupied Palestinian territory and Syria in the study of the feasibility and preparation of proposals for new international migration surveys. These four proposals were built upon the specific themes issued by the first MEDSTAT II workshop held in Wiesbaden in March 2008, a meeting that also recommended the preparation of Model Questionnaires (see below and Chapter 5). During the lifetime of MEDSTAT II a number of activities were implemented in the MPCs without the contribution of MEDSTAT II. In particular, Egypt implemented a short emigration module in the Census of November 2006 as well as a pilot module on labour migration in the summer round of the 2007 Labour Force Survey. Tunisia mainly consolidated the use of statistical operations already pursued since the end of the previous programme and developed panel survey instruments. The occupied Palestinian territory carried out the census in December 2008. Finally, Israel implemented the 2008 Integrated Census, improved the methodology for estimating emigrant stocks, considered moving towards a ‘Dual Record System’ intending to meet national and international standards and prepared a new specialised survey on integration of recently arrived immigrants to be carry out in the field during 2009. Some of activities at country level shortly referred here above are reported in Chapter 5.

4.4.

Regional and international meetings

Key benchmarks 2006 2008 2009

- Joint UNECE / EUROSTAT Work Session on Migration Statistics, Edinburgh, 20-22 November - MEDSTAT II Regional Training Course on Concepts, definitions and methods for Migration Statistics, Lisbon, 12-15 February - Joint UNECE / EUROSTAT Work Session on Migration Statistics, Geneva, 3-5 March - MEDSTAT II Regional Workshop on Strengthening the measurement of migration in the Euro-Mediterranean Region, Wiesbaden, 10-13 March - Opening Conference of EuroMED Migration II Project, Brussels, 26 May - Expert Meeting on Data Collection on Migration and Development, Helsinki, 1 October 2008 - MEDSTAT II Regional Training Course on Methodologies for measuring the impact of remittance flows by migrants on household budgets and national accounts, Lisbon, 17-21 November - First MEDSTAT II Meeting on Development of Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS, Brussels, 16-19 February - First Meeting of Suitland Working Group on Using Household Surveys to Measure Migration and the Size, Distribution, and Characteristics of Migrant Population, Suitland, 16-17 March - Intermediate meetings on Model Questionnaires with Word Bank, EUROSTAT and other EC services, Brussels and Luxembourg, 31 May - 3 June - Second MEDSTAT II Meeting on Development of Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS, Cairo, 29 June - 3 July - UNESCWA Training Workshop on Migration Statistics, Cairo, 30 June - 3 July

The sector work has profited from a favourable timetable of activities undertaken under the UNECE / EUROSTAT frameworks, starting from the Joint Work Session in November 2006 practically before the end of the Orientation Phase. All these meetings contributed to the exchange of knowledge and discussion on methods applied at the country level for producing good and comparable results, especially on methodologies of national surveys and exercises and the measurement of emigration flows, difficult-to-count migrants and remittances. Apart from

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the often-challenging activities in the UNECE countries, these meetings also informed countries on the activities promoted and coordinated by the international organisations such as the pilot work and establishment of guidelines on using immigration data for measuring emigration. MEDSTAT II directly contributed to these meetings with an expert from each of the selected MPCs participating, covering technical issues. In particular, the Programme supported the preparation of a paper on methods for estimating the stocks of irregular migrants by Michael Jandl as STE for the Joint Work Session of March 2008 and ensured the presence of experts from Israel, Lebanon and Morocco and the Key Expert to the first meeting on the Suitland Working Group held in March 2009. On regional meetings directly organised by MEDSTAT II, the first two meetings held at beginning of 2008 enabled the sharing of experiences within the Euro-MED Region and emphasized the benefit of the regional approach and means provided by the Programme. The contributions of representatives from EUROSTAT, UNECE, World Bank, EUI/CARIM, ISTAT, INE-Portugal, INESpain, INED and UCL-GeDAP as well as independent experts were both useful and greatly valued. The attention was drawn to some key issues, bearing in mind that international migration has social/economic and political dimensions as well as statistics and numbers. Recommendations from these meetings included keeping MPCs informed of progress on pilot works and developments, continuing the coordination and cooperation with ministries, documenting and publishing the use of modules, definitions and methods and results (including a Statistics in Focus by EUROSTAT, using data provided by the EU Member States) and developing common instruments, in particular the Model Questionnaires. Later in 2008, the regional training on the measurement of migrants’ remittances organised by Social Statistics in synergy with the sectors of Migration and National Accounts allowed the participating countries to share experiences, discuss common migration and remittance issues, explore the international recommendations for measurement under the balance of payments approach, and learn about the new methods for collecting data through household surveys, thereby improving the national capabilities in this area. Two further MEDSTAT meetings supported the launching and development of Model Questionnaires and the preparation of MED-HIMS. The first meeting, which was held in Brussels in February 2009, first reviewed the lessons derived from the recent data collection activities and studies carried out in the Mediterranean countries, the EU and elsewhere in the world and the work under the international coordination. The meeting helped in identifying the possible interactions between the MED-HIMS and the comprehensive EC migration policy in terms of its objectives, actions, initiatives and tools, including the strengthening of regional cooperation in the management of migration under the ongoing EuroMED Migration II Project and the proposal by the EC DG JLS of Country Migration Profiles as tools for continuous monitoring, reporting and forecasting. As main outcomes, the plans for coordinated migration surveys based on Model Questionnaires were endorsed and a preliminary outline of questionnaires was established. A second, more operational meeting on Model Questionnaires was held in Cairo in summer 2009 after some intermediate meetings between MEDSTAT II, World Bank, EUROSTAT and other EC services. This meeting was organised in parallel to the UNESCWA Training Workshop on International Migration Statistics, an event supported by the UN Population Division, Arab Labour Organisation and MEDSTAT II too which has given further supported the exchange of information at international level and allowed to acknowledge the relevance of results achieved under MEDSTAT II. More detailed information on meetings and discussions on Model Questionnaires is provided in the specific report within Chapter 5. To complement some topics and international and regional meetings mentioned above, the Key Expert attended other relevant meetings, including a preparatory meeting for the GFMD 2008 and Round Table organised by DG JFS on Migration Profiles. These other meetings informed MEDSTAT II and its counterpart in the MPCs about further initiatives undertaken at regional and

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global level outside the official statistics, including the work of the Commission on International Migration Data for Development Research led by the Center for Global Development (CGD) for improving the availability of data on international migration and development exposed in Chapter 5. The outcomes of all the meetings attended by MEDSTAT II and other recent initiatives endorsed the objectives of the Programme of making further and better use of administrative data, developing standardised tools for migration data collection through surveys, adopting international recommendations, sharing data and enhancing other means of international cooperation. In addition, these international initiatives promoted the release and sharing of micro data available from surveys and creating national task forces or working groups to produce national statistics or reports on international migration on a regular basis.

4.5.

Other main activities

In order to facilitate an understanding with ministerial agencies and to find common output among the MPCs for a better use of administrative sources, starting from an initial data request from CBS-Syria to the Department of Passports and Immigration and recommendations available from MEDSTAT I, in 2007 MEDSTAT II suggested the production of a set of priority tables derived from administrative sources on yearly basis. From a suggestion made by EUROSTAT- anticipating the recommendations from the MEDSTAT II workshop of March 2008,- a synthesized Guide on the compilation of statistics on international migration in the Euro-Mediterranean Region was defined as output of regional meetings held at beginning of 2008. The Guide was prepared by MEDSTAT II experts. This publication, which was designed as a reference for statisticians and committees in the MPCs intending to implement developments in the Sector, was updated and extended according to information progressively available to MEDSTAT II by the end of 2008. The Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS were also developed by Samir Farid on behalf of MEDSTAT II with the assistance of other experts from the MPCs, MEDSTAT II, the World Bank and EUROSTAT and input from different EC services dealing with migration and other entities. The work on both the Guide and the Mode Questionnaires is referred in the Chapter 5. Finally, MEDSTAT II had continuously operated as a coordinator entity, facilitating the contacts between external entities and the NSIs of MPCs for example for data requests, establishing synergies between sectors and with international institutions or other initiatives, and mostly ensuring the dissemination of relevant information and documents to the counterpart in the MPCs.

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5.

Main activities, best practices and results at national and regional level

This chapter presents the main activities and best practices implemented in the MPCs and at regional level in the last three years, also regardless of the direct contribution provided by MEDSTAT II. Moreover, some activities at international level and recommendations relevant for the sector are also included. The text has been provided by the NCOs, other experts and representatives of international institutions. The contents of the chapter also reflect what was possible to provide in the huge final period of implementation of MEDSTAT II.

5.1.

Development of national systems, national coordination and use of administrative sources in Morocco Bouchra Bouziani (HCP/DS)

Development of national systems and national coordination During the last ten years Morocco has undertaken various institutional reforms, which have often had implications for international migration. For example, the reform of the code of nationality and the code of the family for members of the Moroccan community abroad, led to the setting up of the High Council of the Moroccan Community Abroad, which in turn has resulted in new and reorganised national information systems. Not forgetting the creation of an observatory and migration and border control which, in general, is mainly concerned with the study and control of illegal migration. As a result of these changes various works were also undertaken by the Ministry for the Interior, General Direction of National Security (DGSN), the institution that manages the administrative registers. Administrative registers are considered to be potentially the most important source for the production of statistics on international migration (and by other national authorities). All these initiatives have made it possible to promote awareness on the need for national coordination in order to improve both the production of sector statistics and harmonization at international level. The MEDSTAT Programme has supported and contributed to this process of development of activities in the sector, in particular the reinforcement of national coordination between the High Planning Commission, Direction of Statistics (HCP/DS) and the national partner agencies. In particular the ministerial departments have profited from computer equipment (i.e. 16 out of the 26 computers were assigned to the sector), the direct contact with international experts and officers from EU countries and international institutions in study visits and regional workshops, as well as the dissemination of documents by the Programme. All these activities have allowed national partners to compare their situation with other countries and to benefit from other country experiences in order to reinforce the capacity to produce sector statistics. In the framework of this inter-institutional coordination a working group was set up between HCP/DS and DGSN to help enhance both the exchange of information/files and the need for statistical production. In addition, in synergy with other statistical sectors covered by MEDSTAT II, coordination was strengthened with other departments - the Ministry of the Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Co-operation, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Employment and Professional Training and Exchange Office. A description of the most important activities for the migration sector is provided in the next section of this report. Promising developments may be realised from the national awareness that has been initiated and stimulated by the MEDSTAT II Programme.

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Developments in the use of administrative sources Register of residence permits It is relevant to recall that the DGSN has made available to HCP/DS individual data records extracted from register of residence permits. Lessons learnt as well as the problems in exploiting micro data were presented in events organised and supported by MEDSTAT II. The main variables are: - Citizenship; - Sex - Year of birth; - Date of issuance of the permit; - Date of completion of validity; - Reason for stay. These data extraction have made it possible to produce tables on valid residence permits by sex, age, citizenship and reason for the stay of the permit holder. However, there are still some problems to resolve on the following: - The updating of this stock (problems of exits and deaths of foreigners); - The minors accompanying the permit holders for whom no information appears in the system; - The linkage between the files for different calendar years and, consequently, the problems of total duration of the stay and change of status; - The lack of information to distinguish between new requests and requests for extension of permit. It is planned, that starting from fourth quarter of 2009, biometric residence permits will be issued by DGSN to foreigners residing in Morocco. This follows biometric national identity cards being issued to Moroccan citizens from 2008. The introduction of this new document is part of the modernisation project - the System of Documents and Identity Means - a project to update and develop the IT systems holding the various administrative registers. To improve the content and quality of this information, the HCP/DS and DGSN have agreed to the development of an instruction manual for processing residence permit data for the filling in and treatment of relative forms, following the recommendations available from MEDSTAT I. Register of border crossings At the end of 2009 Morocco will introduce new passports integrating biometric data to help guarantee safety and international travel. The new document is part of the project on modernization of the control system carried out at the level of border posts. The biometric data integrated in these passports, together with data entered by border guards at the time of border crossing, will constitute a potentially useful source for meeting statistical needs. In the framework of these wide activities initiated by the DGSN, meetings were held with the various national departments in order to examine the respective needs and to try to integrate such needs, as far as possible, in the developments but without compromising the main goals pursued by these projects. As a result of bilateral meetings between HCP/DS and DGSN, a set of provisions to improve the production of statistics on international migration and tourism was taken into account. The needs rising mainly from the recommendations available from MEDSTAT I can be summarized as follows:

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- Addition of: • Categories concerning the reason of movement (work, study, marriage/family reunification, return/final departure); • A variable informing on the expected duration of stay (at exit: for the residents in Morocco; at entry, for those not residing in Morocco); • A check box for persons with dual citizenship (Morrocans residing abroad holding two passports); - The series of tables provided to the HCP/DS were re-examined in the light of these modifications and recommendations from MEDSTAT I for both the sectors Migration and Tourism; - The possible provision of individual records on each single border movements during a given period to study the feasibility of better statistics for the two sectors above by benefiting from the pilot work on this subject. It should be noted that the problem of minors who do not hold a passport will be solved with this type of passport, since all people will be included, irrespective of age. With the objective to improve the contents and quality of statistics the HCP/DS and DGSN already agreed in 2007 on the treatment of data on border entries/exits with the development of an instruction manual for the filling in and treatment of the related cards. System of consular registration The Direction of Consular and Social Affairs (DACS) of Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation recently updated the system of consular registration. This system, which is now centralized, connects all consulates and diplomatic missions having a consular section. The new inscriptions and changes recorded in the different countries would make it possible to eliminate double counts (registrations in the register of the consulate of the country of previous residence). This system was modernized for administrative reasons, but its value for statistics is obvious. Consular registration is voluntary; but the need for documents and/or services and the desire to keep a tie with the country of origin have led to Moroccans residing abroad being well represented in this register. The recent evolution of the system allowing multiple registrations to be eliminated should reduce the differences with the statistics of stocks provided by the countries of destination of Moroccan migrants. Beyond the specifications and methodological changes in the DACS system, the differences persisting between the two sources should mainly derive from double citizenships. In 2008, statistics on Moroccans residing abroad derived from consulate were supplied to the HCP/DS in order to publish them in the statistical yearbook. However, in order to ensure their reliability and coherence, some concern was expressed about publishing the statistics without some further improvements. A new project concentrates on the modernization of the consular management and setting up of an E-consulate portal to help and be used by Moroccans residing abroad. One of the main objectives aims at improving the consular services through the computerization of the system. 5.2.

A new methodology for estimating the annual migration flows based on individual border crossing data Michel Poulain (MEDSTAT II / UCL – GéDAP)

In the framework of the MEDSTAT II programme a special methodology has been developed for the estimation of international migration flows by using a border crossing database. This proposed methodology that respects the UN recommendations as far as the definition of inter-

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national migration and the identification of the country of usual residence are concerned, has been initiated in the framework of MEDSTAT II with the collaboration of the Central Administration for Statistics and the Ministry of Interior, DG of General Security, of Lebanon, and the MEDSTAT II Key Expert for Migration. It may be useful for countries managing successfully the control of their borders and having developed an exhaustive border crossing database. The latter may be based on the registration of individual data at border crossing (manual editing or optical reading recognition, the latter allowing to a reduction of necessary steps) or recorded from later using border cards filled in by international passengers. Still this methodology is applicable for a group of countries as those composing the Schengen Area, for estimating immigrations and emigrations of non-EU citizens. The methodology aims at estimating the yearly international migration inflows and outflows. It may be also implemented in order to quantify some other groups as visitors, temporary absents, short term migrants and circular migrants. For the reference year T, all individual border crossings observed and registered over a three year period from year T-1 to year T+1 have to be considered. If the database covers N years of border crossing records, the statistics may be obtained for N-2 years excluding the first and the last years. For building the border crossing database, all travellers crossing the national borders have to be recorded by date, identification characteristics of the persons concerned and distinction between entries (IN) and exits (OUT) and all border crossings for the same person have to be linked and associated with the basic characteristics of that person such as sex, date of birth, country of citizenship, number of passport and, if available, country of birth. The keys for linking these records for the same person are usually the passport number, the country of citizenship, sex, name and surname and the complete date of birth. A special attention will be devoted to the completeness and the reliability of reconstructed personal itineraries as far as border crossing is concerned, i.e. sequences of entries and exits referring to the same individual. A validation and subsequent correction of the database is essential as the same person may be involved in two or more reconstructed personal itineraries and that situation may result in an overestimation of the number of international migrants. Moreover, it can occur that illogical personal itineraries are reconstructed, for instance due to the use of different travel documents by a same person at arrival and departure. The validation methodology is based on similarities between individual characteristics and plausibility of the sequence of border crossings. The Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses (UN, 2007) recommends that countries apply a threshold of 12 months when considering place of usual residence according to one of two suggested criteria. First of all it is important to mention that the proposed methodology is only based on objective information that is the effective duration of presence or absence in the country. These durations are calculated very precisely ex post by considering all dates of entry or exit as recorded by the border guards. Accordingly this methodology does consider neither the intention for the duration of presence or absence or the reason for entering or leaving the country. We are convinced that this is a strong aspect of this methodology as both intended duration of stay or absence and reason for moving are generally the weakest points in any data collection procedure on international migrations. As a consequence the first criterion recommended by the UN for identifying the place of usual residence is the most appropriate but without any exclusion for holidays or work assignments. More precisely the country of usual residence will be defined as the country where the person has lived for most of the last 12 months (i.e., for at least six months and one day or 183 days within 12 months) and an international migration is defined as a change of country of usual residence. Considering only the cumulated duration of presence or absence in the country, an international immigrant will be identify as follows: an international immigrant is a person recorded when crossing the national border - who entered the country in a given day during a year T and has cumulated a minimum of 183 days of residence in the country during the twelve following months; he/she spent at least a cumulate duration of 183 days of residence outside the country

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during the twelve months before entering the country. Similarly, an international emigrant is a person recorded when crossing the national border - who left the country in a given day during a year T and has cumulated a minimum of 183 days of residence outside the country during the twelve following months; - who was usual resident of the country when leaving the country which means that he/ she spent at least a cumulate duration of 183 days of residence inside the country during the twelve months before leaving the country. International immigrants or emigrants will be counted at the time of entry or exit but their identification is only possible after a period that will vary between six and twelve months after border crossing. Therefore the total number of international migrants for the year T will only be fixed at the end of the year T+1. In addition the first year of observation T-1 does not allow identifying international migrants but the data for the year T-1 is needed in order to define if the person concerned is or not a usual resident of the country recording the border crossing. Accordingly international migrants cannot be identified for the first and the last year covered by the database. When a given entry or exit has been found to be an international migration, all subsequent entries and exits occurring before to reach the accumulated threshold of 183 days of presence or absence (within the first year) will be ignored. Only the first exit after having accumulated 183 days of presence in the country will be the starting point for identifying a subsequent international emigration. Similarly the first entry after having accumulated 183 days of absence outside the country will be the starting point for identifying a subsequent international immigration. Concretely this methodology does not allow registering more than one immigration and one emigration during a calendar year. When entries and exits have not been validated as immigrations or emigrations, the following border crossing moves, respectively an exit or an entry, will be submitted as well to the same identification process. In conclusion, the suggested methodology allows producing statistical figures for international migrations at the end of the year T + 1 but even six months earlier if some basic assumptions are introduced. This methodology respects the UN recommendations defining international migration as change of country of usual residence and the ones defining the country of usual residence as the country where the person spend most of the twelve months following the move. Following these recommendations an international migrant may be identified after only 183 days of cumulated presence in the country or absence outside the country within a given year of observation. That means that no more than one immigration and/or one emigration may be counted for a given person in a given observation year. At maximum it would be possible to count one immigration followed by one emigration for a given year what is not possible if we use the definition of international migration and place of usual residence based on the criterion of at least twelve month of continuous residence. Consequently, this methodology will count in average slightly more international migrations that the other method. There is a possibility to increase the reference period and to consider for example 300 days and not 183 days. In this case only one migration may be counted per year but the migrant has the possibility for visits and holidays up to 65 days. Doing so the figure will be close to the one based on the 12 months residence rule but all students and migrant workers would be included. The key advantage of this methodology is the use of an administrative database and the fact that the weakest aspects in the definition of international migration are avoided, the problem of intention and the temporary presence or absence for holidays and work assignment.

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5.3.

Steps necessary for the Israeli system to conform to international requirements for migration statistics Ahmad Hleilel (ICBS)

The situation of international migration in Israel differs from most of countries. The differences focus on migration policy, and relate to the establishment of Israel as a Jewish State. This policy has affected migration laws, sources of migration, definitions of migration, and migration statistics. The present report deals with the obstacles and steps necessary for the Israeli system to conform to EU Countries migration statistics requirements. The report focuses on the meaning of migration in Israel and data sources and it’s different from the EU system. The report presents the “Dual Record System” as a frame to produce a migration data that deal with the Israeli requirements and the EU requirements. The meaning of migration in Israel The Law of Return ensures all Jewish persons and their relatives of automatic Israeli citizenship. That law, and other immigration laws and regulations have played an important role in encouraging Jewish immigration to Israel and discouraging emigration. The terminology for immigration illustrates this approach: The Hebrew word for immigration is aliyah, which means “ascension” and has other positive connotations (improvement, promotion, etc.). Conversely, the word for leaving the country is yeridah (falling, going down, or deteriorating), and its associations are extremely negative In contrast to the situation with Jews, non-Jewish immigration to Israel is very difficult, and is limited to cases of family reunification, family formation, and humanitarian grounds. All other Non-Jews entering Israel are expected to leave the country when their residence permit expires. The latter group includes tourists, work permit holders, and students. Foreigners who continue staying in Israel after their permit expires are illegal residents. Sources and data quality One of the main obstacles to harmonizing data between countries is the use of different sources for measurement of migration data. The ICBS uses only two sources for measuring migration: the Border Cards System (BCS), and the Population Register System (PRS). The border police registration includes all arrival and departure records. The Israeli registration includes date of action, action type (arrival, departure), demographic characteristics, and administrative details from the PRS. Foreigner registration includes time of action, action type, documents (visa, work permit, etc.), and passport details (passport number, country, age, sex, etc.) Despite the electronic connection between the BCS and PRS, the ICBS uses the two sources separately for different types of migration statistics. The PRS is used for long-term in-flows, except for returning emigrants (see Table 1 and Table 2); and the BCS is used for returning emigration, short-term in-flows, and all out-flows (short and long-term). The quality of the migration data is related to the data source. Data on types of migration are measured by the PRS are very high quality and complete (e.g., age, sex, religion, citizenship status, first address in Israel, country of birth, last country of residence). The quality of immigration data enables ICBS to conduct a stock of immigrants as a part of the stock of population estimates.

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Despite some disadvantages related to linkage between departure records and arrival records, and despite the missing data on destination and emigration purposes, the emigration data (inflows and out-flows) are high quality. The disadvantage of emigration sources is their limited ability to conduct a stock of emigration. Statistics on in-flow of work permit holders based on the BCS are also very high quality. The data are complete, and include most of the characteristics needed to conduct short-term migration statistical analyses (sex, age, country of birth, country of citizenship, day of arrival in Israel, documentation of arrival, employer ID in Israel, and other characteristics copied from the passport). In the documentation of out-flow of work permit holders, data on arrivals and linkage with arrival records are sometimes missing. As a result, we are limited to measuring out-flow of work permit holders, and the ICBS cannot conduct a complete stock of work permit holders. Since January 2007, the border police began working with a new system that is expected to improve the linkage between departure and arrival records. The improvement process is currently being evaluated at the ICBS. Migration statistics: Israel vs. EU Member States In practice, Israeli migration statistics are adapted to the needs of Israeli society and to the significance of migration in Israel. However, international recommendations for migration statistics contradict the concept and meaning of migration in Israel. Thus, the only way to disseminate migration data that conform to EU regulations is to conduct a “Dual Record System”. The first group in that system includes records of migrants by Israeli definitions (the current system); and the second group includes records of migrants by EU definitions. Notwithstanding this solution, some obstacles remain in the attempt to adapt Israeli migration data to EU regulations. 1. Differences in data sources: Migration statistics in Israel are measured using the administrative system, as in like most EU countries. However, there is a difference in the processes of registering migration. Most of the types of migration in Israel are registered at the border checkpoints, at the initiative of the authorities and not of the migrant. In the EU countries, registration of migrants is conducted at the level of the municipality after crossing the border, and mostly at the initiative of the migrant. This difference affects differences in the quality and completeness of data. 2. Differences in the definitions of long-term and short-term: The classification of immigration flows in Israel as long-term or short-term not related to the duration of the migrant’s stay in Israel. ICBS uses the migrant’s intention to settle in Israel and the decision of the Ministry of the Interior as a basis for classifying migration as long or short-term. Examples: (a) A Jewish immigrant is included in the Israeli population (as an immigrant) from the moment of registration in the PRS. According to Israeli policy, the assumption is that the immigrant intends to settle permanently (or at least for one year). (b) Even though the length of stay in Israel for most foreign workers is more than one year (they can stay maximum 63 months), they are classified as short-term migration and are excluded from the PRS and population estimates. These regulations relate to Israeli migration policy, where foreign workers are expected to stay temporarily. Those methods of long/short-term classification do not conform to EU recommendations, which are based on the actual length of stay in the country (3-12 months for short-term migration, and over one year for long-term migration). This discrepancy between the two methods might be reconciled by using additional methods that measure continuity stay in Israel.

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3. Types of migrations statistics: Israeli migration statistics exclude some types of migration such as refugees, asylum, and students, which are popular in EU migration statistics. Most of those types of migration are registered in the PRS and BCS, and the ICBS would be able to produce those figures. Table 1: In Flows Migration to Israel: Classifications, Definitions and Data Source Topic

Definition

Duration definition

Source

Immigrants

A person entering the country to take up permanent residence under the Law of Return or The Law of Entrance.

Long-Term The intention to settle after receiving the agreement of the Ministry of the Interior

PRS

Potential immigrants

A person entitled to an immigrant visa or certificate according to the Law of Return, who wants to stay in Israel up to three years to examine possibilities and conditions for settling in Israel as an immigrant.

Long-Term The intention to settle after receiving the agreement of the Ministry of the Interior

PRS

Tourist who changed his or her status

A person who entered Israel as a tourist, and during his or her stay in the country applied for, and received, the status of an immigrant or potential immigrant.

Long-Term The intention to settle after receiving the agreement of the Ministry of the Interior

PRS

Immigrating citizen

A person, born to an Israeli citizen during his or her stay abroad, who enters Israel with the intention of settling.

Long-Term PRS The intention to settle after receiving the agreement of the Ministry of the Interior

Other new records in the population register

A person who receives permanent resident status in Israel under the Law of Entry. These records usually include non-Jews who were unable to receive permanent resident status under the Law of Return. Most of the records are reunification and family formation cases. The records can include small groups that received permanent resident status on grounds other than family reasons (refugees, asylum, etc.)

Long-Term The intention to settle after receiving the agreement of the Ministry of the Interior

Returning Israelis (former emigrants)

A citizen or resident of Israel (with a record in the Population Register), who emigrated from Israel for a period of at least one year and came back with intention of settling in Israel again.

Long-Term BCS The intention to resettle is defined on the basis of length of stay in Israel (at least 3 months continuously)

Work permit holders

Foreign citizens who arrive from other countries and remain in Israel for various periods of time for the purpose of work, and who have a work permit.

Short-Term The first permit limited to the end of the same year. The permit ca be extended for extra year, but they are not allowed to stay in Israel for more than 63 months).

Illegal residents

Foreigners who continue to stay in Israel after their Short-Term permit has expired (using their arrival documents)

PRS

BCS

BCS

Table 2 : Out-Flows of Migration to Israel: Classifications, Definitions and Data Sources Topic

Definition

Duration definition

Source

Emigrants

An Israeli who leaves Israel and stays abroad continuously for at least one year (the last departure is more than one year).

Long-term

BCS

Work permit holders

A foreigner who arrives in Israel with a work permits and departs the country.

Short-term

BCS

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5.4.

Implementation of a migration module in the 2007 LFS in Egypt Madiha Saleh Seliman and Ahmed Sayed Morsy (CAPMAS)

Introduction The Central Agency for public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS), as the official National Statistical Office, undertakes the main role in collecting, evaluating, analyzing and disseminating migration statistics based on data available through censuses, sample surveys and administrative registration. CAPMAS uses the migration figures for population estimates, projections and planning and to determine the gain or loss of labour migration. One of the main, recent experiences in this field and its results are summarised here. The implementation of the migration module: the Egyptian Labour Migration Project As a part of a larger project implemented in four countries around the world, i.e. Egypt, Armenia, Thailand and Ecuador, and under a gainful and profitable cooperation between the institutions, CAPMAS and ILO made an agreement to conduct a pilot project for studying the migration of Egyptians working or planning/wishing to work abroad. The goal of this exercise was to develop questions to measure aspects of labour migration which could be permanently added to pre-existing household surveys, such as the Labour Force Survey (LFS). This project was implemented by CAPMAS by adding a test module that includes twenty five (25) questions on Egyptian labour migration to the national questionnaire of the LFS in the JulySeptember 2007 round. This extended questionnaire was administrated to a national probability sample of 21,000 households. The module was composed of questions taken from the master labour module established by ILO, Bureau of Statistics, aiming at following: - To examine the international migration of the Egyptian labour force; - To determine their characteristics; - To identify the causes of migration; - To identify the duration of staying abroad and remittances sent by migrants. The concepts and definitions of Return Migrants and Current Migrants were used in the framework of this project, as follows: - a Return Migrant is defined as an individual of a household who previously travelled abroad for work during the ten preceding years and who is currently a usual resident with his/her household; - a Current Migrant is defined as an individual of a household who currently resides abroad, this individual has no any other place for residence when he/she returns for vacation. This project contributed towards improving international labour migration statistics by providing indicators of whether the tested module questions are viable for measuring various aspects of labour migration on regular household surveys in Egypt. Main findings of the Egyptian Labour Migration Project Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of Egyptian Return Migrants - The majority of Egyptian return migrants (93%) are males and only (7%) are females. With regard to urban /rural residence of Egyptian return migrants, the data shows that

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more than two-thirds of them (71%) are currently residing in rural areas, while (29%) are residing in urban areas. - The data indicates that 38% of Egyptian return migrants are aged (35-44), 28% aged (15-34) and 22% aged (45-54), while only 2% of emigrants are aged 65 years and over. - By studying the educational status of Egyptian return migrants, it is shown that about 33% of total return migrants have intermediate qualifications, while the proportion of illiterate return migrants is 27.2% and about 16% of total return migrants have university qualifications. - Examining the marital status of return migrants by sex, it is shown that the vast majority of male return migrants are married (88.3%), while only 8.7% were never married. On the other side, among female return migrants, (42%) were married, while about 24% of them were below marriage age. - Concerning the employment status of return migrants abroad according to sex differentials, the results indicate that 93% of male return migrants were paid workers, whereas only 3.5% didn’t work abroad and 1.7% were self-employed. Regarding female return migrants, the results show that about 62% didn’t work abroad, while about 33% were paid workers. - Regarding the occupational status of the Egyptian return migrants abroad, the data indicates that about 47% of return migrants were craftsmen or related trade workers, while that percentage of skilled agricultural and fishery workers were 19.2%. With regard to the cause of Egyptian emigration, the data shows that about 97% of males migrate to work, while about two-thirds of females migrate to accompany family members and only 29% of them migrate to work. - Concerning emigrant’s remittances by type of remittances, the results show that about (61%) of total return migrants who previously sent remittances while abroad, did send money and goods, while (37.8%) of them sent money and only (1.2%) sent goods. - Examining the data of method of sending remittance, the results indicate that more than two-thirds of them (71.4%) sent remittances through friends or relatives, while (47.4%) of them sent their remittances through bank transfer. - Regarding the average duration of staying abroad according to last country of destination, the results show that the highest average duration of staying abroad is between (6-7) years in Spain, Germany, Italy and United Stats of America. The average duration of staying abroad ranged between (1-4) years in Arab countries. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of Egyptian Current Migrants - The data indicates that the majority of Egyptian emigrants are males (98.6%), whereas only (1.4%) are female. - The data shows that about 80% of emigrants originally lived in rural areas and only 20% of them previously lived in urban areas. This finding might reflect the availability of job opportunities in urban areas than in rural areas which push population at working age to migrate looking for job opportunity (and almost all of them, 99.7%, are males.) - The data shows that 82.6% of emigrants are aged (15-44), and that more than half of them (53.3%) are aged (15-34), which may reflect the tendency for the decision to migrate to be taken mainly by young people. - Concerning the employment status of emigrants, the data shows that about 96% of emigrants are wage earners (96.3% male and 61.5% female), only 2.3% of them are own account workers. - The data indicates that almost half of emigrants (48.9%) are crafts or related workers and all of them are males, followed by those working in the agricultural sector (16.5%) and those in sales and services occupations (13.1%). Professionals and scientific occupations represent 10.3% of total emigrants. This pattern reflects a tendency on the part of pulling countries to absorb Egyptian labour force in specific occupations. - Regarding the distribution of Egyptian emigrants who previously sent remittances by the way of sending, the data shows that 75% of emigrants sent remittances and that they used more than one method for sending these remittances, e.g. remittances which have been sent through relatives and friends were the most common (64.2%), followed by remittances sent through banks, 51.6%. Remittances, which were sent by the

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person himself or through post offices, came at the end of this arrangement (7.8% and 6.3% respectively). - The data shows that there is a great difference in duration of staying abroad for current migrants from country to another, e.g. the average duration of staying abroad was 14 years in Iraq, 10 years in the United States of America, 7 years in Qatar, and only one year in Greece and Algeria.

5.5.

Implementation of a migration module in the 2009 MICS3 in Lebanon Lara Badre (CAS)

Introduction The Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey – Round 3 (MICS3) is a household survey promoted by UNICEF having the objective of monitoring the situation of children and mothers in developing countries. Considering the relevance of international migration for the Lebanon and the requests of statistics and indicators on this topic by several data users at the national and the international levels, CAS has decided to add a specific module on migration within the MICS3 and asked technical assistance to MEDSTAT II for the preparation of this module. CAS staff and Youssef Courbage in mission to Beirut in April 2007 on behalf of MEDSTAT II have taken into account the current situation in the country, the international recommendations in the field of statistics such as the definition of international migration of the UN and the experiences of other countries in measuring migration using household surveys. This module have been also reviewed by UNICEF experts and edited in some cases according to their comments and contributions. The main objective of the module is to estimate the number of emigrants during the past five years. Challenging issues related to international migration One major difficulty in measuring emigration is to estimate the number of households that have emigrated as whole, in such cases were no household’s members remain in Lebanon to report on this emigration during the survey. Being aware of the fact that other households or relatives can report on the above mentioned type of migration, and trying to minimize the duplication while collecting information on those households, CAS has decided together with MEDSTAT II experts to link the question on possible household’s members migration only to the head of the household, by eliminating a high probability of duplication in the data. Therefore the head of the household will be the respondent, he will be reporting on emigration for the following people related to him or her: husband/wife, son, daughter, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, grandchild, parent, brother or sister and nephew/niece. Once one or more of those people are identified as emigrants, the interviewer will ask further questions related to the characteristics of those emigrants at the time they did emigrate. Emigrant’s characteristics will provide information such as their relation to the head of the household, sex, marital status, age, level of education, occupation, hosting country, reason for emigration, … One key question remains to know if those emigrated persons where living or not in the same house with the head of the household before emigrating. This question would sort the emigrants into two different categories. The first category will be composed by people who were living with the head of the household before emigrating, hence those are their household members. The second category will be the people who were not living with the head of the household before emigration, hence those persons could be members of another household. For the se-

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cond category the survey foresees to ask an additional question useful to find out whether these persons have emigrated with all their family members or not (see Questions Q2 to Q15 in the following Schema 1). As anticipated above, this double technique will allow to estimating the household’s members and direct relatives to the head of household that emigrated during the reference period. On the other hand, this module will enable to estimate internal migration with potentially a partial estimation of immigrants during the five past years based on the question on the usual place of residence during the past five years and the change of this usual residence, if any (see Questions Q16 to Q20 at Schema 1). Survey technique Next MICS3 in Lebanon will have three questionnaires, namely the Household Questionnaire, Women Questionnaire and Under Five Questionnaire. The migration module is part of the Household Questionnaire. The sample size of the survey is 16500 households at the national level. Computer assisted data collection technique will be used and the work is being conducted on Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) that have been uploaded with specific data collection software (electronic questionnaires) developed by CAS. This technique has several advantages such as reducing the data collection time, improving the quality of data using integrated data checks and data control, avoiding several types of errors, monitoring the field work and publishing results directly after data processing. Concepts and definitions on the migration component As part of the fieldwork manual, the migration module has its own chapter where migration has been defined as a ‘change of place of usual residence for at least 12 months’ for whatever is the reason. In cases where recent emigration (less than 12 months) will be reported, interviewers will consider these cases as emigration only if the intention to stay for at least 12 months is clearly mentioned by the respondent. Short vacations or visits to Lebanon will be excluded and not considered as interruption of stay outside the country. Since emigration from Lebanon started very long time ago, CAS is aware of the fact that some persons or households will experience emigration several times during their lifetime. Clear instructions are given to interviewers to collect information related to the very recent emigration if it seems to happen during the reference period and to ignore all previous emigrations.

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Schema 1: Migration module Migration Module The head of the household is the respondent to this module Q1

Is there any member of your family emigrating sunce June 2004 and did not come back? (husband, wife, son, daughter, daughter-in-law, son-in-law, grandchild, parent, brother or sister, Niece/nephew)

1. Yes

Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q11 Q12 Q13 Q14

2. No

Give the number of those people Name Relationship to the head of household Sex Marital status Age Educational Level Month and year of emigration Occupation Country of residence Cause of migration Was living with you in the same house before emigration Did he emigrate with all his family members 1. Yes

2. No

Q15

If yes give number

Q16 Q17

For every member from 5 years and above, living currently with the HH Line n° (Name) Where u were living in June 2004 1. In the same house

Q18 Q19 Q20

2. In another house in Lebanon

3. In another house outside Lebanon

Mention the cause of changing the adress of your house Mention the village and caza in Lebanon or the Country if not Lebanon Since when are you living in this house? END of Module

Current situation CAS staff has recently prepared fieldwork manuals and provided training for the survey. Interviewers have been trained on how to use the PDA’s, fill in the questionnaires. Clear definition of international migration was provided, examples and cases where shown, including exceptions and cases to excluded or report on. This material is only available in Arabic. The MICS3 will be implemented by CAS in collaboration with the UNICEF office in Beirut. Apart from the provision of 100 PDAs, UNICEF is funding a part of training and fieldwork. The survey is currently being carried out in the field and the fieldwork is expected to end by September 2009. A final report on survey results and findings will be prepared after the data processing phase. This report will clearly have a specific chapter on international migration highlighting the main results such as the characteristics of migrants and reasons for migration.

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5.6.

Measuring international migration in last census and household surveys in Morocco Bouchra Bouziani (HCP/DS)

The Directorate of Statistics of the High Planning Commission (HCP/DS) has the main responsibility for official statistical operations. This report describes the modules on international migration included in both the last population census and recent major household surveys. General Census of Population and Housing 2004 The Census of Population and Housing (RGPH) in Morocco is an exhaustive and comprehensive exercise that covers the whole legal population of the country. The last RGPH was held in September 2004, 10 years since the previous one, held in 1994. Like the previous RGPH, a residence of 6 months was adopted for the concept of usual residence. A different questionnaire was used for the nomadic population. The RGPH 2004 included, for the first time, optical reading of questionnaires. An important Centre for Automatic Reading of Documents (CLAD) was set up nine months after the fieldwork. The use of automatic reading of documents enabled an exhaustive use of all questionnaires. Besides the many demographic and socio-economic questions, the individual questionnaire of the RGPH 2004 included four questions on international migration directed to all household members. This module had the objective to collect the following information: - the place/country of last residence, if within the country (the locality) or abroad (the country); - the duration of stay (in years); - the place/country of residence at the time of the Coronation of King Mohamed VI (30th of July 1999) ; - the citizenship. By the way, because of the difficulties linked to the changes of administrative localities of Kingdom, the RPGH 2004 didn’t include the question on place of birth and thus country of birth. The questions above resulted in an under-estimation of the number of international migrants. In fact, the measurement of return migrants through the question on place of previous residence under-estimates the number of international migrants because people who changed their place of residence in Morocco after the return from abroad are excluded. For the first time, an emigration module was included in 2004. It focused on emigration abroad undertaken between the 1st of September 2003 and the 31st of August 2004. The question asked of households was “Does a person who was member of the household in August 2003 reside currently abroad (before the 1st of September 2004)?” If yes, the following data were collected: name and surname, date of emigration, age, sex, civil status, type of activity and profession. A limitation of the RPGH 2004 was a relatively poor coverage of emigration. The main reasons were the following: - a period of one year was not long enough. A five year period would have been more appropriate; - the emigration module had a double objective (to capture emigrations and deaths occurring during the year); - households in which all the members had emigrated during the reference period are not included by definition, as there is no trace of them.

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The main results of RPGH 2004 were: - the highest proportion of return migrants came from France (more than a third of the total), followed by Algeria (10,9 %), Spain (5,9 %) and Lebanon (5,1 %)  ; - most males were in the age groups 15-49 years  ; - on economic activity of migrants, it appears that the social group tending to leave Morocco comes from the poorer part of the population. Main surveys covering international migration The main surveys recently undertaken or in preparation by HCP/DS including a module on international migration are the following: - National Demographic Survey, 2009-2010; - Survey on the Socio-economic Integration of Moroccans residing abroad in European host countries, 2005; - Survey on Return Migration, 2003-2004; - National Survey on Living Conditions of Households, 2007. National Demographic Survey (END), 2009-2010 The END 2009-2010 will be made up of three waves at 6 monthly intervals. The first wave will collect demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The second and third waves will investigate the situation of specific persons identified in the first wave, registering and following new comers (immigrants, new-born, ...) as well as registering departures (emigrants, deaths, …). The main objective is to measure the components of population change or the growth of the population (births, mortality and migration) at national level, at regional level and by type of locality of residence. Two specific modules were designed to record migration from/to abroad. The module on immigration to Morocco was defined by the following household question: “Is there a person who resided abroad and came back during the last five years, to rejoin the household?” If yes, the following data were collected: name and surname, sex, current age, country of residence abroad, year of immigration, duration of stay abroad, reason for immigration, civil status, level of diplomas, type of activity. For the module on emigration to abroad, the question asked to the household was: “Does a person who was member of the household five years ago reside currently abroad?” If the answer was yes, the following data were collected: name and surname, sex, current age, country of first emigration, year of emigration, reason for emigration, civil status, level of diplomas, type of activity. The sample size is about 104000 households covering all regions of the Kingdom. This sample will be followed up in three waves. A household that emigrates after the first wave with all its family members obviously cannot be followed up. However, an attempt will be made to collect information on the emigrating household from neighbours; basic information was a collected during the first wave. Survey on the Socio-economic Integration of Moroccans residing abroad in European host countries, 2005 The objective of this survey was to study the process of the integration of Moroccans residing in Europe and to identify economic and social links maintained with Morocco. It was undertaken in August - September 2005 through a data collection in sea ports and airports of Tanger, Tétouan, Nador and Al Hoceima.

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The survey questionnaire focused on the following: - Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of members of the household; - Characteristics of the housing; - Migratory routes, return intentions and reasons, acquisitions of citizenship of the host country, schooling and vocational training, leisure, political and social life, racism and xenophobia, religious practices; - Economic activity; The sample size was 2832 Moroccans residing in Europe, using the quota method based on the structure of Moroccans residing in the European host countries. Some constraints and difficulties of the sample design characterise this operation: - the absence of a recent and exhaustive sample base of Moroccans residing abroad; - the lack of means for observing the Moroccans residing in Europe in their host country; - the high mobility of Moroccans residing abroad during their stay in Morocco, which makes difficult to contact them; - the non-probabilistic method of sampling. Survey on return migration, 2003-2004 The objective of the survey was to provide a demographic and socio-economic portrait of return migrants, and to describe their economic and social re-integration in Morocco. The survey was undertaken between October 2003 and January 2004 in Great Casablanca and Souss-MassaDraa. The sample comprised 1467 return migrants. Data collection consisted of the following: - Household module: demographic and socio-economic portrait; - Specific module on return migrants, i.e.: • Migration route; • Situation of the migrant before leaving for abroad: age, skills, reasons for leaving, employment, acquaintances abroad; • Situation at the time of emigration: country, activity, employment, investment, characteristics of the spouse; • Situation at return: Preparation and decision of return, employment situation before returning, investments, mechanisms of social re-integration. National Survey on Living Conditions of Households, 2007 Modules on migration and remittances were added to the questionnaires to study the impact of international migration on development. Apart from modules on the live standards and expenses, the following modules were added: - Module on return migrants during the last 5 years. - Module on emigrants. A weakness of this survey is the small sample size (7200 households,) particularly when trying to identify and measure a rare phenomenon like migration, particularly return migration. Other surveys on international migration Other surveys held in Morocco, some by partners of HCP/DS, for instance the HCP/CERED and the AMERM, include the following:

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- Survey on departures and returns of international migrants and their impact on local development, Tanger-Tétouan, 2008 - Survey on subsaharan immigration to Morocco, 2007 - Survey on attitudes, perceptions and behaviours of Moroccans towards subsaharan migrants, 2008

5.7.

Measuring international migration in last census and household survey in Tunisia Habib Fourati and Nadia Touihri (INS)

This report presents the main characteristics of household surveys on international migration undertaken by the Tunisian NSI in recent years. General Population and Housing Census 2004 In order to study international migration, the General Population and Housing Census of April 2004 (RGPH 2004) distinguishes two categories of persons: - People who moved inside the country and international immigrants; - All ‘parents’ who have moved abroad. A period of 6 months was selected as threshold for the definition of the usual residence. A module was specifically designed on immigration to Tunisia, directed to persons aged five years and older. The selected question was: “In April 1999, did you live in the same accommodation (same/other accommodation)?” If the answer was ‘other accommodation’, additional questions were asked on the district or the country of residence in April 1999 as well as the main reason for migrating (employment, studies, marriage, family reunification or other reason). In addition, a module on emigration from Tunisia to abroad was also introduced. The question selected was “Does a family member who was a core part of the household in April 1999 currently reside abroad?” (yes/no). If yes, the following variables were collected: name, surname, family link with the head of household, sex, year of birth, year of emigration, reason for emigration (employment, study, marriage, family reunification or others) and country of destination. However, two implicit weaknesses must be pointed out in using this emigration module: - the household that emigrates with all its members cannot be observed because it leaves no trace for the census taker; - since data relies on the declarations of the head of household, clandestine migrations are unlikely to be included. After the publication of Volume 1 presenting the first results of the RGPH 2004 based on a sample of 1/5 and Volume 2 focusing on the housings, population by sex and households by detailed administrative unit, five volumes numbered from 3a to 3e containing exhaustive results by region, governorates and districts have been published. Afterwards, further three thematic volumes, including one covering international migration and the characteristics of the foreign population in Tunisia (Volume 4) have been published. Other thematic volumes are being finalised (volumes 7 and 8). As with other recent statistical exercises undertaken by the Institute, data in electronic format are available either on CD-Rom and paper publications or separately. Main surveys covering international migration In Tunisia a main survey on international migration is the Five-Year Survey on Population

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and Housing. This operation was first undertaken by the NSI in 1999 and repeated in 2009. It includes two parts, one on immigration and the other on emigration- that are particularly pertinent in the framework of MEDSTAT II. The module on immigration to Tunisia targeted those persons who were five years or older. The central question is the following one: “In April 1994 (or 2004), did you live in the same accommodation (same/other accommodation)?” If the answer to the previous question was «other accommodation», the district or the country of residence in April 1994 (or 2004) was inquired as well as the main reason for immigration (employment, study, marriage, family reunification or other reason). In comparison, in the module on emigration from Tunisia to abroad, the household question was: “Does a family member who was a core part of the household in April 1994 (or 2004) currently reside abroad” If yes, the following variables were collected: name, surname, family link with the head of household, sex, year of birth, year of emigration, reason for emigration (employment, study, marriage, family reunification or other reason) and country of destination. The size of the sample for the 1999 survey was 135000 households, whereas for 2009 the sample size was about 162500 households. The weaknesses of the RGPH 2004 module (mentioned above) also apply to the survey modules. A more frequent household survey is the Yearly Survey on Population and Employment. This survey is held annually using half of the sample of the previous year and renewing the other half of the sample. The objective of this survey is to provide estimates on the volume and the characteristics of immigrants and emigrants. The question in the immigration module is directed to all members of the household with a reference period of the previous year. However, only those who come from abroad are considered as immigrants. The question is: “Was Mr/Mrs member of the household interviewed during the year n-1?” (yes/no). If the answer is no, then the reason for his/her integration as part of the household is investigated (employment, study, marriage, family reunification, birth or other). The region or governorate or the country of origin if the person comes from abroad is also collected. The emigration module is limited to individuals who were members of the household at the time of the interview in year (n-1) and who have left the household before the interview in year (n), due to a migration (internal or international) or death. The variables collected are: name, surname, date when the individual left the household (month/year), reason (employment, study, marriage, family reunification, death or other), region or governorate or country of destination. The sample sizes of the Yearly Survey - Survey 2002: sample – panel - Survey 2006: sample – panel - Survey 2007: sample – panel - Survey 2008: sample – panel

on Population and Employment of 46000 households among a of 33000 households among a of 33000 households among a of 70000 households among a

were as follows: total of 132.000 total of 65.000 total of 145.000 total of 145.000

This is not a targeted sample because the interviewer has no contact with the emigrants, since information is collected from members of the household of origin of the emigrant. On the hand, the interviewer has a direct contact with the immigrants or the return migrants.

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5.8.

The MEDSTAT II Guide Nicolas Perrin (MEDSTAT II / Statistics Belgium)

The “Guide on the Compilation of Statistics on International Migration in the Euro-Mediterranean Region” is an output of the first two regional events organised under MEDSTAT II for the Migration Sector, i.e. the training and workshop held respectively in Lisbon (12-15 February 2008) and in Wiesbaden (10-13 March 2008). The publication, which has been prepared by the experts Giambattista Cantisani, Samir Farid, David Pearce and Nicolas Perrin on behalf of MEDSTAT II Lot 2, has been discussed with officers of EUROSTAT and other international organisations and experts working in the MPCs and EU Member States. The Guide includes information on definitions and concepts, international requirements, frameworks for international coordination, research initiatives, national statistical systems and sources of migration statistics, and informs readers where to find more detail on every activity. Though a number of handbooks, manuals or recommendations already exist on international migration, a key objective of the Guide is to make the content of the above-mentioned documents particularly relevant to the MPCs in the MEDSTAT II Programme and possibly other countries in the EU, Western Balkans and European Neighbourhood Partnership. The focus is mostly on the production of basic migration statistics, i.e. annual migrant flows and stocks. The Guide contains the following four main chapters summarizing the current knowledge and activities in the sector: A. Concepts B. International frameworks, instruments and activities C. Data sources D. Integration of sources and comparison of results Each chapter includes a general overview, a presentation of main activities and results as well as a list of further reading, references and links at the end of each chapter or section, possibly in English and French. Therefore, the publication also refers to manuals and other documents published under MEDSTAT (I and II) and activities, projects and pilot works that have or are being carried out in the MPCs and other countries. The first chapter of the Guide focuses on the definitions and concepts for flow and stock information on international migration on the basis of international recommendations. Since an international migrant is currently defined in UN recommendations as “any person who changes his or her country of usual residence”, it elaborates on the concept of usual residence. Additionally, it presents the definition of other related concepts that may influence the measurement of migration (e.g. citizenship). The second chapter looks into international frameworks, instruments and activities. It concentrates on international recommendations (in particular, UN Recommendations, the 2007 EU Regulation on Community statistics on migration and international protection), international data collection (in particular the Joint UNSD, EUROSTAT, UNECE and ILO Questionnaire on Migration Statistics in the EU and UNECE Region) and related activities of international organisations (UNSD, UNPOP, UNECE, UNESCWA, UNHCR, World Bank, ILO, IOM, EUROSTAT, DG JLS, EMN and OECD) as well as recent scientific initiatives and other projects (e.g. CARIM, THESIM, MIREM). The third chapter focuses on data sources giving an overview as well as a summary description of main activities, best practices and results for each source (border data collection systems, population registers, residence and work permits, other administrative sources, population censuses, passenger surveys, household surveys, household migration surveys).

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Finally, the fourth chapter proposes the integration of different sources (statistical and administrative) and the comparison of results available from different sources (e.g. the 2008 Integrated Census of Israel). The latter may involve different countries when migration flows are considered (e.g. the UNECE guidelines for using immigration data of the receiving country to measure emigration from the sending country). As it was demonstrated in MEDSTAT II, international initiatives and in particular the exchange of practices and data are fruitful and therefore should be further encouraged. The advantages and disadvantages of each data sources, a glossary of working definitions of key terms and concepts and a list of contacts are included in the annexes. Since measuring migration is largely driven by the sources available, the Guide emphasizes the necessity of maximising the use and integrating the sources available at national and international level with the objective of international comparability of national results. An important conclusion is that there may be more solutions or at least more reliable and comprehensive data for immigration flows and stocks of immigrants than for emigration flows and stocks of emigrants. However, data from destination countries may be a partial solution for the latter in the case of countries of the Euro-Mediterranean Region. The Guide also suggests that many countries have not exploited the potential of administrative sources, although the possibilities offered by some systems and good practices exist in the Mediterranean Region, especially on residence permits and border crossing data. The reproduction of work on individual records available from administrative sources initiated in Morocco and Lebanon and the convergence of plans and instruments for coordinated migration surveys under MEDSTAT II indicate that enormous improvements in the MPCs countries could be achieved over the next few years. Finally, the Guide attempts to illustrate how improvements in the use of different sources for the production of basic migration statistics can be achieved. The problems and difficulties are also alluded to. What is clear is that progress depends on both national and international activities, with the sharing of information in the broadest sense and inter-institutional collaboration as key components. The Guide is available in English and French at EUROSTAT website.

5.9.

The proposal of and work on Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS Samir Farid, Giambattista Cantisani (MEDSTAT II) and Ingrid Ivins (World Bank)

Background In a regional workshop organized by MEDSTAT II in Wiesbaden in March 2008, a number of participating countries called for the implementation of a household migration survey to overcome the lack of data on international migration from the region by collecting reliable and representative data on the characteristics and behaviour of migrants. It was agreed that “specialized household surveys of international migration constitute the most appropriate data collection system to gather the information needed to study the determinants and consequences of international migration that cannot sufficiently or efficiently be collected by other methods.” The Wiesbaden workshop also requested MEDSTAT II to develop model questionnaires that could be used in the proposed ‘Mediterranean Household International Migration Survey’ (MEDHIMS). It was recognised that the development of these questionnaires and related instructional materials and guidelines will require conceptual discussions and international meetings as some

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of the concepts and definitions are still vague, evolving or not agreed upon yet (e.g. sample design and criteria for selecting eligible candidates for the non-migrant interview, capturing migrants from the household or from the family, definition of circular migration), measurement tools are either cumbersome or unavailable, data collection procedures not delineated especially because they must include a method mix of both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Following these recommendations, ‘Project Documents’ for conducting such surveys have been prepared by the NSIs in Egypt, Jordan, the occupied Palestinian territory and Syria with direct assistance by MEDSTAT II experts Samir Farid and Youssef Courbage. These project documents included a request for technical assistance and external funding from the EC or other donors. The four countries also agreed that these migration surveys should be implemented within a regional coordinated migration survey programme for the MED countries. Interest in the proposed MED-HIMS was expressed later by Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia. First Regional Meeting on Model Questionnaires The development of Model Questionnaires was launched at the ‘First Regional Workshop on Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS’ which was held in Brussels in February 2009. In addition to the MPCs, this workshop was also attended by representatives of AIDCO, DG JLS, EUROSTAT, MEDSTAT II, the World Bank, EUI/CARIM and selected EU NSIs, including Richard Bilsborrow (University of North Carolina, on behalf of World Bank). The workshop discussed background papers developed by MEDSTAT II on the objectives and scope of the proposed MED-HIMS, developed a preliminary outline for the proposed model questionnaires, and emphasized the importance of establishing synergies with relevant initiatives on international migration supported by the EC and benefiting from the lessons learned from previous projects. The main recommendations of this meeting may be summarized as follows: General a. To develop the Model Questionnaires and implement the MED-HIMS according to the UN / EC standards and recommendations for migration statistics, and to take into consideration recent EC policies and administrative procedures such as the Blue Card for highly qualified workers. b. To include the MED-HIMS within the wider development of national statistical systems for migration, in accordance with the long-term mandate of MEDSTAT II Migration. c. To eventually integrate the MED-HIMS results with results available from other sources, especially those derived from administrative sources or produced by the countries of destination of migrants. d. To eventually use the MED-HIMS results and other available information for the establishment of Migration Profiles for the participating countries. e. To possibly carry out the MED-HIMS fieldwork in the summer of 2010 to benefit from the possibility of collecting data directly from migrants temporarily back on vacation in their countries. The MED-HIMS Project a. The proposed MED-HIMS will be a multi-component research programme that involves the coordinated collection of data in several Med-countries using common methods and tools with the main objectives of studying the recent trends, determinants, dynamics and consequences of international migration. For this purpose the study will concentrate mainly on out-migration, return migration, and intentions to migrate, as well as ‘emerging issues’

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of international migration for which data are required such as circular migration, migration of highly skilled persons, irregular migration, remittances, and cultural values and behaviour associated with international migration. Information on socio-economic status of the household and on characteristics of local communities in sample areas will also be gathered. b. The proposed MED-HIMS project will aim to improve the setting of priorities and the planning, implementation and evaluation of international migration programmes. The MEDHIMS will be designed to meet a number of objectives which may be summarized as follows: - To collect data in order to understand the nature of MED-migration and the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of migrants; - To collect data on migration histories and the migration experiences and practices; - To collect data on migration intentions and potential destination; - To assess the impact of migration on household socio-economic behaviour and practices; - To assess the impact of remittances and their utilization and their impact on socioeconomic development in the MED-region; - To assess the impact of migration on unemployment and labour dynamics; - To assess the impact of migration on the skill-level of return migrants; - To assess the overall awareness of migration issues and practices; - To assess migrants’ future plans; - To elucidate the processes leading to the decision to migrate; - To evaluate the effectiveness of governmental interventions aiming at preventing illegal migration; - To develop specific methodologies for collecting and analyzing international migration data; and - To improve data utilisation by promoting and encouraging their use by planners, policy makers, and managers of international migration and development programmes. c. The meeting also discussed modalities for the development and implementation of the MED-HIMS and agreed that separate arrangements will have to be made for the establishment of a ‘MED-HIMS Central Unit’ for the management of such regional survey programme and for the provision of technical assistance and financial support. Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS a. The meeting decided that the MQ will consist of the following six questionnaires: i. Household questionnaire; ii. Individual questionnaire for out migrant; iii. Individual questionnaire for return migrant; iv. Individual questionnaire for non migrant; v. Household socio-economic and environmental characteristics questionnaire; vi. Community characteristics questionnaire. b. The meeting issued a preliminary outline of the proposed model questionnaires and recommended that such questionnaires should be designed to gather multi-topic, multi-level, retrospective and comparative data that could be used as: - Input to the establishment of Migration Profiles for each country participating in the survey; - Input to the knowledge building and information for the development of migration policies and future legislative measures; - Input to future migration programming in both the EU and MED countries; - Input to the development of scenarios to support circular and managed migration; - Better understanding of how remittances are used and can be used to foster local development in sending countries; - Identification of priority areas in the field of education and vocational training in the sending countries; - Input to policy measures on mitigating the adverse effect of brain drain; - Input to national and donor driven projects on local development of the sending countries; - Input to fostering institutional partnership in the field of migration and development between the EU and MED countries.

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c. EUROSTAT drew the attention of the workshop participants to the necessary trade off that will have to be taken into consideration between the desired scope and content of the survey and the practical aspects of implementing the survey and obtaining quality data. Intermediate Expert Group Meetings Experts and consultants from MEDSTAT II and the World Bank met in Brussels at the end of May- beginning of June 2009 where they discussed a detailed outline for the content of the Model Questionnaires. The detailed outline proposed a strategy for designing the Model Questionnaires as a series of self contained modules, each dealing with a particular migration-related topic. The proposed detailed outline was then discussed in meetings between MEDSTAT II experts and officials of EUROSTAT and other relevant EC services in Luxembourg and Brussels and sent to the NSIs in the MPCs and other experts together with the outcomes of the intermediate meetings for their comments and suggestions. A summary of the main topics included in this detailed outline is annexed to this publication. Second Regional Meeting on Model Questionnaires and UNESCWA Workshop The ‘Second Regional Workshop on Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS’ was held in Cairo in July 2009, in parallel with a ‘Regional Training Workshop on International Migration Statistics’ organized by UNESCWA. The MEDSTAT meeting discussed and endorsed the revised detailed outline of the MQ for MED-HIMS. The meeting also discussed and finalized the draft MQ number 1: ‘Household Questionnaire’, and the draft MQ number 3: ‘Individual Questionnaire for Return Migrant’. MEDSTAT II experts made several presentations to the UNESCWA workshop on the scope and objectives of the proposed MED-HIMS Project, and on the structure and content of the model questionnaires for MED-HIMS. Participants at MEDSTAT workshop also made presentations to the UNESCWA workshop on the development of their national migration statistics and their experience with MEDSTAT II Programme. Officials from UNESCWA, the UN Population Division, the Arab League and the Arab Labour Organization, as well as participants from UNESCWA member countries expressed great interest to benefit from the lessons learned from the MEDSTAT Programme. Lengthy discussions followed on the proposed contents of the Model Questionnaires. All parties present at the UNESCWA workshop expressed their wish to be kept informed with the development of the MQ and the MED-HIMS Project. Participants at both MEDSTAT II workshop and UNESCWA workshop recommended that the Model Questionnaires should contain both ‘core’ questions/modules in order to achieve basic comparability between countries, and ‘optional’ questions/modules that would allow each country to select questions based on their national needs. Participants at MEDSTAT II workshop recommended that a third and final meeting be held in September 2009 to discuss and finalize the remaining model questionnaires. Perspectives for the future The opportunity and challenges of developing Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS have found good response from international and national institutions, with EUROSTAT, UNESCWA, the World Bank, EUI/CARIM and the NSIs of Italy and Spain providing support at first stage and other institutions such as UNPOP, UNHCR and ALO expressing appreciation and providing

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suggestions in the meeting held in Cairo. The consideration and support by AIDCO were also adequate, with relevant awareness and promotion initiatives on these exercises and other future activities in the Migration Sector being undertaken amongst relevant EC services and parallel projects. Further, considering the availability of high-level international experts, the proposed project has gained momentum; hence actors and stakeholders should promptly find a way to implement the proposed MED-HIMS project at regional or sub-regional level. The ideal scenario for MED-HIMS is to conduct a such specialized household survey every 5 years and to attach a short module on international migration to other household surveys such as the Labour Force Survey in other years.

5.10.

Summary on administrative registration and recent statistical operations in the MPCs Giambattista Cantisani, Youssef Courbage and Ayman Zohry (MEDSTAT II)

Introduction This report describes the current status of the main administrative procedures of registration of persons relevant for international migration and their use for the production of statistics in the MPCs as well as the recent operations carried out by or having the direct involvement of NSIs. Three tables at the end summarise the situation. Readers may refer to the more in-depth descriptions of some national and regional practices proposed under in this chapter as well as other documents prepared in the framework of MEDSTAT II such as the Guide and CSSRs. Administrative registration and sources The MPCs have different border cards and different rules with regard to their compilation by international travelers, depending, for example, on countries of citizenship. For instance border cards are used for foreigners only in Syria and Israel. Moreover, border cards were abolished in Jordan in 2005 at time of the introduction of border control based on biometrical tools. Border cards are primarily seen as a burden on travelers and registration of data is perceived as an overly complex and expensive operation. Only Egypt and Lebanon fully register the data and Syria intend to do so based on the exhaustive cards introduced under MEDSTAT I. The electronic registration of data on arrivals and departures is generally performed at the moment of crossing at each border post. Like other countries worldwide, the MPCs are seeking to facilitate border crossing through optical reading of passports and recognition of biometrical characteristics. Such developments would improve data collection systems, even if limited to the main variables. Despite this evolution and limitations stemming from the use of different travel documents on arrival and departure by the same traveler, on the whole the coverage and reliability of border registration is improving. Therefore, their use for the production of migration statistics should be a valid option, especially if specific work modalities and international requirements are applied, as from the proposed methodology to Lebanon described in Chapter 5. Currently annual tables on arrivals and departures of nationals and non-nationals are regularly compiled by all the MPCs based on the registration of border data, sometimes from the manual computation of border cards.. Despite some improvements, the available statistics vary in terms of cross analysis by other variables and generally do not distinguish international migrants from the other categories of travelers. Apart from Israel and now Lebanon, no linkage of single passages referring to the same person and no use of individual records are undertaken. Finally, in general the need to evolve from statistics on arrivals and departures to statistics on inflows and outflows of international migrants still needs to be developed.

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Concerning the residence permits, almost all MPCs use computerised systems, often with the centralisation of information and relevant changes being implemented. Only in Egypt these permits are not registered on computer and statistics are compiled manually. Different national rules and procedures lead to differences in the reliability and availability of data. This mainly refers to the coverage of selected categories of foreigners. For example agreements between Jordan and Egypt and Syria allow for a stay without a permit. The systems often include information on the economic conditions and occupations of permit holders. To varying extents, the registers of residence permits are used for statistical purposes in Egypt, Israel and now Morocco. No statistical use is made in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, although some use was made historically In Algeria and Tunisia the Maghreb countries, registration forms and tools have not been changed to meet the MED–Migr I recommendations and limited information is provided, upon request. However, under MEDSTAT II Morocco has started elaborating data available as individual records. From a technical point of view, in most of the MPCs there would be no constraint to further extract and elaborate data for statistical purposes following the process recently implemented in Morocco under MEDSTAT II. Different national authorities administer registers of work permits, depending on the workers’ categories and countries of registration. The electronic registration of these permits is widely used. In some cases substantial improvements have been made. In 2006, Lebanon resumed partial electronic processing after a long break, while Syria still lack a computerised system. Illegal migration and irregular work frequently mean that the systems do not reflect the real situation. Some countries, such as Jordan, Egypt and Lebanon, process data and compile statistics with varying degrees of detail and according to different methods and classifications. Consular registration is structured differently but is already considered to be a source of information for the Maghreb countries. However, this is limited due to lack of appropriate registration/de-registration mechanisms. In Morocco the situation is expected to improve in the long term as a result of a new application linking all consular registers. Even though consular information is provided for administrative purposes, users can obtain and use such statistics. However, different definitions confound comparisons with statistics from the main destination countries. Other statistics may be available from other administrative sources, such as the registration of persons asking assistance (e.g. national workers, family members, students, returning migrants) or the permits to nationals for working abroad granted by countries such as Egypt. These statistics, which provide partial coverage of such movements, are often based on different classifications and standards. On the other hand, apart from the usual needs of governmental services, these figures are or could be used for intermediate purposes, such as the methodological model for estimating annual net migration in Egypt. Results from annual labour inspections carried out by the Ministry of Labour of Jordan can assist the estimation of selected categories of foreigners. In Israel, other administrative sources are used to produce statistics on Jewish immigrants, Israeli citizens born abroad and returning migrants. Other administrative sources are also used in different ways to produce migration-related statistics such as those on migrants’ remittances. Statistical sources With the exception of Israel, in the MPCs population censuses and household surveys comprise the only statistical sources relevant for migration. Jordan, Morocco, Syria and Tunisia carried out their last population censuses in 2004, ten years after the previous operation. Egypt undertook the census in November 2006 including a short module on Egyptians temporary residing abroad (individuals and entire families/households) Household members and neighbours were interviewed. The occupied Palestinian territory carried

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out the fieldwork in December 2007, including the same migration questions asked ten years before. Algeria was in the field in April 2008. The focus on international migration was improved, especially with new questions and modules in Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt and Algeria. For the Maghreb countries, a main difference in their emigration modules was in the identification of outflows in the 12 months (Morocco) or 5 years (Tunisia and Algeria) preceding the census reference date. However, some information such as the reason for emigration and country of destination was asked in a different way or excluded (see detail in Table 3). Concerning other parts of census questionnaire, Morocco dropped the core question in the UN recommendations on place of birth (therefore country of birth for the purposes of international migration) due to changes in the administrative division. Finally, a common element across all national censuses above was the adoption of a six-month period for defining the usual place of residence. The 2008 Integrated Population Census in Israel combined data from administrative sources together with sample data collected through the traditional door-to-door enumeration and by telephone interviews. Concerning migration, the census will provide information on variables such as country of birth, country of birth of parents, country of citizenship and year of immigration, but through an emigration model, the persons registered in the CPR who were living abroad for more than 12 months will be excluded. On the other hand, foreigners were interviewed only if they were found in households including Israeli nationals but in any case they were excluded from the census count. Most the NSIs of MPCs carried out household surveys that provided information on international migration going back 15 to 20 years. More general surveys also covering migration were more frequently undertaken in the few last years, often in collaboration or with support from international organisations or partner institutions (e.g. EC, UNICEF, UNHCR, ILO, IOM, USAID, NIDI, FAFO, the Economic Research Forum), as from Table 2. Unfortunately the results of these recent general surveys were sometimes limitedly or poorly exploited. Among the more successful and ongoing cases, below we focus on specific examples, all more in-depth presented in specific reports of this publication. - The module on international labour migration attached to the July-September 2007 round of the LFS carried out by CAPMAS in Egypt. This module was composed of questions taken from the master labour module developed by ILO, Bureau of Statistics, aiming at examining the international migration of the Egyptian labour force, determining their characteristics, identifying causes of migration, and identifying the duration of staying abroad and remittances sent by migrants. The results of this module are consistent with previous surveys and studies, but at the same time the survey revealed very interesting facts about some aspects of Egyptian migration such as the findings on the mean duration of stay abroad for return migrants which indicates that the average duration of staying abroad was ten years in the United States of America, seven years in Qatar, and only one year in Greece. - The specific migration module attached by the Lebanese CAS in the upcoming MICS3 supported by UNICEF. In this case the main objective of the module, which was initially developed with support from MEDSTAT II, is to estimate the number of emigrants during the five years preceding the date of the survey. The survey is currently being carried out in the field and the fieldwork is expected to end by September 2009. It is expected that the final report will serve to elucidate on the characteristics of migrants and reasons for migration. - The two modules on focusing on international migration to and from Morocco in the National Demographic Survey 2009/2010, one of the major surveys carried out by Direction of Statistics of Morocco. In this case the main objectives are the determination of the main components of population growth (fertility, mortality and migration) both at national and regional level and area of residence. The sample size of this operation is around 104 thousand households across all regions of the Kingdom.

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- The module on international migration included in the intercensal surveys carried out in Tunisia in 1999 and 2009. Based on survey sample of 135000 and 162500 households respectively, these surveys intend to provide more updated data for policy makers and researchers in all aspects of population affairs including international migration. In the immediate future, all MPCs excluding Israel are jointly contributing to the development of Model Questionnaires for a new national survey on emigration and return migration and would intend to carry out such a survey in 2010 or 2011 under a common project (MED-HIMS, see specific report within this same chapter). Moreover, the occupied Palestinian territory intend to undertake a preliminary survey also focusing on internal migration, while Jordan intends to carry out a survey to study recent immigration and internal migration and their socio-economic impact. Finally, Israel will be carrying out in 2010 a new survey dealing with integration of immigrants recently arrived. A significant number of household surveys specialised on international migration outside the official statistical systems were undertaken in last ten years in the MPCs. These operations come from the academic and research centers (e.g. the 2000 survey on Moroccans residing abroad carried out by INSEA) or international initiatives. For the latter, MIREM (survey on return migration) and the EC / CISP parallel studies on transit migration from the Sub-Saharan African countries in the Maghreb countries are two examples even with regard to the coordination and adoption of similar approaches. The results of most these surveys are integrated and made available to users by the European University Institute, namely the CARIM. Despite the some limitation and ad hoc solutions, it is important that the scientific community helps to measurement in the area of migration statistics. Finally, other types of statistical operations were recently carried out or at least considered in some countries. The list here mostly includes a border survey on departures undertaken up to 2002 and the model on emigrant stocks in Israel, the 2007 Survey on Recent Immigration from Iraq to Jordan, and the 2005 Survey on Socio-Economic Integration of Moroccan residing abroad, with interviews undertaken in the ports and rest areas of selected cities located at North of the Morocco. Conclusions The MPCs in overall currently still have a limited exploitation of administrative sources for migration statistics but however good basis for improvement. Perhaps the national settings, especially the existence of border registration systems, may allow to establishing relatively quickly the basic measurements on yearly flows currently missing. Despite the fact that implementing some new tools or modules on migration statistics may encounter some difficulties reflected in less reliable results than expected in some cases, it is fundamental to incorporate modules dealing with migration in the running surveys and censuses along with developing the mechanisms that improve their results in the upcoming rounds of implementation. On the other hand, the MED-HIMS is a promising operation that may represent, besides the source of relevant information for the Euro-Mediterranean Region, a useful step towards the definition of common tools at global level and eventually a world migration survey.

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Table 1: Administrative sources and its use for statistics

Border cards and border registration

Register of residence permits

Other main administrative sources

Algeria

Statistics on arrivals/departures are derived from border cards.

No changes after the MED–Migr I proposals, data are not used for statistical purposes.

Statistics on nationals abroad by country of residence based on consular registration only refer to 1995.

Egypt

Only partial data registration into a central database, border cards data are entered and used for the production of statistics.

Local computerisation and electronic data registration has started under MEDSTAT II. Statistics are compiled and published centrally.

Statistics based on different permits granted to nationals for working abroad (excluding selected countries) have been extended in the breakdown and cross-tabulation of variables.

Jordan

Border cards abolished in 2005. Border registration based on a centralised system is used for statistics on arrivals/departures.

Centralised system, some lack in the coverage for selected citizenship, some data made available upon request for restricted use only.

Register of work permits covering all countries of citizenship is widely used for statistics.

Israel

Border cards filled in by some categories of foreigners only. Detailed data from border registration are used for statistics on arrivals/departures.

System with some limitations (e.g. registration of change of status) used for statistics, mostly for internal use.

Different registration for immigrants of Jewish origin or Israeli citizenship is regularly used for statistics. Different kinds of registration of work permits are used to produce statistics.

Lebanon Cards filled in by foreigners only are centrally recorded and used for statistics on arrivals/ departures. Registration of nationals through optical reading.

All data into a centralised system currently under improvement not used for statistics.

A partially computerised system of work permits based on specific classifications and with an unreliably coverage is used for simple tabulation.

Morocco Border cards changed in 2005 without usefulness for migration will be adapted with the whole registration system in 2010. Statistics on arrivals/departures based on border registration.

Elaboration of individual records has been started under MEDSTAT II. The system is currently under improvements.

Register of work permits not used yet for statistical purposes due to lack of resources. A new, centralised system is planned for consular registration. New systems on illegal migration are based on border control procedures.

oPt

Plans for adopt border cards at Gaza borders. Other border points under Israeli control

No system of residence permits.

Plans for improving the population registration and establish linkage with border movements.

Syria

Partial registration of data from detailed border cards for foreigners, statistics on arrivals/ departures always based on border registration.

A computerised system is undergoing improvement and linkage and is not used for statistics.

A not computerised system of work permits is not used for statistics.

Tunisia

Slightly different border cards still in use, no data entry, only manual counts for statistics on arrivals/ departures.

No follow-up to the MED–Migr I proposal, only aggregate figures are made available upon request for restricted use.

A computerised system of work permits is not used for statistics. Some partial statistics are derived from consular registration and placement abroad for restricted use only.

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Table 2: Population censuses and household surveys covering migration under the responsibility or having the involvement of the NSIs of MPCs

Last population censuses

Recent household surveys covering migration

Algeria

• 25 June 1998 • 16-20 April 2008, including an emigration module and some questions on migration/ origin

• 2002 Survey on Family Health, including a question on the intention to emigrate abroad • Other surveys with migration questions relatively used

Egypt

• 19 November 1996 • 11 Nov. – 11 Dec. 2006, including a module on Egyptian emigrants on short term basis

• • • • •

Israel

• 4 November 1995 • 27 December 2008, integrated census

• 1995-1996 Survey on Households and Employment of Immigrants from the former USSR in Oct.-Dec. 1993 • 1999 Household Expenditure Survey • 2001 Survey on Population of Urban Households immigrated to Israel from former USSR in 1990-1999 • 2010 Survey on Integration of Immigrants arrivin in 1990-2006 • LFS, HBS and Social Survey regularly undertaken

Jordan

• 10 December 1994 • 1 October 2004, with few migration questions more

• 1986 Migration Survey • Employment Surveys, including questions with limited relevance • 2007 Survey on recent immigration from Iraq • 2009 Multi Purposes Household Survey

Lebanon

• 1932

• 2004 Living Conditions Survey, including few migration questions more for test purposes • 2009 MICS3, including a migration module

Morocco

• 2 September 1994 • 1-20 September 2004, including an emigration module and some questions on migration/origin

• • • •

Opt

• 9 December 1997 • 11-16 December 2007 both including the same migration module

• 1995 Demographic Survey • 2004 Health and Demographic Survey • 2006 Survey of the Impact of the Israeli Unilateral Measures on Palestinian Households all surveys including questions on place of birth, previous / current place of usual residence and Palestinians permanently living abroad

Syria

• 3-9 September 1994 • 22 September 2004, with few migration questions more

• Labour Force Survey

Tunisia

• 20 April 1994 • 28 April 2004, including an emigration module and some questions on migration/origin

• 1999 and 2009 Intercensus Survey on Population and Housing • Spring 2006 Employment Survey • Survey on Population and Employment (yearly)

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1996 Demographic Profile Survey at Governorate level 1997 migration survey supported by the EC 1997 Push and Pull Factors of International Migration 2006 Labour Market Panel Survey 2007 Labour Force Survey, including the ILO labour migration module

1987-1988 National Demographic Survey 2003-2004 Survey on return migration 2007 Survey on living conditions 2009-2010 National Demographic Survey, including a migration module

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Table 3: Contents of emigration modules in the last population censuses carried out in the Maghreb countries Variable

Algeria

Morocco

Tunisia

Name

Yes

Yes

Yes

Relationship with the head of household

No

No

Yes

Sex

Yes

Yes

Yes

Marital status

Yes

Yes

No

Date of emigration

Yes

Yes

No

Year of emigration

Yes(1)

Yes(1)

Yes

Yes

Yes(1)

Yes(1)

Yes(1)

Yes

Yes(1)

No

Yes(1)

Yes

Education level

Yes(2)

No

No

Personal situation

Yes(3)

No

No

Type of economic activity

No

Yes

No

Main profession

No

Yes

No

Reason

No

No

Yes(4)

Country of destination

No

No

Yes

Age at time of emigration Age Year of birth

1. Information available indirectly or approximately 2. Categories: No instruction, Primary, Low Secondary, Secondary, Tertiary, No answer 3. Categories: Employed, Unemployed, Student, Other 4. Categories: Employment, Study, Marriage, Family reunification, Other

5.11.

The CARIM statistical database and the needs of improving national data Brahim El Mouaatamid (EUI/CARIM)

The statistical database of CARIM CARIM, as a network comprises, in the main, users of statistical data on Mediterranean migration. The diversity of the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (SEM) countries in CARIM and thus in the network, provides scope for exchanging and sharing different experiences in both the production and use of statistical data. Since the creation of CARIM in February 2004, work has concentrated on the construction of a complete database on Mediterranean migrations. This database is accessible at www.carim.org. During its construction, the database incorporated new aspects which merit a mention. An innovative aspect of CARIM is the inclusion of data on emigration from SEM countries. Such data did not previously exist or existed in a form that was disparate, not available or difficult to access by the users. Thus, CARIM stimulated an increasing interest for these data encouraging countries to give greater care in producing and disseminating the data. At present one of the strong points of the CARIM database is the varied sources. New statistics are being produced by the development of existing sources in the countries of origin of migrants. Statistics from registration in the consular registers and the police estimates on irregular migra-

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tion are two examples. CARIM has also exploited surveys and censuses by requesting additional outputs using individual records. For example, data on the profile of returning migrants derived from the censuses and on the investments of emigrants derived from surveys. On the statistics available in the countries of destination of SEM migrants, CARIM has gathered, for each country of origin, the data collected in all the emigration countries. These data are presented, as far as possible, in a standardised way to facilitate inter-country comparisons. The production of aggregated data were made available online and in the reports 2005 and 2006/07 as new summary tabulations. Because of a regional approach, CARIM has been able to provide statistics from the destination countries by country of origin of migrants. Thus, one can easily get information about manpower and the socio-demographic and economic profile of emigrants, nationals or natives of each SEM country in the host countries in Europe, North America, Australia and in other SEM countries. The users in SEM countries have found this to be an important data source on their expatriates and descendents. Another innovation by CARIM has been the use of various and sometimes previously unused data sources, and all the sources used by users, for each country. In addition to estimates and indicators of national statistical institutes CARIM has explored both surveys carried out by universities and research institutes and administrative sources held by the ministries of interior, the foreign affairs, and finances. As a result, data and users have been more closely matched. CARIM continues to promote greater cooperation between producers and users of migration data in the Mediterranean, in order to enhance timeliness and relevance. Simultaneous efforts on promoting the use of data and reinforcing the capacities to produce data are vital to the process. Data availability by region/topic In general CARIM members appear satisfied with the data available from Europe, North America and Australia. Some limitations relate to the different consideration of people born abroad and/ or the people with foreign citizenship. Migrants or people with foreign origin(s) are not defined in a unified way. Most countries take into account citizenship. Some countries distinguish between first and second generations of migrants - for the latter, those who have only one relative born abroad and those with two parents born abroad. The data sources and periodicity differ and consequently some diversities still exist. On the education and employment of migrants, the main sources are specific surveys and registration within the social security and insurance systems. However, generally only general information is available in the countries in the North. In surveys, detailed data are produced for those migrant communities most heavily represented in the country (e.g.: Turks and Moroccans in Germany and in the Netherlands). The countries where expatriates represent small numbers are sometimes omitted. For example, Palestinians do not appear in the statistics of all receiving countries. On migrant transfers, often the data produced by the receiving countries are not disaggregated by country of destination of transfers. In other cases while this detail is known there may be significant differences with data available in the countries of origin of migrants. The transfers included could vary. The needs of improvement of statistical production at national level Further effort is still necessary to improve migration statistics of SEM countries. As an example, consular data are still not yet exploited by most countries. Despite the increase in administrative

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registration, an enormous vacuum still remains. Action to enhance and improve the interest in these data is necessary. For example, the distribution of the nationals of a country of origin by area (province, wilaya, department or another administrative entity), could help a regional programme on migration. Another aspect relates to the entries and exits of people and the availability of individual records to produce migrant profiles, degrees of circularity, duration of residence and reason for moving. Such data combined with data on residence permits, may help with the production of indicators on circular and irregular migration. Once again, cooperation between the ministries and the national statistical institutes needs to be strengthened. In addition, the majority of SEM countries have become countries of transit and possibly countries of settlement of migrants. The press invariably reports on events or actions occurring to irregular migrants in SEM countries, often resulting in registration by the public security services (apprehension, accompanying to borders, shipwrecks, etc.). However, neither press reviews are not held nor the registration is exploited and the thus data are lost. On the economic contribution of migrants, transfers and investments have to be highlighted with information coming from appropriate surveys. For transfers, in kind transfers (cars, apparatuses electric household appliances, etc) need to be estimated as well as the abstract transfers (which do not pass by the transfers’ agencies, banks or post offices). A detail of transfers by geographical areas or other entities is also desirable, if possible. On investments by migrants, apart from determining their nature, it would be useful to know more about their capacity for and on job creation and the invested amounts. There is an increasing interest in labour migration and taken with demographic data suggest differences between the North and South. Further labour market projections in the sending countries or countries of origin would need to take into account labour migration as one of the components and for scenarios on the future labour market by qualifications and sector (industry). In conclusion, it is essential to create more synergies between the producers and users of data to enhance a common awareness of the usefulness of data on migration in the Mediterranean for policy purposes. The data producers can be divided into passive producers (administrations) and active producers (national statistical institutes). Cooperation between these institutions, on one hand, and with the researchers and the political actors, on the other, is paramount. For this, the sensitizing and strengthening of national capacities are necessary. This is already part of the activities of CARIM, the MEDSTAT Programme and other international initiatives. However these entities are called on to further support this aim, each one according to its mandate, processes and means.

5.12.

The immigration of citizens of the Mediterranean Partner Countries in the European Union. What the latest data from EUROSTAT reveal? Michel Poulain (MEDSTAT II / UCL-GĂŠDAP) and Anne Herm (EUROSTAT)

Introduction Among demographic events, migration is taking more and more importance for explaining the numeric evolution of populations. At the international level, flows of people between countries, even if only a limited number of persons are concerned, play a major role when dealing with political equilibrium between states and cross-cultural transfers. Nowadays all that concerns international migration has taken a huge political dimension linked to the different demographic situations in South and North of the Mediterranean Sea to the search of a common European

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policy in the field of international migration and to the improvement of the cooperation around the Mediterranean region. This contribution is based on data gathered by EUROSTAT on international immigration of people originating from the Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) observed by the EU Member States. A short description of the data sources confirm that data on international migration currently collected by the EU Member States are of weak reliability and the possibility of international comparison is limited. However if we want to go ahead for policy support we will analyse what the data reveal, as available. First of all, we shall compare the size and origin of foreign population in the EU Member States considering immigrants originating from the South of the Mediterranean Sea. This overview of the data available will also permit to compare the origin of the foreign population in a given country and doing so to identify more specific links between pairs of countries. These data are essential because they are the numeric expression of the coexistence of people and different cultures. Beside the analysis of the stocks of foreign population living in Europe and originating from the South of the Mediterranean Sea, it will be necessary to study the pattern of recent migration flows between South and North of the Mediterranean. Looking in detail to the trends related to these flows will give an indication on what is going on now and what may be the future of this confrontation and coexistence in a changing world around the Mediterranean. Data source Data used in this contribution come from EUROSTAT’s public database that is available for everybody on the website http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat in the section “Statistics”. EUROSTAT collects annual international migration data within the framework of joint migration data collection for several other international bodies – UN Statistical Division (UNSD), UN Economic Council for Europe (UN ECE) and International Labour Organisation (ILO). This data collection includes official national statistics on international migration as the data come directly from the National Statistical Institutions. Since the availability of sources as well as the methods used for producing statistics vary between countries, these data are not fully complete in terms of the coverage and definitions. Still, the data collected are enough reliable in order to draw general overview on migration. Two types of data relevant to international migration of the EU Member States are used for this contribution: population by country of citizenship at 1 January 2008 and immigration flows by citizenship in average during the years 2005, 2006 and 2007. Where data were not yet available for the whole observation period, the last available data were used. Thus for France and Portugal 2006 immigration flow data were used, while for Italy the last available immigration data were from 2005. Population stock data by citizenship was adjusted also by latest available data presenting distribution by country of citizenship. For several countries the only available data were from last census. Citizenship compositions of the population of six Member States present the situation at the last census that were conducted in different years: Estonia (2000), Ireland (2001), Cyprus (2001), France (2005), Luxembourg (2001). Latest annual data from United Kingdom present the situation at 1 January 2007. What the data reveal? There are two different kind of data related to the international migration: data on stock of foreign citizens and data on migration flows. Stock data provide information on the share of population by citizenship at a given data while flow data come from an accounting of international migrations

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during a given period of time, usually a calendar year. Both are useful to describe international migration and its impact on the population composition by citizenship: stock data give a look into the resulting effect of the past international migrations while flow data show the volume and composition of more recent international migrations. Therefore these two kinds of data are complementary. A. Stock data: Population by country of citizenship In the EU Member States, the two main sources of data on population stocks by country of citizenship are the census and the population register. These data sources are among the most reliable statistical sources on populations relevant to migration. Except in a few specific cases, we can safely assume that the level of under-registration scarcely exceeds a few per cent. Although foreign populations living legally in a country are indeed under-registered, this phenomenon remains within reasonable bounds. The same does not apply to the “floating” and “clandestine” foreign population. In fact, under-registration arising from the failure to take into account illegal immigrants is certainly reflected in a flagrant under-estimation of the total foreign population living in a country. Even if no statistical data are available on this point, indirect estimation shows that the percentage of illegal in North-Western European countries is for sure higher than one tenth of the total foreign population living in the country. For the inter-census period, countries with population registers or, more restrictively specific files on the foreign population, supply annually updated and generally reliable breakdowns by citizenship. In countries which exclusively use census data, estimates between censuses are drawn up taking into account, for instance, the results of labour force surveys. Nevertheless, since the sampling rate for these surveys is fairly limited, the random character of the results doesn’t allow establishing detailed breakdowns by citizenship. Table 1 shows the most recent data on the total numbers of citizens from the MPCs living in the EU Member States. Except for Estonia, Ireland, France, Cyprus, Luxembourg and the UK, data are related to 2008. Otherwise the data come from the last census except for UK where the source is Labour Force Survey of the year 2007. For all other countries the data is exhaustive and come either from population registers (like Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden and Finland, etc.) or foreigner registers (Germany, Austria, Greece, Portugal, Spain and Italy) at the date of 1 January 2008. Due to various situations related to the acquisition of citizenship in the EU Member States, these data are not strictly comparable for measuring the importance of past international migration flows. However, these figures will give a clear indication on the number of persons of different origin and cultures living together in the EU.

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Final report - Migration Statistics

EU27 total

Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Estonia Ireland Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom

EU Member State

494 871 784

10 666 866 7 640 238 10 381 130 5 475 751 82 217 837 1 370 052 3 858 495 11 213 785 45 283 259 62 868 202 59 619 290 689 565 2 270 894 3 366 357 439 539 10 045 401 410 290 16 405 399 8 331 930 38 115 641 10 617 575 21 528 627 2 025 866 5 400 998 5 300 484 9 182 927 60 145 386

TOTAL population

30 340 488

971 448 24 402 347 649 298 450 7 255 395 274 309 273 820 906 400 5 262 095 3 623 063 3 432 651 64 810 415 493 42 934 162 285 176 580 15 460 688 375 854 752 57 842 446 333 26 100 68 621 40 904 132 708 524 488 3 953 121

Foreigners

586 675

8 185 41 566 310 14 188 1 738 269 51 552 477 495 22 672 6 6 11 103 249 16 782 600 229 231 2 4 41 283 635 7 460

Algeria 79 867 26 174 2 827 72 662 1 161 682 649 818 461 465 365 908 11 5 3 252 49 53 74 869 855 64 1 928 1 4 17 731 1 615 6 709

Morocco 3 591 23 413 443 24 788 0 70 361 1 732 146 514 93 601 13 1 7 138 54 50 1 200 1 496 64 124 1 12 45 288 1 042 755

Tunisia

129 225 1 720 757 276 826

1 005 40 331 533 12 056 1 441 13 858 2 677 11 992 69 572 705 17 22 27 348 130 2 562 5 281 95 358 3 17 69 313 837 5 935

Egypt

32 204

1 496 72 626 586 10 735 16 148 214 1 881 2 187 2 332 93 328 373 43 1 142 8 1 498 1 501 38 137 679 18 162 351 479 5 061

Israel

20 268

267 112 191 750 8 396 0 134 625 1 112 571 2 860 205 5 12 2 285 60 220 344 156 92 573 14 26 146 1 025 2 085

Jordan

73 977

1 598 347 260 1 712 41 668 1 97 906 1 397 12 545 3 471 869 37 137 36 114 7 365 558 139 206 709 3 49 105 2 349 4 292

Lebanon

2 507

595 316 ? 0 0 ? 91 21 ? 0 3 23 2 0 34 17 0 749

281

267 4 104 ? 0 0

oPt

65 313

1 609 630 415 670 30 601 0 93 7 537 2 376 5 031 3 539 1 436 16 13 1 792 25 582 1 156 246 96 1 237 4 60 151 3 104 3 893

Syria 885 295 080 831 094 20 882 733 545 395 271 338 415 578 602 124 370 078 791 034 195 207 76 503 385 086 939 2 907 752

2 11 36

82 11 1 3 3

3

1 24 712 1 118 564 3

97 1 3 7 215

TOTAL MPCs

Table 1: Population by citizenship in the 27 EU Member States: total number of foreigners and citizens of MPCs, 1 January 2008

Source: EUROSTAT database - Migration Statistics

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As we see in the table 1, about 3 million citizens of MPCs are living in the EU. Largely more than a third of them are living in France (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Spain is country of residence for a quarter of MPCs’ citizens in the EU. About 20 % of them are living in Italy. The rest of MPCs’ citizens, another 20%, are living in relatively smaller numbers in all other Member States from which only Germany has still significant proportion – more than 7%. Moroccan citizens being the most numerous among citizens of MPCs actually shape the main feature of population of this origin in the EU (Figure 3). Moroccans live mainly in France, Spain and Italy. These three Member States are countries of residence for 86 % of all citizens from Morocco in the EU. The biggest number Moroccans live in Spain, more than one third of all Moroccans in the EU, while a quarter lives in France and one fifth in Italy. Moroccans are numerous also in Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands but in these countries they constitute less than 5 % of all Moroccans in the EU. Another citizenship of MPCs numerously represented in the EU is Algerian. From all citizens of MPCs in the EU about 20% are Algerians. Algerians are the most concentrated in one Member State: more than 80 % of them live in France. The third by ranking, Tunisians, constitute nearly 10% of citizens from MPCs and most of them, 87%, live in France (53%) and Italy (34%).

Figure 1 : Ranking the EU Member States according the importance of the citizens of MPCs living in their territory compared with total number of citizens of MPCs in EU, 2008 (relative figures, total = 100%). Greece 0.9%

United Kingdom 1.3%

Netherlands 2.8%

Other Member States 1.9%

Belgium 3.4%

Germany 7.4%

France 38.5%

Italy 19.4%

Spain 24.5%

Source: Authors’ calculations based on EUROSTAT data

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Figure 2: Ranking the EU Member States according the importance of the citizens of MPCs among their foreign populations, 2008 (relative figures, total = 100). 35 30.9 30 25 20

16.4 13.5

15 10

12.3 11.9 10.1 5.3 5.2

5

3.0 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.4 1.3 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.0

0 FR

IT ES RO NL BE BG CY DE GR DK MT SE

FI

PL HU AT LT SK UK CZ PT

IE LU

SI

LV EE

Abbreviations: Belgium (BE), Bulgaria (BG), Czech Republic (CZ), Denmark (DK), Germany (DE), Estonia (EE), Ireland (IE), Greece (EL), Spain (ES), France (FR), Italy (IT), Cyprus (CY), Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Luxembourg (LU), Hungary (HU), Malta (MT), the Netherlands (NL), Austria (AT), Poland (PL), Portugal (PT), Romania (RO), Slovenia (SI), Slovakia (SK), Finland (FI), Sweden (SE) and the United Kingdom (UK). Source: EUROSTAT database - Migration Statistics

Figure 3: Ranking the MPCs according to the number of their citizens living in the EU in 2008.

Lebanon 2.5%

Syria 2.2%

Israel 1.1%

Jordan 0.7%

oPt 0.1%

Egypt 4.4% Tunisia 9.5%

Algeria 20.2%

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Morocco 59.3%

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Source: Authors’ calculations based on EUROSTAT data

Compared to the populations of their countries of origin Moroccans again has the highest rank (Figure 4). Surplus of the citizens living in the EU to the total number of Moroccan population in the country of origin is nearly 6%. The second by this indicator is Tunisia, the number of citizens living abroad is nearly 3% compared to the population of home country. Among others, also Algeria and Israel have their citizens living in the EU Member States more than one percentage compared to their population. Despite of considerably small representation in relative terms, still citizens of some MPCs are quite significant in numbers in one or few Member States. These are for example Egyptians in Italy, Germany and Greece, Lebanese in Germany and France, citizens of Israel and Jordan in Germany. Number of citizens of Palestine, the occupied territory (oPt) is not reliable as in many countries these data cannot be distinguished from the total number of foreigners.

Figure 4: Ranking the MPCs according to the ratio between the number of their citizens living in the EU and the population of the country of origin. 7 6

5.83

5 4 2.85

3

2.03 2

1.70

1

0.61

0.48

0.41

Syria

Jordan

0.18

0.07

Egypt

oPt

0 Morocco

Tunisia

Lebanon

Algeria

Israel

Source: Authors’ calculations based on EUROSTAT data

B. Immigration flow data: immigration of citizens of the MPCs into the EU Member States International migrations are defined as a change of the country of usual residence. In most countries the data on international migrations are derived from the current registration or deregistration of inhabitants in the population register or in the foreigners register. Thus the total annual number of migrations is the sum of registrations done during a calendar year. While the total number of immigrants can be identified in this way, their country of previous residence is not always available. In several EU Member States data on migration flows by previous residence have never or for long time been available, like in Belgium, Ireland, Greece and France, or they are not recently produced, like in Italy, or are produced but cannot be considered reliable due to different reasons (type of source, big number of unknown etc), like for example in UK, Luxembourg etc. Therefore, the data on citizenship of immigrants are used as proxy to identify the origin of migrants. However, in this case migrants coming directly from their countries of origin are counted together with people having the same citizenship but who previously already lived in another country in the EU.

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As the reliability of data on international immigration flows are relatively weak compared to the population stocks, the possibility of comparing these data at the international level are more limited. First of all, the criterion for identifying migrants varies significantly between countries. The United Nations ‘Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration, Revision 1’, adopted in 1997 and published in 1998, defined an international migrant “as any person who changes his or her country of usual residence. A person’s country of usual residence is that in which the person lives, that is to say, the country in which the person has a place to live where he or she normally spends the daily period of rest.” Currently, there is no one EU Member State who strictly applies this definition to migration flow statistics. Moreover, the recent adjustment of the definition of usual residence for UNECE region (Conference of European Statisticians Recommendations for the 2010 Censuses of Population and Housing, UN (2006)), in order to consider the population registers as sources for the population data, allows to define both actual, intended or registered place as the usual place of residence. In addition, the criteria used by Member States for identification of migrants concerns often either the minimum duration which is shorter than recommended (e.g. three or six months), or, more simply, the duration of stay in the country is not applied. The lack of harmonization of identification criteria is not the only obstacle in producing comparable statistics on international migration.. The completeness of the data varies from country to country. Some categories of migrants, like students and asylum seekers who stay more that 12 months, are not always included, emigrations are registered only partly so that returning migrants cannot be counted completely. Thus, the available data cannot be fully comparable. Nevertheless, they allow drawing a general picture about migration. Table 2 presents the annual average number of immigrants having citizenship of MPCs who immigrated to EU Member states during years 2005-2007 by their country of citizenship and the EU Member State of destination. It is important to note that these are not only immigrants coming directly from their countries of origin but also migrants who lived prior to immigration in another country in the EU.

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60

Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Denmark Germany Greece Spain France Italy Cyprus Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Hungary Malta Netherlands Austria Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Slovakia Finland Sweden United Kingdom EU27 total

EU Member State

146 409 1 561 77 641 57 955 683 324 109 939 839 465 182 390 304 960 19 660 2 743 7 714 15 141 24 567 6 730 103 422 106 553 12 899 27 703 6 998 21 417 12 762 23 278 86 821 517 397 3 399 449

TOTAL 109 926 60 75 737 35 631 570 840 109 938 802 072 182 390 267 634 18 159 2 044 2 263 14 419 22 519 5 559 70 443 90 881 1 718 27 703 6 998 19 683 11 274 14 705 71 744 437 368 2 971 707

Foreigners

879 0 68 14 1 462 46 7 183 28 454 1 153 0 0 1 24 13 2 62 159 5 17 2 0 13 32 131 0 39 720

Algeria 189 0 76 53 1 730 3 457 510 1 003 5 109 58 1 4 3 44 216 326 635 7 26 22 5 21 46 190 1 052 14 784

Egypt 7 831 0 26 81 3 980 77 82 003 24 054 21 449 18 1 0 58 7 5 1 674 142 6 80 9 2 5 73 318 191 142 088

Morocco 567 0 71 23 2 237 47 287 10 345 4 728 0 0 1 22 9 15 86 182 5 11 4 4 11 30 180 0 18 865

Tunisia 166 0 162 44 1 284 36 385 234 222 46 30 33 13 284 1 219 179 5 7 176 6 50 38 72 319 4 010

Isreal 0 32 21 608 87 150 77 111 50 0 1 1 24 4 30 43 2 2 55 2 8 20 202 698 2 229

Jordan 194 1 35 60 2 122 102 228 2 254 258 35 2 16 2 8 2 50 98 4 1 92 1 17 12 523 272 6 387

Lebanon ? 0 14 0 0 42 0 14 44 18 0 0 0 13 0 ? ? 0 0 10 0 9 3 0 78 244

oPt 138 1 57 52 1 831 909 363 670 190 100 1 2 2 82 3 54 158 5 2 131 1 19 17 630 366 5 785

Syria 9 964 2 541 348 15 254 4 800 91 109 67 105 33 264 325 34 59 123 484 248 2 502 1 596 37 146 501 21 154 272 2 247 2 974 234 110

TOTAL MPCs

Table 2: International migration flows from the MPCs to EU countries, average for the years 2005-2007

Source: EUROSTAT database - Migration Statistics

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Figure 5: Ranking of the EU Member States by the share of citizens of MPCs in the total number of immigrants having these citizenships in the EU, 2005-2007 Netherlands Sweden 1.1% 1.0%

United Kingdom 1.3%

Other Member States 2.1%

Greece 2.1% Belgium 4.3% Germany 6.5%

Spain 38.9%

Italy 14.2%

France 28.7%

Source: Authors’ calculations based on EUROSTAT data

According to these data the biggest number of citizens of the MPCs immigrated to Spain and France. These two countries received two thirds of all immigrants having these citizenships in the EU Member States, while together with Italy, who ranks third, this ratio is more than 80 (Figure 5). In addition, Germany and Belgium had also quite high number immigrants having citizenship of the MPCs. Among foreign immigrants France had the highest proportion, having more than one third of immigrants with citizenship from these countries (Figure 6). Italy (12%) and Spain (11%) were two next. The ranking of each of citizenship among the total number of immigrants having citizenship of the MPCs is same as it is in population stocks having the citizenship of these countries in the EU Member States (Figures 7). Moreover, the share of each of citizenship is only lightly different compared with that of population stocks: Algerians and Tunisians are somewhat less frequent in the total immigration flows compared to their share in the population having the citizenship MPCs in the EU. Figure 6: Ranking of the EU Member States by the share of citizens of the MPCs among all foreign immigrants to each of Member States, 2005-2007 40

36.8

35 30 25 20 12.4

15

11.4

10

9.1

7.2 4.5 4.4 3.6 3.3 3.1 2.7 2.6 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.5 0.1

5 0 FR

IT

ES

BE

RO MT GR

NL

BG

SE

DE

LT

PL

HU

FI

CY

AT

LV

SK

DK

LU

CZ

UK

PT

SI

Source: Authors’ calculations based on EUROSTAT data

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Figure 7: The share of each of citizenship among immigrants into the EU Member States having citizenship of the MPCs, 2005-2007 70 60.69 60 50 40 30 16.97

20

8.06

10

6.31

2.73

2.47

1.71

0.95

0.10

Lebanon

Syria

Israel

Jordan

oPt

0 Morocco

Algeria

Tunisia

Egypt

Source: Authors’ calculations based on EUROSTAT data

Conclusion Data collected by the EU Member States on the population stocks and immigration flows by citizenship confirm that the immigration of persons origin of the MPCs has been in past and is continuously important. However, there is a clear selectivity by concrete countries of origin in this region. Citizens of North African countries - Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt are relatively more frequent compared to citizens from the Middle East. Looking to pairs of countries of destination and countries of citizenship clear preferences exist in the population stocks and remain even in the recent migration flows.

5.13.

Bridging the gap in migration statistics by 2013 - Why it is needed and how it can be done BĂŠla Hovy (UNPOP6)

Defining the challenge - the global policy agenda In 2006, the United Nations General Assembly convened the first High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development, placing the issue of international migration high on the global agenda. The 2006 Dialogue was the first ever high-level global meeting organized by the United Nations, devoted exclusively to the issue of international migration. It was organized because many governments realized that national, bilateral and regional approaches to migration were no longer sufficient but that a global platform was needed to discuss how to maximize the development impacts of international migration. The 2006 High-level Dialogue resulted in the creation of an informal, voluntary and state-led Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD), which has met in Brussels (2007) and Manila (2008). Future GFMD meetings will be hosted by Greece (2009), Mexico (2010), Spain (2011) and Morocco (2012). In December 2008, the General Assembly decided to convene a second High-level Dialogue on International Migration in the fall of 2013. The 2013 High-level Dialogue will allow Governments to take stock of the progress made since 2006 in reaping the benefits and reducing the negative consequences of international migration. The lessons learnt from the six GMFD meetings and what to do next will be high on the agenda.

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During the 2006 High-level Dialogue, many governments complained about the lack of reliable and up-to-date information on the migration development nexus for policy formulation. Improving the evidence base has been high on the GFMD agenda. We have three years, between now and 2013, to ensure that policy makers have the right information to formulate, monitor and evaluate migration policies that work for development. Seizing the opportunity – the 2010 census round The population census is the main source of internationally comparable international migration data. The 2010 round of population censuses, officially covering the period 2005 to 2014, is in full swing. By mid-2009, 71 censuses had already been carried out, while 153 censuses, covering 80 per cent of the world’s population, have yet to start. The 2000 round of censuses resulted in less migration information than the 1990 census round with Sub-Saharan Africa as one of the worst performing regions. Many African countries were unable to organize a national population census due to political instability and conflict. As a number of countries have recovered from conflict, there is now an opportunity to get things right. The international donor community must provide sufficient resources to developing countries, in particular those located in sub-Saharan Africa, to ensure that census plans are not stalled for financial reasons. Often, the decennial census is the only source of international migration data information for most developing countries. Organizing a population census is a necessary, but not sufficient, precondition for obtaining comparable migration data. In fact, the main reason for the unavailability of international migrant stock data is not the lack of a census, but the lack of dissemination of the results. Indeed, the majority of countries that do not publish the basic migration information as recommended by the United Nations have included the basic data on their census forms. Countries do not publish migration information for various, often debatable, reasons. We must ensure that lack of resources is not one of them. Meeting the demand – administrative sources The international migrant stock (by country of birth, citizenship, sex, age, education and skills level) is the bare minimum to compare the experience between countries from a technical perspective. However, there is no policy maker in the world who will accept statistical evidence that is updated only once every 10 years. Data on the in- and outflows and basic characteristics of migrant groups relevant to policy making (foreigners arriving, citizens leaving and returning, labour migration, humanitarian migration, students, etc.) is a must. Much of this information is already collected for administrative purposes, for issuing residence permits, work permits and exit permits. Again, not the collection, but the dissemination of this information is the greatest bottle-neck. Reaching the tipping point – the emerging consensus For many decades, migration scholars have complained about the lack of reliable migration information. Significant progress has been made in the past 10 years, however. Thanks in part to the internet, the amount of available migration data is rapidly increasing. What is more, a unique consensus has emerged among the world’s leading migration experts that significant progress is possible in the short-run … with only limited means. The report “Migrants Count: Five Steps Towards Better Migration Data” (Center for Global Development, 2009) documents the recent progress made and lists five simple steps to bridge the gap between migration data demand and supply. The Commission on International Migration

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Data for Development Research and Policy recommends the following five steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ask basic census questions and make the data publicly available Compile and release existing administrative data Centralize Labor Force Surveys Provide access to micro-data Include migration modules in household surveys

If the international migration community, statisticians, analysts and policy makers, focus on these five steps, we will have good chance to have filled the gap by 2013. 6 Chief of Migration, Population Division/DESA, United Nations, New York. The author was member of the Commission on International Migration Data for Development Research and Policy. The views and opinions expressed in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the United Nations.

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6.

Evaluation of activities and results and recommendations for the future

6.1.

Results of Final Questionnaire

Giambattista Cantisani and David Pearce (MEDSTAT II)

A Final Questionnaire to provide an assessment of the value of activities undertaken under the migration sector was completed by the National Coordinators in June-July 2009. Countries were asked to mark different aspects for eight themes using a four-category system – poor, fair, good and excellent. A ‘none’ or ‘no support’ category was also included. Because of the variable quality of response from countries, a general appraisal of the results is included in 6.1. Section 6.2 contains a more specific assessment of activities and some final recommendations from the point of view of project implementation. The first theme of the Final Questionnaire covered a general appraisal of developments and of external support, particularly that provided by MEDSTAT II. All countries reported developments in the migration sector with five selecting good and one (Lebanon) excellent. All countries stated that the quality of support from MEDSTAT II was either good or excellent and all but one that the impact was either good or excellent. The second theme covered the development of the organisation of national agencies and sector work. At a general level this was evaluated as good by all countries except Israel (fair), Algeria and Tunisia (poor). Concerning the support from MEDSTAT II, both the quality and impact were considered mostly good. Items mentioned were equipment, workshops and training, technical assistance and the impact of the programme on inter-institutional co-operation, particularly with Ministries of the Interior. Syria remarked that all the activities had helped to create a national strategy. The support and impact from other initiatives was more mixed from two countries stating none to three stating excellent. The third theme covered the transfer of knowledge and internal communications on international migration statistics. In general there had been progress with all countries acknowledging the support provided by MEDSTAT II and its impact. Egypt and Morocco highlighted the way the outcomes from each MEDSTAT II activity were cascaded within their NSIs and to national partners, stressing more respectively on the dissemination of knowledge acquired from participants to meetings through reporting and national meetings and on the documentation received through MEDSTAT II and the direct contact with international experts. Morocco also pointed out that a more in-depth analysis of systems in other countries, for example on collecting administrative data in France, might have helped more. The fourth theme was on the strengthening of national awareness on the value and relevance of migration statistics and improvement in co-ordination with national partners. Again the response was generally favourable apart from Tunisia (none). All countries recognised the positive contribution of MEDSTAT II. Theme five dealt with implementation of administrative registration and use of administrative sources. On this theme the picture was more mixed and less positive (no country reported excellent progress). While positive replies (good) were given by Egypt, Lebanon and Morocco, Algeria and Israel reported no change. Egypt for example highlighted the developments on work permit data, contracts of Egyptians intending to work abroad and a new passport system. Morocco mentioned the huge developments in similar areas described here under Chapter 5, while Syria mentioned the inbound and outbound questionnaires.

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In contrast to administrative data all countries reported good progress in the implementation of household surveys and censuses and all countries reported good or excellent support from MEDSTAT II and similar markings for impact from that support (Theme 6). Apart from Model Questionnaires, it is clear that there are a variety of surveys or modules attached to surveys being planned. The seventh theme covered improvements in the availability and comparability of statistics and the degree of users’ satisfaction. For this theme the developments ranged from poor in Israel, Jordan and Lebanon to good in Egypt, the occupied Palestinian territory and Tunisia. However all countries acknowledged the positive contribution by MEDSTAT II and other initiatives in trying to help. The final theme (8) asked for any other comments and suggestions for future work. On future work the following were mentioned: - To continue and increase the cooperation activities between partners; - To give some attention to analysis and dissemination of data; - To follow up regional aspects so as to improve comparability within the region; - To continue and increase technical support; - To increase budgetary support; - To find the required funds to implement MED-HIMS; - To help develop administrative sources such as linking arrival and departure data with a Centralised Population Register; - To extend the programme of MEDSTAT II in the sector of migration, say by one year.

6.2.

Evaluation and recommendations

From the point of view of the implementation a number of conclusions may be drawn on the work carried out under MEDSTAT II Migration, as follows.

66

i.

First of all, it is clear that MEDSTAT II has certainly successfully contributed to the transfer of knowledge and the exchange of practices, two elements that are fundamental for strengthening the capacities of the staff of the MPCs involved in the production of migration statistics. Further, the Programme has benefited from a favourable timetable of activities undertaken under the international umbrella, with the opportunity to attend a Joint UNECE / EUROSTAT Work Session during the Orientation Phase and other relevant international meetings on both the need for and the production of statistics.

i.

The objectives of MEDSTAT II for the sector have been endorsed under the different frameworks. It is also important to highlight the usefulness of results and recommendations available from MEDSTAT I. Thus, the MPCs have been first invited to evaluate and use their own sources for producing better statistics, introducing changes to the existing systems or coming up with alternative simple solutions, which may not cost much, in the case of administrative sources. The application of common concepts and definitions to achieve the comparability of results at international level was also stressed. The access to and elaboration of individual records available from administrative registers strongly recommended by the Programme were implemented in a significant way.

i.

The national awareness of the relevance of better and comparable migration statistics and the possibility of using different options for obtaining these results, depending on national systems, has significantly increased. The collaboration among national partner agencies, which is an essential step towards enhancing the use of administrative sources, has also increased but it still remains a crucial challenge. According to recent decisions and initiatives presented in Section 5.14, the Mediterranean NSSs are now supported by the attention and interest given to the topic at UN and EU level and by

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their governments as well. In general the development of administrative registration systems continues to evolve in a way that is beneficial for producing statistics. i.

The activities implemented at national level were relatively limited but varied, going beyond the original mandate. They were also significant in that, in principle, there was scope for countries to test and replicate activities and developments taking place in other countries. This particularly applies to the new inter-institutional relationships, the modalities of national collaboration (e.g. national committees) and the results of pilot works. Among other activities, the methodology initiated in Lebanon for using individual records available from the border data collection for estimating migration flows could be applicable to a wider group of countries such as those comprising the Schengen Area - in this case for non-EU citizens.

i.

On the other hand, it may be that some MPCs experience difficulties in adopting successful national practices of other countries. This could be due to the existence of different data collection systems, national circumstances such as the degree of cooperation among national partner agencies or other more practical issues such as the length of questionnaires. For example, while the development of the emigration module for the last census in Algeria has benefited, to some extent, from other national experiences, the recommendations in this field were not fully implemented because of expectation of poor quality answers or non-response to specific questions. Therefore, the transfer of successful practices from one country to another may be limited or perhaps more time is needed for such transfer to be realised.

i.

Unfortunately some MPCs have benefited less from the Programme due to different national circumstances. Reasons include the parallel implementation of population censuses, the delay in the recruitment of new staff, the reorganisation of services and staff turnover and some reticence from national partner institutions. Some lack of follow-up following the experts’ missions and national meetings held at that time and difficulty in converting commitment into effective changes following discussions between the NSIs and the national partner institutions have to be recognised.

i. The absorption capacity of relevant services of MPCs, to actively operate under the sector work and to implement change appeared relatively low. Apart from a few specific instances, the provision of capacity building measures, and the implementation of new activities are only likely to be achieved in the longer term. An example is the use of individual data from administrative sources to produce high quality statistics. The experience of MEDSTAT II has demonstrated that greater progresses was achieved in countries where there was a) less overlap with other major statistical operations, b) existing and good relationships between national partner agencies and c) a solid basis from the previous programme. i.

The equipment provided by MEDSTAT II has supported the MPCs in improving the administrative registration process in certain countries and the procedures and timing of data processing and dissemination in general. However, the experience of pilot work in Lebanon showed that the infeasibility of procuring some equipment during the implementation stage of the programme was a major constraint.

i.

The Model Questionnaires and MED-HIMS represent unique opportunities for combining national and international needs and the means for significantly contributing to the enhancement of the Sector. The aim of observing international standards and requirements as well as the use of standard tools to achieve comparability of results from different national surveys, constitutes an additional positive aspects. Progress has included the production of four project documents for implementing the proposed survey in four countries, the commitment of most MPCs, as well as MEDSTAT II involving a number of partner institutions and high-level experts, EU services and other data users. This has made the exercises highly promising but also challenging.

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i.

Besides the development of Model Questionnaires, the regional dimension of MEDSTAT II work was deemed to be very useful. In fact, despite some substantial administrative and logistical procedures (e.g. time consuming organisation of events, especially for some study visits), MEDSTAT II has given MPCs the opportunity to share experiences well beyond the Euro-MED Region, with, for example, the countries belonging to the EU, UNECE, and the UNESCWA countries not covered by the Programme. Moreover, the Programme has provided MPCs with the opportunity to present activities and progress at a global level, for example, at the Suitland Working Group.

i. Apart from the Key Expert / Long-Term Expert, the technical support activated under the Programme since the Orientation Phase was high-level and varied, with 16 ShortTerm Experts from EU countries or with dual citizenship EU/MED used. On the other hand, there was a limited use of Short-Term Experts from MPCs, with just 2 such experts recruited to support Egypt and to contribute to the development of Model Questionnaires. i. On synergies, the Programme has articulated the conditions for improved relationships between the MPCs and selected EU Member States, especially Italy and Spain, through discussion on data exchange and possible joint operations. The Programme has also established cooperation with different initiatives supported or followed-up by the EC services, UNPOP, UNESCWA, UNECE, the World Bank and EUI/CARIM. Moreover, the work for developing the Model Questionnaires has indirectly ensured links with other institutions and initiatives. In contrast, synergies with other MEDSTAT II sectors have been limited to Social Statistics and, to a lesser extent, National Accounts. Finally, the main recommendation for the MPCs for the future is to continue working in close collaboration and coordination with the EC, neighbouring countries and the other regional and international initiatives. Such close collaboration is required now that the need for statistics on international migration, as mentioned in Section 5.13, has been placed high on the international agenda. Despite the various operational approaches and methodological options that can be implemented in each kind of statistical production and the different, and evolving, information needs, the enhancement of migration statistics in the Region is mainly a matter of understanding, communication and cooperation between the national partner agencies more than it being affected by technical or financial constraints. The MPCs have improving conditions that would enable them for moving relatively quickly to the production of some migration statistics using administrative sources on yearly basis. After the three years work the vision is clearer and also thank to MEDSTAT II there are more options: this has now to lead to concrete results. It is clear that for having internationally comparable results, the existing international recommendations have to be implemented, in addition, of course, to any specific national needs. Therefore, further work in the sector has to follow the path of MEDSTAT II in order to extend and consolidate the activities and results. Keeping countries abreast and further allowing the exchange of information, transfer of knowledge and technical support under the already planned MEDSTAT III will be highly beneficial for all stakeholders. Besides, the MPCs, the EC and other international institutions should benefit from the consensus and the efforts and resources already devoted for the preparation of Model Questionnaires and find out means and ways for the implementation of the coordinated MED-HIMS. This exercise is certainly challenging but also very important at global level given the recommendations of funding common measurements on international migration and development through household surveys.

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Annexes ANNEX 1:

Detail of study visits

ANNEX 2:

Detail of technical assistance missions

ANNEX 3:

Detail of regional and international meetings

ANNEX 4:

Attendance of MPCs to meetings organised or supported by MEDSTAT II

ANNEX 5:

Main topics included in the Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS

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ANNEX 1: Detail of study visits

Dates, Venue(s)

Topics

Participating and contributing institutions

19-22 Febr. 2007, Rome

Gathering and using administrative data for migration statistics

Egypt: CAPMAS, MoI (State Security and Dept. of Employment and External Representation), Ministry of Manpower and Migration (Dept. of Work Permits) Italy: ISTAT (various services), MoI (various departments), Ministry of Social Solidarity, INPS, IDOS / Caritas

2-6 July 2007, Rome

Management of migration and production of statistics

Jordan: DOS, MoI (Dept. of Public Security and Dept. of Intelligence), Ministry of Labour (International Relations) Italy: ISTAT (various services), MoI (Central Directorate Immigration and Asylum Policies), University of Milan / ISMU, MoI (Dept. of Public Security), University of Naples

17-21 Sept. 2007, Rome, Charleroi, Namur, Brussels

Use of administrative sources and data analysis for international migration

Lebanon: CAS, MoI (DG General Security) Italy: ISTAT (various services), MoI (Dept. of Public Security), Questura of Rome (Immigration Office), CNR-IRPPS Belgium: UCL-GĂŠDAP, CECLR, Commune of Namur, Statistics Belgium, MoI (Office of Foreigners)

16-19 Oct. 2007, Budapest

Administrative registers and statistics on international migration

Occupied Palestinian territory: PCBS, MoI (General Directorate of Civil Status) Hungary: HCSO (various services), Demographic Research Institute, Kopint-TĂĄrki Institute, Ministry of Justice and Law Enforcement (Office of Immigration and Nationality), Central Data Processing, Registration and Election Office

13-15 Nov. 2007, Paris

National systems and statistics on international migration

Algeria: ONS Morocco: HCP/DS, HCP/CERED, MoI (DG National Security) Tunisia: INS, MoI (Dir. of Borders and Foreigners) France: INSEE (various services), INED (Unit International Migration and Minorities), OFPRA, Min. of Interior, overseas and territorial communities (Dir. Public Freedom and Judicial Affairs)

29 Nov. - 4 Dec. 2007, Den Hague and Helsinki

Combining administrative registers, surveys and models for census and migration statistics

Israel: ICBS Netherlands: Statistics Netherlands (various services) Finland: Statistics Finland (various services)

22-25 Sept. 2008, Madrid

National systems for the registration and collection of data and production of migration statistics

Morocco: HCP/DS, MoI (DG National Security) Syria: CBS, MoI (Dept. of Immigration and Passports) Spain: INE (various services), MoI, Ministry of Labour and Immigration

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ANNEX 2: Detail of technical assistance missions Dates, Country, venue

Main topics of missions/meetings

Main involved experts and representatives1

1-3 Apr. 2007, Syria, Damascus

National committee, use of administrative data and work program

F. Alchick, F. Abdoun, G. Cantisani, S. Farid

17-20 Apr. 2007, Lebanon, Beirut

Development of a migration module, use of administrative data and work program

N. Yacoub, L. Badre, M. Akl, G. Cantisani, Y. Courbage, M.P. Sorvillo

19-24 Apr. 2007, Jordan, Amman

National coordination, administrative data, proposal of immigration survey and work program

K. Saleh, M. Al-Assaf, N. Amman, G. Cantisani, Y. Courbage, M.P. Sorvillo

23-24 Apr. 2007, oPt, meeting held in Amman

Development of statistical operations, use of administrative data and work program

M. Duraidi, H. Qrareya, A. Jawabreh, G. Cantisani, Y. Courbage, M.P. Sorvillo

13-16 May 2007, Egypt, Cairo

National committee, use of administrative data and work program

N. El-Houty, M. Saleh, T. Amin, Brig. E.M. El-Nagar, Col. E. Yassin, A. Ma’arek, M. El-Prince, S. Farid

12-15 June 2007, Morocco, Rabat

National committee, development of statistical operations, use of administrative data and work program

H. Fdhil, B. Bouziani, S. Chahoua, A. Zerrou, A. Bencheickh, M. Mghari, M.S. Djedidi, H. Tijani, O. Ndadani, G. Cantisani, Y. Courbage

29 Oct. – 1 Nov. 2007, Egypt, Cairo

N. El-Houty, M. Saleh, T. Amin, Brig. E.M. National workshop, proposal of emigration survey El-Nagar, Col. E. Yassin, A. Ma’arek, M. Eland use of administrative data Prince, S. Farid, A. Zohry, G. Cantisani

25-27 Nov. 2007, Jordan, Amman

National committee, development of national system for migration and labour migration and proposal of immigration survey [in synergy with Social Statistics Sector]

K. Saleh, M. Al-Assaf, F. Thneibat, B. Achikbache, M.P. Sorvillo, E. Tucci

17-21 Dec. 2007, Lebanon, Beirut

Launching of pilot project on the exploitation of individual records available from border crossing registration

N. Yacoub, L. Badre, M. Akl, R. Sfeir, G. Cantisani, M. Poulain

27-29 Jan. 2008, Jordan, Amman

Inventory of migration data sources and immigration survey

K. Saleh, M. Al-Assaf, M.P. Sorvillo (under ISTAT funding), G. Gesano, E. Tucci

29 June –3 July 2008, Egypt, Cairo

National workshop and proposal of emigration survey

N. El-Houty, M. Saleh, T. Amin, S. Farid, A. Zohry

12-16 Oct. 2008, oPt, Ramallah

Proposal of survey on emigration and internal migration

M. Duraidi, M. Jaradat, H. Qrareya, M. Malki, Y. Courbage

27-30 Oct. 2008, Syria, Damascus

Proposal of emigration survey

F. Alchick, A. Rustom, A. Ali, S. Farid, G. Cantisani

2-5 Nov. 2008, Jordan, Amman

Proposal of emigration survey

K. Saleh, M. Al-Assaf, S. Farid

1. Italic denotes MEDSTAT II experts

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ANNEX 3: Detail of regional and international meetings Dates, Venue

Meeting

Participating institutions/entities

20-22 Nov. Joint UNECE / EUROSTAT Work Session on 2006, Edinburgh Migration Statistics

UNECE, EUROSTAT, other int. institutions, NSIs and MoI of UNECE and MPCs (excluding Algeria and oPt), MEDSTAT II

12-15 Febr. 2008, Lisbon

NSIs and ministerial agencies of all MPCs Lecturers: G. Cantisani, F. Casimiro, S. Farid, H. Moreira, D. Pearce, N. Perrin

MEDSTAT II Regional Training Course on Concepts, Definitions and Methods for Migration Statistics

3-5 March 2008, Joint UNECE / EUROSTAT Work Session on Geneva Migration Statistics

UNECE, EUROSTAT, other int. institutions, NSIs and MoI of UNECE and MPCs (excl. Algeria), MEDSTAT II

10-13 March 2008, Wiesbaden

MEDSTAT II Regional Workshop on Strengthening the Measurement of Migration in the Euro-Mediterranean Region

NSIs and ministerial agencies of all MPCs excl. Algeria, EUROSTAT, UNECE, World Bank, CARIM, MEDSTAT II, ISTAT, INE-Spain

26 May 2008, Brussels

Opening Conference of EuroMED Migration II Project

Ministerial agencies and representations of EU MS and MPCS, AIDCO, other EC services, EuroMED Migration II, MEDSTAT II, other entities

1 Oct. 2008, Helsinki

Expert Meeting on Data Collection on Migration and Development (preparatory meeting to the GFMD 2009)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland, UNPOP, IOM, ICMPD, CGD, MEDSTAT II and other int. institutions research centers

17-21 Nov. 2008, Lisbon

MEDSTAT II Regional Training Course on Methodologies for Measuring the Impact of Remittance Flows by Migrants on Household Budgets and National Accounts [organised under Social Statistics Sector]

NSIs and ministerial agencies of all MPCs Lecturers: B. Achikbache, Ph. Wanner, M.T. Ferreira C. Ferreira (on behalf of MEDSTAT II), D. Comini (EUROSTAT)

16-19 Febr. 2009, Brussels

First MEDSTAT II Meeting on Development of Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS

NSIs of all MPCs, CERED-Morocco, AIDCO, EUROSTAT, DG JLS, World Bank, CARIM, INESpain, MEDSTAT II

16-17 March 2009, Suitland

First Meeting of Suitland Working Group on Using Household Surveys to Measure Migration and the Size, Distribution, and Characteristics of Migrant Population

US Census Bureau, UNPOP., UNECE, EUROSTAT, the NSIs of Israel, Lebanon, Morocco, Mexico and selected EU MS, ICMPD, MEDSTAT II and other institutions and centers

6 May 2009, Brussels

Round Table on Country Migration Profiles

DG JLS AIDCO, EUROSTAT, other EC services, IOM, ICMPD, MEDSTAT II and other institutions and centers

14 May 2009, Rome

Workshop on Experiences and Knowledge on Gender and Migration [organised by GEMMA Project]

APRE, DG Research, IOM, MEDSTAT II, CNAItaly and various Italian institutions

31 May - 3 June Intermediate meetings on Model Questionnaires AIDCO, DG JLS, RELEX, EUROSTAT, World 2009, Brussels with Word Bank, EUROSTAT and other EC Bank, MEDSTAT II and Luxembourg services 29 June - 3 July 2009, Cairo

Second MEDSTAT II Meeting on Development of Model Questionnaires

NSIs of all MPCs excl. Israel, MEDSTAT II

30 June - 3 July 2009, Cairo

UNESCWA Training Workshop on International Migration Statistics

UNESCWA, UNPOP, ALO, IOM, UNHCR, League of Arab States, MEDSTAT II, NSIs and MoI of UNESCWA MS, NSIs of Maghreb countries, MoI-Morocco

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ANNEX 4: Attendance of MPCs to meetings organised or supported by MEDSTAT II Country/ Institution

UNECE/ ESTAT 11/2006

TRC methods 2/2008

UNECE/ ESTAT 3/2008

WKS 3/2008

TRC remittances 11/2008

WKS MQ 1 2/2009

Suitland WG 3/2009

WKS MQ 2 6/2009

UNESCWA WKS 6/20091

ONS-Algeria

--

1

1

--

2

2

--

1

1

Other nat. inst. Algeria

--

--

--

--

--

--

--

-

--

CAPMASEgypt

1

1

1

1

1

2

--

3

6

Other nat. inst. Egypt

--

2

--

2

2

--

--

--

--

CBS-Israel

1

2

1

2

3

2

1

--

--

Other nat. inst. Israel

--

1

--

1

--

--

--

--

--

DOS-Jordan

1

1

1

1

2

1

--

1

1

Other nat. inst. Jordan

--

3

--

2

1

1

--

--

1

CASLebanon

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

Other nat. inst. Lebanon

--

2

--

2

--

--

--

--

1

DS-MA

1

2

1

2

--

1

1

1

1

Other nat. inst. Morocco

--

1

--

1

3

1

--

--

1

PCBS

--

3

1

3

3

2

--

1

2

Other nat. inst. Opt

--

0

--

--

--

--

--

--

1

CBS-Syria

1

2

1

2

3

2

--

1

2

Other nat. inst. Syria

--

1

--

1

--

--

--

--

--

INS-Tunisia

1

1

1

1

1

1

--

1

1

Other nat. inst. Tunisia

--

2

--

2

2

--

--

--

--

Total

7

25

9

24

25

17

3

10

16

1. National experts and representatives under MEDSTAT II and UNESCWA funding. The number of participants from the NSIs of Algeria, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia includes experts mainly participating to the parallel Second MEDSTAT II Meeting on the Development of Model Questionnaires (WKS MQ2)

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ANNEX 5: Main topics included in the Model Questionnaires for MED-HIMS (As of 31 July 2009) The Model Questionnaires (MQ) for MED-HIMS will be designed to gather multi-topic, multi-level, retrospective and comparative data. The MQ will consist of the following six questionnaires: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi.

Household Questionnaire Individual Questionnaire for Out Migrant Individual Questionnaire for Return Migrant Individual Questionnaire for Non Migrant Household Socio-economic and Environmental Characteristics Questionnaire Community Characteristics Questionnaire

The MQ will be designed as a series of self contained modules, each dealing with a particular migration-related topic. 1. The Household Questionnaire Module 1.1: Module 1.2: Module 1.3:

Household Roster: - Demographic Characteristics - Citizenship and Residence - Education and Economic Activity Return Migration Roster Out Migration Roster

2. Individual Questionnaire for Out Migrant Module Module Module Module Module Module Module Module Module Module Module

2.1: 2.2: 2.3: 2.4: 2.5: 2.6: 2.7: 2.8: 2.9: 2.10: 2.11:

Demographic Characteristics Migration History Household Composition before First Migration Economic Conditions before First Migration Motives for First Migration Information about First Country Migration Networks and Assistance Work History Perceptions about Migration Experience Intention of Settling/Leaving Current Country Remittances

3. Individual Questionnaire for Return Migrant Module Module Module Module Module

74

3.1: 3.2: 3.3: 3.4: 3.5:

Demographic Characteristics Migration History Economic Conditions before First Migration Information about First Country Migration Networks and Assistance

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Module Module Module Module Module

3.6: 3.7: 3.8: 3.9: 3.10:

Work History Motives for Return Migration Perceptions about Migration Experience Intention to Migrate Again Remittances

4. Individual Questionnaire for Non Migrant Module Module Module Module Module Module

4.1: 4.2: 4.3: 4.4: 4.5: 4.6:

Socio-Demographic Characteristics Work Status and Attitudes Household Composition at Beginning of Reference Period Economic Status at Beginning of Reference Period Intention to Migrate Remittances (Received & Sent)

5. Household Socio-economic and Environmental Characteristics Questionnaire Module Module Module Module

5.1: 5.2: 5.3: 5.4:

Housing Characteristics Household Assets Farm Assets Business Assets

6. Community Characteristics Questionnaire (rural areas) Module 6.1: Module 6.2: Module 6.3:

Last Census Data Community Facilities Economy and Migration

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References Recommendations on Statistics of International Migration, Revision 1, Statistical Papers Series M, No. 58/Rev.1, ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/58/Rev.1, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division, New York, 1998, available at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/pubs/ gesgrid.asp?ID=116 International Migration Statistics in the Mediterranean Countries: current data sources and statistics available from international organisations, David Pearce, Eurostat Working Papers 3/1998/E/ no 12, available at www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat International Migration Statistics in the Mediterranean Countries: current data sources and statistics available in the countries, Revised version, David Pearce and Daniela Rotolone, Eurostat Working Papers 3/1998/E/no 20, available at www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Conference of European Statisticians Recommendations for the 2010 Censuses of Population and Housing, Prepared in cooperation with the Statistical Office of European Commission (Eurostat), United Nations New York and Geneva, 2006, available at http://www.unece.org/stats/publ.htm Towards Harmonised European Statistics on International Migration, edited by Michel Poulain, Nicolas Perrin and Ann Singleton, Louvain-la-Neuve, Presses Universitaires de Louvain, 2006, main conclusions available at http://www.uclouvain.be/7823.html MEDSTAT I Programme. Adapting border card systems in the Mediterranean region to measure international migration and international tourism: new initiatives and technical guidelines, Jeannette Schoorl, in collaboration with Ibrahim Alì and Samir Farid, Eurostat Working Papers and Studies KS-CC-06-003-EN-N, Luxembourg, 2006, available at www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat MEDSTAT Programme. Adapting residence and work permits registers in the Mediterranean region to measure international migration flows and stocks. Technical manual and guidelines, Jamal Bourchachen, Eurostat Working Papers and Studies KS-CC-06-002-EN-N, Luxembourg, 2006, available at www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat MEDSTAT Programme. Census migration questions in the Mediterranean countries. An inventory and comparative overview, Reno Camilleri, Eurostat Working Papers and Studies KS-CC-06003-EN-N, Luxembourg, 2006, available at www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat MEDSTAT Programme. Estimating emigration through an emigration module in the census. A proposal for the next censuses, Reno Camilleri, Eurostat Working Papers and Studies KS-CC06-003-EN-n, Luxembourg, 2006, available at www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat CARIM Annual Report 2006/07, edited by Philippe Fargues, EUI, Florence, 2007, available at www.carim.org/index.php?areaid=8&contentid=9 Transferts des migrants, données et mesures dans les pays Méditerranées, Brahim El Mouaatamid, in CARIM Annual Report 2006-2007, 2007, edited by Philippe Fargues. Pp. 359-382, available at www.eui.eu/RSCAS/e-texts/CARIM-AR2007_Part3.pdf A cautionary note about the Discrepancies among the UN, OECD and CARIM databases on International Migration, Aysen Isaoglu, in CARIM Annual Report 2006-2007, 2007, edited by Philippe Fargues. Pp. 349-357, available at www.eui.eu/RSCAS/e-texts/CARIM-AR2007_Part3. pdf SIGMA The bulletin of European Statistics 01/2008. People count - Focus on demographic statistics, EUROSTAT, Luxembourg, 2008, available at http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/ page?_pageid=1073,46587259&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&p_product_code=KSBU-08-001 Final Report of the Joint UNECE / Eurostat Work Session on Migration Statistics, Geneva, 3-5 March 2008, available at http://www.unece.org/stats/documents/2008.03.migration.htm Principles and Recommendations for Population and Housing Censuses. Revision 2, Statistical Papers Series M, No. 67/Rev.2, ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/67/Rev.2, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistics Division, New York, 2008, available at http://unstats. un.org/unsd/demographic/sources/census/census3.htm

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Recent migration trends: citizens of EU-27 Member States become ever more mobile while EU remains attractive to non-EU citizens, Eurostat Statistics in Focus N. 98/2008, Luxembourg, 2008, available at www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat Final Conclusions and Recommendations of the Chair, Esteban B. Conejos, Jr., Undersecretary of Foreign Affairs for Migrant Workers’ Affairs and Special Envoy to GFMD, Republic of the Philippines, GFMD, Manila, 27-30 October 2008, available at http://government.gfmd2008.org Final Conference Report, Suitland Working Group on Using Household Surveys to Measure Migration and the Size, Distribution, and Characteristics of Migrant Population, Suitland, Maryland, 16-17 March 2009, US Census Bureau and UNECE, available at www.unece.org/stats/documents/ece/ces/ge.10/2009/zip.3.e.pdf Migration Count. Five Steps Towards Better Migration Data, Report of the Commission on International Migration Data for Development Research and Policy, Patricia A. Santos Tomas and Lawrence H. Summers, Co-chairs, Michael Clements, Project Director, Center for Global Development, New York, 2009, available at www.migrationdata.org Guide on the Compilation of Statistics on International Migration in the Euro-Mediterranean Region, Giambattista Cantisani, Samir Farid, David Pearce and Nicolas Perrin, MEDSTAT II series, 2009, available at www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat Documents and final reports of the MEDSTAT Task Force Meetings on migration statistics held in 2005, 2007 and 2008, available on CIRCA Documents and final reports of the regional workshops, training courses and study visits organized by MEDSTAT II in 2007-2009, available on CIRCA Documents and final report of the UNESCWA Training Workshop on International Migration Statistics, Cairo, 30 June - 3 July 2009, available on CIRCA CSSRs and PORs, available at www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat

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