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According to WebMD, “Secondhand smoking can kill.” Many surgeons have confirmed that no amount of exposure to secondhand smoke is safe. When a smoker is around a non-smoker, the non-smoker breathes in almost the same amount of chemicals as the smoker breathes in. From Tobaccofreemain.org, “Secondhand smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals, more than 60 of which are known to cause cancer.” All these chemicals breathed in are harmful and can cause cancer. This shows that even nonsmokers basically are smoking when they are around smokers because they are equally exposed to the same amount of health risks.


Every year in the United States, there are nearly 50,000 non-smokers dying from secondhand smoke exposure. In addition, 126 million non-smokers are exposed to secondhand smoke at home and work in the United States. Secondhand smoking affects an adult’s health phenomenally. Because of the presence of smokers, non-smokers are at risk of developing lung cancer and the risk increases from 20 percent to 30 percent and heart disease increases from 25 percent to 30 percent. In addition, not only are adults affected but children as well.

For children, the effects are detrimental. Secondhand smoking causes children to develop health condition such as sever asthma. Children are more vulnerable to the effect of secondhand smoke than adults are because the children are still growing. Since the children’s bodies are still growing, and a smoker releases the cigarette chemicals into the air, the harmful chemicals go inside their body and affect the child’s health tremendously. Continuous exposure will cause children to develop severe asthma attacks, respiratory infections, ear infections, chronic coughs, and worst of all, infant death syndrome. These are only a few but the most common of the many effects that secondhand smoking has on children.


Furthermore, 60 percent of the children from age three to eleven are exposed to secondhand smoke. Knowing the causes of secondhand smoke, smokers should be aware of where they smoke. The nonsmokers are innocent yet; they are facing similar health conditions because they are around smokers. The health effects for adults are different from the children. The most common effects of secondhand In addition, children breathe at a

smoke are cancer and heart disease

faster rate compared to adults,

and this is caused from a long period

meaning that in the same time

of exposure. From the chemicals, lung

interval, the children breathe in

cancer is the most common for

much more chemicals. Due to a

secondhand exposure. However, it is

faster breathing rate, their health is

not the only form of cancer that can

affected more and shockingly,

develop. Cervical cancer and breast

more than 40 percent of the

cancer are other types that have been

children in America visit the

discovered to have an increased risk

emergency room because of the

due to the smoke exposure. The

severe asthma attacks that has

worst-case scenario is when to the

developed from living with

body when it is exposed to smoke is

smokers. Children will not develop

that the platelets get sticky and that

their lungs properly and will most

raises the level of artery clogging and

likely have weak lungs and will

that will damage the lining of the

continuously get weaker as they

blood vessels and soon, the blood

get older.

vessels will be blocked and that will cause a heart attack or a strong and a person may die from this.


Furthermore, to the pregnant women, their health is being affected and so is the baby’s. During pregnancy, a woman’s body is vulnerable because anything she takes in will affect the baby. So if a pregnant woman was to be exposed to secondhand smoke, it can change the way a baby’s brain develops. What the worst thing it can happen is that the exposure can cause an infant death syndrome. This is when the baby suddenly and unexpectedly dies before of age one. Babies who do not die from sudden infant death syndrome will have many health problems in the future. In addition, mothers who are around secondhand smoke are more likely to have lower birth weights and they will face health problems in the future as well. To prevent this from happening, smokers should not smoke around people. Instead they should take it outside into the open air so the people around them will not breathe in the chemicals.


Another solution is to create a law, like what Maine has done, banning smoking by the driver or any passenger whenever a child is in the car under the age of 16. These are one of the many lies that can protect innocent lives from being exposed to secondhand smoking. In addition, Maine has taken the initiative to provide free Smoke-Free Homes Pledge kit. Every state and country should attempt to take an initiative to pass laws and provide kits that will help smokers not smoke around others. Non-smokers and smokers should be educated on this matter and realize that some of these health conditions can be prevented if tried. Smokers should take the initiative to smoke outside and away from others. Non-smokers should stay away from smokers when they are smoking and try their best to not breathe any in. By doing so, many lives can be saved and more people can become healthier and live longer.


Through the movie “Pacific Rim”, Guillermo del Toro is telling viewers that in times of crisis, countries should come together to be stronger instead of being divided because of each nations’ differences. Movies other than “Pacific Rim” show nations coming together when extraterrestrial life forms are threatening the earth’s peace. For example, in “Independence Day”, directed by Roland Emmerich, one of the ending scenes include all the of the ending scenes include all the fighter jets attacking the alien spacecraft representing humanity and not just as individual nations. Pacific Rim can be seen as Toro’s message to tell the world that we need to depend on each other, and not just rely on the top countries for the solution. Countries need to support one another and through the movie “Pacific Rim”, we see this message play out. Pacific Rim is about the Jaeger Program and how the United States funded a robotic research program in order to defend its people from Kaiju attacks. Kaijus are inter-dimensional dinosaurs that were created by the aliens in order to take over planet earth. These Kaijus first started appearing on the coast of California, from the Pacific Ocean.


They killed thousands of people and others put cities into ruins. The Kaiju attacks started occurring in Australia and many other Pacific Ocean countries through the beginning of the movie as well. In order to survive these attacks, the Jaeger Program was created. The Jaeger Program is a world-wide project that revolves around defending earth from the invasion of the Kaijus. This program took tough pilots (mentally and physically) in order to successfully pilot the Jaeger robots.

After the fall of the Gipsy Danger, one of the best Jaeger robots that was first built, the United States government cut off the funds for the Jaeger Program. So the Commander of the Jaeger Project had to turn to Hong Kong in order to receive funding and keep fighting with the Kaijus and protect the human race. The countries that came together included Russia, Japan, China, and the United States. When Raleigh Becket, played by Charlie Hunnam, comes into the facility, the other countries are grouped with their own nationality. In this scene, Toro shows us that each nation has its’ own nationalism. But as the movie progressed, Toro showed that all the countries needed to come together and some had to make sacrifices in order to benefit the whole human race. The Jaegers robots require two pilots to function properly. The pilots were tested for compatibility to ensure that the best combination of minds operated a Jaeger. The Jaeger Pilots sync their brains in order to successfully act in as one synchronized team. Each pilot knows what his/her co-pilot’s thoughts are. So that’s how this allows them to be one synchronized synchronous entity when while fighting the Kaijus. Two pilots are required to maneuver the Jaegers because it is too demanding for one pilot’s neural system. Since one pilot can’t control the Jaegers, two people are need instead of one.


Through the pilots of the Jaegers, Toro shows the viewers, in the micro level, that individuals as well as the nations they represent need to come together. During the first scenes of the Jaeger Project at Hong Kong, the main character Raleigh Becket, played by Charlie Hunnam, is looked upon with disgust by the other countries because of the failed mission to protect his country. Then after redeeming himself, the pilots that represented the other countries started accepting him. In one particular scene, the Jaegers were all sent out to fight the Kaijus. One of the Jaegers was stranded and they had no one but the Gipsy Danger to turn to. After successfully defeating the two Kaijus, they earned more respect and they came closer as a group of countries. Rather than giving credit to the only Jaeger that was available to help them, the Jaeger pilots were praised for their hard work, and they became a stronger team. In a situation where one person wasn’t able to handle it by them, they depended on each other and they overcame the obstacle. Not only did the Jaeger Pilots come together, but also the workers that maintained and built the Jaegers got credit and they all came together. Every worker from each individual country united with each other and they completely became united, from the workers to the Jaeger pilots.


In comparison in the real world, many countries gather together for the greater good and help each other when there is a country in need. An example is Hurricane Katrina. When Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf of Mexico many countries send in millions of dollars in order to help United States of America in order to help rebuild the damages caused by the hurricane. Many countries like Afghanistan, Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, and Bangladesh donated more than 3 million dollars in order to aid the Hurricane Katrina survivors and help to rebuild the southern coast from the damages caused by Hurricane Katrina. In one of the scenes, countries around the world came together no matter what and wanted to help one another. Pilots from all over the world came together to one place and fought each other to see the compatibility of each and every pilot and find the perfect pairs to go into the Jaeger Pilots because in order for the Jaeger Pilots to work, they have to be in sync. The perfect pairs were discovered and now there were pilots able to control the Jaegers. In addition, there are scenes that happen in different countries such as Hong Kong, and no matter where the Kaijus are, the Jaeger pilots will travel anywhere in order to defeat the Kaijus. The Jaeger Pilots are protecting every country that is being affected by the Kaijus such as Hong Kong. Another scene that shows that every country is willing to lend their hand out is when one of the Jaegars were in danger and they were in critical condition from an attack by the Kaijus,


the other Jaegers came to the rescue and helped them defeat the Kaiju together. When the Jaegers finally defeated all the Kaijus by finding a way to cross the barrier that separated between humanity and the Kaijus, they dropped the bomb into their dimension of the world and killed all the Kaijus together. Everyone in the world was thrilled and everyone came together to stop the clock when they would get another attack. In the end of the movie, Toro shows the viewers that no one is alone and that a group is more effective rather than an individual. Many nations have differences that they might not be able to accept. Toro sends the viewers the message that if everyone practices individuality, then no one would benefit from that. Sooner or later people will need other people to overcome situations that one person cannot overcome him/herself. This can be seen by the Jaeger Project and even in history of the world that we live in. Countries have come together and stood together in order to overcome obstacles. Pacific Rim may be an awesome sci-fi movie, but it Guillermo del Toro sends the viewers a strong message about nationalism and how nations should give each other a hand when one country is struggling.


The movie I will be analyzing is Pacific Rim. This movie is about the constant attacks from Kaijus from another dimension. Kaijus keep appearing in order to take over the earth, but it is humanity's last chance in saving their planet from their invaders.  From this movie we can see that during hard times, people come together and work together to overcome the obstacles that not one person can face alone. In a base located in Hong Kong, Jaegers pilots from all different countries came to form a fighting force against the Kaijus. Even from the workers to the Commander of the Jaeger Project, everyone was doing their best. During the middle of the movie, the pilots clashed with one another, but when the pilots were in combat at the end of the movie, they came together and fought together without disagreements.


I will show the readers that nations will come together and fight as one force in order to overcome the kaiju invasion. I will show this by showing the audience the scenes in which the jaeger pilots fight the kaijus and depend on one another for assistance so that everyone will survive. This can be related to current events as well. When Hurricane Katrina hit The Gulf of Mexico, thousands were injured and dead. Still thousands were homeless and starving. Worldwide aid groups came to aid these people in order to help them stand back up and get them going again. Many countries such as Afghanistan, Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, and Bangladesh donated millions in order to aid the Katrina survivors and help to rebuild the southern coast from the damages caused by Katrina. I will use more events and scenes from the movie in order to show the audience that people come together in order to overcome hardships that everyone has to face.  


“The One Who Walked Away From Omelas” takes place in an utopic world called Omelas where everyone is happy. However, there is this one section in Le Guin’s passage that shows that everyone is happy but under the influence of substances. The people of Omelas are not truly happy by just being with their families and friends. Le Guin quotes in this section, “I thought at first there were no drugs,… the celebration of courage.”          In this section, Le Guin reveals “drooz” as a source that brings “a great lightness and brilliance to the mind and limbs… a dreamy languor, and wonderful vision…” Le Guin implies that drooz is a form of drug that makes the people of Omelas happy and gives a sense to the reader that the people of Omelas may be not happy but actually sad and this contradicts the idea of a utopia. Omelas seems like society, today , where people find ways to escape their stresses and be happy like drugs, beer, and sex and in this passage, Le Guin mentions sex and alcohol as well. She says that “the pleasure of sex beyond all belief…”, making it sound that people of Omelas use other form of methods to be happy.


In addition, Le Guin mentions the taste of beer as well and the attitude Le Guin mentions beer is in a positive way. As if beer was a relaxor and I think it was for the people of Omelas. It makes me think that maybe Omelas is a sad city and that’s why people leave Omelas, since it isn’t a utopic world like how they perceive it would be when they first entered. Le Guin proves that in this world, there is no utopia and that it is only in the mind where people think that a utopic world can exist.  


Dear Reader, During my journey in English 101, I struggled as a writer. Writing has always been one of my weak points and right now, I still struggle with it. What’s hard is to put my thoughts out and putting them into words. In class, we were given the opportunity to look back on our works and perform a substantial revision. I thought to myself that this would be a perfect way to see how much I have improved as a writer. I know that some of my essays were poorly written and this was the perfect chance to change my poorly written essays into a better essay. For my substantial revision, I chose to revise my rhetorical analysis because I was summarizing the movie rather than analyzing and the thesis was not clearly stated. Therefore, it was the perfect piece to choose to improve on. Another part of this assignment was to take one of my pieces of work and perform a genre change. For this part, I chose to do a newspaper article about my digital assignment. There are many articles about anti-smoking but there aren’t many articles about the effects of secondhand smoking even though both are equally important. So I wanted to express my concern and inform others the harmful effects of secondhand smoking. What I did first was create outlines for both of my pieces. For my substantial revision I took the main ideas of what I wanted to say in each paragraph and expanded from there. I tried my best to not repetitive because it would be redundant. From each main idea, I expanded it with scenes of what to write in it and analyzed them as to how it was connected to my thesis.


In addition, I made sure that my thesis was clearly stated this time. Before, my thesis was not clearly stated which allowed the reader to be confused on what they were reading. This time I wanted to say it straight out in the first paragraph so the reader would not be confused. After completing the outline, I began to write some of the paragraphs and revise them substantially from my draft before. I continuously reflected back on my rhetorical analysis to make sure I was not repeating the same pattern and that this time; I made everything clear and organized. Writing the outline made the writing process much easier when I was writing a full rough draft of it. In my genre change’s outline, I wrote my thesis out in my first paragraph and then from there, I expanded on the important ideas I wanted to touch on. Then I did some research about the ideas that I had such as the effects on children and adults and how much they are affected. I looked at the statistics and health facts and wrote them down into the corresponding paragraphs. This newspaper article is meant to inform non-smokers of what is happening to them when they are around smokers. Moreover, it is also to inform smokers that they are harming their families because they obviously are aware of the harmful effects it has on them for smoking. In addition, I mentioned that if they choose to smoke, then do it somewhere else where it is away from people because other’s health should not be affected because they chose to smoke. After finishing all the research and the outlines, I wrote my first draft and met with my professor, so I could get a new set of eyes to look at my work. When my professor and I met, she looked over my rough drafts and outlines and told me about the changes that needed to be made, what I could improve on and what I wasn’t doing in my essays. She saw how this time my thesis was clearly written out and helped me expand on my thesis for my substantial revision. When she looked over my newspaper article, she said that I was too repetitive which made this article very redundant.


Because of this conference, it allowed me to see what I needed to work on to improve my essay and she also opened my eyes for me because I had been looking over the pieces again and again which made me think it was good to be a final piece. When in fact, there were many improvements that could be made. So right now, more improvements are being made and I am allowing myself some time in between after writing my drafts so I can have time to forget about what I wrote exactly and so I can make improvements with a new fresh mindset. So when I looked back, I realized that I had been too repetitive and for my substantial revision, I was still not getting my point across. I didn’t realize how difficult it was to write a rhetorical analysis and analyze scenes from a movie to support a thesis. The thoughts were in my head and when I put them on paper, it didn’t sound as strong as I thought. In addition, I failed to mention a lot of important key points that needed to be mention. It was weird because I could talk about my essay and what needed to be done but when it comes to writing it down on paper, it became hard. My head goes blank sometimes even though the material is right there on my desk. The difficulty of putting my thoughts together and putting them into words is phenomenal. But hopefully for my final draft, I have successfully stated clearly my thesis and have supported it with relevant scenes and analyzed it fully.


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