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Pimlico & Belgravia Eye is now the only free monthly publication covering key areas of Pimlico, Belgravia and

Westminster, including Victoria, Millbank and Petty France. Each issue is also available to see on-line.

If you have a planned promotion requiring your material, leaflets or brochures to be delivered locally, we are your first

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SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM

Before 1st October 2009 there were two other courts known as supreme court, namely the Supreme Court of England and Wales, and the Supreme Court of Judicature in Northern Ireland, each of which consisted of a Court of Appeal, a High Court of Justice and a Crown Court. When the provisions of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 came into force these became known as the Senior Courts of England and Wales and the Court of Judicature of Northern Ireland

is to hear appeals from courts in the UK’s three legal systems: England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. The Supreme Court acts as the highest court for civil appeals from the Court of Session in Scotland, but the highest appeal for criminal cases is in Scotland. Permission to appeal from the Court of Session is not required and any case can proceed to the Supreme Court of the UK if two Advocates certify that an appeal is suitable. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, in contrast, permission to appeal is required, either from the Court of Appeal or from a Justice of the Supreme Court itself.

The court is composed of the President and Deputy President and 10 puisne Justices of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court justices are obliged to retire at age 70 if first appointed to a judicial office after 31st March 1995, or at age 75 otherwise. The President and Deputy President of the court are separately appointed to those roles.

The Supreme Court's focus is on cases that raise points of law of general public importance. Appeals from many fields of law are likely to be selected for hearing, including commercial disputes, family matters, judicial review claims against public authorities and issues under the Human Rights Act 1998. The Supreme Court also hears some criminal appeals, but not from Scotland.

Ten Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (Law Lords) holding office on 1st October 2009 became the first justices of the 12-member Supreme Court. The 11th place on the Supreme Court was filled by Lord Clarke of Stone-cum-Ebony, who was the first Justice to be appointed directly to the Supreme Court. One of the former Law Lords was appointed to replace Lord Clarke as Master of the Rolls. Sir John Dyson became the 12th justice of the Supreme Court in 2010.

A case is heard by a panel of 5 justices, though sometimes the panel may consist of 3, 7 or 9 members. All 12 justices are also members of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

In addition to the 12 permanent Justices, the President may request other senior judges, drawn from two groups, to sit as "acting judges" of the Supreme Court.

A consulation paper published by the Department of Constitutional Affairs in 2003 argued that the separation of the judicial functions of the Judicial Committee of the House of Lords from the legislative functions of the House of Lords should be made explicit. During 2004, a select committee of the House of Lords scrutinised the arguments for and against setting up a new court. The Government estimated the set-up cost of the Supreme Court at £56.9 million.

The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 makes provision for a new appointment process for Justices of the Supreme Court which was adopted on a voluntary basis for appointments of Lords of Appeal in Ordinary in 2007. New judges appointed to the Supreme Court after its creation will not necessarily receive peerages; however, they are given the courtesy title of Lord or Lady upon appointment.

The Supreme Court was established by Part 3 of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 and started work on 1st October 2009. It assumed the judicial functions of the House of Lords, which were exercised by the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary or "Law Lords", the 12 professional judges appointed as members of the House of Lords to carry out its judicial business. Its jurisdiction over devolution matters had previously been held by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.

Pimlico & Belgravia Eye July 2014

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Court 1 in the Supreme Court building is housed in Middlesex Guildhall — which it shares with the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. After a lengthy survey of suitable sites, it was announced that the new court would be located in the Middlesex Guildhall, in Parliament Square. Westminster City Council granted planning permission for refurbishment works. The building had formerly been used as the headquarters of Middlesex County Council and the Middlesex Quarter Sessions, and later as a Crown Court centre.


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THE VICTORIA PALACE THEATRE

The Black and White Minstrel Show played through the 1960s until 1972. The Buddy Holly Story played for 13 years in London, beginning in 1989. In 2005, Billy Elliot the Musical opened.

in Victoria Street was designed by Frank Matcham and opened in 1911 on the site of two music hall buildings from the second half of the 19th century which had both been demolished. The theatre began life as a small concert room above the stables of the Royal Standard Hotel, at what was then 522 Stockbridge Terrace. The proprietor, John Moy, enlarged the building, and by 1850 it became known as Moy's Music Hall. Alfred Brown took it over in 1863, refurbished it, and calling it the Royal Standard Music Hall. The hotel was demolished in 1886, at a time when the area had transformed into a transport hub.

The theatre has been owned by Sir Stephen Waley-Cohen since 1991. At the opening in 1911, a gilded statue of ballerina Anna Pavlova had been installed above the cupola of the theatre. This was taken down for its safety during World War II, and was lost. In 2006, a replica of the original statue was restored in its place.

Following the recent purchase of the theatre by Sir Cameron Mackintosh, the big question is: what happens to Billy Elliot, which celebrates its 10th birthday in 2015. Mackintosh has ambitious plans to significantly improve the theatre which requires its closure for around 12 months from autumn 2016, to tie in with surrounding redevelopment work. The stage will be extended by 6 metres, the front of house enlarged and completely overhauled and the auditorium and exterior restored to its full glory. The options are closure or find another home. Billy Elliot's prospects at finding a suitable new home are strong. It is currently booking until May 2015.

The Royal Standard, was demolished in 1910, and in its place was built, at a cost of £12,000, The Victoria Palace. It was designed by prolific theatre architect Frank Matcham, and opened November 6th, 1911. The original design featured a sliding roof that helped cool the auditorium during intervals in the summer months.

Under impresario Alfred Butt, the Victoria Palace Theatre continued the musical theatre tradition by presenting mainly varieties, and under later managements, repertory and revues. In 1934, the theatre presented Young England, a patriotic play written by the Rev. Walter Reynolds, and received bad reviews that it became a cult hit.

MONEY LAUNDERING of more than £100 million by the owner of Premier Exchange in Victoria, and two of his employees have resulted in them being jailed.

The court heard how the men’s underworld contacts would queue with unsuspecting tourists to exchange bags of “dirty” money, including cash from drug deals, for “clean” €500 notes — used because they were easy to conceal.

Thillianathan Kumarathas and Ramanathan Thayaparan recruited Dinesh Kumar Anandan into their money laundering enterprise at two branches of Premier Exchange. The three defendants were thought to have taken a cut of up to 3% tper transaction between 2005 and 2009. Their money-laundering service was discovered by HM Revenue and Customs during an investigation into two London cocaine traffickers.

The three men invested the money in properties in the UK, France and India. Kumarathas and Thayaparan also used it to pay for their children’s private school fees. Other investments seized included cars, restaurants and supermarkets, plus more than £80,000 cash from raids at the two branches and the men’s homes.

Thayaparan was employed as a money laundering reporting officer with the job of alerting the authorities to criminal transactions.

A return to revue brought new success with Me and My Girl in 1937 starring Lupino Lane. In 1945 variety was presented under the stewardship of Lupino Lane. Headlining was Will Hay, Charles Hawtrey and John Clark. From 1947 through 1962, Jack Hylton produced The Crazy Gang series of comedy revues, with Flanagan and Allen, Nervo and Knox, and Naughton and Gold. Pimlico & Belgravia Eye July 2014

Kumarathas and Thayaparan, from Harrow, were jailed for 9 years and 5 years respectively. Anandan, from Enfield, for 2 years.

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MASAKI YADA

WESTMINSTER CATHEDRAL PRIMARY SCHOOL 50 YEAR ANNIVERSARY

The Modernity of the Masterpiece Sometimes the infinitely small can encapsulate the infinitely large. This happens in the paintings of the talented Japanese painter Masaki Yada. These will be displayed at Ransom gallery: 105 Pimlico Road, from the 24th May 2014. In his small and fascinating artworks this artist portrays an entire cosmos of eternal questions, symbols and perfection. Masaki attempts to modernize the lost visual language that was cultivated by Dutch and Flemish old Masters of the 17th century: he achieves this by focusing on detail and creating vortexes of thoughts and colours that enchant the viewer of his paintings.

Fifty years ago, in 1963 Westminster Cathedral Primary School relocated to Bessborough Place – its current home! It is this move that is being remembering and celebrating. This academic year is their fiftieth year on the Bessborough site. On the 4th of July past and present friends of Westminster Cathedral Primary School will join together for a special mass celebrated by Parish Priest Canon Pat Browne and Bishop Nick Hudson.

Past pupils and teachers have been invited back to speak to the current pupils and share their memories of their time at the school. Pupils are completing history projects to mark the anniversary and a museum has been set up in the school hall to exhibit a number of items that have been kindly lent by past friends.

Thomas Doherty, will be celebrating his first year as Headteacher of this wonderful school and is honoured to be leading the school during such a special year. The celebrations have enabled him to find out much about the distinguished history of the school and the message ‘you have a great deal to live up to’ is strong and loud!

An attentive beholder can perceive various influences in his artworks, from the visionary imagination and impeccable technique of the past Masters of the past such as Hieronymus Bosch, Johannes Vermeer, Jan Van Eyck, Willem van Aelst and Rachel Ruysch; to the abstractions of recent painters like: William De Kooning, Barnet Newman, Francis Bacon, Gerhard Richter and Sigmar Polke.

The school was founded around 1849 and dedicated to St. Mary. It was first housed in two cottages in Horseferry Road and in 1850 was moved to Great Peter Street. Originally administered from Farm Street by the Jesuit Fathers, it was taken over by the Westminster Cathedral Authorities when the Cathedral was built in 1903.

Mrs Cotter has been an inspirational lady who taught at the school from 1949 - 1986, and is a person respected, admired and loved. Mrs Cotter still lives locally and has been in contact with the school to ensure that she, along with many others can be part of our many celebrations.

Through Masaki’s imagery, the eternal language of the Dutch old Masters tells us stories of human desire, of life and death, of ephemeral love and hate, of ego and human vanity. As the artist himself claims: “My art practice is like opening the coffins of old masters to discover treasures that buried with them like golden daggers and jewels”. Exhibition: 25th June - 23rd July

Pupils, parents and teachers need schools but schools also need governors – committed and skilled volunteers who give of their time and talents. The preparation for these celebrations has time and time again highlighted these amazing people – the unsung heroes of our schools.

Ransom Art, 105 Pimlico Road, London SW1W 8PH Tel: 0207 259 0220 www.markransom.co.uk

Past pupils, families and staff will make 50 years of Westminster Cathedral Primary School worth celebrating.

Pimlico & Belgravia Eye July 2014

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THE PIMLICO MYSTERY OR THE PIMLICO POISONING MYSTERY

JENNY'S WHIM

is the name given to the circumstances surrounding the 1886 death of Thomas Edwin Bartlett, possibly at the hands of his wife.

was a wooden bridge which spanned the Grosvenor canal at what is now Ebury Bridge and gave onto Willow Walk which crossed the marshland of Pimlico. A tavern and pleasure gardens of the same name stood here, offering tea, ale, amusing deceptions, devices triggered by hidden springs, and floating mermaids; the price of a pot of ale included entrance to Perrot's Inimitable Grotto while a

The heart of the Pimlico Mystery is the relationship between a grocer, Mr. Thomas Edwin Bartlett, his younger French-born wife Adelaide Blanche de la Tremoille, and the Reverend George Dyson. Edwin suffered several unpleasant illnesses, and was supposedly something of a faddist. Adelaide's father was rumoured to be a wealthy and possibly even titled member of Queen Victoria's entourage.

The couples marriage in 1875, according to Adelaide, was intended to be a platonic marriage, but in 1881 she had a stillborn baby by Edwin. Early in 1885, they met Dyson, a Wesleyan minister who became the executor of Edwin’s will, in which he left his estate to Adelaide.

decanter of Dorchester ale and a turn of duck-hunting cost 6d. Though Willow Walk was home to highwaymen and footpads, Jenny’s Whim became a popular entertainment spots, even at night when it was a favoured destination for young couples. It was followed by The Monster tavern nearby was also the starting point for horse-drawn omnibuses. Bombs destroyed it on 17th April, 1941.

   A GERMAN U-BOAT                      captured German U-boat at Westminster at  the end of the First            World War. The submarine was commissioned in 1917 and in its short career of just over a year at sea its three patrol commanders sank sixty-six ships, not including naval warships. It was surrendered on 24th November 1918 and exhibited at various locations before being broken up in 1922. The cost to view the U-boat was 6d with the proceeds going to naval and mercantile charities.The first batch of twenty German U-boats was surrendered to Admiral Tyrwhitt’s command at Harwich on 20th November 1918.The German crews were transferred to a transport to take them back home. A newspaper article at the time described them lining the decks ‘sullen and dejected but obviously interested in the historic scene’. A squadron of seaplanes flew so low that the ‘disconsolate crews must have heard the ironic good mornings addressed by the merry pilots’. By the end of the year the remaining hundred or so of the German submarines had been handed over to the British Navy in accordance with the armistice conditions. Angela Lownie provides an individual house history research service for London properties. www.londonhousehistories.co.uk 







Pimlico & Belgravia Eye July 2014

















 







 

 

  

 

Adelaide asked Dyson to get some chloroform that was prescribed by the doctor treating Edwin. Dyson bought 4 small bottles of chloroform instead of 1 large bottle, from several shops, claiming that he needed   it to remove grease stains. On New Year's Eve, 1885, Edwin returned home and went to sleep alongside Adelaide. Just before 4am the next morning Adelaide asked their maid to fetch Dr Leach, fearing Edwin was dead, before rousing the landlady. Edwin's stomach was filled with liquid chloroform. Edwin's alleged suicide might have been believed but for his suspicious father, who detested Adelaide and had earlier accused her of having an affair with Edwin's younger brother. 



An inquest returned a verdict of willful murder by Adelaide Bartlett, with George Dyson being an accessory before the fact. The trial opened on 12th April 1886, when charges against Dyson were dropped. Adelaide Bartlett barrister was able to show sufficient ambiguities against the deceased to make the suicide theory barely possible. His tactics were sufficient to gain his client an acquittal. The "suicide" theory gained ground, despite evidence given that on the last evening of his life, Edwin Bartlett told his maid to have a sumptuous dinner prepared for him on the next day - hardly the action of a man contemplating suicide.

8

Adelaide was not able to testify in her own defence, and the defence called no witnesses. The main forensic aid is that liquid chloroform burns. It cannot pass down to the stomach without burning the sides of the throat and the larynx. Edwin did not have such burns; suggesting that he was actually gulped the chloroform down quickly. There was insufficient evidence to show how or by whom the chloroform was administered.


C E L E B R AT I N G   2 5 Y E A R S U LY LY 11 99 88 99 -- JJ U UN NE E 22 00 11 44 JJ U


ALFRED TENNYSON, 1ST BARON TENNYSON, FRS

QUEEN ELIZABETH II CONFERENCE CENTRE

was born August 6th, 1809, at Somersby, Lincolnshire. He had a lifelong fear of mental illness. In 1827 Tennyson went to study at Trinity College, Cambridge, where his tutor was William Whewell. In 1829 he was invited to join The Apostles. The group, which met to discuss major philosophical and other issues, included Arthur Henry Hallam, James Spedding, Edward Lushington, and Richard Monckton Milnes.

site was previously occupied by several buildings. At the northern end of the site were the headquarters of the Stationery Office which had originally been the "Parliamentary Mews" built in 1825 by Decimus Burton and converted in 1853-5. The southern side was occupied by the Westminster Hospital built by W & H W Inwood in 1831-4 and expanded later that century and in 1924. The previous buildings became surplus to requirements in 1950 and were demolished; designs were drawn up by Thomas Tait for building a new Colonial Office on the site; however only the foundations had been built by the time progress was halted in 1952.

Arthur Hallam's was the most important of these friendships. Hallam, another precociously brilliant Victorian young man like Robert Browning, John Stuart Mill, and Matthew Arnold, was uniformly recognized by his contemporaries (including William Gladstone, his best friend at Eton) as having unusual promise. He and Tennyson knew each other only four years, but their intense friendship had major influence on the poet. On a visit to Somersby, Hallam met and later became engaged to Emily Tennyson, and the two friends looked forward to a life-long companionship. Hallam's death from illness in 1833 shocked Tennyson profoundly, and his grief lead to most of his best poetry, including In Memoriam , "The Passing of Arthur", "Ulysses," and "Tithonus."

In 1958 it was decided that there would be an open space on the southern edge of the site by Broad Sanctuary, and an architectural competition for a conference hall and government offices was held in 1961. The competition was won by William Whitfield but the scheme was not progressed due to the plans for redeveloping Whitehall drawn up by Leslie Martin in 1965. The site remained in limbo until a feasibility study for the conference centre was drawn up in 1975. The centre as eventually built was designed by Powell Moya & Partners and constructed by Bovis Construction with work starting in 1981. It was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1986.

The success of his 1842 Poems made Tennyson a popular poet, and in 1845 he received a Civil List pension of £200 a year, which helped relieve his financial difficulties; the success of "The Princess" and In Memoriam and his appointment in 1850 as Poet Laureate finally established him as the most popular poet of the Victorian era.

The centre is owned by HM Government and its operation is conducted by an executive agency of the Department for Communities and Local Government. It has 4 main auditoria, 7 conference rooms and many smaller rooms. Spaces for hire include the 700-capacity Churchill Auditorium, the Fleming and Whittle Rooms which can be joined together to create a 1,300-capacity space, and the smaller Mountbatten Room and the Westminster Suite which is ideal for seminars and small conferences for up to 140 delegates seated theatre style. Venue facilities include free Wi-Fi, a function room capable of taking cars, rooms with a special view, ISDN / video conferencing, built in simultaneous interpretation, disabled facilities and civil wedding licence. This is a long-running and extremely slickly organised events venue, a great choice for business events in Westminster. The centre is a very successful venue hosting over 400 meetings each year and returning an annual dividend to the Exchequer, thus not reliant on the taxpayer for financial support. Pimlico & Belgravia Eye July 2014

By the age of 41, Tennyson had written some of his greatest poetry. His friendship with Prince Albert helped solidify his position as the national poet. Tennyson dedicated The Idylls of the King to his memory. Queen Victoria later summoned him to court several times, and at her insistence he accepted his title, having declined it when offered by both Disraeli and Gladstone.

Tennyson’s extreme short-sightedness caused him difficulty in writing and reading. He composed much of his poetry in his head. During his undergraduate days at Cambridge he often did not bother to write down his compositions.

Alfred, Lord Tennyson died on October 6th, 1892, at the age of 83. The blue paque pictured can be seen at 9 Upper Belgrave Street, Belgravia, SW1 10


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FREE CLASSICAL RECITAL SERIES IN PIMLICO JULY 10TH – 31ST

PIMLICO BASED INTERIOR DESIGNER

The Atéa Wind Quintet is delighted to announce a series of free weekly early evening chamber music recitals at St James the Less. Each Thursday at 6pm there will be a feast of musical delights ringing out from the Church that is in the heart of the community in Pimlico.

Until recently, High street retailers and design-led manufacturers were poles apart within the interior sector. A greater emphasis on product development, together with the emergence of on-line retailing is steadily narrowing the gap. High quality production furniture is now borrowing its technology from

Performers are many and varied but highlights include a recital with the internationally renowned Dulcinea Quartet, a collaborative concert with the ground breaking Pythagoras Ensemble and a chance to hear the up and coming Lumiere Sax Quartet who will be joining us all the way from Birmingham.

Entry is FREE but there will be a retiring collection at the end of each recital from which the proceeds will go towards the renewal

industry with more inventive products available at realistic prices. If there is a downside, it is perhaps the bewildering choice on offer and the short life of some new product releases. Manufacturers must now work to a business model of frequent product launches demanded by the market to stay ahead.

In order to keep up, frequent visits to the main continental trade fairs over the years has allowed me to filter the output of manufacturers into a comprehensive design database. Consequently, I can take out the time consuming aspect of putting together a scheme whilst presenting a more stimulating set of options from which to choose. From single room makeovers to large scale refurbishments, each project is planned to a schedule following a set of drawings produced by the trained eye of a designer. To ensure a high quality finish, other services available include: submitting tenders for building work; commissioning specialist joiners and project managing the build itself. Simon Quick Tel: 020 7828 0046 Mobile: 07791 084235 Web: www.simon-quick.com

of the St James the Less Parish Centre. The Parish Centre will primarily be used to help enable the Church to continue in its mission to work with the wider local community and be a beneficial space for all.

We really wish for these recitals to help foster a further sense of community in the local area and are there for all to come, hear and enjoy so please do come along and bring a friend!

A TEENAGER boy aged 16 was assaulted by a group of two or three males in Regency Street, near the junction with Caulston Street, at about 7.20pm on Wednesday 4th June.

For more information please contact Jack Adams on 020 7630 6282 or visit the Atéa Wind Quintet homepage at www.ateaquintet.com

Pimlico & Belgravia Eye July 2014

He received a non-life threatening slash wound to his neck which required hospital treatment. However, he did not require medical attention at the scene and he made his own way to hospital. The suspects are described as Hispanic or black. Anyone with information can call Westminster CID on 07500 766464 or Crimestoppers on 0800 555 111 12


PIMLICO & BELGRAVIA EYE AUGUST 2014

ISSUE

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WESTMINSTER BRIDGE

ROYAL ARTILLERY MEMORIAL

The first serious attempt to obtain authority for a bridge at Westminster was made in 1664. The arguments against the bridge were put forward by the City Corporation, the watermen and other vested interests claiming that if a new bridge were built, many watermen would lose their jobs. Opponents of the bridge came up with an unsecured and interest free loan of £100,000 to the King from the City Corporation. The King accepted the bribe, and refused permission for the bridge.

is a stone memorial at Hyde Park Corner is in Remembrance of All Ranks of the Royal Regiment of Artillery Who Gave Their Lives for King And Country in the First World War.

The First World War, between 1914 and 1918, saw the extensive use of artillery, particularly on the Western Front. Technical advances, combined with the relatively static nature of trench warfare, made these guns a key element of the conflict. Artillery guns and their crews were themselves targets, and 49,076 members of the Royal Artillery died during the conflict. Following the war, many former servicemen, including gunners, found the scale of the losses difficult to deal with. Visual reminders of the conflict were often avoided: mutilated servicemen were banned in the 1920s from joining in veterans' marches, and those with facial injuries often hid them in public. The Royal Artillery War Commemoration Fund (RAWCF) was formed in 1918, made up a mixture of senior officers and other ranks. Its intention was to remember the artillery men who had died during the war, and to construct a single memorial to the fallen Royal Artillery servicemen. The RAWCF insisted that a

The Act for building a Bridge across the River Thames finally received Royal Assent on 20th May 1736. Compensation was to be paid to the Archbishop of Canterbury for the loss of income from the Lambeth Horse ferry, and to the watermen who ran a Sunday ferry across the river at Westminster.

The usual method of charging tolls was rejected in favour of a lottery. The decision to appoint young Swiss engineer, Charles Labelye, to design the bridge was controversial. Labelye decided to build the river piers within reusable wooden caissons rather than in the more traditional cofferdams. The caissons were wooden boxes which were constructed on the side of the river and floated out to the location of a pier. Labelye thought the river bed consisted of a firm layer of gravel but turned out to be clay. His decision not to drive piles deep into the river bed to support the foundations was an error. The Earl of Pembroke laid the last stone in October 1746 but the next year one of the piers showed signs of settlement. A stone block fell from one of the arches supported by this pier. The pier and two affected arches were removed and rebuilt with stronger foundations. The bridge was finally opened on 18th November 1750.

howitzer be incorporated into the designs. Charles Jagger, a metal engraver who served in the infantry during the First World War, was approached because of his reputation as a designer, and because of his service as an infantry officer. He submitted a model for a realist sculpture, to include a group of soldiers in bronze on a pedestal.

Jagger worked with architect Lionel Pearson, who designed the stone structure of the memorial. Apart from some modifications, the design was accepted and the proposed cost of £25,000. The memorial features a giant sculpture of a BL 9.2-inch Mk I howitzer upon a large plinth of Portland stone, with stone reliefs depicting scenes from the conflict. Four bronze figures of artillery men are positioned around the outside of the memorial.

The work was opened four months late on 18th October 1925 by Prince Arthur and the Reverend Alfred Jarvis.

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Concerns over the bridge’s safety and escalating cost of repairs meant it had to be rebuilt. Charles Barry co-operated with Thomas Page, in the design of the new Westminster Bridge to ensure that it accorded with the architecture of the new Houses of Parliament. Page’s Westminster Bridge has seven elliptical iron arches supported by piers consisting of massive 30 ton granite blocks. Barry inserted Gothic quatrefoils in the spandrels of the arches and attached ornamental shields emblazoned with the arms of England and Westminster. The new bridge opened on 24th May 1862.


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