Page 1






To My Professors - Thank you for all of your dedication and support To Anyone Who ever Doubted Me - Here's to proving you wrong To Those I lost Along the Way - Thank you for giving me the courage & motivation to continue my journey To Sophi & Mom - Thank you for always having my back & never giving up on me











The Philadelphia Public School District is notorious for its lack of funding and deteriorating curriculum. Out of 218 Philadelphia public schools, only 174 have a visual art teacher, and only 25 have school-based instrumental music teachers. Even then, twothirds of those teachers don’t have a budget for supplies or for their classrooms.1 This is a sickening statistic that not only exposes the Philadelphia Education system for what it is, but it also goes to show that arts education is not taken seriously in America even though it is such a crucial part of mental and educational development for a growing child.

2. 8.

3. Research Goals and Methods: In order to design a successful arts center, research will be done using precedents located in Philadelphia and various other locations with focus on the successful and unsuccessful aspects of each. Scholarly articles, recorded statistics, and journals such as Blueprint for Tomorrow by architect Prakash Nair and Architecture of Schools – The New Learning Environment by Mark Dudek will also be helpful for designing with an overall focus on the student experience.

General Design Goals: The overall objective is to design an arts education center for the Philadelphia School District that focuses on teaching students about the visual and performing arts. The selected location for the arts center is The StarďŹ nder Foundation Building in Manayunk, Philadelphia. The site is currently used as an indoor soccer facility. The objective is to incorporate the already existing artists and arts community in the area to educate students. The anticipated success of the center will focus around local artists volunteering to teach about the different forms of visual and performing arts.


The Role of the Designer: When it comes to educational design there are many factors that play an important role. An educational facility must promote a healthy environment for learning and focusing. This can be attained through unique design attributes such as specific color palettes that are not distracting, but can be relaxing, soothing, and create a calm setting. As always, the main goal of the design will also be to promote the health, safety, and welfare of the occupants. The role of the designer would be to design a space fitting for enriched learning in an artistic and inclusive environment. In order to create an authentic academic environment for students the designer must take into account every detail of the space. Mark Dudek, architect for higher education facilities, says that the most important psychological elements to be implemented into a successful educational environment would be the behavior of color, light, surface texture, and imagery.2

Client: The client for the proposed design is the Philadelphia Public School District. The idea of the arts education center will be a solution for the lack of art classes and spaces in already existing schools. Government statistics show that thirty percent of public schools do not even provide any art class, fifty percent of public schools do not have an art classroom, and ninety percent of school have In no performing arts whatsoever.3 theory, M will be a flagship for more art centers located around the city that would also focus on arts education. Environmental/Sustainability Objectives: Sustainability will play an important role in the proposed project. The Building is already very minimal, but this project will still be considered adaptive reuse seeing as it will be designed within existing conditions. Maintaining as much original material as possible is a main priority of the design. There will also be modern utilities such as water collection cisterns and photovoltaic panels to assist in using renewable energy.

4. 10.

“Art does not solve problems, but makes us aware of their existence,” -sculptor Magdalena Abakanowicz 4




Socio-Economic Conditions:

The main users of the space will be students and faculty. Although not a fully functioning school, the art center will still require many of the same features. As stated before, the faculty will be volunteer artists from the surrounding community. Their needs in the space will include many support spaces such as a private break area with storage spaces and ex offices. The students are without a doubt the main priority of the center therefore most spaces will be catering to them. The students will need to have enough space to craft their art as well as have different spaces to master various types of art such as music, theatre, and visual arts. The third set of users will be guests of the space that will come for performances or exhibits. Demographics: The speciďŹ c demographics of the art center will be young students between 6th and 12th grade. Considerations for design qualities need to be made because student minds are still developing at this stage therefore psychology must be implemented into the space to promote total focus and a positive learning environment. Universal design will be strictly enforced in order to create an inclusive space for all special needs whether they are physical or mental.

Socio-economic conditions will play an important role in the arts education center. The center will be catered to lower-middle class and lower class students who would normally be discouraged from practicing an art due to cost issues. The Department of Education has stated in a breakdown of school costs by vocation that the arts are the most expensive.5 Due to the high expense of practicing the arts, most low-income families discourage a child to ever learn a type of art. The hopeful outcome of the arts center will be to encourage students to learn and succeed in any art form they choose. Studies have shown that 70% of students who participate in art and music programs throughout their school careers outperform their peers in academic success, graduation rates, and employment.6 Offering this program through the public school district will help students succeed well into adulthood. As for the design of the center, most of the budget will go to supplies for the students. The center will still be artistic and have unique design attributes, but will be required to do so with reasonable material choices.

6. 12.

IMAGES: TEXT: 1. 1. Cooper, Donna, and Maud Lyon. "Home." Home. September 11, 2015. Accessed August 29, 2016. 2. 2. Dudek, Mark. Architecture of Schools: The New Learning En3. vironments. Oxford: Architectural Press, 2000. 3. "National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home Page, uploads/2014/04/Providence-Art-Room-2012.jpg 4.

a Part of the U.S. Department of Education." National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home Page, a Part of the U.S. De-


partment of Education. Accessed August 29, 2016. http://nces.



4. Cooper, Donna, and Maud Lyon. "Home." Home. September 11, 2015. Accessed August 29, 2016.

6. 5. blogger/-ozk6plPW62M/T_Wj2zpVlGI/AAAAAAAASno/ t8q75B_dnNw/s1600/PaintBrush-GraphicsFairy1.jpg


"National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home

Page, a Part of the U.S. Department of Education." National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home Page, a Part of the U.S. Department of Education. Accessed August 29, 2016. http://nces.

6. "The Pew Charitable Trusts." The Pew Charitable Trusts. Accessed August 29, 2016.

7. Smith, Fran. "Edutopia." RSS. January 28, 2009. Accessed August 29, 2016. 13.

“An arts education helps build academic skills and increase academic performance while also providing alternate opportunities to reward the skills of children who learn differently.� - Gavin Newsom 7

7. 14.



1. 15.

Art is one of the oldest recorded aspects of Human history. Some of the oldest and most well-known art dates back the Prehistoric Age with cave paintings and small statues. Most early forms of art were actually a tool for communication between tribes of hunter-gatherers to let one another know of the different plants and animals that could be harvested in the area.1 Most sculpture work was related to the worship of various deities. Art as we know it today stems back to the practices of Ancient Greece and The Renaissance. Throughout history, no matter the time period, art is and was such a crucial part of human life.

2. 16.

3. Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other is still followed today. It used a vocabulary of ornament ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic that was shared with pottery, metalwork and other but idealized depictions of the human body. The rate media, and had an enormous influence on Eurasian of stylistic development between about 750 and 300 art, especially after Buddhism carried it beyond the BC was remarkable by ancient standards, and is best expanded Greek world created by Alexander the Great. understood by the detailed sculpture work. The Ancient The social context of Greek art included radical political Greeks also made important innovations in painting, developments and a great increase in prosperity; the which have been meticulously studied for its cultural equally impressive Greek achievements in philosophy, significance. Greek architecture, also an important art, literature and other fields are also well known.2 established a harmonious style with numerous detailed conventions


Also well-known for achievements in the arts is the Renaissance. Renaissance art marks a cultural rebirth at the close of the Middle Ages and rise of the Modern world. One of the distinguishing features of Renaissance art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective. Giotto di Bondone is credited with ďŹ rst treating a painting as a window into space, but it was not until the demonstrations of architect Filippo Brunelleschi and the subsequent writings of Leon Battista Alberti that perspective was formalized as an artistic technique.3


development of perspective was part of a wider trend towards realism in the arts. Painters developed other techniques, studying light, shadow, and, famously in the case of Leonardo da Vinci, human anatomy. Underlying these changes in artistic method was a renewed desire to depict the beauty of nature and to unravel the axioms of aesthetics, with the works of Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael representing artistic pinnacles that were much imitated by other artists.4

Other notable

artists include Sandro Botticelli, working for the Medici in Florence, Donatello, another Florentine, and Titian in Venice, among others.



Dating back to Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, the education system has also been in the making for the past several thousand years. Most systems for education in the past were based around the arts. For example, the Zhou Dynasty dating back to 1045 BC formed six national schools to teach the six arts which were rites, music, charioteering, calligraphy and mathematics. The ritual of theatre and dance was also taught to older students.5 Just as the arts changed and evolved over the ages, so did schools and educational techniques. During the time of the Ancient Greeks and Romans schools also focused particularly on literacy and art. They were also the ďŹ rst schools to be predominately ‘private’ and include a fee to attend. After the fall of the Roman Empire was the Dark Ages; a metaphorical shadow in history. Art and culture was dead and it did not change until the Renaissance when there was a rebirth of art


and life in general. Continuing into the Middle Ages, education still maintained a focus on the arts with a more formalized approach. Regardless of the time period, besides the Dark Ages, the running theme has always been to have somewhat of a focus on the arts in an educational setting.

6. 19.


7. 20.

IMAGES: TEXT: 1. 1. Gardner, Helen, and Richard G. Tansey. Gardner's Art through the mark

Ages. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brac College Publishers, 1996. 12.

2. 2. Boardman, John. The Oxford History of Classical Art. Oxford: nini/sculpture/apollo_and_daphne

Oxford University Press, 1993. 3-4.


3. Clare, John D., and Alan Millen. Italian Renaissance. London: Riv-

something-existed-that-was-not-defined-by-name-or erswift, 1994. 14.

4. 4. Vasari, Giorgio, and George Bull. The Lives of the Artists. Harancient-chinese-words-on-old-paper-40854826.jpg

mondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1987.



Hardy, Grant, and Anne Behnke. Kinney. The Establishment of the Han Empire and Imperial China. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,



2005. 74-75.


7. th-art_00447267.jpg

8. 21.




SECTION 3. 23.


1. 24.

Building name- Kensington High School for the Creative and Performing Arts Size- 84,450 sq. ft. Architect and Designer- SRK Architects Budget- $24,000,000 Client: Philadelphia School District

2. 25.


In 2003, Youth United for a Change, a group

When SRK Architects was chosen as the design team,

of activist teens in the distressed neighborhood of

they knew right away that they had a lot of work to

Kensington challenged the Philadelphia School District to create a school that gave them hope for

to ensure the building and site was very inviting and transparent in order to create a connecting hub

a successful future. An additional request was made

rather than a border between the two neighborhoods,

to have the proposed school be “green” in order for

Kensington and Fishtown. The school is designed in a

the students to have a healthy environment to learn

contemporary and minimal style that integrates the

in as opposed to the poor conditions of home life. The proposed site for the school campus was nothing more than a haven for garbage, homeless people, and

exterior and interior seamlessly. There is a focus on sustainable materials and elements throughout the school from structure to the maintenance of the site and ecology. 75% of the building is made up of local

drug dealers. Parallel to the site, above North Front

steel, metal, and glass and the interior contains almost

Street, is a Septa Rail Line that was bound to provide

100% of locally gathered materials from Pennsylvania

a challenge to the designers because it created lots

and New Jersey. The interior construction is mainly

of noise and distractions for an environment focused on education and focus.


do. A main focus of the concept for the school was

concrete, clay masonry, and recycled gypsum wall board. These materials allow for easy building additions for future reconfigurations of the school.


4. 27.

As for wayfinding, the school is not big enough to have much of a problem and is generally straightforward. After entering the lobby through the main vestibule located off of North Front Street, the building occupant is in the main lobby/atrium of the school facing the main desk. Directly behind the main desk is the library and adjacent to either side of the main are hallways that lead to other support spaces and classrooms. Down the left hallway is administration, the cafeteria, gym, and multipurpose classrooms. Down the right hallway is the performance theatre and more multipurpose classrooms. Along the right hallway is a stairway leading to the second floor. The second floor is about half the size of the first floor and contains a small mezzanine looking into the lobby, dance studios, multipurpose classrooms, and accessible green roofs. Since the schools opening in 2010, there have been nothing but positive remarks regarding the curriculum and the building itself. Tara Barkley, administrative assistant for the school, could only give positive feedback for the achievements the school’s students have made due to the design of the facilities. One of the most successful aspects of the school has been the integration of the sustainable elements into teaching the students and faculty the importance of taking care of the planet. 28.


6. 29.

Evaluation: In my opinion, Kensington CAPA is quite an accomplishment for the Philadelphia School. For one, the school is the only LEED Platinum school in the United States, and it does a flawless job in integrating a positive learning environment with a healthy footprint on the planet. The space is simple yet effective by creating a boundary against the noise of the SEPTA rail along North Front St. by locating all learning environments on the opposite side of the building. The entire building creates a distinct perimeter for the school that allows for easy wayfinding and circulation within that flows from one space to another yet does create an interference. The theatre was one of favorite parts of the school, creating a captivating and transformative space with very simple material. Overall, the school has inspired me to design an arts center just as riveting and unique.

7. 30.

“I was born into poverty. I am poor now, but I am no longer without hope." -Kensington CAPA student

8. 31.


IMAGES: 1. Figure 1. Kensington CAPA, Digital Image, SMP Architects, Accessed September 7, 2016.

2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. Kensington CAPA Chart, personal image by Shamus McVicar, Septemebr 15, 2016


Figure 8. Kensington CAPA, Digital Image, SMP Architects, Accessed September 7, 2016.

9. Ibid.




1. 34.

Building name- Germantown Friends School Science Center Size- 16,400 sq. ft. Architect and Designer- SMP Architects Client: Germantown Friends School

2. 35.

Justification: Highly sustainable and condenses a medium program into a smaller space Site: The site of the school embraces opportunities to demonstrate environmental responsibility through water basins pervious elements and water cisterns. Design Concept and Style: Contemporary, modern, and sustainable. The concept for the new science center was to integrate the sustainable building with the school’s mission to create a facility that fosters independent thinking. The main entrance is located through a courtyard on the north side of the building into a centralized lobby with a small atrium along the west wall. Located on the west wall are monitors and iPads that monitor the water and energy usage for the school and provide live updates for the students to monitor. 36.

3. The classrooms on both the first and second floor of the building are oriented on the southern side of the building to maximize the exposure of the sun for optimal daylighting. Located on the southern side of the first floor, directly accessed through the lobby, is the biology department. The biology department is located near the entry so that it is easy to access the outdoor raingardens in the courtyard on the north side of the building. Directly above the biology labs, on the southern side of the second floor, is the chemistry labs. The chemistry labs are located on the second floor in order to optimize the HVAC which ventilates directly through the roof. Since the labs require ventilation during chemical experiments, the location of the rooms on the second floor minimizes the amount of chase infrastructure and duct runs required through the building.



The school’s circulation is organized around the central courtyard on the north side to provide daylight to all corridors and to physically and mentally connect all students and faculty to the outdoors from all areas. The materials selected for the building are all resilient in order to stand the test of time. Inside the chemistry and biology labs is replaceable resilient tile in case of spills or accidents. Floor tiles in the center of the chemistry labs contain graphics that represent a large period table in order to create a learning tool and interesting element on the oor. The furniture used in all spaces of the building have the option to be rearranged to allow for user exibility. In the classrooms along the south side of the building the glazing is large to allow daylight for the entire school day. The window treatments are translucent mechoshades with a daylight sensor to open and class as needed. The steel structure of the building is exposed to create a connection with the building construction and is utilized as a learning tool in the physics classrooms to educate students about



systems. 5.



Post Occupancy: Since the building’s opening in 2010, there has been a positive reception from both faculty and staff. Faculty have been especially happy with the designer’s ability to incorporate construction with the curriculum that the school has maintained through its mission. Students have higher concentration and interest in the science center due to its ability to incorporate visual stimulation through academic mediums. The science center has been received as an integral part of the Germantown friends School campus, and continues to develop revolutionary techniques for teaching students in an academically challenging and hands-on environment. Evaluation: The Germantown friends School science center is highly inspiring for a project like mine. The school is renowned for its ability to implement most design elements of the structure into the curriculum of the school. An element I found most interesting and unique to the school is the interactive screens in the atrium lobby that is both a learning tool for the school, but also an interest point to educate guests when entering the building. Overall, I have found the science center to be a successful school that has helped changed the design qualities



facilities. 39.

7. 40.

8. 41.



IMAGES: 1. Figure 1. GFS Science Center, Digital Image, SRK Architects, Accessed September 26, 2016.

2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. GFS Chart and Diagrams, personal image by Shamus McVicar, Septemebr 27, 2016


Figure 8. GFS Science Center, Digital Image, SMP Architects, Accessed September 26, 2016.

9. Ibid.



1. 44.

Building name- Wallis Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts Size- 60,000 sq. ft. Architect and Designer- Studio Pali Fekete Architects Client: Annenberg Foundation Cost: $75,000,000



Overview: Listed on the National Register of Historic Places and built in 1933, the Beverly Hills Post Office was constructed as a Work Projects Administration (WPA) project under the Roosevelt administration. In 1993, after six decades of service to the city, the Postal Service decided that the property was no longer needed and moved to a new facility. In 2004, group of community leaders for the city Beverly Hills petitioned to have the historic Italianatestyle building preserved and re-adapted for use in modern society. Wallis Annenberg, philanthropist and connoisseur of the arts, donated $15 million from the Annenberg Foundation for the preservation of the historic building and for its transformation into a new performing arts center, thus the Wallis Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts [the Wallis] was born1. The Annenberg Foundation has since provided additional funding, including a $10 million grant. An additional $40 million has been raised. Studio Pali Fekete Architects, designers for the adaptive re-use project, main goal was to transform the historic Post Office into a cultural center for the performing arts including a 500 seat Theatre, 120 seat Studio Theatre, an education wing, administrative offices, cafĂŠ, gift shop, sculpture garden, education court, and state of the art performing arts support spaces.2 3. 46.

This venue transforms an average city block into a vibrant arts destination and a major cultural and education hub for audiences of every age, with two distinct, elegant buildings: the renovated Post Office and the new state-of-the-art Bram Goldsmith Theater. Within the Post Office, existing spaces have been transformed into the Lovelace Studio Theater, a café and gift shop. The grounds also feature a sunken sculpture garden, landscaping, and a promenade terrace. The Wallis produces and presents productions with the participation of established stage artists. In 2014, The Wallis began a year-round program of professional theater classes for young people ages eight to eighteen, with classrooms and administrative areas located in the post office.3 Drawing from the rich talent pool of Los Angeles’s entertainment industry, a faculty of professionals and theater educators serve as directors and teachers of the program, providing a diverse arts curriculum.

The school offers exciting, unique opportunities for students to study with guest artists that are appearing at the Goldsmith and the Lovelace.4 Evaluation: The Wallis is an exceptional building that creates a beautiful example for adaptive re-use projects. The integration between contemporary and historic spaces is highly evident, but also attractive and provocative. One of the most important elements to the space is the Wallis’s ability to bring together the surrounding community under one roof. The Wallis is extremely helpful to the creation of my project because it does a wonderful job marrying contemporary and classic architecture just as my arts center will hope to accomplish.






7. 50.

8. 51.

9. 52.

IMAGES: 1. Figure 1. The Wallis, Digital Image, SPF Architects, A

TEXT: 1. "The Wallis Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts /

Studio Pali Fekete Architects." October 10,

cessed Ocotber 2, 2016. 2014. Accessed October 4, 2016.

2. Ibid. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 4. "The Wallis Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts." 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. Wallis Annenberg Chart and Diagrams, personal image by Shamus McVicar, October 2, 2016


Figure 8. The Wallis, Digital Image, SPF Architects, Accessed Ocotber 2, 2016.

9. Ibid.




Building name- Young Centre for the Performing Arts Size- 44,000 sq. ft. Architect and Designer- KPMB Architects Client: George Brown College, Soulpepper Theatre Cost: $10,000,000


Since 2003, Toronto’s Distillery District has continued to undergo an ambitious adaptive reuse program breathing new life into a 13-acre 19th-century industrial site formerly used as a film set (see CA, February 2005). Today, the Gooderham & Worts Distillery District has matured into a neighborhood. The once dilapidated Distillery Yard is now homeThe Young Centre for the Performing Arts (YCPA) which is the result of a partnership between George Brown College and Soulpepper Theatre Company. The YCPA opened its doors in January 2006, helping to bring back a sense of importance to the historic Distillery District within the city. The project merges teaching and live performance under one roof. The 44,000 square foot project involved the adaptive reuse of Tank houses 9 and 10 and was done within a budget of $10.0 million. The designers were asked to come up with a solution focused on developing a clear plan order that would maximize building performance, and create a functional platform for performance and teaching. On the exterior façade, an extended horizontal wood canopy marks a generous entrance that leads into the main lobby space. The two-story high lobby is the signature space of the Young Centre, and was created by enclosing the space between the two Tank Houses with large Douglas fir timber trusses that span the existing bearing walls. An important design feature is visibly acknowledging old and new. The existing spaces are clear and cut out from the new construction, but both have a relationship with the other through complementing elements of one another. The lobby differs from that of a traditional theatre lobby by creating an open venue accessible throughout the day (as opposed to being limited to the hours before and during performances). In this space all users of the center converge – actors, students, visitors, and patrons. 56.

The overall design is characterized by a ‘raw warm industrial’ aesthetic to respect the historic fabric of the Gooderham and Worts site, and to realize the design within an economy of means. The raw aesthetic also resonates the ‘edge’ values of the new institution. Brick façades are left exposed, original windows are retained, and the existing cobblestone pavements are conserved. Interior finishes are utilitarian, limited to concrete floors and painted walls. Ceilings are left exposed to meet both cost and functional requirements, but effectively achieve a complex visual canopy that weaves throughout the scheme. This also allows the complex canopy of lighting systems to be visible throughout the building–in both the theatre spaces as well as the lobby, which can easily be converted into a performance venue if necessary. Maintaining the original location of the windows, the architects added a second pane of glazing to the interior face of the heritage windows for added insulation. The raw and untreated surfaces and textures are animated by natural daylight and, in the evenings, by selectively placed light sources. Within the Young Centre multiple layers of time and architecture, history and culture, teaching and performance coexist. The architecture casts the historic fabric of the Distillery District as a striking backdrop and stage to the inherent drama generated daily by the actors, performances, and students.

Evaluation: The YCPA is obviously the product of phenomenal designers. The simple, yet intriguing design of the space is highly inspiring. The assimilation of the two old tank houses into one space is one of the most respectful and aesthetically pleasing examples of an adaptive reuse project. The constraints given to the designers for the YCPA are very similar to the space that I must work within for my own building in the Starfinder complex. The YCPA is going to be very helpful for the development of my research and designing. "Located in the Distillery District, [the Young Centre] is adaptive reuse at its most inventive and brilliant. Designed for maximum flexibility, it manages to be comfortable and exciting at the same time."- Christopher Hume, The Toronto Star



IMAGES: 1. Figure 1. The Wallis, Digital Image, SPF Architects, A

TEXT: 1. "The Wallis Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts /

Studio Pali Fekete Architects." October 10,

cessed Ocotber 2, 2016. 2014. Accessed October 4, 2016.

2. Ibid. 2. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 4. "The Wallis Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts." 5. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 7. Wallis Annenberg Chart and Diagrams, personal image by Shamus McVicar, October 2, 2016


Figure 8. The Wallis, Digital Image, SPF Architects, Accessed Ocotber 2, 2016.


1. 60.



2. 61.

Left: Ergonomic seating dimensions Below: Proper spacing for stadium-style seating




Overview: Designing a performance arts center poses many challenges in terms of universal design, material selections, and ergonomics. The challenges of the space revolve around designing both an environment appropriate for education, but also highly exible and resilient.1 F, F, & E: Similar to a fully-functioning school, the performance arts center will still focus on educating students and will contain any attributes of a school facility. The center will have exible rooms with craft tables, but also general classrooms for lectures. It is important that there is at least a 3-6-foot lateral clearance between desks for proper circulation. This allows professors to move freely around the classroom, but it is also highly important for egress in an emergency.2

Desks should also be arranged around one focal point, typically the teacher’s desk or podium. On at least on wall there should be a writing surface (chalk, white, or smart board) for professors to use, and they should be at least 16 feet in length.3 In the performance arts center it may be more appropriate to have a mobile writing board so the room can be converted for another use. Any technology for projections should be on a mobile pedestal as well. Classroom desks on average are 31.5 inches high with the seat at 17.5 inches and the total width at 22.4 inches. The work surface attached to the desk should be at least 17 inches in length and 11 inches in depth and 10 inches above the seat.4 Theatre seating is organized similarly to that of a classroom. Theatre seating requires proper spacing and surrounding a focal point (the stage).

Above: Theatre seating dimensions 5.

Ergonomics: Ergonomics is defined as the study of people’s efficiency in their working environment. Ergonomics is extremely important in every space that someone encounters, but it is especially important to have a high level of ergonomics in a learning environment. Students spend 95% of their day seated and what they are sitting for most of that time is far from ergonomic.5 Classroom seating must be ergonomic to promote proper stature for the spine, and the writing surface must be positioned properly for comfortable reflexes. Height, width, and position are the most important things to focus on when maintaining an ergonomic classroom.6 Materials: Maintaining functionality in an educational space also involves the proper selection of materials in a space. Materials must be selected that are safe, resistant to wear and tear, and easy to maintain. The use of each space will determine material choice as well. For example, a dance studio or theatre stage will require sprung floors that absorb shock as a result of physical activity.7

A classroom or art room on the other hand will require resilient flooring, preferably a tile so that parts can be replaced at a time. Carpets should be avoided in classrooms, and if they will be used in any high traffic areas, they must be durable enough to withstand. Color selection is very important to material choice. As part of universal design, all disabilities must be acknowledged, physical or mental. Bright colors used as accessory items in the classroom do not adversely affect children, however it is particularly important to research current studies in the area to see how children with neurological problems such as autism respond to color. Color, because it is related to sensory stimulation, must be carefully selected so that these children will be able to function and learn.8 Studies have shown that color is one of the best forms of wayfinding for developing minds. Colors as visual cues is particularly helpful in a complex environment. It is most important to work with and observe the environment to identify routes and spaces for appropriate placement of color as signage and cues.9 63.


8. 7.


Above (left): Typical theatre layout Left: Theatre seating spacing diagram Above: Typical female body dimensions


Above: Typical human functions Right: Ergonomic seating diagram Below: Universal design seating


11. 65.

Lighting: Lighting is highly important to any space. A space that is not properly lit is generally regarded as poorly designed or unattractive. Lighting in educational and performance spaces is especially important. Educational spaces must be well lit for the sake of student concentration, and if possible there must be as much natural light as possible to promote a healthy and safe environment. ArtiďŹ cial lighting will be required to have dimming capabilities for various reasons such as for projecting onto a screen for lectures. A performance arts center will also contain a gallery to display art which must also contain proper lighting so as to display the exhibited works in a correct fashion. Gallery spaces require the use of display lighting such as wall-washers mounted on a track with various hues and wattages for adaptability. Performance stages require a very large amount of various technical lighting for stage performances or recitals.11 Sustainable design: Sustainable design is a staple to most interior design projects in today’s day and age. Sustainable design is as simple as creative use of daylighting or being a completely net-zero building. The performance arts center will be designed in a two-hundred-year-old building; therefore, it will already have a sustainable basis for being adaptive-reuse. Most importantly, as little construction will be done as possible to the existing structure in order to preserve the historic qualities to the structure while also cutting costs and staying sustainable. An important feature will be to re-use water as much as is possible through cistern collection and grey water in the restrooms.


Above: Typical degrees of eyesight


Above: Typical dimensions for lecture seating with mobile arm

Acoustic Control: Classrooms must maintain a certain level of acoustic control so that they do not disturb other rooms in the building. Any office settings in the building will need to have a level of acoustic control through the implementation of insulated walls. This is important for private offices, conference rooms, or any spaces where conďŹ dential information will be discussed. Performance spaces need a very high level of acoustic control. Acoustic panels allow sound to be absorbed and not escape the theatre during performances which still allows for activities outside of the space.12 Visual Control: Visual control is important for classrooms so that teachers may have visual contact with students at all times. Any retail areas such as a cafĂŠ will also need to have visual control so people do not steal anything from the store. It is always important to maintain visual control with any main entrances so that employees can check who is entering and exiting the building.13 Security: Safety and security has become a major concern within educational design. Security cameras, key card entrances, and security guards have become a normal sight for schools. Safety and security is extremely important. Studies have shown that violence within schools occurs where it is semi13. public such as school grounds, certain hallways, cafeterias, gymnasiums and locker rooms, auditoriums, and other spaces not entirely visible, so it is highly important for security cameras to be properly placed. 67.

14. 68.

IMAGES: TEXT: 1. Figure 1. Skeleton Hand Pointing, Digital Image, Pinterest, 1. Chiara, Joseph De, Julius Panero, and Martin Zelnik. Accessed Ocotober 17, 2016.

Time-saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Plan-

2. Figure 2. Vitruvian, Digital Image, Wordpress, Accessed

ning. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991.

2. Ibid. 3. Figure 3. Ergonomic seating, Digital Image, Time Savers 3. Ibid. Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning, Accessed 4. Ibid. October 17, 2016. 5. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 5. Ibid. 7. Ibid. 6. Ibid. 8. Groat, Linda N., and David Wang. Architectural Re7. Ibid. search Methods. New York: J. Wiley, 2002. 8. Ibid. 9. Ibid. 9. Ibid. 10. Figure 10. Typical Human Functions, Digital Image, 10. Ibid. 11. Ibid. Architectural Research Methods, Accessed October 17, 2016. 12. Ibid. 11. Ibid. 13. Ibid. 12. Ibid. 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid. October 17, 2016.


1. 70.



2. 71.

Color Theory: When it comes to color in the learning environment, function is more important than aesthetics. When implemented effectively, function and aesthetic can become one harmonious tool. Color trends & opinions hold no substantiality in this regard. Ironically, color choices in an educational setting are black and white. The science of color psychology is the reason to pick a blue over a red, or an orange over a purple.1 A wellexecuted color palette can enhance the absorption of information & facilitate the thinking process. The age of the students using the space is the most important factor to consider. According to Frank Mahnke, author of Color, Environment & Human Response, explains that there are age-speciďŹ c guidelines to follow. Preschool & elementary school students prefer the warmer side of the palette (red, orange, and yellow) while high school & post-secondary level students gravitate towards the cooler side of the color wheel (blue, green, and mauve).2These cooler tones help support study & increase calm, and works not only with focus but levels out hormones too. As with anything though, it is a balancing act that should not be completely one sided on the color wheel. For the purposes of this article here are some functional color types for high school & post-secondary spaces. The blue color family works well in science & math based classrooms by lowering the heart rate & allowing concentration to kick in. The natural color of balance, greens are great for counseling, libraries, history & social studies spaces. The calm of blue and creativity of yellow collide in the multi-tasking green family of color. 3. 72.



Shades of yellow are great for classrooms dealing with languages & other creative pursuits such as fine art, dance, culinary arts because it invokes an energy in people. Oranges & peach tones work well in athletic facilities, drama, media centers and cafeteria settings due to their stimulating tones.3 Too much of one color can overstimulate, so it is best practice to balance that color out with a complimentary cool tone. School entrances and hallways are a great platform to showcase school colors and use strong vibrant colors to uplift the energy in the walk between classes, but balanced out with neutral tones. Varieties of color is important as is the amount of variety in the space because too little can create a feeling of boredom and introversion and too much can strain the mind with overstimulation. Within the classroom itself, variety in color has proven to support the learning process and reduce eyestrain and fatigue.4 The desired atmosphere in a classroom will consist of a calm pale neutral palette three quarters of the room with the front wall in a functional midtone that allows the students to periodically rest their eyes from the high contrast of the text they are absorbing. So, which blue, green, yellow, orange, red or neutral is right? Kathie Engelbrecht, author of ‘The Impact of Color on Learning’, says “The variety of nuances does not dilute the amazing power of color on humans & it’s ability to enhance our experience of the learning environment.”5 When dealing with color in any environment we are always creating an atmosphere. The challenge of developing a unique & functioning palette for an educational application is a wonderful opportunity to develop something meaningful. 74.

Human Behavior: When designing for an educational setting, the greatest focus should be on the teaching spaces. Classroom design will greatly affect how students learn and develop their minds. Contributing factors to effective classroom design range from lighting, temperature, furniture, and material selection to create the best possible environment. Learning spaces need to be comfortable both mentally and physically in order to keep students attentive.6 Spaces must be mentally relaxing because an uninviting space or sterile environment will take away a student’s focus from the important aspects of the room such as the projection screen or the teacher. Flexibility in a learning environment will also create mental ease. Moveable furniture or dimmable lights are actually psychological tricks that allow users of an area to feel more in control of their surroundings, therefore more at ease. Different learning environments require different spaces for maximum efficiency. There must be a variety of room sizes and arrangements of furniture.7 Lecture spaces are more effective when they are in an intimate setting so that students do not feel distracted and they are able to concentrate on the teacher. On the other hand, arts and craft rooms are successful in a larger open room that promotes social interactions with peers and sparks creativity.

5. 75.

6. Furniture and material selection are very important to education design. As stated in section four, seating in a learning space must be ergonomic in order to create a successful environment. Ergonomic spaces create the best designs and also allow students the tools they need to focus and maintain what they are taught in the classroom. Rooms should have multiple arrangements to promote collaboration, creativity, and free-thinking.8 Circular tables or seating arrangements that are curved allow students to face each other and make conversation which helps improve student interaction. Material selection should take several factors into account such as proper color choices as stated previously, and durability. Materials should vary between color, pattern, and texture to stimulate the eye.9 Lighting is extremely important to the design of a space. Lighting can be extremely positive or negative to a design depending on its implementation. Poor lighting can create harsh hotspots and improper wattage in spaces can cause eyestrain, headaches, and dizziness. In an educational setting, it is best to harness the power of daylighting which will keep students and teachers in a positive mood. When needed, artificial lighting should be on a dimmer so it can be controlled by users of the room.10 76.

How Does Lighting Affect Theatre Audiences? If you have ever been to any kind of performance in a large theatre, more likely than not the theatre itself was an entire experience in its own. Theatre design incorporates many psychological techniques in order to create an experience that will transport the audience into a trance-like state so that the performance can immerse them in all its glory. Stage lighting isn’t just a simple matter of illumination, but it’s about using light in a way that enhances what’s on the stage and creates the right mood for each component of the story.11 Lighting is an integral part to theatres and they are extremely important for how they pull certain emotions and thoughts from the audience in order to create that special setting. Choosing the correct lighting positions and the right mix of colors for various stage performances can either make or break a theatre, but if done well it is the easiest way to achieve an other-worldly fantastic experience.12 Colors convey emotions, and this concept is at the heart of the psychology of color and theatre. Every person’s reaction to color is unique, but three psychological factors define these responses.

The first of these factors is aesthetic. When you look at a particular color, or a combination of colors, do you find them visually appealing? The second of these factors is emotional. As in, when you look at colors, how do they make you feel? And the third factor relates to the cultural meaning of specific colors. Because of their use throughout popular culture, certain colors are more likely to convey particular emotions and concepts than others. So, from a lighting designer’s viewpoint, this third factor is crucial, as using specific colors is the one of the easiest ways to set the mood on stage. Red, for example, is a color that is often used to express feelings of danger, warmth or love, depending on the context.13 There are many more examples of how colors are used as short-hand for projecting emotions. All light is colored, including white light, which is actually a mixture of every wavelength of color that is visible to the human eye. Thus, color mixing for stage lighting is about adding to or subtracting from visible wavelengths of color (white light).14 Additive color theory is a method of color mixing that uses two or more colored beams to illuminate a surface.

7. In the main, additive color theory involves mixing the three primary colors in light of red, green and blue, which you can use to create any color. Modern RGB LED lights allow you to mix colors by fading red, green and blue LEDs up and down to create the color you need. Alternatively, you can point two conventional lights with different colored beams at the same point from roughly the same place to create specific colors.15 Subtractive color theory relates to theatre luminaries that project white light through a filter. When white light is passed through a filter on a color wheel, only the wavelengths that match that respective color pass through. Because the filter absorbs all the other wavelengths of white light, this form of color mixing is called subtractive filtering. Apart from LED luminaries, stage lighting fixtures generally produce different colored beams via high temperature filters. Because there are hundreds of different filters available, you can mix any color you need to convey specific emotions on stage.16 77.

“Color...get it right the first time.” -Sylvia O’brien17

8. 78.


1. Figure 1. Hand Pointing, Digital Image, Pinterest, Accessed Ocotober 31, 2016. 2. The Night of The Gifts by Jorge Luis Borges. Digital Image, Wordpress, Accessed October 31, 2016. 3. Color Wrap, Digital Image, 16rounds, Accessed October 31, 2016. 4. The Color Wheel Chart, Digital Image, Graf1x, Accessed October 31, 2016. 5. Norman Ives, Digital Image, Francis Frost, Accessed October 31, 2016. 6. Ann Bureau Light Design, Digital Image, LightBureau, Accessed October 31, 2016. 7. Dallas City Performance Hall, Digital Image, GE Lighting, Accessed October 31, 2016. 8. Theatre Aan De Parade, Digital Image, World Architecture, Accessed October 31, 2016. Worldarchitecture. com

TEXT: 1. O'Brien, Sylvia. "Psychology of Colour in the Educational Environment." Psychology of Colour in the Educational Environment - Color Objects. April 6, 2014. Accessed October 25, 2016. http://www.colorobjects. com/en/color-columns/the-colour-real/item/357-psychology-of-colour-in-the-educational-environment. html. 2. Mahnke, Frank. Color, Environment, and Human Response. 1996. Accessed October 25, 2016. 3. Ibid. 4. Ibid. 5. Engelbrecht, Kathie. The Impact of Color on Learning. Http:// June 18, 2003. Accessed October 25, 2016. W305.pdf. 6. "Designing for a Quality Learning Experience." Knoll. com. Accessed October 31, 2016. 7. Ibid. 8. Ibid. 9. "Rethinking the Classroom." Accessed October 31, 2016. 10. Ibid. 11. Ibid. 12. "Stage Lighting & the Psychology of Colour - Stage Electrics." Http:// Accessed October 31, 2016. 13. Appleton, Ian. Buildings for the Performing Arts: A Design and Development Guide. Boston: Butterworth Architecture, 1996. 14. "Stage Lighting & the Psychology of Colour - Stage Electrics." Http:// Accessed October 31, 2016. 15. Appleton, Ian. Buildings for the Performing Arts: A Design and Development Guide. Boston: Butterworth Architecture, 1996. 16. "Stage Lighting & the Psychology of Colour - Stage Electrics." Http:// Accessed October 31, 2016. 79.

1. 80.



2. 81.

City: In 1681 King Charles II granted a large amount of land in North America to a Quaker named William Penn who established the colony of Pennsylvania. Penn sailed to North America in 1682 and when he arrived he founded the city of Philadelphia and by 1701 Philadelphia was a flourishing little town. In that year William Penn granted it a charter. In the 18th century Philadelphia thrived on trade with the West Indies and its population was increasing due to German immigrants.1 In 1723, Benjamin Franklin moved into the city. William Penn designed the city in a simple North/ South and East/West ‘Gridiron’. The most well-known architecture of Philadelphia is the row home which was introduced in the early 1900’s and can be seen all over the city even today.2 As of the current census, the City of Philadelphia consists of approximately 1.5 Million people. Demographically speaking, the racial makeup of the city is 45% White, 44% African-American, and 13.5% Hispanic. The average household income is $37,192 and 26.5% of the population is below the poverty line.3 Philadelphia falls under the category of humid subtropical climate zone. The average low temperature is 45 degrees Fahrenheit, and the average high is 63 degrees Fahrenheit. Each year, Philadelphia receives, on average, 41 inches of rain and 20 inches of snow.4 Neighborhood: The Neighborhood of Manayunk was originally a community in Roxborough Township, Philadelphia County, situated near the Schuylkill River, south of the Wissahickon Creek. The land that would become Manayunk was first bought from William Penn in 16851686 and then transferred to the family of William Levering. A large part of that land was then sold to Levering’s son, Jacob, in 1716.5


4. 82.


Soon, the younger Levering built the first house in Manayunk, on the north side of Green Lane, west of Silverwood Street. The growing town was known as Flat Rock in 1810, because of a peculiar flat rock lying on the lower side of the bridge, which was subsequently called Flat Rock Bridge. The bridge was part of the Flat Rock Turnpike connecting Roxborough Township with Merion Township. The bridge was demolished in 1850.6 The settlement got its nineteenth-century identity from the construction of the dam, canal, and locks by the Schuylkill Navigation Company. The Manayunk section was finished at the end of 1818. Since the power provided by the water was extensive, the Navigation Company sought lessees of the power for use in mills and factories. In 1819, Capt. John Towers opened the first mill that used the canal’s water power.7 After that, purchases of water-power and the erection of mills and factories greatly increased. The area became important as a manufacturing village. It had a very large textile industry, which were built in the 1830s by Joseph Ripka. Manayunk was populated by a mix of German, Irish and Polish immigrants as well as numerous African Americans.8 Manayunk today is becoming a widely gentrified area of Philadelphia and even though there is still a working class population within the neighborhood, the population has shifted to younger upper middle class professionals and families. Manayunk has small-town charm with a majority of architecture being quaint two and three-story row homes. A majority of the roads still have cobblestone paving and many of the streets are steep and hilly. Most buildings are renovated and this has helped to maintain the original quality of the area.9 Increasing demand for housing in the neighborhood has led to the conversion of former mills into loft apartments, and replacement of empty storefronts and mom-and-pop stores with upscale shops.

6. 83.

7. In 2004, a new condominium tower was built on part of Venice Island. In 2005 there were plans to build more condominium towers to replace the closed soap and paper factories. Manayunk has become a popular place of residence for starving artists, local college students, and young professionals.10 Street: The site is located on Main Street which is the most popular commercial area of Manayunk. The site is located just before the major commercial center which allows the property to have more land around the building. The architectural style of the selected building is a generic warehouse style building, but the rest of the majority of buildings on Main Street are row home style apartments with the first floor containing commercial businesses. The typical story of a building on Main street is three floors and some are four floors. 84.

Site and Zoning Analysis: The current area of Manayunk is a mixture of CMX-1, CMX-2, and CMX-2.5. These are all reference codes for the Philadelphia Zoning Law. CMX-1 is commercial and residential mixed use, CMX-2 is another form of commercial and residential mixed use, and CMX-2.5 is Pedestrianfriendly neighborhood commercial corridor.11 Traffic patterns run both ways along Main Street, which is directly adjacent to the site, but the traffic patterns do not generate an unusual amount of noise. There are only two main views from the site, one being south-west and one being northeast. The north-east view looks towards trees with train tracks directly behind and the southwest view looks over Main street into a parking lot with the Schuylkill River beyond. The entire building is mostly shaded throughout the day due to its position and location, but the south end of the building is most likely to get more daylight. Sound quality issues will come from both the east and west sides of the building due to the adjacency of Main Street and the SEPTA Regional Rail tracks to the building. There is a train station about 1,000 feet south-east of the site, therefore the train may potentially sound its horn near the building before stopping at the station. There is also a slight change in slope that starts at street level and then increases in the south east direction towards a parking lot behind the building. Wind is not a major concern for the site due to the property position and the fact that 75% of the building is up against trees.


9. 86.



1. Figure 1. Historic main street, Digital Image, East Falls 1. Weigley, Russell Frank., Nicholas B. Wainwright, and Edwin Wolf. Philadelphia: A 300 Year History. New Historical Society, Accessed November 7, 2016 York: W.W. Norton, 1982. 2. Figure 2. Philadelphia. Digital Image, Designspiration. 2. Ibid. net 3. By Default, That State Is Colorado. rn rn rn rn. "Popu3. Figure 3. Old Broad street. Digital Image, East Falls lation Estimates, July 1, 2015, (V2015)." UNITED STATES Historical Society QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. Accessed 4. Figure 4.Transportation map. Digital Image, Shamus November 07, 2016. McVicar table/PST045215/00. 5. Figure 5. Manayunk birds eye view. Digital Image, East 4. Ibid. Falls Historical Society 5. Hagner, Charles V. Early History of the Falls of 6. Figure 6. Public school map. Digital Image, Shamus Schuylkill, Manayunk, Schuylkill and Lehigh NavigaMcVicar tion Companies, Fairmount Waterworks, Etc. Philadel7. Figure 7. Zoning map. Digital Image, Shamus McVicar phia: Claxton, Remsen and Haffelfinger, 1869. 8. Figure 8. Site analysis map. Digital Image, Shamus 6. Ibid. McVicar 7. Ibid. 9. Figure 9. Look Long and Look Good. Digital Image, 8. Ibid. Mat Tomezko, Accessed November 7, 2016 9. Ibid. 10. Ibid. 11. "Quick Reference Guide." Principles of Construction Safety: 184-234. doi:10.1002/9780470690529.ch16.




SECTION 7. 89.



major adjacency


secondary adjacency











SECTION 8. 99.

Project Data:

Business Areas

Project Name: Manayunk Creative & Performing Arts Center Address: 4015 Main St, Philadelphia, PA 19127 Date of Completion: 1970 Number of Stories: Two Total Gross Sq. Ft.: 37,500

Gross Sq. Ft.: 3,450 Sf/Occupant:: 100 Net Sf/Occupant: Number of Occupants: 35

Applicable Building Code Information: Zoning Ordinance: ICMX - Ondustrial Commercial Mixed Use Fire Code: International Fire Code 2012 Building Code: International Building Code 2012 Energy Code: International Energy Conservation Code 2012

Educational Classroom Areas Gross Sq. Ft.: 8,600 Sf/Occupant:: 20 Net Sf/Occupant: Number of Occupants: 400

Kitchen, Commercial

User Group Classification:

Gross Sq. Ft.: 1,500 Sf/Occupant:: 200 Gross Sf/Occupant: Number of Occupants: 8

Mixed Use: Assembly Group A-1, Business Group B, Educational Group E


Means Of Egress: Sprinklered Dead End Limit: 50’-0”

Accessory Storage Areas, Mechanical Equipment Room Gross Sq. Ft.: 2,300 Sf/Occupant: 300 Gross Number of Occupants: 8

Assembly With Fixed Seats Gross Sq. Ft.: 3,750 Sf/Occupant:: 15 Sf/Occupant: Number of Occupants: 300

Gross Sq. Ft.: 3,000 Sf/Occupant:: 100 Gross Sf/Occupant: Number of Occupants: 30 Minimum Corridor Width.: 44 Number of Exits: Exits 3 Per Floor Exit Access Travel Distance: 300'

Sanitation: WC Male: 13 WC Female: 13 Urinals Male: 6 Lavatories Male: 7 Lavatories Female: 13 Drinking Fountatins: 4

Fire Protection Requirements: Assembly Without Fixed Seats Gross Sq. Ft.: 1,500 Sf/Occupant:: 7 Net Sf/Occupant: Number of Occupants: 200


Fire Exit Enclosures: 2 HOURS Shafts and Elevator Hoistways: 2 HOURS Tenant Space Seperations; 2 HOURS Smoke Barriers: Assume 30 Minutes Corridor Fire-Resistance Rating: 1 HOUR Incidental Use Areas: N/A


Solid Vs. Void Analysis


Structural Analysis


104. 10 04. 4


SECTION 9. 105.

The performing arts center will be a hub for collaboration and building relationships for the future. The center will bring together the community by allowing active members of the surrounding art societies to volunteer their time in order to teach students how to hone their creative skills through multiple art mediums such as music, dance, or other forms of visual art. Upon researching art centers and educational facilities that focus in the arts, it is evident that the architecture of the spaces is one of the most crucial elements of the students’ educational journey. If the spaces are not designed to ďŹ t the needs of the students, then their educational experiences will not be enhanced thus making the design unsuccessful. Visiting various art schools has aided in solidifying a program that will create a facility that may execute the most hopeful design. 106.

One key feature of the center will be the multiple unique spaces required in the program that will create a comfortable space for students and faculty. The ultimate goal of the arts center will also be to act as a agship for the Philadelphia school system to implement the same design into other areas of the city in order to bring a renewed interest to art in the school system. Art is such a fundamental part of mental development and it is crucial for students to learn how to record and channel their creativity in a manner that is reminiscent of our traditional roots. Art is a necessary element to human life, and if arts education continues to decline as it is currently, then future generations will no longer hold art in their vernacular. Art must stay alive because not only is it a beautiful site, but it is a way of passing down culture, tradition, and history to future kin.


BIBLIOGRAPHY & APPENDIX Appleton, Ian. Buildings for the Performing Arts: A Design and Development Guide. Boston: Butterworth Architecture, 1996. Boardman, John. The Oxford History of Classical Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. 3-4. By Default, That State Is Colorado. rn rn rn rn. "Population Estimates, July 1, 2015, (V2015)." UNITED STATES QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. Accessed November 07, 2016. table/PST045215/00. Chiara, Joseph De, Julius Panero, and Martin Zelnik. Time-saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991. Clare, John D., and Alan Millen. Italian Renaissance. London: Riverswift, 1994. 14. Cooper, Donna, and Maud Lyon. "Home." Home. September 11, 2015. Accessed August 29, 2016.

Hagner, Charles V. Early History of the Falls of Schuylkill, Manayunk, Schuylkill and Lehigh Navigation Companies, Fairmount Waterworks, Etc. Philadelphia: Claxton, Remsen and HaffelďŹ nger, 1869. Hardy, Grant, and Anne Behnke. Kinney. The Establishment of the Han Empire and Imperial China. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2005. 7475. Mahnke, Frank. Color, Environment, and Human Response. 1996. Accessed October 25, 2016 "National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home Page, a Part of the U.S. Department of Education." National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Home Page, a Part of the U.S. Department of Education. Accessed August 29, 2016. http://

Dudek, Mark. Architecture of Schools: The New Learning Environments. Oxford: Architectural Press, 2000.

O'Brien, Sylvia. "Psychology of Colour in the Educational Environment." Psychology of Colour in the Educational Environment - Color Objects. April 6, 2014. Accessed October 25, 2016. http://

Engelbrecht, Kathie. The Impact of Color on Learning. Http:// June 18, 2003. Accessed October 25, 2016. pdf.

"Quick Reference Guide." Principles of Construction Safety: 184-234. doi:10.1002/9780470690529. ch16.

Gardner, Helen, and Richard G. Tansey. Gardner's Art through the Ages. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brac College Publishers, 1996. 12.

"Rethinking the Classroom." Accessed October 31, 2016.

"Designing for a Quality Learning Experience." Knoll. com. Accessed October 31, 2016.

Groat, Linda N., and David Wang. Architectural Research Methods. New York: J. Wiley, 2002.

Smith, Fran. "Edutopia." RSS. January 28, 2009. Accessed August 29, 2016. http://www.edutopia. org/. "Stage Lighting & the Psychology of Colour Stage Electrics." Http:// Accessed October 31, 2016.


"The Pew Charitable Trusts." The Pew Charitable Trusts. Accessed August 29, 2016. en. "The Wallis Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts / Studio Pali Fekete Architects." October 10, 2014. Accessed October 4, 2016. "The Wallis Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts." Weigley, Russell Frank., Nicholas B. Wainwright, and Edwin Wolf. Philadelphia: A 300 Year History. New York: W.W. Norton, 1982. Vasari, Giorgio, and George Bull. The Lives of the Artists. Harmondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Books, 1987.


The Manayunk Center For the Creative and Performing Arts  
The Manayunk Center For the Creative and Performing Arts