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Timescape vol. II


GAD, RC8 / Daniel Widrig

Timescape vol.2

project by

Qiuying Zhong, Bernardo Dias, Chiaki Yatsui 28.08.2013

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We would like to thank Amorim, which is the world’s largest producer of cork products in Portugal, for giving us the great opportunity to use cork for this project. We would like to express the deepest appreciation to our tutor Daniel Widrig, who’s insight and very helpful advice shaped our research. And to our report tutor David Scott for all the theoretical advice. Lastly, we are grateful to our cluster, Stefan Bassing, Sowmya Mahesh, and care. Qiuying Zhong, Bernardo Dias, Chiaki Yatsui 28.Aug.2013

Visit

at: http://www.amorim.com http://www.amorimisolamentos.com

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index. 3rd term

Transition study_sharp geometry Fabrication for sharp geometry Aluminium mould Foam test Morphed geometry Fabrication process for morphed Geometry Material combination studies Foam transition Eps mixture test Basic geometry

7 15 22 24 39 46 50 52 54 62 71 89

Proposal

Timescape Digital studies in erosion Precision & uncertainty Site Site images

109 110 114 123 128 130

Material

Precision & craft Material shortlist Earth Final material approach

Material, pattern and texture Erosion gradient Silicone moulds Final casting Final prototype

134 136 138 164 184 198

200 206 209 212 214 219

Scenario

Masterplan Siteplan Final renderings

238 244 247

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3rd term Design Process

Geometry study Scale study Material study Final images

Transition study

Sharp

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Conrad Shawcross, Perimeter Studies, 2012 aluminum, 50 x 50 x 50 cm each

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Transition study, Frame thickness 1

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Transition study, Frame thickness 2

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Transition study

Fabrication for Sharp geometry

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Card board model study Throughout the whole design process, the most natural way for testing the connectivity level is with card model. Unfolded the solid digital model with a software (Pepakura Designer) to get two- dimensional patterns. Then cut and folded it up into a three dimensional model. Using different colours to identify the faces between different components, allowed easy checking of the geometry’s relationship for connectivity.

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Interlocking system 1:1 scale 3rd term

Scale study XL Yellow piece Material: Card board, PVA glue, double sided tape, masking tape

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0

2.5m

1

Aggregation: possible number of components for large

Material Cost

PU3580 £7.58/kg

Weight

Red piece : Blue piece : Yellow : Green :

Cost 12kg 14kg 13.5kg 13.5kg

Red piece: 48009412.1mm^3 0.0480094m^3×250kg/m^3= 12.0kg= £90.96 Blue piece: 57287738mm^3 0.057288m^3 × 250kg/m^3= 14.3kg= £108.40

___total: 53kg Yellow piece: 58117233mm^3 0.058117m^3× 250kg/m^3= 13.5kg= £102.33 Green piece: 51915767.3mm^3 0.051915mm^3× 250kg/m^3= 13.0kg= £98.54 Total: £401.74///7.58/kg £366.76///6.92kg

Scale study for foam casting Volume

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Transition study, Fabrication process for sharp mould

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Metal

Aluminium mould paper model for checking pattern of metal

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Frame pattern Joint of frame pattern Pattern of Surface

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laser cut, aluminium sheet

Metal Mould / Aluminium sheet

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1.2mm thickness

Bending procces


Metal Mould / Assembling 3mm screw

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Fill the gap with silicone

Interior detail

Outcome

ly. Considering the features of the material and the requireside of the folded geometry. After CAD drawing the plan of the unfolded surfaces and

Metal mould

Component / Foam test

material not enough

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as a two-dimension plane. Then banded them together acbuild a three-dimensional mould. However, the price of aluminium sheets and the cost for water jet cutting for all the six pieces is out of the budget. So the components were changed to a smaller scale and fabricated by other low-cost methods.


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Steel 0.2mm double sided tape

Glue test Steel + Epoxy glue

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Aluminium 0.2mm double sided tape

Glue test Aluminium + Epoxy glue


Metal

Mould / Thin metal sheet

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Metal

Component / Foam from aluminium Foam A216+ B +blue piegment A120+ B + black pigment not enough

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Metal

Component / Foam+Cement from steel sheet Cement (50%) + Foam (50%) A:90g Cement(70%) + Foam(30%) A:60g Foam 30g

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Metal

Component from Foam to 100% Cement from aluminium sheet Cement(100%) + Cement(50%) + Foam(50%) + Foam(100%)

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Metal

Component / Foam+Cement from steel sheet Cement + Water + PU Foam 250g Cement+ Water + 75g PUfoam A(30% of Cement) + 25 g PU foam B + 250cement + 250 PUfoam A

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Transition study

Morphed geometry

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Transition of primitive geometry

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Transition study

Fabrication process for morphed component

2, mint pillow, wrap 40g= 30 + 10 Blue pigment

Nitrile Gloves (Not natural rubber, latex)

rubber

latex fabric

for smooth component rubber test wrap test fabric test fabric+ silicone test

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material combination test release test / mould material + component material Plastic

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Fabric

Mould / combination experiment plyurethene release spray

silicone on fabric

plyurethene release spray on vaseline

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material : hemp cloth inside apply silicone on cloth 2hours cue

Polyurethene release spray on silicone on fabric


material combination test release test / mould material + component material

Fabric

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Coutcome

mould

b_aluminium

s_cardboard

s_fabric cork

component

Outcome

mould

s_steel

s_aluminium+wrap

s_steel

component

foam pigment

foam pigment

cement+ foam

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Sharp to morph

Mould/ Component material study big scale test_ small scale test_

s_fabric/cork s_wrap(frame smooth surface test)/ cork s_steel / foam pigment s_aluminium+wrap/ foam pigment s_steel/ cement+ foam s_aluminium/ foam+cement s_steel/foam+cement s_fabric+silicone/foam+ cement

s_wrap(frame smooth surface test) cork

s_aluminium

s_steel

s_fabric+silicone

foam+cement

foam+cement

foam+ cement

b_card board+ wrap+ release spray er(packing material)

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Original

Erosion simulation by acetone

Soft No.

1.FSC80 2. FSC60 4. FCS60 5. FCS40 3. FSC40 9. SFC40 7. CFS40 6. CF

Foam Cement Sand Erosion Height(cm )

30cm-

19cm

No.

15. CFS40

EPS

300%

Height(cm )

23.5cm

Foam transition 52 - Timescape


Hardness

S40 6. CFS60 8. SFC60 12. CSF40 11. CSF60 10. CSF80 14. SCF40 13. SCF60

m

FS40

8cm

3.5cm

4.5cm

16. SFC60 17. CSF40

0%

100%

40%

5cm

9cm

5cm

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Cement Sand Foam EPS

Advantage :

40 35 25 +40%

_Less moisture absorption _High workability in the site _Shock-resistant

EPS mixture test 54 - Timescape

15 60 25 +100%

40 25 35 +300%


test1 100 : 100

test2 100 : 100

test3 100 : 150

test4 100 : 200

test5 100 : 250

test6 100 : 275

10% Cement

18% Water

2% Air

25% Fine Aggregate

Coarse Aggregate

test1 100 : 200

34%

42%

24%

Cement

Sand

Water

test2 100 : 250

34%

42%

24%

Cement

Sand

Water

test3 100 : 275

34%

42%

24%

Cement

Sand

Water

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Transition from sharp to morph The components maintained the massive volume of the primitive geometry. They acted more like unique bricks, stacking from ground and also can build up cantilever or arch. They insert to neighbouring components instead of only some protruding surfaces attach lip-deep. The complexity of the subdivided faces causes the outer surface to look concave and convex orientations. This subdivision added a three-dimensional texture into the system and increased the randomness to break the original geometric language.

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Stage 1

Aggregation of four clusters. stage1

Basic geometry Assembled one cluster

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Stage 2

Aggregation of four clusters stage 2

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Stage 3

Transition of Basic geometry

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Component 1 mold, plastic sheet

Component 4 powder 3d printing

Casting

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Component 2 mold, plastic sheet

Component 5 powder 3d printing


machine: makerbot

3d printing material: PLA time: 14hours Component 3 3d printing, PLA

machine error: clack

Component 6 powder 3d printing

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Final geometry

Interlocking system

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1st assembly

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Component test size

1st assembly Aggregation order

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2nd assembly

3rd assembly

4th assembly


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Aggregation of nine pieces, two clusters

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Aggregation form 1

Aggregation form 2

Aggregation form 4

Aggregation form 5

Aggregation form 7

Aggregation form 8


Aggregation form 3

Aggregation form 6

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Aggregation form 9

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School Training Base I, 1968–69, Mitzpeh Ramon, Israel.

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Final aggregation

3d printed Prototype

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Proposal Design Process

Site Zone Concept Master plan Erosion

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Timescape observer

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Erosion detail

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Precision & Uncertainty

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Craftsmanship means simply workman- ship using any kind of technique or apparatus, in which the quality of the result is not predetermined, but depends on the judgment, dexterity and care which the maker exercises as he works. The essential idea is that the quality of the result is continually at risk during the process of making


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Space condition studies erosion by time 116 - Timescape


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Proposal

Site

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Site

Coimbra, Portugal

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Population Person per square mile 0 125 275 425 0

48 106 164

Person per square kilometre [1969 census data] Timescape - 125


Land Utilization

Forest

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Site

Site images Timescape - 129


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Material Mixture test

Earth Cork Combination Final short-list

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Precision & Craft Precision has to do with the skill of craftthe instinctive understanding may be. cy and intuition coming together as a kind really matter how you hone and tune [Salter 1989] because accuracy is an internal ity to feel it because it is a kind of thing that brings you back and lays in- between Technical Studies establishes a way of derience of building. Accuracy is the way we

order as well as determine its material and structure. The technicality side of the work is there to test and reinforce our awareness be- hind the strategy because it gives to the designer the restatement of his aims and clear intention. Precision is technical but accuracy is how to understand the right way of layering materials. Those have to tion of ambivalent desires which, though

Strategic decisions may determine the detail. Scale in architecture is determined by huscale of its material and detail. It is the collusion between craftsman and macise and is an embodiment of interactions between human beings and the outside world. Precision is than the mysterious

The way Chris Macdonald and I originally cise layering of materials. Material, design and making stay at the

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same level of scale. In fact, material exno doubt that a building embodies a certain cess, materials and was able to give it an architectural dimension. Precision is craft


[Cork] + Sand + [Earth] + Sand + [Sand] + Cement Cement Cement 7.5:1 1:11:8 5:11:9

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Cork + Sand + Cement 1:11:8

Sand + Cement 7.5:1

Earth + Sand + Cement 5:11:9

Materiales

Material shortlist

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Adding material

Earth

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Mould making scene in a brick factory.

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Earth, Cement, Sand, Terracottaclay, Hay

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Cement Ingredients: Limestone(CaO), Silica(SiO2, Al2O3), Aluminate(SiO2), Iron(Fe2O3) All raw materials (such as limestone, shale, and contaminated soil) are mixed, The slurry with all raw ingredients is ground together along with water to form slurry. The limestone, shale, soil raw feed is 45Âľm sieve. The clinker is ground to small diameA chemical analysis of the slurry is made every two hours to ensure that the slurry

Mixture test Cement + a

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Hardness 1_4.5SC

No. Cement Sand Earth Terra-cotta Hay/Straw

2_ 7.5SC

3_10SC

4_3SC+5

5_2SC+5

6_1.2SC+10

1

1

1

1

1

1

4.5

7.5

10

3

2

1.2

5g

25.June.2013 test no. 0.1 Type of test : Ratio/ Material transitiokn/ Material

[Earth / Terracotta /Hay] + Concrete

Ingredients

Cork granules 1/2mm, 2/10mm, Bio-resin

Mixing ratio N/A Tool used

Cardboard box, Stirrer, Steel cup, Weighing scale

Curing time Size Weight

1minutes - 10min 55 x 55 x 65mm 40g

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5g

10g

7_0.5EC

8_1

1

1

0.5

1


EC

Soft 8_1EC 10_0.5EC+10

9_2SC

14_0.5TC

15_1TC

1

1

1

1

1

1

0.5

2

13_0.25TEC

12_0.5TC

1

1

1 0.5

10g

11_1EC+15

1

0.25 0.25

0.5 15g

Earth, cork, cement, sand, terracotta and hay were used.

have different characteristics, which mean that they have a and is affected greatly by the weather and the environment.

will attach to the slower degraded materials and become a new

material to the environment. More so, there are other factors

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27.Jun.2013 test no. 0.2 Type of test : Ratio/ Material/ Mould Test / Material Ingredients

Water test: [Earth/ Terracotta/ Hay] + Concrete Cement, sand, Earth, Terracotta, Hay

Mixing ratio N/A Tool used

Stirrer, Steel cup, Weighing scale

Curing time Size Weight

5hours 50 x 100 x 100mm 270g each

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Concrete+EPS

Concrete + Earth 1:1

Cement + Sand Concrete + Earth+ Straw

Concrete + Earth+ Straw + Terra-cotta

0.5:0.5:1 30g

Concrete + Terra-cotta

0.5:1

Concrete + Earth+ Straw

Concrete + Earth+ Straw

Concrete + Earth+ Straw

Concrete + Earth+ Concrete + Terra-cotta Earth+ Straw

0.5:1

0.25:0.25:1

Concrete + Earth+ Straw

Concrete + Earth+ Straw + Terra-cotta

Concrete + Earth + Straw

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19.Jun.2013 test no. 3 Type of test : Ratio/ Material/ Mould/ Detail Material

Casting test : [Earth / Terracotta /Hay] +Concrete

Ingredients

Cement, Earth, Terracotta, Hay

Mixing ratio N/A Tool used

Stirrer, Steel cup, Weighing scale

Curing time Size Weight

8hours 55 x 55 x 65mm N/A

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Cork makes surf ace rough.

Earth makes the surface more precise.

Hay obstruct the material to reach the edge.

Silicone mould gap

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length.

After taking off from mould, it is already broaken, bad mixture. 24.July.2013 test no. 4 Type of test : Ratio/ Material/ Mould Material

[Hay+ Earth] + Sand + Cement

Ingredients

hay=125g , cement: sand: earth=300: 1000: 150

Mixing ratio

cement: sand: earth: hay= 20: 63: 9: 8[20%]

Tool used

Stirrer, Steel cup, Weighing scale

Curing time Size Weight

8hours 200mm x 200mm x 200mm N/A

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200mmĂ—200mm

Cement Sand Total/Concrete Earth Hay

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24.Feb.2013 test no. 5 Type of test : Ratio/ Material/ Mould Material

Cement/ Sand/ Earth/ Terracotta/ Hay

Ingredients

Cement, Sand, Earth, Terracotta, Hay

Mixing ratio N/A Tool used

Stirrer, Steel cup, Weighing scale

Curing time Size

1minutes - 10min 100 x 45 x 65mm

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Cement : Sand 1:4.5

Cement : Sand 1: 3 Hay 0.5g

Concrete : Earth 1 : 0.5 Hay 10g

Teracotta 1 : Concrete 1 = Cememt+ Sand =1:1.2 Hay = 10g

Cement Sand Total/Concrete Earth Tracotta Hay

0.5g

10g

10g

Sand Cement

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0:00

0:20

0:40

0:60

1:20

1:40

1:60

2:20

2:40

2:60

3:20

Cement + Sand

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3:40


1:4.5

1: 7.5 278g

1:10 5cm x 5cm 91x 47 x 45mm

Sand Cement

5 4 3 2

Cement Sand Total/Concrete

1 Erosion level

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0:00

0:60

0:20

1:20

1:60

2:20

2:60 (seconds)

3:20

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0:40

1:40

2:40

3:40


Material test in size 10 x 7 x 21cm

Cement + Sand + [Earth]

Cement +[Sand]

Concrete= 1 : 1.2 Concrete : Earth = 1 : 0.25 Ratio/ 5:11:9 =20: 44: 36[%] 2295g

Ratio/ 1:7.5 =12:88[%] Weight/ 1622g

Sand Sand Cement

Cement Sand Total / Concrete 5

Cement Sand Total / Concrete

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Adding material

Cork

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Inslation material/ Cork and Hay Common insulating materials, “R” values, advantages and disadvantages Insulating material Polyurethane, board

Advantages inch(2.54cm) Very good R-value, can be used 6.25 7.0 -

cal)

7.0

Polystyrene, sheets(smooth) Trade name ”Styrofoam”

5.0

Cork board

3.61 to 4.01

Fibreglass wool batts

3.3

Rock wool batts Wood shavings

3.7 2.

Sawdust

2.44

Straw

-

3.75 to 4.0

sive

Very good R-value, can be used -

Very good R-value, can be used

Readily available, low cost, reasonable R-value Reasonable R-values, lower cost than smooth surfaced sheets Low cost, ease of installation As above

foams

Readily available, low cost Readily available, low cost

insulating calue when wet As above Absorbs moisture and loses R-values when wet, decays Absorbs moisture and loses R-values when

Readily available, low cost No cost

Absorbs moisture and loses R-value when wet, host to insects, ext.

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Cork is the bark of the Cork Oak tree (Quercus suber L). It is an all natrenewable and recyclable.

Economic Activity

Olive oil Minor economic activity Mining Pyrites Tungsten Uranium Iron ore

geral.aisol@amorim.com Phone: +351 22 741 91 00 Fax: +351 22 741 91 01

AMORIM ISOLAMENTOS Rua da Corticeira, 66 4535-173 Mozelos VFR PORTUGAL

1/2mm granule

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2/10mm granule


Thermal conductivity and and density values at 20-25°C of cork insulation

(kg/m3) 115 86 130 150 100-150 150-250

Granulated loose, dry Granulated

Thermal conductivity (Wm-1°C-1) / (kcal h-1 m-1°C-1) 0.052/0.0447 0.048/0.041 0.04/0.344 0.043/0.037 0.048/0.041

Insulation thickness(mm) Material and thermal conductance Polyurethane foam (0.025kcal/m2 h°C)

125 100 90

(0.03kcal/m2 h°C)

155 125 110

(0.033kcal/m2h°C)

165 135 120

(0.035 kcal/m2 h°C)

180 145 130

Ambient air 40°C 30°C 20°C

0

20

40

60

80

100

120 140

160 180

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29.07.2013 test no. 10 Type of test : Ratio/ Material/ Mould Material

[Cork] + Sand + Cement

Ingredients

Cork granules 1/2mm, 2/10mm, Bio-resin

Mixing ratio N.A Tool used

Stirrer, Steel cup, Weighing scale

Curing time

1minutes - 10min

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Adding middle ratio

1: 0: 3 300+0+80 [g] Too rough 1:0.5:3[volume] 300+150+80[g]

1: 1: 3 300+300+80[g]

8:11:1[volume] 320:440:40[g] Too hard 1: 1: 2 [volume] 300+300+52[g] 10 x 7 x 21cm

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0:00

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0:20

0:40

0:60

1:20

1:40

1:60

2:20

2:40

2:60

Less cork


Combination

Cork + Sand + Cement 10 x 7 x 21cm

1:0:3[volume] 300+0+80[g] 78: 21[%] 380g

1:0.5:3[volume] 300+150+80[g] 56:28:15[%] 514g

1:1:3[volume] 300+300+80[g] 44:44:12[%] 599g

[volume]

[volume]

8:11:1(g) 320:440:40[g] 40:55:5% 688g

1:1:2[volume] 480+480+85[g] 46:46:8[%] 1048g

Cork Sand Cement

Cement Sand Total/ Concrete Volume of Cork [volume]

[volume]

[g]

5 4

+134g

+85g

+89g

+360g

3 2 1 Erosion level

26% Cork density[%]

18%

13%

5%

8%

Weight[g]

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Material combination

[Earth, Cork, Hay ]+ Concrete

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Earth

Cork granules 1/2mm length.

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24.Jul.2013 test no. 11 Type of test : Ratio/ Material/ Erosion Material

[Cork + Earth] + Sand + Cement

Cork granules 1/2mm[L] 2/10mm[s], L grain 75: S grainl 75g cement sand earth 700 840 700 Mixing ratio cement: sand: earth: cork 29: 35: 29: 7[%] Tool used Stirrer, Steel cup, Weighing scale Ingredients

Curing time Size

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8hours 200 x 200 x 200 mm


Cork Cement Sand Earth

Cement Sand Total/Concrete Earth Cork

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0:00

0:20

1:20

1:40

1:60

2:20

2:40

2:60

3:20

3:40

3:60

4:20

4:40

4:60

5:40

5:60

6:20

5:20

0:40

0:60

5 4 3 2 1

6:40

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6:60

7:20

7:40 (seconds)

Erosion level


Cork 1878g

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26.Jul.2013 test no. 12 Type of test : Ratio/ Material/ Mould Material

[Cork + Straw] + Sand + Cement

Ingredients

Cork, Straw, Cement

Mixing ratio N/A Tool used Curing time

Stirrer, Steel cup, Weighing scale 1minutes - 10min 200 x 200 x 200mm

Weight

1709g

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Cork + Straw 200mmĂ—200mm

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0:00

0:20

1:20

1:40

1:60

2:20

2:40

2:60

3:20

3:40

3:60

4:20

4:40

4:60

5:40

5:60

6:20

5:20

0:40

0:60

5 4 3 2 1

6:40

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6:60

7:20

7:40 (seconds)

Erosion level


hay 75

cork L grain 40 S grain 35

cement sand 700 840

Hay Cork Sand Cement

earth 700

cement: sand: earth: hay: cork =30: 35: 30: 3: 1: 1[%] Cement Sand Total/Concrete Earth Cork Hay

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material test in 10 x 7 x 21cm/ Sand based concrete(from Left), Cork based concrete, Earth based concrete

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Cork Cement Sand

be careful with casting/ Need to rotate

+ Cork 1115g

Earth

than sand/ Ratio has to be careful because earth containing mineral and it will affect strength

+ Earth 1155g

Sandy concrete erodes more than other mixture/ Curing time is longer than others/ Need to be careful to take it out from the mould

Material study

+ Sand 1225g Sand Cement

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Medium Weight(g) 8:11:1[rate] =40:55:5[%]

Cement Sand Total / Concrete

Low 1155[g]

Weight(g)

5:11:9[rate] =20: 44: 36[%]

Cement Sand Total / Concrete

High Weight(g)

1225[g] 1:7.5[rate] =12:88[%]

Cement Sand Total / Concrete

40[g] 70[g]

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General brick scale: 20cm x 7 cm x 10cm

Material Material pattern, texture test

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5 4 3 2 1 Erosion level

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Preliminary work 1: Make primitive geometry with material to simulate erosion. 1: Cut and folding pattern by steel sheets. 3: Wait for 8 hours. 4: Take off the component and drying out. Size: 10cm edge

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2. Exterior shot of steel sheet mould. 3. Cork based component. 4. Sand based component.

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Preliminary work 2: Make column for testing erosion. 1: Make pairs 2: Glue (wait for 24hours) 3: Stuck on top of each other without glueing.

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Machine: Black and Decker PW1500TDK PLUS 1500 watt universal motor Flow rate 370 litres/hour. 120 bar maximum pressure with an operating bar rated pressure of 80. Suitable for medium to heavy tasks. 5m hose. 1200mm

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Cork (Level 3-5) Earth (Level 1) Sand (Level 2-4)

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Erosion gradient Test : 09. 08.2013

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Process of making 2part silicone mould

Material Silicone mould

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Casting process

Material Final casting

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Process of casting, 2part silicone mould, opening one part and drying out.

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Final design, Singular components

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Aggregation of one cluster

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Aggregation of one cluster

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Aggregation of 4 clusters

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Coimbra, birds eye view1 Mountain, and river

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Coimbra, birds eye view2 City and Site

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Scenario Master plan

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Site1 Bridge

Site2 Park

Site3 Entrance

Site4 River bank

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Scenario Site plan

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Proposal

Final renderings

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Chiaki Yatsui (Japan), Qiuying Zhong (China), Bernardo Dias (Portugal) from left.

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Copyright Š 2013 Timescape All Rights Reserved.

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The Bartlett School of Architecture March GAD RC8

Qiuying Zhong Bernardo Dias Chiaki Yatsui tutor Daniel Widrig


pfbernardodias [final thesis][cluster8][bartlett school][book 2]