Winter 2021 Vol. 19, No. 4
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MICHIGAN STATE POLICE VEHICLE TESTING FOR 2022 MODELS
INDUSTRY SPOTLIGHT FORD’S TONY GRATSON
PROFILES A ONE-ON-ONE WITH FLEET MANAGERS ACROSS THE COUNTRY
FEATURE SEMICONDUCTOR CHIP SHORTAGE
Winter 2021 I Vol. 19, No. 4 Photos courtesy of Michigan State Police and Brad Brewer
The implementation of the 5G wireless service across North America is underway. This improvement delivers the speed of a wired broadband network to wireless devices. Many major cities already have 5G coverage in place, and carriers are busy rolling it out to smaller markets. 5G will allow law enforcement officers to access every aspect of their department’s data resources on their wirelessly connected smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers. This effectively eliminates the data access dividing line between the office and the field. By Brad Brewer
6 FORD’S TONY GRATSON
Tony’s leadership can be summed up by some famous words from another great leader: Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who can cut through argument, debate, and doubt to offer a solution everybody can understand. —General Colin Powell On behalf of all of us at Police Fleet Manager Magazine, all the Ford PAB members, and the entire Law Enforcement community, we would like to thank Tony for his dedicated service to the Police Fleet Industry and wish him and his family health and happiness as he embarks on this next chapter. By Brad Brewer
16 2021 MICHIGAN STATE POLICE VEHICLE TESTING FOR 2022 MODELS
8 32 14 NEW
26 PFM GOES ONE-ON-ONE WITH FLEET MANAGERS ACROSS THE COUNTRY
The Police vehicles are integral to law enforcement agencies operating efficiently and effectively. Officers spend a lot of time in their patrol cars, and they have become a mobile office in many respects. Managing these fleets is a major responsibility, regardless if an agency is small or large. Although terrain and weather conditions might impact the wear and tear on police vehicles, there are several other issues that can affect any department’s fleet, whether it is located on the East Coast, West Coast, or in the Midwest. After a successful Police Fleet Expo 2021, Police Fleet Manager talked to more fleet managers about how their jobs have changed over the past several years and the topics they are most concerned about. By PFM Staff
32 SEMICONDUCTOR CHIP SHORTAGE
It was around December 2020 when we first started to hear rumblings of a semiconductor chip shortage. Before that, semiconductor chips were never really talked about in mainstream conversation. Then, we heard it wasn’t that bad, that it would likely only affect vehicle production for a short period, as chipmakers turned their production back toward the automakers. Lead times of six months are often required, as the nanoscopic circuitry on a chip is printed on silicon substrates in a series of painstakingly long production steps that takes weeks. PFM examines the semiconductor chip shortage. By Brad Brewer
www.pfmmag.com Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021 3
Winter 2021 I Vol. 19, No. 4
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4 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
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You take every available precaution to secure your patrol vehicle; firearms in the gun rack, locking equipment and doors. The inconvenient truth is that the criminal element has time on their side to bypass these precautions. Jotto Desk is excited to introduce the Defend IR Security System. The first Security Solution against patrol vehicle break-ins. The Defend IR Monitors the interior of your vehicle utilizing an infrared sensor when armed. When a change is detected, the Defend IR activates the lights and siren of the patrol vehicle, alerting everyone nearby and scaring off a potential thief.
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FORD’S TONY GRATSON BY BRAD BREWER
guess retirement is inevitable for all of us, but every so often someone pulls the pin that is considered an icon in the fleet business. On December 1, Tony Gratson, Ford Pro National Government Sales Manager, retired from the Ford Motor Company. Tony has worked at Ford for 39 years. Tony was a friend to all, regardless of who you worked for or what you were selling. Tony was and is the consummate professional respected by all, including his competitors.
Tony’s career began back in August of 1982 after serving active duty in the U.S. Army as Second Lieutenant to his Captain. With his quiet nature and humble personality, Tony was able to continue serving his country in the Army Reserves for an additional 21 years while working full-time at Ford. In total, Tony served over 30 years in the U.S. Military and retired as a Colonel. All of us who have served on the front lines of Military or Law Enforcement appreciate that this is no small accomplishment. Early in his Ford career, Tony held numerous positions that developed his automotive skills. In the late 1980s, he joined the fleet team and later was appointed Federal Government Sales Manager in 1991. Over the next 10 years, he honed is fleet leadership capabilities and was assigned several management positions, including State and Local Government Sales Manager (1992), Fleet Sales Representative (1994), Fleet Program Analysis Manager (1997), Fleet Programs Manager (1998), and Fleet Operations Manager (1999). Given his deep knowledge, exceptional relationships, and solid fleet acumen, he was promoted to National Government Sales Manager in 2001, overseeing the Government business (Federal, State, and Local) for Ford. Over the last two decades, Tony led one of the best Government sales teams in the industry. He has been instrumental in establishing second-to-none relationships, driving incremental sales volume, and helping Ford achieve significant government market share. Tony has led numerous strategic government initiatives over the years that have had long-lasting and positive implications on the business, including: Police Advisory Board (PAB), GSA (General Services Administration) Federal Bid Contract and Government BEV Adoption plans. The Police Advisory Board (PAB) is how I and many readers of this magazine know Tony. He was the leader of the PAB both formally and informally. He was someone who had time for anyone, even those who were never intending to buy his product. Under his leadership, the PAB played a pivotal role in Ford’s transition away from the iconic Crown Victoria Police Interceptor (CVPI) and on to the current Police Interceptor Utility (PIU).
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Leading the PAB was no easy task, because it was unlike any other duty Tony was responsible for. Trying to elicit technical advice from the PAB and balancing that with the realities of vehicle production is an art. The PAB is a unique group made up of sworn Law Enforcement officers alongside some seasoned civilian Fleet Managers. This group could only be described as eclectic, outspoken, and often set in their ways. I know because I have been involved with the PAB since 2006 and Tony was a big part of why I stayed. Tony’s unique skill set balanced the sometimes colorful conversations between the PAB and the Ford Engineering Team with precision, and it shows in just how successful the PIU is in today’s market. Every meeting was run with military precision and when the meeting started to creep outside the agenda, Tony was there to realign the troops. Tony’s leadership can be summed up by some famous words from another great leader: Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who can cut through argument, debate, and doubt to offer a solution everybody can understand. —General Colin Powell On behalf of all of us at Police Fleet Manager Magazine, all the Ford PAB members, and the entire Law Enforcement community, we would like to thank Tony for his dedicated service to the Police Fleet Industry and wish him and his family health and happiness as he embarks on this next chapter.
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INDUSTRY NEWS City Council Approves Purchase of 20 New Patrol Cars for Greensboro, NC Police
Biden Tours GM Plant in Detroit Fresh from signing a $1.2 trillion infrastructure bill that provides substantial funds for a nationwide electric vehicle charging network, President Joe Biden was in Detroit recently to visit Factory Zero, the centerpiece of General Motors’ shift to all-electric vehicles. The assembly plant, which underwent a $2 billion conversion, will produce a variety of battery-electric vehicles, starting with the 2022 GMC Hummer EV. All told, GM plans to roll out at least 30 battery-electric vehicles by mid-decade and has laid out a plan in which it would shift entirely to battery power for its retail product line by 2035. But it is by no means alone. A newly released study forecasts that the global auto industry will invest at least $500 billion in its push to electrify by the end of the decade. The transition is accelerating rapidly. Whereas the 2021 model year ended with just over a dozen long-range battery-electric vehicles available for U.S. motorists, industry analysts expect that to grow to more than 50 by the end of next year. The rollout of new products is critical, industry observers say. While early battery-electric vehicles were largely concentrated in the small sedan and hatchback segment, new offerings are falling more in line with trends in the broader industry, with products like the Ford Mustang Mach-E and GM’s new Hummer. In addition, several vehicles—including the Tesla Model S and the new Lucid Air—can get 400 to 520 miles per charge, according to estimates from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Finally Some Relief…Natural Gas and Gasoline Prices Are Going Down Americans grappling with historic levels of inflation are finally getting some relief where they need it most…previously booming energy prices. After a relentless rise, prices at the pump are heading south. The national average price for a gallon of regular gas fell to a seven-week low of $3.35 a gallon this week, according to AAA. The outlook for home heating costs this winter is also improving significantly. Natural gas futures have been nearly cut in half over the past two months. Natural gas plunged by more than 11 percent on Monday, its worst day in nearly three years. Energy sticker shock has been one of the biggest drivers behind the 31-year high in inflation. Cooling energy prices, if they last, could take significant inflationary pressure off the U.S. economy and inspire confidence among bummed-out consumers.
8 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
In November, the Greensboro, NC City Council approved the purchase of 20 new police cars as a part of the department’s effort to recruit and retain officers. The 20 new patrol cars will take anywhere from six to seven months to come in with an initial purchase price of $1,160,300 for the vehicles and upfits (light bars and other electronics and cameras). The goal is to have enough vehicles in the fleet that officers can take them home. Chief Brian James said the department is losing officers to other departments that already offer this option. The money is coming from the city’s budget and it is part of a five-phase plan to add 100 new cars to the fleet. “This is just a piece of the puzzle, the position I’m in as chief is there are all these agencies around me that have something we don’t have,” Chief Brian James said. James is trying to increase the fleet of patrol cars…so every patrol officer can take a vehicle home. He says his department is losing officers to other neighboring departments that already offer that perk. A take-home vehicle also reduces call response time and helps officers get more police work done. Right now, an officer comes to the station, searches for a car, then loads all their equipment and gear from their personal vehicle to the patrol car, which can take 45 minutes to an hour. The Greensboro Police Department is currently trying to fill 90 positions. “If an officer leaves today, it will take me a minimum of a year to replace that officer,” James said.
California Municipality to Purchase Three Teslas for Police Department The City of Menlo Park, CA Council has agreed to purchase three Tesla Model Ys for police use. The vehicles will be part of a police patrol decarbonization pilot program, in which the city plans to transition to an all-electric patrol fleet by 2023. Each Model Y is expected to cost the city approximately $115,000, including police modifications. According to a staff report regarding the purchase, the city could expect delays for vehicle deliveries, with timelines close to August 2022. As a result, this may impact “the feasibility of collecting evidence necessary to inform the conversion of patrol vehicles to all electric, or result in project cost overruns,” the report stated.
Petersburg Becomes First Virginia City to Run Entire Police Vehicle Fleet on Renewable Propane Petersburg, VA recently unveiled its fleet of no-gasoline government vehicles and in doing so became the first city in Virginia to run its municipal cars on a form of propane. Forty-nine Petersburg Police vehicles have been converted from gas to renewable propane autogas, which officials say burns cleaner and has far fewer emissions than traditional petrol. Representatives of Virginia Clean Cities, Alliance AutoGas, Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) joined city leaders in unveiling the updated fleet. The cost of converting the cars to renewable propane is around $6,000 per vehicle, or $294,000 for
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INDUSTRY NEWS the entire fleet. The city can apply for a grant through the state’s Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality program that will match a portion of the cost to change the cars. Vehicle fleets around the nation have been significantly lowering their emissions by running on conventional propane autogas for decades. Now, renewable propane is growing in popularity as an even more sustainable and carbon-neutral energy source. Propane autogas vehicles operating with renewable propane have a lower lifetime carbon footprint than electric vehicles charged using the electric grid in Virginia. Plus, they are able to provide these low-emissions benefits at a fraction of the cost of electric vehicles.
COVID-19 Leading Cause of Job-Related Deaths Among U.S. Police Professionals… Unions Challenging Requirements The Coronavirus killed more police officers, nationwide, last year than all other causes combined, according to data from the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (NLEOMF). Coronavirus also was the most common cause of duty-related deaths in 2020 and 2021, according to the Officer Down Memorial Page (ODMP is a non-profit dedicated to honoring the nation’s fallen law enforcement officers). Despite those statistics, unions from California to New York (representing law enforcement) are fighting requirements that members get immunized against the virus, which has killed more than 500 officers since the pandemic began. Unions and others speaking for police officers are taking umbrage as some U.S. cities and counties enact vaccine mandates for government employees. The ongoing battles are playing out as the death toll from COVID-19 continues to rise on a nearly daily basis. At least 21 officers died in the month of October after contracting the virus on the job (according to ODMP). In Chicago, the police union scored a victory in its fight against a policy requiring its officers to be vaccinated by the end of the year, with a Cook County judge suspending the city’s mandate on November 1. Chicago officers, however, are still required to report their vaccination status and get tested twice a week if unvaccinated. Los Angeles County Sheriff Alex Villanueva blasted a vaccine mandate as a public safety threat, saying it would spur an exodus of deputies from his department. While acknowledging that 15 members of his own department have died of COVID-19, Villanueva said he would not force his deputies to get inoculated, saying the decision should be left to individuals. Michel Moore, Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), is taking a decidedly different approach to the mandate and has agreed to enforce the rules. The differing stances of the two are reflected in the vaccination figures from their respective departments: 53 percent of Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department (LASD) workers have had at least one vaccination shot, versus 74 percent of employees at the LAPD.
TE Connectivity to Acquire Antennas Business from Laird Connectivity TE Connectivity (TE), a world leader in connectivity and sensors, recently announced a definitive agreement to acquire the antennas business from Laird Connectivity. The acquisition of the Laird antennas business complements TE’s broad connectivity product portfolio, particularly in
10 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
antenna and wireless solutions for Internet of Things (IoT) devices and Edge Access. The acquisition also expands TE’s engineering and manufacturing footprint and strengthens TE’s presence in several attractive market segments. “I am excited to welcome the Laird antennas team to TE,” said Sudhakar Sabada, senior vice president and general manager of TE’s Data and Devices business. “Combining TE’s high-speed data and wireless connectivity portfolio breadth, manufacturing scale, and distribution with precision-engineered and market-leading antenna solutions, we can significantly enhance the value we bring to our customers. This acquisition, with the resulting expansion of our antenna product family and advanced engineering capabilities, is a critical milestone in our strategic vision to expand in the high-growth Edge Access and IoT markets.”
Jay Leno Honors 40th Anniversary of California Highway Patrol Vehicles Comedian and talk show host Jay Leno recently unveiled a pair of Ford Special Service Package (SSP) Mustangs, also known as Project 11-99, in honor of the 40th anniversary of the California Highway Patrol (CHP) vehicle program. The pair of vehicles, a matching 1982 and a currentgeneration Ford SSP Mustang, were showcased during the 2021 Specialty Equipment Market Association (SEMA) show in Las Vegas on November 2. Leno said the Project 11-99 vehicles “honor the hard-working men and women of the California Highway Patrol, along with all law enforcement professionals across the country, who protect and serve.” He also said the pair of matching vehicles showcases “the incredible advancements in law enforcement vehicles over the past 40 years.” In the early 1980s, the CHP partnered with Ford Motor Company to develop the Mustang SSP because patrol vehicles of that era could not keep up with modern high-performance sports cars. The two parties worked together to develop and test a car that could be purchased by the CHP. The result was a package based on a GL model Ford Mustang, costing $6,868 each. One of the 406 ordered by the CHP for the 1982 model year, the Project 11-99 car on display was assigned to the Hanford CHP office and retired from service in 1985. Vehicle specialist Eric Gaona fully restored the 1982 Ford Mustang using all original CHP equipment to return the car to as-delivered condition, equipped with period-correct headlight flashers, lighting, and Motorola radio equipment. The second vehicle on display is a one-off 40th anniversary SSP Mustang based on the current Ford Mustang GT. The vehicle’s paint scheme was penned by the Ford Design to celebrate the first series of CHP Mustangs. The car also features a 5L Coyote V-8 mated to a six-speed manual transmission, a reworked interior with base seats and trim, and a certified
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INDUSTRY NEWS police speedometer. This build was done by Galpin Auto Sports, with assistance from Gaona. The license plate on the vehicle carries the number 11-99 as a nod to the CHP 11-99 Foundation, which serves the officers and supports the CHP community. 11-99 is the radio code for “officer needs assistance.”
Municipalities Approve Plans to Lease Patrol Vehicles from Enterprise Fleet Management Two municipalities in New York and Washington state recently entered into police vehicle leasing agreements with Enterprise Fleet Management. The Elmira, NY, City Council unanimously approved the lease of five new patrol cars for the Elmira Police Department. The lease agreement includes two 2021 Ford Escape vehicles and three 2022 Ford Police Interceptor Utility vehicles. The vehicles will reportedly cost the city approximately $68,000 from April through December 2022. Meanwhile, in Washington state, Marysville City Council approved the lease of three police vehicles from Enterprise. The vehicles for the Marysville Police Department include a Chevrolet Tahoe Police Pursuit vehicle and one administrative vehicle, likely a four-by-four crew cab pickup. The lease deal could reportedly save Marysville PD up to $15,000 annually. The cost of leasing a 2021 pursuit-grade Tahoe, which has a purchase price of around $38,000, is $705 per month. Marysville PD currently keeps its patrol cars for four years. Due to supply chain issues, it could take up to a year for the department to receive its new lease vehicles.
Local Police Employment Remained Steady During Pandemic According to Bureau of Labor Statistics From 2019 to 2020, the number of people working at local police departments and sheriff’s offices decreased by less than 1 percent, according to monthly data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The overall U.S. economy shed 6 percent of workers, while local police departments lost just under 1 percent of employees after a decade of steady expansion. That’s about 4,000 people out of nearly half a million employees in municipal police departments and sheriff’s offices nationwide. State and federal law enforcement departments actually saw a slight increase in the number of employees. The decrease was much slower than the overall employment, or industries such as restaurants, education, and healthcare. Even as many industries started to bounce back, local police hiring hasn’t picked up because it takes months, or even years, to train to become a police officer. Over the past several months, however, there are numerous reports that law enforcement agencies across the country are having a hard time recruiting new officers and they are seeing a larger-than-expected increase in retirements.
Madison, WI Unveils State-of-the-Art Fleet Facility City officials in Madison, WI recently applauded staff at a new fleet facility grand opening after completing construction on a high-tech, hybrid, and electric-friendly maintenance garage. The event was attended by Mayor Satya Rhodes-Conway, several alders, architect James Whitney, representatives from the Madison Fire Department and Police Department, City Engineering staff, and Metro Transit. “A lot has happened
12 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
since we broke ground on this giant vacant lot with shovels and hardhats back in 2019,” Mayor Satya Rhodes-Conway said. “We’ve been through a global pandemic, and despite that, this incredibly impressive building has risen on schedule.” The new Nakoosa Trail facility, which will now serve as headquarters for the city’s Fleet Services division, was a $33 million dollar construction project completed with the work of over 1,000 people, in the span of nine years. Mahanth Joishy, the Fleet Superintendent, took the opportunity to highlight the project’s community and government partners. “Now it’s time not only for a ribbon-cutting for this division, but a big celebration of all Madison city government to coincide with the pandemic retreating from Dane County,” he stated. The new location will maintain about 1,400 municipal vehicles. This includes the 63 electric vehicles, 102 gas-electric hybrid vehicles, six antiidling ambulances, and an electric fire truck the city has added to its fleet since 2018. Many services will be centralized from the city’s three outdated sites. The building is the first fleet facility the city has built since 1954, and it’s expected to be operational until 2095. The ribbon-cutting ceremony was followed by live music, local food trucks, and the opportunity for attendees to test drive a Tesla or Ford Mustang Mach-E. Tours of the facility were also given, where guides showed off the building’s many functions. The facility houses a parts department, where tires and parts for all of the city’s vehicles can be accessed with electric forklifts, heavyduty and light-duty repair areas, wash bay, body shop, and welding bay. Speakers and staff noted that the facility is also the most sustainable fleet facility Madison has ever had. The facility boasts five different types of solar energy: rooftop solar, hot-water solar, an entire solar wall for building heat, and solar electric vehicle charging stations. The upgrades don’t stop there. The fleet facility has high-efficiency, LED lighting systems throughout. “Kaleidoscopic sun-catchers” were installed in the interior of the building to amplify natural sunlight, therefore reducing the need for electric lights during the day. Hot water pipes were placed under the concrete floors to radiate heat, and high-efficiency insulation in the outer walls will reduce both heating and air-conditioning costs. All of these features contribute to the fleet facility attaining Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design gold certification. Looking to the future, the city’s goal is to run 100 percent of its fleet on electric vehicles or 100 percent biodiesel by 2030. The new fleet facility is the next step in Madison’s plan to meet all municipal operations electricity needs with renewable energy.
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New Products I Previews
Light Bar Mount from SeaSucker LLC www.seasucker.com The new light bar mount from SeaSucker makes it fast and easy to attach and remove high-intensity illumination to any vehicle without drilling holes. Made in the USA, the light bar mount begins with two 6-inch SeaSucker vacuum mounts. They are connected to a .5- inch HDPE universal mounting deck, with a 5/16-inch x 1-inch slot for attaching to the light with the manufacturer’s hardware. The mounts work with any length bar, or a pair of smaller lamps. Each SeaSucker vacuum mount secures 210 pounds to ensure the light stays aimed when running over rough terrain. It attaches to any smooth, non-porous surface with a few pumps of the integrated power button. Unlike permanent installations, it can be moved as needed to virtually any part of the vehicle body without marring or denting the finish. For more information, visit www.seasucker.com
Havis Lockable Under-Seat Storage Box for Ford F-Series Trucks www.havis.com Havis, Inc. recently introduced a new lockable under-seat storage box for Ford F-Series trucks. The C-SBX-104 features a 14-gauge steel box for secure storage that is compatible with an assortment of Ford trucks ranging from F-150 to 550, and supporting crew cab, cab chassis, and Special Service Vehicle (SSV) pickups. Its dual lids align with the 60-40 split in the rear seat with low-profile latches that lock with included keys. An easy, no-drill installation can be completed in minutes by mounting to the factory holes. Users have the option to attach the adjustable divider to pre-drilled holes or to drill and mount where they prefer. The storage box also features knock-out panels for wire routing and three sections of holes. These features provide ventilation for safe equipment mounting and allow fans to be mounted for increased air circulation, thereby protecting the equipment while improving its performance. Check it out at www.havis.com
Code 3’s CD5101 Series Corner LED www.code3esg.com The Code 3’s CD5101 Series Corner LED features a unique, angled design that delivers 270 degrees of warning from a single light. The universal surface mount bracket allows for a variety of mounting applications on the front, side, and rear of any police car, fire apparatus, ambulance, rescue vehicle, or emergency vehicle. When mounted to the front and rear, the Corner LED Light delivers 360 degrees of warning. The CD5101 offers 69 flash patterns to choose from, dual-color red/blue option, aluminum heatsink housing, and an industrial-grade polycarbonate lens for maximum durability. To learn more, visit www.code3esg.com
In Stock and Ready To Ship…Dodge 2021 Durango Consoles from Lund Industries www.lund-industries.com The VH-21DUR for 2021 newer Dodge Durango Pursuit Console features Lund’s “Tactical Design” with 7-inch front height, 60-degree slope, and 4-inch-high horizontal section low for emergency egress. The Console is specifically designed to wrap the contour of the dash and is mounted to OEM base plate and the console is available in four different horizontal section lengths of 4 inches, 9 inches, 13 inches, or 16 inches. To learn more, call 847-459-1460 or visit www.lund-industries.com
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2021 Michigan State Police Vehicle Testing for 2022 Models
2021 MICHIGAN STATE POLICE VEHICLE TESTING FOR 2022 MODELS BY BRAD BREWER 16 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
his past October, the Michigan State Police (MSP) conducted its annual testing of police vehicles and police motorcycles. Also this year in October, the Los Angeles County Sheriff Department (LASD) conducted its annual vehicle testing. The MSP event runs over four days and takes place at several unique locations in Michigan, depending on the specific tests being performed.
The vehicle acceleration, top speed, and braking tests are performed at the FCA Proving Grounds. This 4.7-mile, 140-mph neutral steer banked oval provides the appropriate space to obtain accurate test results at top speeds. The ABS brake test is also performed at the FCA Proving Grounds. This year due to a paving project at MSP Precision Driving Unit’s own facility, the braking tests were performed at the Chelsea. Both the motorcycle and vehicle dynamics testing are performed at Grattan Raceway. It is also appropriate to put in context as to why these vehicle tests are conducted and why they are so valuable to law enforcement across North America when they evaluate police vehicles to purchase. MSP and LASD are not governing bodies who decide which vehicles get blessed with the sacred description of “Pursuit Rated”; that couldn’t be further from the truth. Both these agencies have a long history of testing vehicles designed for use in the rigorous environment, which is frontline policing. It is the nature of the job that requires frontline officers to do extraordinary things in order to keep the public safe. When officers are forced to escalate to high-risk activities, their vehicle must be able to perform consistently at a high level with a non-existent failure rate. Every Fleet Manager has had someone in local government ask the question, “What does ‘Pursuit Rated’ actually mean?” The reality is no one can really define the term “Pursuit Rated” or give a specific vehicle that official designation. This is an excerpt from the
MSP Annual Report that appropriately explains the rating: The term ‘pursuit capable’ is more appropriate as there is no sanctioning body, or specific performance criteria, to determine if the vehicle meets a specialized designation. Each vehicle has been modified from a civilian vehicle to perform better under the rigors of police use. These vehicles are engineered to repetitively stop in a shorter distance, accelerate faster, and handle better than the base platform. Modifications to engines, cooling systems, transmissions and shifting parameters, brakes, tires, stability control programming, and other changes may all be included as part of the manufacturer’s police package. The MSP has performance criteria attached to its purchasing specifications. The criteria has historically been that a vehicle must accelerate from 0–60 mph in 9.0 seconds, 0–80 mph in 14.9 seconds, and 0–100 mph in 24.6 seconds. The vehicle must reach 110 mph in 4,838 feet and 120 mph in 8,985 feet. The vehicle must maintain an average deceleration rate of 25.79 ft./sec2 while performing twenty 60–0 mph threshold braking stops. The vehicle must also successfully complete all 32 laps of the Grattan Raceway dynamics testing without major component failure. Meeting these criteria does not certify a vehicle as being pursuit rated; rather, it justifies a vehicle is capable of performing the job function the MSP requires in a police vehicle. When reading the testing results, it is up to each agency to determine if the vehicle is suitable for the mission of their agency. Fleet managers must be aware the MSP tests are different from their counterparts out west at the LASD vehicle test, which is also run annually. MSP is a full-service agency that devotes a lot of time to freeway patrol depending on the geographical area being patrolled. As such, they devote considerable resources to highway traffic patrol. Therefore, performance at freeway speeds is important to them and their testing reflects that. MSP tests all vehicles for top speed, and since today’s vehicles are most often speed limited by software, it’s a simple verification of the manufacturer’s claims. Essentially, MSP wants to know, will it hit the advertised speed? Only the General Motors Chevrolet Tahoe has a mechanical top
ACCELERATION AND TOP SPEED Chevrolet Chevrolet Dodge Dodge Tahoe Tahoe Charger Charger 5.3L 5.3L 3.6L 5.7L RWD 4WD AWD RWD ACCELERATION (seconds) 0-20 mph 2.09 2.09 1.76 1.84 0-30 mph 3.07 3.14 2.72 2.63 0-40 mph 4.42 4.57 3.89 3.59 0-50 mph 5.84 6.07 5.35 4.67 0-60 mph 7.65 7.95 7.17 6.15 0-70 mph 9.64 10.08 9.33 7.73 0-80 mph 12.18 12.77 11.57 9.44 0-90 mph 15.12 16.01 14.60 11.70 0-100 mph 18.81 19.98 17.91 14.06 TOP SPEED (mph) 130 124 139 139 DISTANCE TO REACH (miles) 100 mph 0.33 0.35 120 mph 0.73 0.82 Top Speed 1.58 0.98
0.31 0.71 2.62
0.24 0.46 0.93
Dodge Dodge Durango Durango 3.6L 5.7L AWD AWD
Ford Ford Ford PI/Utility PI/Utility PI/Utility Hybrid 3.0L 3.3L AWD EcoBoost AWD AWD
Ford Ford F150 R Mustang 3.5L Mach-E EcoBoost AWD
1.84 2.92 4.28 5.89 8.16 10.67 13.85 17.77 22.80 127
1.54 2.42 3.61 5.03 6.79 8.74 11.25 14.17 18.10 130
1.76 2.94 4.22 5.65 7.25 9.19 11.45 14.18 17.40 136
1.49 2.19 3.11 4.15 5.45 6.88 8.78 10.92 13.47 148
2.09 3.21 4.55 6.09 7.79 9.86 12.42 15.46 19.32 136
1.63 2.35 3.36 4.42 5.79 7.28 9.17 11.30 14.34 120
1.28 1.87 2.45 3.16 4.03 5.08 6.46 8.58 11.94 124
0.42 1.14 2.87
0.33 0.33 1.28
0.30 0.61 1.25
0.23 0.46 1.55
0.34 0.75 1.83
0.25 0.55 0.55
0.22 0.68 2.10
Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021 17
COVER STORY 2021 Michigan State Police Vehicle Testing for 2022 Models speed limit. The top speed testing methodology is designed to follow the fourth acceleration run; each test vehicle continues to accelerate to the top speed attainable within 14 miles from the start of the run. The highest speed attained within the 14-mile distance is considered the vehicle’s top speed. Unlike MSP, LASD puts 400 lbs. of weight in the back of each SUV tested. LASD believes no police department would ever deploy an empty vehicle so why not test as it would likely be deployed in the real world. MSP does not add extra weight to any of the tested vehicles. MSP is testing the vehicle to verify it can meet their specific require-
18 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
ments and the advertised claims of the manufacturer. During the 0–60 mph brake testing, the MSP allows each vehicle to have fresh burnished brakes (new pads and rotors). They do not require the vehicle to have been driven at all before the brakes are evaluated. The LASD method involves the vehicles being driven hard and the brakes are hot before the brakes are tested. The MSP test begins with ‘cold’ brakes. The first five stops are performed in a southbound direction, the second set of stops in a northbound direction across the same surface. Once 10 stops are performed, the vehicle is driven 3.2 miles at 45 mph to allow the brakes to cool
VEHICLE BRAKE TESTING
Chevrolet Tahoe 5.3L RWD Chevrolet Tahoe 5.3L 4WD Dodge Charger 3.6L AWD Dodge Charger 5.7L RWD Dodge Durango 3.6L AWD Dodge Durango 5.7L AWD Ford Police Interceptor Utility Hybrid AWD Ford Police Interceptor Utility 3.0L EcoBoost AWD Ford Police Interceptor Utility 3.3L AWD Ford F150 Police Responder 3.5L EcoBoost Ford Mustang Mach-E AWD
before the second sequence. After the cooling distance, the 10 stops are repeated. The exact initial velocity at the beginning of each of the 60–0 mph decelerations, and the exact distance required to make each stop, is recorded by means of a RaceLogic Vbox 3i GPS-based data collection unit. For this year’s test of the 2022 model year vehicles, MSP tested 11 vehicles: The Chevrolet PPV Tahoe 5.3L RWD and 5.3L AWD;
Phase 1 Average Deceleration Rate
Phase 2 Average Deceleration Rate
29.65 29.00 29.82 29.28 28.76 28.63 28.82 28.71 28.59 23.78 30.94
30.33 29.92 29.89 29.53 29.13 28.08 29.31 29.30 29.00 24.35 31.01
the Dodge Durango AWD Pursuit V-6 and V-8; the Ford PI Utility AWD 3.3L, AWD 3.0L EcoBoost, and AWD Hybrid; the Dodge Charger 3.6L AWD, Charger 5.7L RWD; and the Ford F-150 Police Responder. This was also the first year for the Ford Mach-E allelectric vehicle to be tested at MSP. The Mach E was a first for MSP testing, as the first MSP’s test vehicle features an allwheel drive configuration and the Mach-E
Overall Average Projected Deceleration Stopping Rate Distance from 60.0 MPH 29.99 129.10 29.46 131.50 29.85 129.70 29.40 131.70 28.94 133.80 28.36 136.60 29.07 133.20 29.00 133.50 28.79 134.50 24.07 160.90 30.98 125.00
GT’s powertrain, which means that it utilizes dual permanent magnetic motors, including an upgraded secondary electric motor that powers the front wheels for a combined output of 480 horsepower and 600 pound-feet of torque. Ford projects that the Mach-E GT will do 0–60 mph in 3.8 seconds and achieve an EPA-estimated 270 miles of range. Law enforcement use will likely change these figures and so will weather and equipment demands.
Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021 19
COVER STORY 2021 Michigan State Police Vehicle Testing for 2022 Models
MSP drivers managed to do 0–60 in 4.0 seconds flat and hit 100 mph in 11.9 seconds in the Mach-E police tester. Contrary to popular belief, the Mach-E test vehicle only had police graphics; it did not have extra police lighting or equipment during the test. The Mach-E hit 124 mph in two miles, and after 18 miles of high-speed track testing, the Mach-E used 30% charge on each run; it wasn’t down to 30% charge left in the battery (i.e., it went from 80% down to 50% over the eight laps). Likely, the heat on the electric motors is the reason for the diminishing speed after the five fastest laps. Charging was done after every eight laps. MSP called that performance “a good start” for EVs, but noted that charging infrastructure and speeds will need to improve before electric vehicles can completely replace ICE-powered vehicles in this capacity. Ford has already increased the Mach-E’s usable battery capacity for the 2022 model year, which should translate to more range, and it plans on continuously improving the EV in that regard moving forward. It should also be noted that while the Mach E is not an officially sanctioned and pursuit-rated purpose-built police vehicle, Ford has released an upfitter’s document to assist fleet managers who will deploy one regardless. Ford recommends the purchase of the GT version and not the base model to ensure there is sufficient power available for aftermarket equipment demands.
SOME OF THE HIGHLIGHTED RESULTS FROM THE VEHICLE TESTING:
The 2021 Ford F-150 Police Responder accelerated from 0–60 mph in just 5.8 seconds versus 6.6 seconds for the previous model. The pickup reached its top speed of 120 mph in just over a half-mile, while its predecessor only managed to top out at 105 mph. Much of this improvement likely comes from recalibrated tuning for the truck’s 10-speed automatic transmission, but that isn’t the only upgrade present in the newest F-150 Police Interceptor. The truck also rides on specially developed Goodyear LT265/70R18 LRC BSW Wrangler Enforcer all-terrain tires–the only all-terrain tires available on a pursuit-rated police vehicle–which are uniquely designed to handle rapid acceleration, high speeds, and aggressive cornering on paved roads. The tires can also endure tremendous amounts of heat without sacrificing off-road capability. For the acceleration and speed tests, among sedans, The Mustang Mach-E was fastest at 4.0 seconds flat for the 0-60 and 11.9 for 0–100 mph. The Charger 5.7L AWD had a 0–60 mph time of 6.2 seconds and a 0–100 mph time of 14.1 seconds. The Charger Pursuit 5.7L RWD had a top speed of 140 mph, which was 10 mph lower than the Ford PIU EcoBoost AWD at 150 mph. The 2022 Police Interceptor Utility (PIU) 3.0L EcoBoost turned a quick 0–60 mph (5.5 seconds) and 0–100 mph times (13.5 seconds). At last year’s MSP test, the EcoBoost PIU (SUV) had the highest top speed
20 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
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COVER STORY 2021 Michigan State Police Vehicle Testing for 2022 Models
of any vehicle tested, at 150 mph. All vehicles tested at MSP met their theoretical speed limitations. These results are a tribute to all three vehicle OEMs and their neverending commitment to not only improve their own product development but the overall quality of police vehicles in general. Unfortunately, too many officers are lost each year while operating a police vehicle, but this type of engineering development will hopefully contribute to reducing those losses. It is a fact that officers today are protected by vehicles far safer than ones built even 10 years ago. All three OEMs deserve huge credit and we should applaud them for their never-ending commitment to keeping all first responders safe in their vehicles.
MSP found that in the driving dynamics test, the Charger 5.7L AWD had the fastest average lap speed of all vehicles tested at 1:36:31. The PIU 3.0L EcoBoost had the fastest average lap of all SUVs tested (1:36:52). During brake testing, the Charger 3.6L RWD & AWD had a slightly longer stopping distance from last year from 60 mph. Last year was 127.2 feet versus 129.7 feet for this year. But the quickest stopping vehicle was the lighter Ford Mustang Mach E at 125 feet. For the big SUVs, the new brake package on the Tahoe PPV seems to be working as that stopped 0–60 in 129 feet for RWD and 131.5 feet for the AWD. The Durango Pursuit 3.6L came in at 133.8 feet and the V8 Durango in at 136.6 feet.
VEHICLE DYNAMICS TESTINGVehicles Chevrolet Tahoe 5.3L RWD
Drivers AGEMA DARLINGTON LOONEY ROGERS
Lap 1 01:39.66 01:38.21 01:38.06 01:37.90
Lap 2 01:39.34 01:37.92 01:38.06 01:37.68
Lap 3 01:39.24 01:37.85 01:38.06 01:38.04
Chevrolet Tahoe 5.3L 4WD
LOONEY ROGERS MERCER AGEMA
01:38.98 01:38.98 01:38.01 01:39.90
01:39.17 01:38.68 01:38.29 01:39.92
01:39.30 01:38.74 01:38.06 01:40.34
Dodge Charger 3.6L AWD
DARLINGTON LOONEY ROGERS MERCER
01:37.95 01:38.12 01:37.28 01:37.39
01:38.04 01:38.63 01:37.04 01:37.64
01:37.52 01:38.25 01:37.23 01:37.77
Dodge Charger 5.7L RWD
AGEMA DARLINGTON LOONEY ROGERS
01:36.98 01:36.56 01:36.84 01:36.08
01:36.64 01:36.05 01:36.65 01:35.84
01:36.65 01:36.01 01:36.74 01:35.97
Dodge Durango 3.6L AWD
ROGERS MERCER AGEMA DARLINGTON
01:40.65 01:41.45 01:42.03 01:41.27
01:40.45 01:41.04 01:41.89 01:41.56
01:40.61 01:41.01 01:42.01 01:41.52
Dodge Durango 5.7L AWD
ROGERS MERCER AGEMA DARLINGTON
01:38.57 01:38.19 01:40.26 01:38.91
01:38.54 01:37.98 01:39.70 01:38.71
01:38.25 01:38.02 01:39.92 01:38.59
01:39.60 01:38.69 01:38.36 01:39.32
01:39.75 01:38.72 01:38.48 01:39.69
01:40.14 01:38.92 01:38.56 01:39.77
Ford Police Interceptor Utility Hybrid AWD LOONEY ROGERS MERCER AGEMA
22 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
Lap 4 Lap 5 Average 01:38.83 01:39.08 01:39.23 01:37.58 01:37.81 01:37.87 01:37.87 01:38.23 01:38.06 01:38.01 01:38.23 01:37.97 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:38.28 01:39.28 01:39.30 01:39.21 01:38.76 01:38.70 01:38.77 01:37.66 01:38.33 01:38.07 01:40.30 01:40.59 01:40.21 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:39.07 01:37.65 01:37.55 01:37.74 01:38.26 01:38.70 01:38.39 01:37.27 01:37.36 01:37.24 01:37.47 01:37.34 01:37.52 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:37.72 01:36.54 01:36.85 01:36.73 01:36.27 01:36.35 01:36.25 01:36.63 01:36.86 01:36.74 01:36.02 01:36.11 01:36.00 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:36.43 01:40.52 01:40.48 01:40.54 01:41.74 01:41.88 01:41.42 01:41.60 01:41.79 01:41.86 01:41.80 01:41.15 01:41.46 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:41.32 01:38.55 01:38.42 01:38.47 01:38.13 01:38.02 01:38.07 01:40.24 01:40.26 01:40.08 01:38.87 01:38.94 01:38.81 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:38.85 01:39.78 01:39.66 01:39.78 01:38.95 01:38.90 01:38.84 01:38.56 01:38.64 01:38.52 01:39.20 01:39.38 01:39.47 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:39.15
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COVER STORY 2021 Michigan State Police Vehicle Testing for 2022 Models
VEHICLE DYNAMICS TESTING- (cont.) Vehicles Drivers Lap 1 Ford Police Interceptor Utility 3.0L EcoBoost AWD MERCER 01:35.69 AGEMA 01:36.89 DARLINGTON 01:35.66 LOONEY 01:36.35
01:35.76 01:36.95 01:35.79 01:36.64
01:35.06 01:36.22 01:35.40 01:36.13
01:35.54 01:35.57 01:35.53 01:36.40 01:36.85 01:36.66 01:35.21 01:35.82 01:35.58 01:36.02 01:36.21 01:36.27 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:36.01
Ford Police Interceptor Utility 3.3L AWD DARLINGTON LOONEY ROGERS MERCER
01:38.65 01:39.47 01:38.31 01:37.99
01:38.43 01:39.29 01:38.70 01:37.81
01:38.50 01:39.07 01:38.68 01:38.27
01:38.45 01:37.72 01:38.35 01:39.59 01:39.48 01:39.38 01:38.50 01:38.29 01:38.49 01:38.45 01:38.29 01:38.16 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:38.60
Ford F-150 Police Responder 3.5L EcoBoost MERCER 01:39.04 AGEMA 01:39.06 DARLINGTON 01:38.89 LOONEY 01:39.75
01:38.80 01:38.99 01:38.18 01:39.56
01:38.92 01:39.08 01:39.01 01:39.39
01:38.79 01:39.09 01:38.93 01:39.14 01:39.00 01:39.05 01:39.11 01:38.83 01:38.81 01:39.63 01:39.06 01:39.48 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:39.07
Ford Mustang Mach-E AWD Vehicle Driver Time of Run State of Charge MCCARTHY 8:12 MCCARTHY 9:23 MCCARTHY 11:42 MCCARTHY 13:38
99% 80% 87% 75%
01:40.84 01:40.67 01:41.08 01:40.14
01:42.50 01:41.98 01:41.89 01:42.35
01:42.10 01:42.79 01:42.71 01:42.58
01:42.08 01:42.67 01:42.88 01:42.84
Last year, BMW submitted both the 750GS & 850GS for testing, but this year, they did not enter either of those models. To obtain specific detailed test results for the motorcycles and the vehicles, see the MSP website or obtain a copy of their annual report that is normally released in November following the September testing. https://www.michigan.gov/msp/0,4643,7-123-72297_30536_53738---,00.html
24 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
End Battery Average State of Charge 01:42.17 70% 01:41.94 01:42.93 51% 01:42.21 01:43.72 57% 01:42.46 01:42.96 48% 01:42.17 OVERALL AVERAGE 01:42.19
Sergeant Brad Brewer is a 30-year member of the Vancouver Police Department. He was an eight-year member of the Ford Police Advisory Board and regularly gives presentations at law enforcement conferences on mobile computing, wireless technology and police vehicle ergonomics. He can be reached at email@example.com.
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PFM Goes One-on-One with Fleet Managers Across the Country
POLICE FLEET MANAGER GOES ONE-ON-ONE WITH FLEET MANAGERS ACROSS THE COUNTRY PFM WINTER 2021 BY POLICE FLEET MANAGER STAFF
olice vehicles are integral to law enforcement agencies operating efficiently and effectively. Officers spend a lot of time in their patrol cars, and they have become a mobile office in many respects. Managing these fleets is a major responsibility, regardless if an agency is small or large. Although terrain and weather conditions might impact the wear and tear on police vehicles, there are several other issues that can affect any department’s fleet, whether it is located on the East Coast, West Coast, or in the Midwest. After a successful Police Fleet Expo 2021, Police Fleet Manager talked to more fleet managers about how their jobs have changed over the past several years and the topics they are most concerned about.
LIEUTENANT PAUL (PJ) FERNANDES Assistant Fleet Manager Massachusetts State Police Question: How long have you been a Fleet Manager? Answer: I have been with the Massachusetts State Police (MSP) since 1996. I started out on the road as a trooper, then moved up to Sergeant and Lieutenant. During that time, I handled upfitting of our vehicles and was an EVOC instructor. I also was involved in the procurement and the budgeting process, which gave me a good understanding of the vehicles and how we buy them from start to finish. Since 2015, I have been the Assistant Fleet Manager. Q: What are a few of your key, primary responsibilities? A: Typically, the day-to-day responsibilities, what comes in for procurement as well as fuel accounts, etc. I manage and oversee what the needs are and what we are buying, and what goes into the Command Post and Special Events. I oversee basic fleet operations plus all the small things that go into a department’s fleet. We have six different garages, as our fleet has 3,200 vehicles total, with 1,600 of them in front-line patrol. The remainder are administrative, trailers, generators, and heavy-duty vehicles.
26 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
Q: If you had to pick one or two fleet-related issues that “keep you up on a Sunday night” what would they be? A: I try not to have anything keep me up at night, otherwise, it can drive you crazy. But if I had to pick one thing, it would probably be funding. If you don’t have money, you are out of business. You need funds to buy new cars, maintain them, and purchase equipment in order to keep officers happy. Also, we are nothing without our employees. At one point, our mechanics were underpaid, so we went to bat for them so they could negotiate a higher pay rate. Working with state budgets can be challenging. Ultimately, we want to put out a good, safe vehicle and always want to try to do better. Q: Have you ever been to Police Fleet Expo? If so, what was your experience like? A: Yes, I have been to PFE the last 5 years. I think it is the best thing going for a fleet manager. It is perfectly designed, offering everything in one place… You can see and talk to the Big 3, which is great. The clinics and sessions are so valuable because you can discuss issues in person instead of via email or phone. I always tell other fleet managers that they need to go to PFE. The last PFE in Richmond was a home run! Q: How do you keep up on new vehicles, new vehicle equipment, new products in the market? Include all that apply. A: By going to trade shows like PFE, and if I had to pick just one, it would definitely be PFE. Manufacturer rep visits can be difficult since walk-ins are hard if you are busy and not expecting a visit. However, setting a time or appointment with a rep to see the latest products up close is helpful. We usually have 3–4 reps come in per month. Email is typically better than postcards or flyers, but I do try to look at them all. In addition, I was selected to be on the Ford Police Advisory Board (PAB), and the General Motors Law Enforcement Council, both an honor I take very seriously. I find information gathered from these meetings extremely interesting. Also, talking to colleagues helps with learning new tools of the trade. Just because you have done something for a long time doesn’t necessarily mean there isn’t a better way. Q: Who actually makes the vehicle purchasing decisions within your agency? Include all that apply. A: My boss, the fleet manager, makes the purchasing decisions. We sit down and look at the department needs and formulate a plan that works best with the available funding.
PROFILES PFM Goes One-on-One with Fleet Managers Across the Country
Q: Who makes the following purchasing decisions, in your agency, regarding: Vehicles: The Fleet Administrator and myself; we formulate a replacement plan based on needs of the department. Radios: Our Radio section determines radio type and style for each vehicle. Body Cameras: Body and vehicle cameras are decided upon by the Captain in charge of body cameras. He consults with the Fleet department for installation in each vehicle. Rugged Laptops or other items for the vehicle: Laptops are purchased through our IT department. We work with them to come up with a mounting dock solution for vehicles. Lightbars and other exterior equipment for the vehicle: Lightbars and graphics are decided by the Fleet department. Q: Is it difficult to get vehicles or vehicle parts right now, due to the supply chains being disrupted during the pandemic? A: That is the hot topic around the world right now. We actually have the highest funding this year. Our agency put orders in for new equipment and are hoping for the best. The Big 3 will give us straight answers on when to expect things, they are not going to candy coat it. I still can’t get specialty or big-ticket items; however, we are OK on the basics. Q: Is hiring, good, qualified personnel to work within the fleet departments a problem? Do you have several vacancies? A: We have a mix of both sworn and civilian personnel working within our fleet. They have exposure to all the assets of the fleet to better understand what goes into upfitting the vehicles. The key to long-term commitment, knowledge, and experience is time. Time and experience cannot be replaced. We do not currently have any vacancies. Q: Are the costs of maintaining a police fleet (or fleet of vehicles) coming in higher than other years or about the same? A: I would say definitely higher—everything is going up. We were able to secure a contract price for new cars, which I was shocked we could get. Fuel is high so we will have to adjust to that expense. Q: How are you handling all the new technology in the vehicles today…is it making your job easier or more complicated? A: Both—there is really a lot of stuff in the cars today. Teaching all of the new technology to officers takes time. Some of the lightbar and dimming packages are complex. Overall, some products make things easier and some products can make things more complicated. Q: What effect has the global semiconductor shortage had on your fleet? A: It has affected getting certain parts, for sure. For example, it is taking around 30 weeks to get a new chassis on a F-350 now. We are also working on fiscal year constraints. It is tough, you certainly need patience. Luckily, we ordered 150 cars in one year and received all of them, but some agencies are not getting their orders that quickly. We are very fortunate as an agency, having good regional representatives with effective communication and established relationships.
28 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
LIEUTENANT BARRY A. DUFEK Administrative Commander Purcellville, VA Police Department Question: How long have you been a Fleet Manager? Answer: I am the administrative commander who oversees the fleet management program for our department. I cannot take full credit, as I have people that work really hard under me that “make great decisions based on the 21st Century Policing” model. This means that keeping up with the newest and best equipment can be a full-time job. Q: What are a few of your key, primary responsibilities? A: Fleet Management is only one of my core responsibilities. I also oversee Accreditation, Policy, Background Investigations, Internal Affairs Investigations, Records Management, FOIA, in addition to all that goes into Fleet Management. Q: If you had to pick one or two fleet-related issues that “keep you up on a Sunday night” what would they be? A: Being a driver training instructor, as well as a master motorcycle instructor, tire pressure and having “good” tires on a vehicle is always a level of stress for me. Officers respond to emergencies, driving fast even in unpleasant conditions, and tires are so critically important to the safety of our officers. Q: Have you ever been to Police Fleet Expo? If so, what was your experience like? A: The 2021 Police Fleet Expo was my first event of many that I plan to attend. Q: How do you keep up on new vehicles, new vehicle equipment, new products in the market? Include all that apply. A: Being in the driver training industry, us as instructors speak regularly about the best equipment on the market, and test the newest and best out there before making decisions on what to place in or on our vehicles. My department does receive e-mail solicitation, mail, and as I explained previously, we attend trade shows. I speak with many of the other Northern Virginia fleet managers. Q: Who actually makes the vehicle purchasing decisions within your agency? Include all that apply. A: Although I make the decisions on what equipment and which vehicles we go with, this is always predicated on what the Town Council allocates funds for. Q: Who makes the following purchasing decisions, in your agency, regarding: Vehicles, Radios, Body Cameras, Rugged Laptops or other items for the vehicle, Lightbars and other exterior equipment for the vehicle A: Ultimately, we have a conversation with our fleet management team where we discuss need versus want, and then we look at the latest equipment options available. This is true for all the items listed above.
PROFILES PFM Goes One-on-One with Fleet Managers Across the Country Q: Is it difficult to get vehicles or vehicle parts right now, due to the supply chains being disrupted during the pandemic? A: I have not had a hard time getting my hands on vehicles during the pandemic. Q: Is hiring, good, qualified personnel to work within the fleet departments a problem? Do you have several vacancies? A: I cannot speak to this, as we keep fleet management as an ancillary duty. Q: Are the costs of maintaining a police fleet (or fleet of vehicles) coming in higher than other years or about the same? A: As our vehicles increase in age, we tend to see an uptick in maintenance costs, mainly because vehicles go out of warranty. Q: How are you handling all the new technology in the vehicles today…is it making your job easier or more complicated? A: Technology is always good. Having electronic citation, MDTs, cameras, stands, etc., in our vehicles make training more difficult since having a training officer and trainee in one vehicle with all the equipment proves tight. With that said, the more technology and information we can gather, the safer our jobs become. Q: What effect has the global semiconductor shortage had on your fleet? A: We have not seen an issue with this.
OFFICER JONATHAN HICKEL Technology Division Alpharetta, GA Police Department Question: How long have you been a Fleet Manager? Answer: I have been a Police Officer with the City of Alpharetta for the past 15 years. For the last 10 years, I have been assigned to our Department’s Technology Division where I assist in the planning, procuring, upfitting, and repair of our vehicles, emergency equipment, and technology, both inside and outside of the car. I started my career with Alpharetta Police as an Explorer in November of 2000 and became a 911 Dispatcher in 2006. After six months, I went to the Police Academy and worked both night and days shifts in Patrol. In May of 2011, I started a six-month temporary assignment to work under the 911 Director to get our Fleet and Technology needs squared away. Ten years later, I am still having a blast supporting our Police, Fire, and 911 Departments with our vehicle, technology, and radio needs. I am the Commander of the Department’s Honor Guard, a Lead Advisor to the Alpharetta Police Explorer Post, and was recently been appointed to Ford Motor Company’s Police Advisory Board in February of 2020. My wife is also an Officer with Alpharetta, serving on the Bicycle Patrol in the Community Services Unit. Together, we make a pretty jam-up team, although she does drive the nicer truck! Q: What are a few of your key, primary responsibilities? A: #1: First responsibility is to be on-call for issues with our officers’ equipment, especially our nightshift folks who are often forgotten. If it 30 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
can’t be fixed or mitigated, what can I do to get the officer back on the street? With such a reliance on technology these days, downtime has an impact to the officer, their shift, the general public, and our budget. It is a delicate balance to keep our operations running smoothly. # 2: Staying up to date with the constant changes in technology, practices, vehicles, and equipment. Exposure to new items and ideas helps you validate your existing practices and equipment or show you where improvements can be made. While planning and budget are important factors in Fleet Management, I like to keep in mind that I am outfitting their office for a 12-hour shift; what will give them the tools and safety they need to complete their jobs? #3: Anything with a battery or a plug comes across my desk! Q: If you had to pick one or two fleet-related issues that “keep you up on a Sunday night” what would they be? A: The Third Tenet of the Below 100 Initiative, is to “Watch your speed.” No matter how many improvements in safety and technology manufacturers incorporate into their vehicles, we need to drive cautiously, defensively, and with Due Regard. Each of us behind the wheel are directly in control of that. No call is so important that we should risk our safety and the safety of the public to get there at an unnecessary speed. Arrive alive! Q: Have you ever been to Police Fleet Expo? If so, what was your experience like? A: My first Police Fleet Expo was St. Louis in 2011. I’ve gone every year since. It is a fantastic event that gets you directly in touch with the manufacturers and dealers of the equipment we use every day and exposes you to the latest and greatest trends and equipment. There is incredible support from the “Big Three” vehicle manufacturers to commit to releasing information and having open dialogue on their products, directly with their users. In addition, they provide vehicles for a Ride and Drive event that lets you get hands-on experience finding the best vehicle for your agency. The networking, breakout, and education sessions are invaluable to fleet managers both old and new. With a rotating location, it makes it convenient to attend and inexpensive to travel. Police Fleet Expo has cemented itself as a premier event every year where many manufacturers choose to introduce, announce, and launch new products and services. Q: How do you keep up on new vehicles, new vehicle equipment, new products in the market? Include all that apply. A: Police Fleet Expo and IACP are my go-to trade shows. They offer the best value for the money for exposure to equipment, practices, and technology. Once you attend those shows, you are bound to get email solicitations from reps who reach out or email blasts from the marketing department. With so many things vying for our time and attention, the more information we can glean digitally, the better, especially the digital editions of Police Fleet Manager magazine! Word of mouth from colleagues, other officers, and your local upfitter are invaluable. We can’t be expected to know or see everything out there. Take advantage of all the resources you can to make your department better! Q: Who actually makes the vehicle purchasing decisions within your agency? Include all that apply. A: There is a small committee of people that has input into the decision. Special requests can come in from certain units that have to be evaluated and talked through to make sure we accomplish their goals with the right
equipment, vehicle, and technology. After that, we budget for new vehicles based on established replacement criteria and present that to the Chief to present to our City Council. We are fortunate to have a well-funded capital expenditure account to purchase new vehicles on a yearly basis. Q: Who makes the following purchasing decisions, in your agency, regarding: Vehicles, Radios, Body Cameras, Rugged Laptops, or other items for the vehicle Lightbars and other exterior equipment for the vehicle. A: We are locked into certain vendors for certain equipment based on local and regional contracts and commitments. We are part of a regional radio system authority, which uses Motorola and we have identified them as sole source provider. One of my recent projects was to evaluate, procure, and deploy replacement portable radios for Police and Fire and we should have it wrapped up by the end of November! For Body Cameras, we launched an RFP process with a team to evaluate multiple vendors to secure a five-year contract. I have to work closely with our city’s IT department to select and configure laptops to public safety’s specification. Vehicle purchases are usually dictated by the needs of the units, but we are moving to SUVs and pickup trucks overall. We like uniformity in the fleet, so we standardize with certain vendors for emergency lighting and interior consoles and cages so that the user experience is similar across patrol and admin vehicles. A big part of our decision-making process is to expose ourselves to new technology, ideas, and products, while tempering wishes against our budget, to deliver a functional and safe product for our users in the field. Q: Is it difficult to get vehicles or vehicle parts right now, due to the supply chains being disrupted during the pandemic? A: We are seeing shortages, delays, and items out of stock. So far, we have been able to weather the storm, but we are definitely feeling the effects! Q: Is hiring, good, qualified personnel to work within the fleet departments a problem? Do you have several vacancies? A: We outsource all our work to dealerships, local vendors, and upfitters. We manage processes in house, but the labor is being done by third parties. In talking with our vendors, they are experiencing increasing demand for their services with dwindling labor resources. That, in turn, means delays in our vehicles and equipment being serviced and upfit! Q: Are the costs of maintaining a police fleet (or fleet of vehicles) coming in higher than other years or about the same? A: We are seeing slight increases due to material costs going up, year model changes in vehicles have increased base price costs, and fuel costs have risen
slightly. We are fortunate to have a “young” fleet, so maintenance costs have been flat the past few years. Q: How are you handling all the new technology in the vehicles today…is it making your job easier or more complicated? A: We always have to examine the cost-benefit analysis of technology in our fleet. Do I want telematic data from our vehicles? Yes, I do. But can I afford the monthly subscription cost per vehicle on top of the cellular service, the lease on equipment, and the other software-as-a-service monthly costs? Maybe it is worth it. Maybe some of our existing equipment has the ability to perform this function at a reduced cost. I will always make the case for technology and equipment that will make our officers safer, their jobs easier, and their “mobile office” more efficient. It may not happen overnight, but presenting detailed, logical, and thoughtful presentations and arguments is the right way to get the job done. Q: What effect has the global semiconductor shortage had on your fleet? A: Delays in vehicle and laptop delivery have been our only two so far. I would anticipate supply-chain issues on a number of products and equipment going forward, but despite those concerns, we will do the best we can with what we have!
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Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021 31
Semiconductor Chip Shortage
SEMICONDUCTOR CHIP SHORTAGE
BY BRAD BREWER
32 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
t was around December 2020 when we first started to hear rumblings of a semiconductor chip shortage. Before that, semiconductor chips were never really talked about in mainstream conversation. Then, we heard it wasn’t that bad, that it would likely only affect vehicle production for a short period, as chipmakers turned their production back toward the automakers. Lead times of six months are often required, as the nanoscopic circuitry on a chip is printed on silicon substrates in a series of painstakingly long production steps that takes weeks.
The shortage only became acute following a chain of unrelated events that limited supplies of raw chip wafers right at the source. First, a winter cold snap caused rolling blackouts at Texas chip fabs operated by Infineon, NXP, and Samsung, before a freak fire in March at key Japanese supplier Renesas compounded the problem. Then, the COVID-19 outbreak brought downstream supply to a halt in Malaysia and Vietnam, a low-wage hub where chips are packaged into finished products for final shipping. Some predicted a devastating result with as many as 9.4 million cars, or more than a tenth of the industry’s pre-pandemic output, possibly being eliminated from production plans. “Because of a 50-cent chip, we are unable to build a car that sells for $50,000,” said Murat Aksel, head of procurement for Volkswagen Group. Most people seem to forget that when it comes to the electronic circuits that power our everyday lives, the automobile is at the same time the world’s most expensive consumer good and also the item that runs on the cheapest possible semiconductor chips. Estimates of how many chips are in a vehicle today are hard to come by and depends on who you talk to. Estimates range between 300–500 per vehicle depending on options, but automakers aren’t really forthcoming when it comes to confirming chip counts per vehicle. Dozens of chips found in everything from electronic brake systems to airbag control units tend to rely on legacy technology, often well over a decade old. These employ comparatively simple transistors that can be anywhere from 45 nanometers to as much as 90 nanometers in size, far too large and too primitive to be suitable for today’s computers or smartphones. When the pandemic hit, replacement demand for bigticket items like new cars was pushed back while sales of all kinds of home devices soared. When the car market roared back months later, chipmakers had already reallocated their capacity. Why build legacy chips for the automakers when
the tech market wants cutting-edge smaller and faster chips? Now, these processors are in short supply, and chipmakers are telling car companies to wake up and finally join the 2010s. If semiconductor suppliers like Intel and Qualcomm have their way, however, the days of the auto industry relying on these cheap commodity chips are numbered. Carmakers have bombarded Intel, Qualcomm, and other manufacturers with requests to invest in brand-new production capacity for semiconductors featuring designs that, at best, were state-ofthe-art 10 years ago. Intel came to the auto show to convince carmakers they needed to let go of the distant past. Rather than spending billions on new ‘old’ fabs, the automakers need to spend millions to help migrate current module designs to more modern ones. The brutal cost pressure carmakers exert on their suppliers, which source the chips for their various components, is undoubtedly part of why the processors they use tend to be bulk
Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021 33
FEATURE Semiconductor Chip Shortage
commodity products. But it isn’t the only one: Reliability plays a significant concern. Most systems in cars are safety-critical and need to perform in practically every situation regardless of temperature, humidity, vibrations, and even minor road debris. With so much at stake, tried-and-true legacy is still better than cuttingedge smaller and faster. Unlike Intel, Qualcomm cannot directly help by investing in the expansion of capacity. Instead, the U.S. company is a fabless chipmaker, which relies on dedicated contract manufacturers called foundries that build its semiconductors for it. Unfortunately, that’s precisely where the bottleneck is most acute. “For the foundries, investing in the old technology is much less attractive because sooner or later, there will be a migration to the new technology,” Enrico Salvatori, president of Qualcomm Europe, said in an interview. He is also working with the car industry to accelerate the transition, but he concedes it’s not an easy fix. “The new technologies are not pin-to-pin compatible; it’s not plug-and-play,” Salvatori said. “You have to redesign the circuit, build a new board that might have to be recertified; maybe there’s some impact on the mechanical side that then could affect the car’s chassis. So, there is a domino effect of action needed.” As if the global pandemic wasn’t enough of a negative effect on the automotive sector, but for the bulk of 2021, the semiconductor chip shortage has heavily impacted automotive production. It is projected to cost automakers upward of $210 billion in losses this year alone. If being completely honest, most would also agree no one really knows when the chip supply might begin to catch up with demand, with estimates ranging from as early as mid2022 to 2024 or even later. Government and large fleet accounts are essential to all the automakers, especially the big three, but let’s not kid ourselves. The automakers must do what will profit their shareholders, and moving chips around to build high-profit trucks and SUVs is likely the first choice. That said, they also want to ensure public safety has vehicles to do their vital work, so special priority is being given to building police vehicles. Samsung, the massive South Korean company, will invest $151 million in chip production through 2030, according to a report from Reuters, which comes as South Korea just announced a new round of loans and tax breaks for domestic chipmakers. The country will increase its tax breaks for those companies from a planned 3% to 6% from Q3 2021 to 2024 while also handing out $883 million in loans. “Countries worldwide have entered a fierce competition by re-
34 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
organizing supply chains around their own country,” said South Korean President Moon Jae-in. We need pre-emptive investments to strengthen the domestic industrial ecosystem and lead the global supply chain to make this opportunity ours.” Samsung is in the process of building a third production line at its existing plant near Seoul to become the world’s largest chipmaker by 2030. General Motors CEO Mary Barra recently commented on the impact of the computer chip shortage, acknowledging that the company was recently hit hard, but noted that she expects “improvement in the fourth quarter.” “In the third quarter, we were hit maybe harder than most because some of the specific facilities in Malaysia were heavily impacted by COVID,” Barra told FOX Business correspondent Grady Trimble ahead of the company’s two-day investor event in suburban Detroit. “We had a team of people there. We shared our safety protocols to enable them to get people back to work safely, and that’s why we have confidence as we move forward [that] we’ll start to see more and more recoveries.” She then noted that she anticipates continued improvement into 2022. Barra also stressed the importance of making sure the company has a “strong supply” long term “because we see tremendous growth.” Barra also discussed the electric vehicle push on Wednesday. The Detroit automaker promised to double its annual revenue by 2030 with several new electric vehicles, profitable gas-powered cars, and trucks, as well as services such as an electronic driving system. Ultra Cruise, GM’s next generation of the electronic hands-free driver-assist system, will be able to take on 95% of driving tasks. The system is expected in selected Cadillac luxury vehicles in 2023, according to the company. “GM is transitioning from an automaker to a platform innovator,” Barra told Trimble. “We have some of the most beautiful vehicles we’ve had on the road in my career, but then also being able to have a complete software and services business on top of that opens up tremendous growth with a very different margin structure,” she added. GM plans to spend $35 billion to roll out more than 30 new battery vehicles worldwide by 2025. The company has set a goal of selling only electric passenger vehicles by 2035, and Trimble noted on Wednesday that the company is still on track to meet that goal, according to Barra. More than half of GM’s North America and China factories are expected to be capable of making electric vehicles by 2030, according to the company. General Motors Co. said it expects the production-snarling semiconductor shortage to last into next year, a view that weighed on its stock price even after reporting better-than-expected earnings for the third quarter. “It will linger into next year, and right now, our feeling is that we’ll be in much better shape in the
FEATURE Semiconductor Chip Shortage
second half of 2022,” Barra said in an interview with Bloomberg Television. The flip side of lower production volumes is higher vehicle prices due to depleted inventories. That helped lift GM’s revenue 10% in the first nine months of the year to $93.4 billion. The upbeat earnings came despite a previously announced 33% drop in sales volume for the quarter, stemming from low production at factories and thin inventory at dealers. Barra cited pent-up demand for GM’s sport-utility vehicles and trucks, characterizing the chip shortage as a “near-term” issue. She said that GM is working with chipmakers to ensure this supply chain glitch is not a recurring problem. “Our third-quarter 2021 results clearly illustrate the strength of the underlying business that is funding our future, especially when you put them in the context of the calendar year,” Barra said in a letter to shareholders. “As a result, we now believe GM’s full-year results will approach the high end of our guidance.” The semiconductor chip crunch was the critical storyline for Stellantis as the automaker reported its vehicle shipments and revenues for the third quarter of 2021. As expected, the lack of chip supply dinged both numbers, although the automaker pointed to key vehicle launches in its Jeep brand as highlights. The company, which also counts Ram, Dodge, and Chrysler among its brands, reported shipments of 1.1 million vehicles, a 27% drop compared with the third quarter of 2020. Those numbers would have been better, according to a news release, if not for the limited semiconductor chip supply, which cut planned production in the quarter by 30%, or 600,000 vehicles. With fewer vehicles available to ship, revenues were also down. The company reported net revenues of $37.8 billion (32.6 billion euros), a drop of 14% compared with the same period a year ago. Stellantis reported a 14% fall in third-quarter revenue on a Pro-forma basis after semiconductor shortages cut planned quarterly production by 30%, or 600,000 vehicles. “The level of chip shortage was probably slightly higher than what we had expected when we last spoke to the market in August,” Chief Financial Officer Richard Palmer said, adding that the full-year total of lost production due to the chip shortage would top a previous forecast of 1.4 million units. But Palmer said the business has seen a “moderate” improvement on the chip supply situation this month compared to September. He expects the trend to continue through the fourth quarter. Ford Motor Company plans to increase its short and long-
36 Police Fleet Manager Winter 2021
term supply of semiconductor chips through a new partnership with GlobalFoundries. The Detroit automaker and New Yorkbased chip supplier announced the signing of a nonbinding agreement for a strategic partnership that aims to increase the supply of chips to Ford from GlobalFoundries. Officials said the tie-up could eventually result in new chip designs specifically for Ford and increased domestic production and supply of chips for the overall automotive industry. The companies declined to discuss financial details of the agreement or how much GlobalFoundries will increase supplies to Ford in the near term. This collaboration does not involve cross-ownership between the two companies. Mike Hogan, GlobalFoundries senior vice president and general manager of automotive, said the agreement is part of a multipronged approach for the company to improve the supply of chips to the automotive industry. “There will be some near-term expansion of capacity … but this is about building a different future,” Hogan said during the joint interview. “The automotive industry is fundamental to our strategy.” The partnership comes as automakers such as Ford are still battling through a global shortage of semiconductor chips that has sporadically caused plant closures for the past year. It also follows the Biden administration urging companies to onshore manufacturing supply chains, including semiconductor chips. “This agreement is just the beginning and a key part of our plan to vertically integrate key technologies and capabilities that will differentiate Ford far into the future,” Ford CEO Jim Farley said in a statement. Th e reality is this; nothing can happen overnight. North American semiconductor chip manufacturers are rapidly trying to make up ground and increase capacity within the United States and reduce reliance on the Far East but let’s be honest, that takes years, not months. The automotive sector is at a crucial crossroads for electronic system designs. Invest in current legacy technologies because they are proven safe and effective but outdated or redesign components to accept semiconductor chips the rest of the tech world is using. The answer is likely both, but at what rate, nobody knows. As 2022 is only weeks away, it’s possible things will improve as we move through Q1 and Q2, but any significant improvement would be difficult to imagine before 2023 at the earliest.
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