PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
• Do it Your Way • The Faith for Change
• Schlumberger Interview
• The Role of Geophysics in Petroleum Industry
• Liquid Loading in Gas Wells and Production Optimization using FOAM Application
• Hydraulic Lift System
Educational • Wireline Logging
Shouts Case Study
• North Morgan Waterflood
• Hybrid Seismic Attribute for Identifying Geological Features
• Radial Drilling
Studient’s Contribution • Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery
28 PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
Mohamed Fathy Editor-in-Chief
Do it Your Way After several trials to find the most suitable words to start my article, I finally came across this quote. ”When nobody else celebrates you, learn to celebrate yourself. When nobody else compliments you, then compliment yourself. It is not up to other people to keep you encouraged. It is up to you. Encouragement should come from the inside”, so it is all about you. You are the base on which everything in your life will be built. So if you want to be successful, you should trust in yourself and do everything your way. The main and most common cause of failure is the restrictions and obstacles you put in your own way. Every time you doubted your abilities is a stone you put in your travelling bag throughout your life. The more stones you put, the heavier you become. So, it is all about you, again. You can get rid of these stone, break all chains and restrictions, overcome those obstacles, and set yourself free. Then, you will fly towards your dreams. On the other hand, the reasons for success are unlimited. Good planning, hardworking, strong will, and cooperative partnership are reasons, but if you looked deeply inside each reason, you would find that it is all about you again and again. You are the controller of your life. You are the only one who knows the abilities you have, and according to that you can dream, plan, work and choose the best partners to help you succeed. Following the right track of success, we will find out that it consists of several stages. The first one is dreaming. The greater the dreams you have, the grander the success you get, so always make the sky your limit. The second one is planning. As engineers, we are always looking for optimization, so specify your potential and then make a plan that is compatible with your potential. The last one is periodically checking whether your steps are matching with your plan, otherwise you are not on the right track. So, your life is a closed loop and you are the energy source that drives it. So briefly, no one can tell you what to do. There is no magical prescription to be successful. It is your way, so you have to be in the driving seat. Never let anybody lead you to your dreams. Make your own road and hit it. For me, being the editor in chief of the fourth issue of Petropulse magazine will always be an accomplishment that I will never forget. Like any success, this one started with a dream. The next step was joining AAPG SU SC which is one of the most remarkable decisions I have ever made. Then, the other steps followed it and here I am. I dreamed, trusted myself, believed in my dream and did my best to achieve it. Throughout the last three years, Petropulse played a vital role in reducing the gap between the academic life of the students and the world of petroleum industry by bringing about different points of view through the articles and reviews written by several qualified and experienced engineers. Also, the interviews with high-profile experts will provide our readers with technical information and precious advice that will help them get ready for their new life at different fields. Through AAPG shout, you can cope with all of the technical and social events organized by AAPG SU SC over this year. Finally, I would like to thank everyone for their contributions towards putting this outstanding magazine between your hand right now and special thanks to each member in this tremendous team of editors and designers who stood shoulder-to-shoulder in order to overcome all obstacles and exceed all expectations. I can’t find more words to express my gratitude to the Petropulse team for their fabulous efforts in trying to add new fascinating ideas to create a higher level of professionalism and open new horizons for more and more creativity and inspiration. Always remember that you are the center of your own world. Believe in yourself and your abilities and you will wreathe all your life in success.
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
Ashraf Abd Elaziz AAPG SU SC President
The Faith for Change Really, it is amazing when you believe in predestination. It is all about faith, the belief in your potential which enables you to follow the achievement track. This journey began in 2012; the journey of my dream of belonging to the best caliber of the market, enhancing both my technical and non-technical sides and finding the way to live. So, when the idea came and the effect appeared, the effect of volunteering work, I took the first step to achieve my life’s vision of helping others. This step was joining the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Suez University Student Chapter. I can’t describe my feelings at that moment, it was a collection of fears invaded with hopes. Goals of being the best and fears of not being able to achieve that. Now, after four years of working here I can say that I have achieved my goal. As I am the president of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Suez University Student Chapter, I can say “here is the best place to dream, believe, then go”. Dream of leading the whole world, believe in your potential, and then go on the track to achieve those things. It has been seven years since the foundation of this entity, seven years full of achievements. From the explosion of AAPG SU SC which started by the slogan of “Lead, inspire, make a difference” which we really adhered to, until everybody here could finally “Unleash the leader inside” which was the second slogan. We continued with more and more spirit and effort, from better to better and last year we really could achieve the third slogan “Triple ourselves” which is about tripling our skills as a way of development, and this year the time is ours, a new start to grow from being better to being the best. Our slogan for this year is “The peak is ours”. The peak is to have an academic basis updated with the latest technologies, and to acquire soft skills. We also provide awareness and opportunities to industrial and non-industrial events for proactive undergraduates, and reach out to the community to provide beneficial services. The most influential achievement of AAPG is the member; the member who can do everything to be the best after his enrollment in intense development programs in both technical and soft skills sides. The story of the member began with belief; the belief in dreaming, achieving and leading. AAPG Suez University Student Chapter works a lot on the development of its calibers, offering the best situations for the members to gain proper experience which helps them face life’s problems and challenges, and find the best way to solve and deal with these situations. I am so proud, like many of the youth working here, of this entity and I am so also proud to be the leader of more than two hundred members working here in AAPG SU SC who worked hard to raise the slogan of AAPG so high. They did their best as AAPG SU SC achieved the first rank among AAPG student chapters all over the world. This achievement came after seven years of hard work, development, and seeking professionalism. I am so proud of the release of our fourth issue of Petropluse technical magazine, the official magazine of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Suez University Student Chapter. I really appreciate the hard work the Petropulse magazine staff did. You really proved that AAPG SU SC’s members are the best whenever and wherever they are. I see great progress in this issue’s content and in the value we deliver to the whole caliber we target all over Egypt and overseas. We are really proving that AAPG SU SC’s Petropulse technical magazine is a remarkable brand of the petroleum and geoscience fields. It has come out to show the passion of AAPG members to work and achieve their goals which makes all of us so proud to be a part of this great team and also makes us feel loyalty to this entity. Finally as a senior petroleum engineering student in Egypt, I want to share my experience with all the youth. Let’s change ourselves to be better and to reach the peak of professionalism. Let’s face the challenges of life and lead the whole world. Believe in your potential and abilities. Really, we prove that we can do the impossible everyday. Now, it is the real time to lead.
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
Schlumberger Interview At first can you tell us a bit about yourself, your role at Schlumberger, and your career development? My name is Sammar, I am currently the SIS Data Services Manager for Schlumberger in Egypt. I was hired in 2006 as a Wireline field engineer based in the Kattamia base. From there, I moved to Data Services as a reservoir engineer where I worked for two years in reservoir engineering. I also spent some time production logging, working in well integrity as well as supporting formation testers’ interpretation. Then I took a break, actually left Schlumberger for a couple of years, but I decided to come back in 2012. This time, I joined as a borehole reservoir engineer then later was promoted to team leader. In Early 2015, I spent some time covering for the Data Services Operations Manager until I was officially given the position in August the same year.
No doubt that the way to such position was not easy. Can you tell us about some of the challenges you have faced? Opportunities in this company often come in unexpected ways, and it pays to be willing to accept new challenges. I had to fill in for my current position “overnight” which was a great challenge. I was a reservoir team leader, which is really a technical role, then I took over running the whole business of operations, clients, tenders, invoices, finance, and managing people. It was a whole new world, so that was a huge challenge. However, I am really enjoying learning new things and it has been very exciting.
Can you tell us about the situation which had the greatest impact on your career? All the stops in my eight years in Schlumberger had an impact, really. From the day I joined Schlumberger as a Wireline engineer in the field, my life has changed. It is a completely new life style. Each step has been a milestone, each step has paved the road for the next step in my career which is still developing and
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
evolving into something, I hope, exciting to come. I am looking forward to the new challenges I will face at Schlumberger, and the opportunities I will have to continue to grow here. So, each step, both on its own and combined as a whole, has shaped who I’m now. Being the only female on a rig has definitely shaped my life.
You have been with Schlumberger for a long time. Can you tell us a bit about services it is responsible for in Egypt?
The company is very dynamic. We provide technology, integrated project management and software solutions to our customers in the oil and gas industry. Recently, we have merged with Cameron International. So now we have four main groups: drilling group, production group, reservoir characterization group, and Cameron group. We are known for providing many technology-based services such as seismic services, drilling, testing, logging and data interpretation services, cementing, and hydraulic fracturing. We are there for the entire life cycle of the well from exploration to production.
Can you tell us a brief summary about the Data Services department in Schlumberger? There has been a recent organizational change internally which better positions us to offer our clients not only the best technical solutions, but also access to the knowledge and support behind them. Traditionally, in this industry having access to the ‘brains’ for each discipline can be a challenge, as not everyone works in the same offices. My team covers a range of technical disciplines from geologists, geophysicists, petrophysicists, to reservoir and production engineers. I think it is a great differentiator that we have all the disciplines sitting on one floor discussing one challenge together, trying to look at it from different aspects to give the client the optimum answer. Because looking only from one angle, you cannot see the whole picture. You need to look from different angles so you can better address your challenge.
Interview Why is data analysis so important? Data analysis is the core of everything we do. Without it, you cannot understand your reservoir or your field. You cannot characterize anything without data. That is why data is the biggest asset in the petroleum industry. We acquire as much data as possible trying to fully understand the subsurface environment, and to be able to model different scenarios so we can ultimately improve the safety and efficiency of what we do in this industry. We measure and acquire data because we cannot see underground.
Not so long ago data analysis was very limited. Engineers were doing most of their designs based on empirical facts, so how did advancements in data analysis change that? This is not really recent. Well testing analysis has been the same for engineers over the years. We might get different tools and better correlations, but it is the same theory. However, there has been a huge advancement in the technology of data acquisition itself. Subsequently, there was a big step in the answer products and solutions you can get from this data.
You don’t provide raw data, you provide interpretations of the data for the clients? Raw data is gathered by acquisition. For example, the client pays for a borehole image, they get a log from the field, but what does this log mean? What does it tell you about the structure and the stratigraphy? Do you have fractures? Do you have vugs? This is where we come in. You need processing and interpretation. This is the core of the area of the business I am in, making sense of the data. This is why we are called Data Services
pletely, it all comes to experience, common sense, and to be honest, a bit of trial and error. Good communication between your team members and yourself is vital. You have to be receptive to the keys and the signs everyone gives you to help improve everyone’s performance, including your own.
We are seeing that with each passing year, more young women are getting interested in petroleum engineering. What special advice could you provide to women pursuing a career in such a male exclusive field? I have given a lot of coaching on how to be successful as a female in the field. The field is a tough environment for everyone. Women should not expect someone to bring them tiaras! However, women should also be confident. Being a minority does not affect your competence to do the job. It is an environment you get used to very quickly, and one where you can really make a difference, no matter what your gender. I have noticed there is this gender confidence gap between men and women. Women may hesitate or doubt themselves when men would be confident regardless of their competency. This sometimes hinders the advancement of women. I’m still learning, and trying to shrink this gap. For many women this is not a natural way to be. But you do learn and adapt with the help of your colleagues who are very supportive. I think women entering such a career should be aware that even though they might be the only one on a rig, it is very doable, just something to comprehend, that’s all.
From your point of view do you see being a member of student activity is useful for students? And how can that help them in the fuCan you share with us the best advice you ture?
have ever received? “What cannot be completely attained should not be completely dismissed”.
In your experience... what is the key to develop a good team? I believe the first step to develop a good team is to understand that everyone is different. Their needs and their behaviors vary under different circumstances. They say that the golden rule is to treat people the way that YOU want to be treated. What I have learned is that the platinum rule is to treat people how THEY want to be treated. As long as you understand the different needs and behaviors of people around you, you can address them appropriately to get the best out of everyone according to their potential.
Yes, for sure. Any kind of extracurricular activity which enhances your skills is a plus. The question I am always asked is “What should I put in my CV to get a job at Schlumberger?” Truly, there is no right answer to this, no stereotype. It is not only about the grade or being in a student activity. It is about having a competitive edge. You go into college with an empty bag, you come out of college with a full bag, what is in there that you use to fill your bag is really up to you and it is up to how do you improve your competitive edge compared to your peers. That is what really matters. Whether you do sports, student activity, book clubs, dance classes, or theatre. Each and every one of them adds something to your bag. Any addition to your bag should improve what you are offering to a potential employer and should put you in a better place in the future. You should not just put stones that will make the bag heavier.
Finally, what is your impression about AAPG But surely there are some instances in which SU SC? you have to be assertive? Understanding the needs does not mean that you are not assertive or that you are not stretching them. Understanding how people behave actually makes you guide them in the right way. Almost everyone needs input to outperform but how you do this is the key. Sometimes, instead of performing they fail com-
Something that I noticed about Suez University generally and students’ chapters coming from it is that they are very focused, active and competitive. All of them have very good systems, procedures, and good candidates.
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
The role of Geophysics in Petroleum Industry
At first, can you tell us a bit about yourself? And about your career life? Being raised in the desert southwest of the United States I have always had an interest in the land and geology around me. I would spend my summers digging on a nearby hill looking for ‘cool rocks’ as a child. When I took my first college geology class, I was hooked. That interest grew into a desire to understand those things we cannot see on the surface of the earth through remote sensing. My career is still new. I graduated with my master’s degree in Geophysics from the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in December 2009 and began working for Noble Energy in February 2010. In the short six years I have been with the company, I have had the privilege to work in several regions of the world. WEST AFRICA ̶ CAMEROON: I generated and developed prospects for drilling. This included interpreting seismic data, time to depth conversions, resource estimations, well synthetic ties, AVO analysis, and risk assessment. MISSISSIPPI CANYON ̶ GULF OF MEXICO: I worked on prospect maturation of Noble Energy’s successful Big Bend discovery. This included the worst case discharge calculation (WCD), which is required for all permits in the Gulf of Mexico. EXPLORATION EXCELLENCE GROUP: I assisted in the analysis of risk and probability of success for Noble Energy’s prospects. Risk analysis includes risk of hydrocarbon source, timing and migration of hydrocarbons, reservoir quality, structural or stratigraphic closure, and hydrocarbon containment. EASTERN MEDITERRANIAN ̶ LEVANT BASIN (CYPRUS/ISRAEL): I am currently the development geophysicist for Noble Energy’s Eastern Mediterranean business unit covering both our Israel and Cyprus assets. My current role incorporates interpreting seismic data, assisting in the creation and validation of our reservoir models, well ties and reserve calculations.
Bradly Christensen Geophysicist Noble Energy Company
What is the most difficult challenge you’ve faced during your career? The most difficult challenges that I have faced so far has been handling the workload. Being the Geophysicist for both Tamar and Aphrodite has taught me how to monitor my time and keep track of priorities. This has been a challenge as it has pushed me to do so much more than I thought I was capable of doing. What I have discovered is that you need to allocate your time and stick to it. When you have large workloads, you must elevate things that are critical to move forward. Everything else can be divided into things that are interesting to do (if you had the time), and things that you can ask someone else to do.
Geophysics, can you give a brief summary about this science? Geophysics covers a very broad range of specialties. I work with seismic data. Seismic data is collected by creating sound waves in the earth. These waves are recorded as they reflect back to the surface (you could consider it listening for echoes). The speed that the acoustic (sound) waves travel through the earth and how they reflect back are dependent on the rock properties they travel through. By collecting this information and processing it, we are able to image the subsurface.
What are the contributions of geophysics Can you tell us about a situation which in the aspect of petroleum? had the greatest impact on your career Seismic data allows us to image the subsurface. This data prolife? vides a view of the earth’s structure. By interpreting seismic and Though I am still early in my career, my choice to join Noble Energy instead of a larger company has had the greatest impact so far. Working at a medium sized independent company has given me opportunities to participate and see things that would take much longer to accomplish at a larger company. I have been given responsibilities that are challenging and keep me busy.
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
applying our understanding of a working petroleum system, we can identify areas which may have potential hydrocarbons. Seismic may also provide additional clues through AVO (amplitude verses offset) analysis, which can provide fluid information. Without geophysics, you wouldn’t know where to drill for oil and natural gas, especially in deeper water.
From your point of view, what is the best Tell us about your role at Tamar gas field. workflow that includes geophysicists and I am the development geophysicist at Tamar. I work with the petroleum engineers without confliction? reservoir engineer, production engineer and geologist to deterFrom my point of view, there should never be a conflict between the petroleum engineer and the geophysicist. The geophysicist works with the drilling engineer to determine the depth and casing program of the well. The geologist and geophysicist work to help the driller understand what types of rocks they will be drilling through. In development, the geophysicist works with the reservoir engineer to determine the volumes of hydrocarbons that are likely in the subsurface. We also help the reservoir engineer understand the Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) data and give insight into what boundaries it might be seeing. The best advice is to constantly work together and communicate. The geophysicist and engineer are both working towards the same goal: discovery and production of hydrocarbons.
Can you give us a brief summary about the geophysical methods used in exploration? Two types of geophysical methods come to mind in exploration; seismic data which I discussed above, and mag/grav data. Mag/ grav stands for magnetic and gravity data. This type of data makes it possible to better understand a basin and the potential set up for hydrocarbon traps. By measuring the different variations in gravity, along with the magnetism of rocks we can gain insight into the depth to the basement and the general architecture of a basin.
What is the most effective and accurate geophysical method? This is a difficult question to answer. Each basin and hydrocarbon play has unique physical attributes and depositional histories that require different methods. Sometimes, conditions make it very difficult to pull out any information. During the Alexandria workshop, there were talks about the challenges in the Gulf of Suez. One of those challenges is seismic imaging. The deposition of interfingered salts and sediments causes multiples to run through the data. A multiple happens when the seismic energy bounces between units in the subsurface giving multiple signals. (This would be the same if you shouted into a room, and heard your voice echo back many times, instead of just once). When the quality of the data is good and the rock physics are right, you will be able to find DHI’s (Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators, such as in Tamar). A DHI can be a flat spot which represents the oil/water or gas/water contact. Or the amplitude of the seismic verses offset (AVO) might allow you to see indications of hydrocarbons. There is also the potential to perform inversion, which takes information from drilled wells and the seismic data and inverts it to a prediction of the rocks. The most effective geophysical method depends on the rocks you are studying and the quality of the data collected.
mine how to produce the field to maximize recovery. Part of that process involves creating models of the field to determine the best places to drill producer wells. As a team, our goals are to produce the field safely, responsibly and effectively.
What is the future of Israel in the gas industry after this great exploration of this field? Natural gas from the Tamar Field currently fuels more than half of Israel’s electricity generation needs and nearly all of the country’s industrial fuel requirements. In our recent first quarter earnings conference call, our Chairman, President and CEO Dave Stover said, “Tamar’s production growth, resilient cash flows, and access to significantly under-supplied markets make it one of the most attractive assets in the world. Leviathan is the same quality asset on an even larger scale, with a total recoverable resource of 22 trillion cubic feet of gas based on multiple appraisal wells drilled and a production test, as well. ”
With the huge advancement in technology, how can this help you as a geophysicist? Seismic processing is improving all the time, allowing better imaging of structures in the subsurface. The better the image and quality, the more accurately our models reflect the potential. As computers continue to gain more processing speed, we are able to better process and model seismic data. It has allowed us to test out ideas, which was not possible in the past because of the length of time each model would take on a computer.
Did the event organized by AAPG Africa “GTW” at Alexandria last March meet your expectations? The AAPG event exceeded my expectations. This was my first time to visit and learn about the basins in Egypt. The setting was quite comfortable and I made many new acquaintances. I have also been able to see where others have approached challenges that might be useful in areas where I am working.
What is your impression about AAPG SU SC? I have only met a few of the members of the AAPG SU SC, but everyone seems enthusiastic about their organization. This is important to carry along with you as you advance into your careers. Be sure to maintain the friendships that you have developed. I encourage you to continue to work towards your goals and develop the skills that will be needed to produce the future.
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
Liquid Loading in Gas Wells and Production Optimization using FOAM Application Ahmed Elgazzar Operations and Marketing Account Manager at Baker Hughes
As the oil drum price goes down, it becomes more challenging to afford more declines in wells’ productivity that leads to an additional spent to stimulate the well; that many oil and gas companies tend to shut in low production wells to save cost and optimize their resources. The only way to overcome this dilemma is to increase, or at least maintain, the productivity without extra expenses.
Liquid Loading in Gas wells Liquid loading is one of the main problems from which gas wells suffer. As the gas well ages, the more the water production, the less the gas production. As water production increases, water accumulates in the production tubing with decreasing reservoir pressure. The gas produced from a reservoir with declining pressure has less ability to lift the accumulated water from the well. Eventually, the hydrostatic weight of the water column in the tubing becomes too high for the gas to lift, causing gas production either to prematurely decrease or cease altogether.
Symptoms of Liquid Loaded wells There are many signs that predict that the well is about to encounter liquid loading which can be confirmed using modeling software and interpretation curves such as Coleman Curves (See Figure-1) or Gas Charts. These symptoms can be decreasing and erratic gas production. Also by calculating the gas flow velocity in the production tubing, it is easily to identify the flow regime. Slug flow is one of the major signs that the gas well has started to be liquid loaded and it is time to take an action before it becomes dead.
Deliquification Methods After it has been clear that the gas well is loaded, it is vital to unload the liquid to temporarily restore the well and extend its life before it becomes fully loaded by brine and condensate; to accomplish this there are two main methods: 1- Mechanical Methods • Plunger Lift • Gas Lift • Compressors and Pumping Units • Intermitters (Putting the well on intermittent production and shut in cycles to let the pressure build up) •Velocity String (Using small diameter tubing to maximize the flow velocity for the same gas production rate and exceed the critical velocity) 2- Chemical Methods • Liquid Foamers and Foam sticks
Foamers Foamers are chemicals that create a less dense mixture of liquid and gas providing easier gas lifting (See figure-2). Foamers are surfactant-based products that lower the gas velocity required to lift liquid by lowering density of the droplet, reducing surface tension, and making smaller droplets. Briefly speaking, created foam is less dense than the original liquid and requires less gas velocity to lift than original liquid. It is important to note that the FOAM is not created at the surface before being injected; Foam is created down hole when the brine is mixed the chemical in the presence of the agitation source (Continuous flow).
FIG 1 *COLEMAN CURVE IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FLOWING PRESSURE AND THE GAS FLOW RATE. USING THE TUBING INSIDE DIAMETER AND BY LINKING THE GAS FLOW RATE & FLOWING PRESSURE THE MEETING POINT IS EITHER LOCATED ABOVE OR BELOW THE TUBING DIAMETER CURVE. THE WELL IS IDENTIFIED TO BE LIQUID-LOADED IF THE MEETING POINT IS BELOW THE CURVE.
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How FOAM is applied? FOAM can be injected in two main treatment methods; either Batch or continuous injection. Each can be chosen upon the problem severity, well completion, and the treatment targets. Injection locations also can be in the production tubing, in the annulus of packer-less wells, capillary injection tubing, or by throwing the Foam Sticks in case used. Figure-3 demonstrates continuous injection via the capillary string
Why FOAM Application? Engineering is an optimization art. Solutions fail if they are not economically feasible. The best balance between the investment cost and the output is simply the best solution. In financial words, this is called the Return on Investment or ROI. Petroleum industry is too dynamic to accept certain solutions as the best solutions forever. What is viable today may be not one hour later. As mentioned before, there are many alternatives to the foamers. FOAM Technology has been found to be very cost effective if compared with the mechanical methods to unload the liquid in the gas well for many reasons as demonstrated in Table-1. What really makes Foamers a reliable solution is that they can be applied in conjunction with the mechanical solutions to maximize the output. Application
Advantages of Foamers over this Application
• Eliminating Produing-Non-Producing Cycles. • higher Produiction
Saving rig and new tubing costs.
• Saving compressors cost and maintenance. • Eliminating solids and liquid contamination risk in compressors.
Less energy and operating costs.
No shut in.
Less operating cost.
Chemical Selection and Injection Rate Not all the FOAM initiating chemicals or Foamers are the same. There is a wide range of chemicals, each is dedicated for certain cases. There is a bunch of chemicals that suits high condensate percentage, another bunch for high brine low condensate content, some foamers are designed for high temperature conditions, and some for certain application methods. Foamers treatment dosage selection is performed by many tests to stand on the fit for purpose chemical based on ppm (Parts Per Million) which is reached by testing. After the ppm is identified, it is needed to calculate how many gallons per day will be injected by the following formula: Gallons per Day = PPM X 42 X Production Volume in bbl / 1,000,000 Example: If a gas well of 200 bpd water needs to be treated by 1000 ppm FOAMER, it will be in need of 8.4 gallons per day.
FOAM Lifetime and Stability Foam breaks down with time. The rate of breakdown is measured as a half-life, the time it takes drop by half. Due to gravity and capillary effects, the liquid drains from the lamella (Liquid layers in Foam). As the liquid drains, the film gets thinner and it ruptures; so the half-life is controlled by the rate the liquids drain. Higher concentrations of foamer increases stability which is sometimes required if there are factors that affect the foamer functions. Condensate is one of these factors that generally decrease foam quality. Solids and sand can act in this way too. Methanol or Alcohols in general make good surface defoamers by destabilizing foam, so it will require higher concentrations to offset the effect.
Conclusion As the gas well ages, the gas production declines and the flow changes patterns to be a bubble flow that the gas bubbles become unable to overcome the hydrostatic liquid head which is called liquid loading. FOAM technology of is one of the most reliable solutions to restore the gas production and it can be applied alone or combined with the mechanical methods to unload the liquid head. Foamers are surface active agents that create less dense mixture of liquid and gas which can be lifted easily to the surface. The application design depends on the unloading targets, the well completion, conditions, and, of course, ruled by the economic factors.
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Hydraulic Lift System What is the Artificial Lift System? It’s a system to get the hydrocarbons from the well up to the processing area. The hydraulic pumping system as a form of artificial lift systems that is being marketed today, takes liquid from a liquid reservoir on the surface, puts it through a reciprocating multiplex piston pump or horizontal electrical submersible pump to increase its pressure, and then injects the pressurized liquid (known as power fluid) down hole through a tubing string. At the bottom of the injection tubing string, the power fluid is directed into the nozzle of a jet pump or to the hydraulic engine of a piston pump, both of which have been set well below the producing fluid level. The surface injection pressures normally used range from approximately 2000 psi up to 4000 psi, with some going up to 4500 psi. The installations where surface injection pressures are in excess of 4500 psi are very rare. An electric motor, diesel engine, or gas engine is used to drive the multiplex pump and the power fluid is typically one of the liquids from the well, i.e. water or oil. The fundamental operating principle of subsurface hydraulic pumping is known as Pascal’s Law, which was postulated by Blaise Pascal in 1653. The application of this principle makes it possible to transmit pressure from the surface by means of a liquid-filled tubing string to any given point below the surface. The energy of the pressurized liquid (power fluid) is transmitted to the appropriate components of the downhole pump and/or the produced fluid(s) in order to bring the reservoir fluids to the surface. As long as a reservoir has sufficient energy for the fluids it contains to flow to the surface and in the quantities desired, then no form of artificial lift is necessary. If the well is not flowing or if it is not flowing the desired quantities, then the energy shortfall of the natural lift will have to be supplied by using some form of artificial lift. The walking-beam, sucker-rod method of pumping is the most common form of artificial lift in use today. It has been in use since 476 A.D. when the Egyptians used the same principle for drawing water, and has been used in the petroleum industry since the days of Drake’s discovery in Pennsylvania. In comparison, hydraulic pumping as it exists today, which can be either a reciprocating down hole pump or a jet pump, is an almost brand new method of raising subsurface fluids to the surface. Even compared to the gas lift, which was first used to lift oil from some wells in Pennsylvania in 1846, hydraulic pumping would have to be considered as a relatively new method of artificial lift. While Pascal’s Law is a fundamental concept for all hydraulic pumps, the operation of jet pumps is based on the Bernoulli equation. The use of jet pumps has proven to be extremely advantageous and cost-effective for operators in the following cases:
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Taha Metwally Completion Engineer Halliburton Energy
a) dewatering gas wells b) frac. fluid recovery operations c) when the well has stopped flowing d) to boost production from wells e) when an existing gas lift well is proving cost prohibitive or the gas is depleting f) to clean sandy wells prior to running EPS’s g) performing DST’s prior to installing production pumps h) in hybrid systems as a backup to gas lift or ESP
Surface Power Fluid Package
Packer Nose High Pressure Power Fluid
Bottom Hole Assembly
Piston or Jet “Free Pump”
Standing Valve TYPICAL HYDRAULIC PUMPING SYSTEM.
Advanteges of Hydraulic Pumping One major advantage is that it will operate over a wide range of well conditions such as setting depths of as much as 20,000 feet and production rates of as much as 50,000 bpd. Virtually all of the following advantages apply to dewatering gas wells as well as typical production installations. • Typically, no rig is required to retrieve free pumps. In many cases, this may be the primary advantage of hydraulic pumping systems as compared to the other systems. • Both jet and piston pumps are highly flexible in adjusting to changing production rates. • Both jet and piston pumps are able to produce at higher rates from greater depth than a rod pump, electric submersible pump, or gas lift. • Chemicals can be added to the power fluid to control corrosion, paraffin, scaling, etc. plus fresh water can be used to dissolve salt deposits.
Advantages of Jet Pumps • Can operate more reliably in deviated wells. • Have no moving parts and therefore no mechanical wear. • Can typically perform better in the higher GLR wells than positive displacement pumps such as progressive cavity, rod or hydraulic piston pumps. • Can typically perform better in the higher GLR wells than ESP’s. • Have long run lives. • Standard jet pumps can operate successfully in temperatures as high as 400°F by simply using high temperature elastomers for their o-rings and seal rings. • Have low maintenance costs. • Are field repairable. • Can be installed in sliding sleeves, wire-line nipples and across gas lift mandrels as well as their own bottom-hole assemblies. • Have a high tolerance of solids in the production fluids. • Have a high tolerance to corrosive fluids through the use of CRA materials and/or inhibitors entrained in the power fluid. • Can produce high volumes . • A hydraulic piston pump has better efficiency at depth than a rod pump because there is no rod stretch and no rod/tubing wear. • Multi-well piston pump installations can be operated from a
single power source. • The power fluid serves as a diluent when producing viscous crudes. • The power fluid (usually water) can be heated to produce heavy crudes or crudes with high pour points.
Jet Pump Run Life A major goal for both the operators and the service companies has always been to make continuous improvements in the equipment needed to produce oil and gas. Therefore, the jet pump has always enjoyed a reputation for having a long run life, which is primarily due to not having any moving parts. The life of the jet pump is strongly influenced by the specific well conditions under which it is operating, the care with which it is installed and its maintenance. During continuous production operations, it is recommended that regular services be carried out for jet pumps every six to twelve months for severe applications, every two to three years in normal applications, and every three to four years in moderate applications. This service typically consists of just an inspection of the major components and replacement of the elastomer seals. Occasionally, nozzles and throats will also need to be replaced. This is easily done with a free style pump. Conditions which contribute to performance relate first and foremost to the proper matching of the installation design and sizing of the jet pump to the given well, and then to a fairly stabilized operating condition over the long term. Needless to say the well’s producing characteristics must be within the capabilities of a jet pump. The performance of a jet pump can be optimized for achievement of the operator’s target production while minimizing surface injection pressure or horsepower (not both). The hydraulic jet pump achieves the total dynamic head required by the well through an energy transfer between the two moving fluid streams in a jet pump. Momentum is transferred from the very high velocity power fluid stream to the produced fluid stream. This results in an energy decrease in the power fluid stream and an energy rise in the produced fluid stream. Part of the kinetic energy of the combined fluid stream is then converted to static pressure by slowing the stream’s velocity as it passes through the diffuser thereby developing sufficient pressure to lift the fluid to the surface. This energy transfer is accomplished in a compact pump assembly having no moving parts.
Conclusion So briefly, when the reservoir energy becomes insufficient to lift the oil to the surface, we need to use auxiliary methods. One of them is hydraulic pumping. This system which can be installed at high depths and handle enormous amounts of production is being widely marketed today. With each passing year, we find more and more advancements in the aspect of hydraulic lift systems which include new power fluids, pumps with higher efficiency, and new techniques and combinations to get the best output with the least possible cost and energy consumption.
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Wireline Logging Waleed G. Shehata Wireline logging Operator
Wireline logging has different types of jobs (open hole, cased hole), each one has a lot of services depending on client requirements.
First, the steps for drilling any oil and gas well
Oil Exploration is a process by which one finds out where under the Earth Hydrocarbon reservoirs are located and ultimately produce the hydrocarbons safely. The usual steps of oil exploration are:
Understand the geology and look for sedimentary basin Seismic survey
Drilling Logging (formation evaluation & well testing)
Casing & cementing Perforation
Well completion & production
The sensors are attached to the wireline logging cable and lowered inside the borehole to the bottom. Then, they are pulled up by spooling the cable using the hoist unit. As the sensors are moved up at a more or less constant speed, the sensors measure the properties of the rock, and send the data to the surface unit for recording, control and display. Typically the wireline tools are cylindrical in shape, usually from 1.5 to 5 inches in diameter. There are three types of wireline tools: (1) Tools with sensors, but without excitation. There are downhole logging tools to measure spontaneous potential (SP), which is a voltage difference between a surface electrode and another electrode located in the downhole instrument. Other logging tools measure the natural radiation from natural isotopes of potassium, thorium, and uranium. Another set of tools measure pressure and temperature and fluid density. (2) Tools with sources of excitation and sensors. These sensor systems consist of a source of excitation and a sensor. In this type we find acoustic (also called sonic), laterolog, inductive, nuclear and magnetic resonance sensing systems, just to name a few. (3) Tools that produce some mechanical work or retrieve a sample of fluid or rock to the surface. These are devices that collect samples of rock, samples of fluid extracted from the rock. Other tools are mechanical devices. Well Logging measurements can:
Workover & production logging
Open hole (A borehole drilled in the formation, usually available immediately after drilling) Wireline Logging or well logging Is the process of introducing measurement sensors into a borehole/wellbore via a “wireline”, an electromechanical cable with conductor wire embedded within a steel armor. The objective is to measure and record the physical properties of the rocks in oil and gas wells. Electrical power and control is provided to the sensors inside the borehole from a surface logging unit. The sensors transmit data to the surface, indicating the physical parameters of the rock surrounding the borehole. The surface wireline logging unit consists of computers and software to control and record data, power supplies to provide power to the downhole sensors, a spool /cable drum of wireline cable, and a hoisting unit (hydraulic or electrical).
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• Ascertain hydrocarbon potential of the well. • Determine hydrocarbon type and volume. • Determine what types of fluid will flow and at what rate. • Optimize well construction and hydrocarbon production.
Educational Cased hole A borehole wherein steel casing pipes have been placed and cemented suitably. There is a lot of services in cased hole, most of them need pressure control equipment and some other services depending on mud weight and Rig BOP. There are examples for some services: 1-PERFORATION To establish fluid communication between wellbore and formation for production / injection. It uses high explosives with shaped charges. Perforators use • Initiator / detonator. • Detonating chord. • Shaped charges.
• Evaluating completion efficiency. • Detecting mechanical problems, breakthrough, coning. • Monitoring and profiling of production and injection. • Detecting thief zones, channeled cement. • Single layer and multilayer well test evaluation. • Identifying reservoir boundaries for field development.
Pressure control equipment: Why do we use pressure control equipment in cased hole? We need pressure control equipment because we are working on a live well and we cannot work on it without control. Wireline pressure control equipment allows us to go inside the well by putting our tools inside risers (lubricators) and make a seal by greasing around the cable to allow cable movements, and at the same time control pressure and prevent it from getting outside.
2-BRIDGE PLUG SETTING BY WIRE LINE Bridge plugs are mainly used for isolation of zones in casing. This prevents the movement of fluid from either direction. 3-Back off services Sometimes, the drill string or tubing gets stuck in the bore hole. To release it, a shock at a joint just above free point is given. When the detonating cord is fired, it releases the string. Puncture job. It is a perforation operation with specially designed small charge so as to have big holes with lesser depth of penetration. 4-PRODUCTION LOGGING - Production logging provides downhole measurements of fluid parameters on a zone by zone basis to yield information on the type of fluid movement within and near the wellbore. - Major applications of production logging include:
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
North Morgan Waterflood Eman S. Shahin Reservoir Engineer GUPCO
40 year of water injection and oil potential still exist! an integrated approach for waterflood performance understanding 13% recovery factor for a waterflood reservoir is considered low compared to various analogues. North Morgan Belayim reservoir went through an integrated geological-engineering review to challenge around 4 mmbbl resources. Tying depositional model to dynamic data is key to understand sweep and reservoir performance.
Introduction Morgan field is one of Egyptâ€™s largest oil fields, located in the central part of Gulf of Suez (GOS). The main producing reservoir is Kareem overlaid by Belayim which is subdivided into 3 main units B1, B2, and B3. The level of reservoir heterogeneity is high because of lateral and vertical variations, and this is the main factor affecting production and injection performance. Kareem currently has a RF of 51% producing at over 90% WC. Figure 1 shows bubble plots of cumulative production and injection in the Kareem and Belayim reservoir. High number of well penetrations helped to achieve low cost Belayim accessibility either by rig-less recompletions or work overs, good example of well stock optimization and life-of-field wellbore opportunities identification.
Reservoir Quality Map Belayim reservoir sets over Kareem formation; the upper Belayim contains the majority of the reserve. The Belayim reservoir is a part of fan delta complex consisting of stacked coarsing upward sequences. Sedimentary facies analysis indicates rapid deposition in a shallow marine environment. North Morgan is located in the distal part of this fan delta complex. Two common risk segment (CRS) maps have been constructed for B1 and B2 intervals (see Figure 2) in order to understand producers/injectors connectivity and help identify rig-less well work options, work overs and new sidetracks activities. CONCESSION MAP
Well Data Control
NORTH MORGAN KAREEM NORTH MORGAN BELAYIM FIG 1 NORTH MORGAN KAREEM_ BELAYIM CUMULATIVE PRODUCTION AND INJECTION MAPS
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The CRS maps are controlled by well and dynamic data. As shown in Figure 2, a correlation panel passing through three representative wells explains lateral reservoir heterogeneity M113 well reflects poor facies, while M247 has a good sand quality, and M119 indicates an area of moderate sand quality.
Case Study Dynamic Data Because of different sand quality and vertical facies variation in B1 and B2 units, the agreed approach was to study each unit performance separately. Production logging data between the two units are collected separatley for better evaluation and differentiation of individual sweeps. It is clear that B1 dominates B2 production, and the main conclusion was to target both units separately to achieve better production and injection per-
formance. Understanding the sand depositional model and tying this to pressure, production, and injection data allows improved water injection conformance understanding. A key learning from the conformance review is that well interaction is not influenced by the distance between injectors and producers, but driven by where the well is completed within the sand lobe structure.
FIG 2 CRS MAP FOR BELAYIM RESERVOIR OVERLAID BY PRODUCTION/INJECTION BUBBLE MAP, NORTH MORGAN AREA IS DOMINATED BY POOR TO MODERATE SAND FACIES, CORRELATION REFLECTS THE LATERAL VARIATION.
Conclusion The integrated geological/reservoir engineering understanding for North Morgan Belayim reservoir has a direct feed into recent GUPCO activity schedule by introducing new rig-less well work and surveillance options to enhance oil production target and progress under-developed resources. To-date implemented activities have increased GUPCO production by an average of 800 bbls/d. RF based on the WF improvement is expected to increase by 5%. The new approach has been embedded into GUPCO team culture and will be applied in future waterflood conformance reviews.
FIG 3 DIFFERENT RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE TRENDS BETWEEN INJECTOR AND THEIR OFFSET PRODUCERS
FIG 4 DIFFERENT RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE TRENDS BETWEEN INJECTOR AND THEIR OFFSET PRODUCERS
Authors: GUPCO South Central Resource Progression Team
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
Hybrid Seismic Attribute for Identifying Geological Features Mohamed Shihata Senior Geophysicist International Trainer
Seismic attributes are defined as any measure of seismic data that helps to visually enhance or quantify features of interest. A good seismic attribute is either directly sensitive to the desired geologic feature or reservoir property or allows us to define the structural or depositional environment and thereby enables us to infer some features or properties of interest. Spectral-domain seismic data attributes have been useful for some applications in hydrocarbon-reservoir characterizations. The seismic response of a given geologic feature is expressed differently at different spectral bands. Often, a particular frequency component carries the information regarding structure and stratigraphy. Spectral decomposition methods map 1D signal into the 2D time and frequency plane, generating amplitude and phase spectral components (Castagna et al., 2003). Sun et al. (2010) using discrete frequency coherence cubes in fracture detection and finding that high-frequency components can provide greater detail combination spectral decomposition. Farfour and Youn (farfour and youn, 2012) used frequency decomposition for delineating stratigraphic traps and identifying subtle frequency variations caused by hydrocarbons. The application of complex spectral coherence shows that it is useful for detecting different-scale structural and stratigraphic discontinuity features (Li and Lu, 2014). In this work, we used different hybrid attributes to identify important geological features that are hard to determine by unique attribute, average SD attributes has been developed based on seismic spectral decomposition analysis, this method was started by removing high and low frequencies noises depending on our targets frequencies band and used mean smooth filter to reduce effect of foot print noises, our first target to generate new hybrid attribute (average SD) to identify thin shallow channels trend, first step depends on determining the channelâ€™s dominant frequency using tuning thickness analyses for extracted wavelet. Then generate spectral band frequencies around dominant frequency. Finally, average SD attribute was generated to enhance thin channel interpretation. Calculating similarity attribute by average SD shows that it is useful for enhancing thin geological features interpretation and obtains promising results for shallow and deep geological features interpretation.
Average SD (spectral decomposition) Attributes Workflow Spectral decomposition was expected to reveal stratigraphic features of the channel that could not be seen in seismic images. To accomplish this, different frequencies were calculated for a single time slice at this interval (Farfour and Youn , 2012).
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Over the last decades, several studies have demonstrated that spectral decomposition can provide more interpretable results if it is integrated with edge attributes. To handle this problem, it is prefered to divide seismic data to several spectral bandwidth and average the best three frequency bands to generate new hybrid average SD attribute (Figure 1). Similarity is an ideal attribute in mapping lateral variation in waveform within defined time window; but it is relatively insensitive to change of amplitude. In a very thin bed reservoir, the lower tuning implies that the waveform stabilizes and only seismic amplitude changes; thus, similarity is not the appropriate attribute. On the other hand, spectral decomposition is known to be a good indicator of amplitude change.
FIG 1 AN EXAMPLE BROADBAND TRACE (LEFT), ITS SPECTROGRAM (MIDDLE) WITH THE LIMITING FREQUENCIES INDICATED IN WHITE AND THE BAND-LIMITED RECONSTRUCTIONS (RIGHT) FOR THE THREE FREQUENCY BANDS.
Finally, the three frequencies are averaged and combined around the dominant frequency to generate Average SD attributes that reduce the conflict effect of other uninterested spectral band and eliminated noises effect of other bands. Figure 2(a) shows Survey spectrum at survey time interval where there are different bandwidths interfering with interested channel band width frequencies. Figure 2(b) presents Survey spectrum at channel interval shows dominant frequency around 60 Hz. A noticeable decrease from 90 to 60Hz is associated to high frequency attenuation and absorption while traveling to deeper formations.
FIG 2 A) SURVEY SPECTRUM AT SURVEY TIME INTERVAL, B) SURVEY SPECTRUM AT CHANNEL INTERVAL SHOWS DOMINANT FREQUENCY AROUND 60 HZ.
A layer is called a thin layer when 1 < λ/d ≤ 4, and an ultra-thin layer when, λ/d > 4, where λ is the dominant wavelength within the layer and d is the layer thickness (Liu and Smith 2003).
Results Compared results of spectral decomposition frequencies confirm our proposed dominant frequency where edge of channel has been enhanced after extracted SD frequency of 62 Hz, Figure 3 compares between normal amplitude and amplitude for SD frequency 62 Hz at same time slice there are improvements in edge of channel and increase in the resolution of reflectors (Figure 5).
FIG 5 NORMAL AMPLITUDE SLICE AT 1.036 S (LEFT), AMPLITUDE FOR SD FREQUENCY 62 HZ (RIGHT).A FIG 3 TUNING ANALYSIS FOR EXTRACTION WAVELET.
I3D (Illuminator-3D) attributes Application A variety of different seismic attributes, such as Symmetry and Similarity for example, can reveal and display fault patterns in a formation. However, actual fault patterns in a formation may not be continuous, and a single fault may appear as a combination of seemingly isolated parts. In addition, horizontal footprints may coexist in the fault attributes in great numbers further obscuring the faults. Fault analysis can be done more easily if isolated parts of a single fault can be connected together into a single piece, while footprints of low dips can be removed. The I3D algorithm (patent pending) performs these operations which enhance the fault image in all spatial directions. The orientation energy E reflects the strength of orientation features. The low values of orientation energy mean that there are fewer oriented patterns in the neighborhood, while the stronger ones mean the orientation feature is more salient in the context. Figure 4 shows an example of the orientation vector field (OVF)
Average SD attributes calculated by combining best three frequencies around thin channel dominant frequency to enhance channels’ edge and depends on determining dominant frequencies by tuning analysis (Figure 7), this attribute combine different band frequencies to enhance thin channels, Figure 2 shows average SD merge the best three frequencies around dominant frequency (55-64-70 Hz) at 1.036 s to enhance channel edge compared with normal amplitude at same time slice, this attribute add valuable geological information. Figure 7 compares between similarity generated by normal amplitude and average SD attribute, subtle thin channels system easily identified in right image especially in the middle and in east parts. In the other side, noises and unwanted band signals reduce channels system in left image.
FIG 6 AMPLITUDE SLICE AT 1.036 S FOR SD FREQUENCY 62 HZ (LEFT), AVERAGE ATTRIBUTES TIME SLICE AT 1.036 ENHANCE CHANNEL IMAGE (RIGHT).
FIG 4 ORIENTATION VECTOR FIELD NEAR A SALT DOME. THE ORIENTATION VECTORS (RED) ARE PLOTTED ON TOP OF THE SEISMIC IMAGE IN A REGION NEAR THE SALT DOME. THE MAGNITUDES OF THE VECTORS ARE NORMALIZED
FIG 7 AMPLITUDE SLICE AT 1.036 S FOR SD FREQUENCY 62 HZ (LEFT), AVERAGE ATTRIBUTES TIME SLICE AT 1.036 ENHANCE CHANNEL IMAGE (RIGHT).
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FIG 8. NORMAL AMPLITUDE ATTRIBUTES FOR INLINE 690 (LEFT), AVERAGE SD ATTRIBUTES FOR INLINE 690 (RIGHT).
FIG 11 : BLEND FAULT ATTRIBUTES I3D ENERGY WITH AMPLITUDE ATTRIBUTES TO ENHANCE FAULTS INTERPRETATION AND AID TO IDENTIFY EDGE OF GAS CHIMNEY AND REDUCE RISK.
FIG 9. SIMILARITY ATTRIBUTE CALCULATED USING NORMAL AMPLITUDE (LEFT), SIMILARITY ATTRIBUTE USING AVERAGE SD (RIGHT).
FIG 12 : SHALLOW GEOLOGICAL FEATURES MAY INDICATE GAS MIGRATION AND ACCUMULATION.
FIG 10 : SYMMETRY ATTRIBUTE AT TIME SLICE 0.640 (LEFT), I3D ENERGY ATTRIBUTE CALCULATED FROM SYMMETRY ATTRIBUTE (RIGHT). BLEND FAULT ATTRIBUTES I3D ENERGY WITH EDGE ATTRIBUTES ENHANCE FAULT IMAGE, MULTI-ATTRIBUTES HELP TO IDENTIFY FAULTS TRENDS AND REDUCE RISK OF SEISMIC INTERPRETATION
FIGURE 13 : BLENDING AVERAGE ENERGY WITH SIMILARITY ATTRIBUTES INDICATE SHALLOW GAS ACCUMULATION.
Average SD attribute used to enhance similarity attributes results and improve seismic interpretationfor shallow geological features, it is important to merge different bands of frequency cubes in one volume, to handle this problem, average SD attribute was created to sum absolute values for three frequency bands and generate one volume for important frequency bands, this new hybrid attribute eliminated foot noises’ effect and reduced the effect of unwanted geological features, average SD attribute is used to generate similarity attributes to improve shallow channel detection and guidance to determine the boundary of deep reservoirs, average SD delivers promising results for both shallow and deep geological interpretation because it combines different frequency bands in one volume.
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
Radial Drilling Advanced Well Optimization Technology
Kyrlous K. Morgan Drilling Engineer Petroshahd Company
Introduction With a world context of high oil prices and a rate of increase in reserves from new discoveries that is not enough to compensate the rate of extraction, companies have been working to improve the recovery factor of reserves, as a strategy to extend the useful life of the existing assets. Radial drilling technology seems to be an alternative can be adapted to the existing wells thus becoming a low investment alternative. The laterals are done in two steps: First, the casing is perforated with a 3/4 mill and then the lateral extensions are carried out by high pressure water jetting. Among various reasons for this technique to increase producRadial Drilling Tools tion, the following could be highlighted: (1) ½ in pipe, up to13500 ft long and 10000 psi working pres• Improve the conductivity of an important area around the sure. well. (2) Monitoring and command cab. • Possibility to define direction of the perforation. (3) Source of hydraulic power. • Helps the mobilization of viscous oils. (4) Triplex pump (2-5GPM) of low flow rate and high pressure • Connects areas of better petrophysical properties. 10000 psi. • Allows intervention of oil reservoirs limited by close-by aqui(5) Injection head with hydraulic drive (pull=10000lbs) optionfers. al, only for units operating at more than 6500 ft. Case study St. George Gulf Basin We also have The bottom hole assembly of the radial drilling The average production of a technique. This assembly consists of : well in the basin has dropped (1) Deflector shoe, which guides the flexible shaft and the bit from 4.2m3/day in 1998 to from the vertical into horizontal motion.(Fig.1.) 3 (2) Flexible shaft. It is an articulated joint that goes into the de- 3.14m /day in 2004. The Experience was started with the interflector shoe and carry the bit at the end of it.(Fig.2.) vention of the production layers (3) 13/16 in bit. (4) Jetting Tool: a jet with three bores oriented forward and that during the completion of the well had been fractured and three towards the back.(Fig.3.) are not currently offering significant production in the well, Vast Benefits looking for an improvement of This application combines the following important factors: the production of the well. • Low cost. • Low geological uncertainty. Limiting factors affecting RD application • Low environmental risk. Limitations are divided into mechanical and geological ones. The geological limitations appear when the jet drilling is subjected to: • Dipping formations, the forward jet will cut into the cap rock, and depending on its hardness and/or porosity difference from the reservoir rock, the forward movement will be reduced. • Unconsolidated formations, Beach sands and highly erosional uncemented sand deposits may “wash‐out” as a result of the high velocity impact of the reverse jets. FIG.1. RADIAL DRILLING BHA • Zero-porosity formations, Calcite or siliceous mineralization in carbonates or sands can result in zero porosity and will not allow the erosional effect of the forward jets to penetrate. Conclusion
FIG.2. FLEXIBLE SHAFT
• The technique is considered the most proper in Egypt from the economical point of view, which doesn’t need high the costs of hydraulic fracturing. • Radial drilling is a stimulation technique which gives an extraction rate up to 1300% of the original one. • The technique shows high uncertainty of the perforation direction, so it is necessary to perforate in the center of the layer.
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery Biology in Petroleum industry
AAPG Academy Member
AAPG Academy Member
The use of microorganisms and their metabolic products to stimulate oil production is now receiving renewed interest worldwide. This technique involves the injection of selected microorganism into the reservoir and the subsequent stimulation and transportation of their in-situ growth products so that their presence will aid in further reduction of residual oil left in the reservoir after secondary recovery is exhausted. Microorganisms Species are: (1) Aerobes: can only survive in the presence of oxygen. (2) Anaerobes: which exist in the absence of oxygen. (3) Facultative: which are able to exist aerobically or anaerobically. (4)Mesophilic: capable of surviving below 45oC. (5)Thermophilic: able to live in environments at constant temperature greater than 45 oC. Johnson (1979), California, USA suggested a method that involves the use of gas solvent forming bacteria to clean out the pores of the producing wells by injecting the bacteria (culture of Bacillus and Clostridium) and nutrients (Cattle feed molasses) in the formation around the wellbore, allowing time for maximum fermination to take place (10-14 days) and allow the copious amounts of CO2, CH4 and N2 to partially repressurize the reservoir. The production of gas and solvents and increase of pressure near the wellbore will effectively clean out these pores and reduce the oil-water interfacial tension to allow better flow of oil into the producing well. Additional recovery of 20-35% of the oil in place may be expected.
WAYS OF USING MICROORGANISMS TO ENHANCE OIL PRODUCTION
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Reservoir limitations Lithology Although silicates and carbonates pose little restriction on microbial activity, the adsorptive capacity of clays and some other minerals contained within the porous rock can interfere with biological processes under the proper conditions of pH and ionic strength, clays and rock possess charges on their surface that act to adsorb bacteria and inhibit their migration through the porous media. Clays can also adsorb water resulting in their swelling thereby restricting microbial transportation through the rock matrix. Porosity and permeability The pore size is of concern because bacteria which are found in many different morphologies can have dimensions of approximately 0.5-10 µm in length and 0.5-2µm in width. This means that pore sizes of less than 0.5 µm will place severe restrictions on the ability of these bacteria to be transported through the rock matrix. Updegraff (1983) has stated that pores must be at least twice the diameter of Cocci or short Bacilli for effective transport to occur. Depth The depth itself is not limiting to the microbial growth, but its effect on temperature and pressure of the reservoir can affect microbial growth and metabolism.
Temperature Oil reservoirs can possess temperatures much greater than 100 oC and the overburden pressure can maintain water in a liquid state at these extreme temperatures. It is now well accepted that bacteria can be found growing in waters that are at or near the boiling point temperature. Some of these organisms have displayed an ability to withstand extremely low pH at these high temperatures (Brock et al., 1972). Based on the assumption that life at high temperatures is limited by the availability of water in the liquid state rather than by the temperature itself, it is possible that oil reservoirs will present an ecosystem in which the upper temperature limit to life for microorganisms may be extended. Pressure Extreme pressures are known to have pronounced effects on the growth and metabolism of microorganisms. Pressures lower than 100-200 atm. generally do not have a pronounced effect on microbial metabolism. However, pressures about 500600 atm. are generally considered to be limiting to growth for most known bacteria (The ocean floor presents the best studied ecosystems which possesses high pressures about 380 atm. to the maximum 1160 atm.) (Kinne 1972). API gravity Finnerty and Singer (1983) have reported a microorganism that produces a biosurfactant when grown on hexadecane or Cerro Negro PCN-1 crude oil that is capable of reducing the viscosity of this crude oil (8-15o API) from greater than 25,000 cp down to 250 cp.
MEOR Application If the product of cell metabolism is formed in-situ, it will be initially protected to some extent by being in a physically controlled ecosystem which may not contain many types of microorganisms that would be capable of degrading the compound. If, however, the cells that produced the bioproduct are present in the reservoir and are carrying out active metabolism, the rate of production should be greater than the rate of decomposition. If the biological product was synthesized above ground and introduced into the reservoir, there would be no biosynthesis of the material in the reservoir to overcome the effects of biodegradation. Thus, an in-situ approach has advantages over an injection approach.
MEOR Advantages 1. The injected bacteria and nutrients are inexpensive and easy to obtain and handle in the field. 2. Economically attractive for marginally producing oil fields; a suitable alternative before the abandonment of marginal wells. 3. According to a statistical evaluation (1995 in U.S.), 81% of all MEOR projects demonstrated a positive incremental increase in oil production and no decrease in oil production as a result of MEOR processes. 4. The implementation of the process needs only minor modifications of the existingfield facilities. It is less expensive to install and more easily applied than other EOR methods. 5. The costs of the injected fluids are not dependent on oil prices. 6. MEOR processes are particularly suited for carbonate oil reservoirs where some EOR technologies cannot be applied with good efficiency. 7. The effects of bacterial activity within the reservoir are magnified by their growth, while in EOR technologies the effects of the additives tend to decrease with time and distance. 8. MEOR products are all biodegradable and will not be accumulated in the environment, so they are environmentally friendly.
MEOR Application in Environmental Remediation
Some of the research prior to these MEOR projects were successful in the field of hydrocarbon-polluted environmental sites. Thus, the use of biosurfactants in pipelines that carry heavy oil as an oil in water emulsion and cleaning out tank sludge, the use of bacterial cells as demulsifiers, desulfurization, and production of biopolymers is an effect of using products and processes arising from MEOR into other applications.
ILLUSTRATION OF MEOR BASIC CONCEPT
BIOPRODUCTS OF MEOR
MEOR, its benefits along side with its limitations and its environmental effects. Finally, we hope this research opens new ways for the petroleum industry to get over its crises.
Refrences Donaldson, E.C., Chilingerian, G.V. and Yen, T.F., 1989. Microbial enhanced oil recovery: 9-69. Van Hamme, J.D., A. Singh, and O.P. Ward, Recent advances in petroleum microbiology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 2003. http://www.gulfenergy-int.com/?page_id=1027 Petroleum Science and Technology, 25:1353–1366, 2007 © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
PetroPulse issue 4 April 2016
Egyptian minds’ breakthrough
In a signing ceremony of a long-term partnership between PETRONAS Malaysia Company and MIT Technology owned by Ahmed Tahoun the Egyptian businessman resident in Malaysia, Mr. Salah el Wesimy, ambassador of Egypt in Malaysia said in his statement that the contract requires that PETRONAS use the smart rigs newly devised by the MIT Technology’s Egyptian minds and experience in partnership with PETRONAS. A U.S. patented rigs can drill oil wells in half the time and at half the cost normally needed. The contract was signed during the Conference of Asian Oil Technology in the presence of Malaysian prime minister Najib Razak who saw a detailed presentation by the Egyptian engineer Tahoun about the smart rigs’ operating mechanism sponsored by PETRONAS. These rigs allowed PETRONAS to save millions of dollars proving the rigs effectiveness in drilling wells. The Malaysian minister of international trade and industry Mustafa Muhammad stated that MIT has also signed a memorandum of understanding with the American company Halliburton to export drilling supplies. This means that the company is the first in Malaysia to export such advanced technology to the West thanks to the minds and experience of Egyptian and Malaysian partnership.
Petrozenima Company is to develop Muzhil field
South Abu Zenima Petroleum Company (Petrozenima) has been established as a joint venture company between Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation (EGPC) and National Petroleum Company (NPC) to carry out Muzhil Field Development in South Abu Zenima concession. Eight wells have been drilled in Petrozenima concession and temporarily abandoned after achieving oil discovery with an estimated oil reserve of around 7 MMbbl. On the 1st of January 2016, daily production rate was expected to be 3000 b/d. In a later stage and upon reservoir performance evaluation, additional one or two wells are planned to be completed to increase the production rate up to 4000 bopd.
Aramco to supply Egypt with petroleum products for 5 years
Egypt has signed a deal with Aramco stipulating that the Saudi company would supply Egypt with petroleum products for five years, the minster of petroleum said in a statement. The deal comes after the state-owned Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation had signed an agreement with the Saudi Fund for Development in March, in the 5th meeting of the Egyptian-Saudi Coordination Council held in Riyadh, to help Egypt finance its petroleum needs. Last December, Saudi Arabia said it will raise its investments in Egypt to above $8 billion and pledged to contribute to Egypt’s petroleum needs for the next five years. The kingdom has been a net importer of energy since mid-2013 but the financial assistance now comes at a time when Egypt’s cash-strapped economy is in dire need. This deal was signed by the CEO of Aramco’s trading arm, Yasser Mufti, and the head of the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, Mohamed al-Masry.
Egypt to cut fuel subsidies as government seeks to reduce deficit
Egypt will reduce spending on fuel subsidies by nearly 43 percent in the 2016/17 budget due to lower global energy costs, officials said. Finance Minister Amr al-Garhy told a news conference that the state’s energy subsidies would fall to 35 billion Egyptian pounds from about 61 billion pounds in the 2015/16 budget. Consumers reacted angrily when the government cut spending on energy subsidies in mid-2014 which caused domestic prices of natural gas, diesel and other fuels to rise by as much as 78 percent. However, the deputy minister, Ahmed Kojak, told Reuters that a decline in international oil prices would account for the bulk of the reduced subsidy in the next fiscal year. He said in his statement: “Most of the savings in petroleum product subsidies will be a result of lower global oil prices, there is also a saving of about 8-10 billion Egyptian pounds that will come as a result of new reforms that the Petroleum Ministry will outline in agreement with us”. Egypt is struggling to revive its economy since a popular uprising in 2011 shook investor confidence and drove foreign investors away. The government has been trying to cut subsidies, which eat up a big chunk of the budget.
ThePetroleum Minister Tarek el-Mulla Electricity and Petroleum Ministers Mohamed Shaker and Tarek el-Mulla, respectively, attended on Sunday 24/4/2016 the signing ceremony of a memorandum of understanding (MoU) to use geothermal energy. The MoU was inked between the South Valley Holding Company for Petroleum (Ganope) and the New and Renewable Energy Authority (NREA). The MoU comes within the framework of the cabinet’s keenness on using the new and renewable energy so as to ease the pressure on consuming the traditional forms of energy (petroleum and gas).
Doha meeting to freeze oil outputs falls apart A deal to freeze oil output by OPEC and non-OPEC producers fell apart on April 17th after Saudi Arabia demanded that Iran join in despite calls in Riyadh to save the agreement and help prop up crude prices, Reuters reported. Some 18 oil nations, including non-OPEC Russia, gathered in the Qatari capital of Doha for what was expected to be the rubber-stamping of a deal to stabilize output at January levels until October 2016. The development will revive oil industry fears that major producers are embarking again on a battle for market share, especially after Riyadh threatened to raise output steeply if no freeze deal were reached. Iran has been pledging to ramp up production in the post-sanctions period, making a compromise with Riyadh almost impossible as the two fight proxy wars in Yemen and Syria. The failure likely means that oil prices will drop again.
BP reported a loss of 583 million dollar for 2016 first quarter compared with 2.6 billion profit in the same quarter in 2015 BP reported a loss of $583 million for this year’s first quarter compared with a $2.6-billion profit in the same quarter in 2015. The company reported an underlying replacement cost profit of $532 million for this year’s first quarter compared with a profit of $196 million for the previous quarter and a profit of $2.6 billion for first-quarter 2015. Compared with the previous quarter, lower costs throughout the group more than offset the impact of significantly weaker oil and gas prices and refining margins, the firm says. Underlying operating cash flow in the quarter was $3 billion, excluding $1.1 billion of payments related to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. BP’s downstream segment reported an underlying pretax replacement cost profit of $1.8 billion compared with $1.2 billion for the previous quarter. The upstream segment reported an underlying pretax replacement cost loss of $747 million for the quarter, similar to the previous quarter’s result.
Shell pulls out of Arctic-focused exploration licensing round in Norway
Oil major Royal Dutch Shell has pulled its application from Norway’s Arctic-focused oil licensing round, the firm said on 4th April, in a blow to the Nordic country’s ambitions to explore for oil and gas in its northern offshore areas. “The decision is part of an optimization of Shell’s global portfolio following the acquisition of BG and a persistently low oil price,” the company’s Norwegian unit said in a statement. “Norway remains one of our core areas.” In December Shell applied for drilling permissions in the 23rd round, a licensing round set to move the search for hydrocarbons closer to the country’s border with Russia. In March, the head of Shell’s business in Norway told Reuters the firm had hoped that it could begin drilling in 2017 if it won licenses in the 23rd licensing round. The Norwegian oil and energy minister said Shell’s decision had no implication for the conduct of the licensing round. The awards would still be announced before July, he said. Tord Lien said in an emailed statement. “Shell has told us that the decision is based on short-term cash flow priorities and consolidation after the acquisition of BG.”
ADNOC opens Shah sour gas plant Subsidiary Abu Dhabi Gas Development Co. (Al Hosn Gas) and joint-venture partner Occidental Petroleum Corp. have formally commissioned the Al Hosn Sour Gas Development Project (SGDP) at Shah sour gas-condensate onshore field, southwest of Abu Dhabi City, UAE. Officially inaugurated on Apr. 26, the Shah gas plant is the first project to produce and safely process more than 1 bcfd of ultra-sour gas from a single plant, ADNOC said. Part of ADNOC’s plan to maximize the value of Abu Dhabi’s gas resources to help meet growing demand both within UAE and abroad, the $10 billion Al Hosn SGDP will produce 504 MMcfd of natural gas, 33,000 b/d of condensates, 4,400 tons/day of NGLs, and 9,900 tons/ day of sulfur granules, the company said. During 2015, the Shah plant produced 2 million tons of sulfur, which ADNOC said it expects will rise to 3.2 million tons for 2016.
Eni Plans to Invest $22.5b in Africa Over Next Four Years Italy’s Eni plans to invest about $22.5b in Africa over the next four years, mostly in the oil and gas industry, the company’s CEO, Claudio Descalzi, said in a presentation at the International Energy Agency in Paris, Reutersreported. According to the CEO, the amount represents about 60% of the company’s investments over the given period. “In the long-term we are going to invest much more to develop the giant gas fields that we have found,” he said.Eni has made major gas discoveries especially in Mozambique and recently in Egypt
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