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Natural Resources Inventory Horn Field Campus Western Illinois University 2012

Prepared by: RPTA 488(G) Park and Open Space Management


Located just south of Macomb is a 92-acre tract of land owned by Western Illinois University (WIU) named Hornlea Lodge, more commonly called the Horn Field Campus. Managed and operated the WIU Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Administration, the Horn Field Campus has been part of WIU since 1965, when it was purchased from Frank J. Horn. To honor Mr. Horn for his contribution to WIU, the property was named Frank J. Horn Field Campus. Spring 2012 Western Illinois University RPTA 488(G) Park and Open Space Mgmt. Jon Stockton (Climate) Megan Owens (Land Use, Historical and Cultural Features, Existing Infrastructure) Brittany Abrams (Land Use, Historical and Cultural Features, Existing Infrastructure) Josh Adkison (Soils, Hydrology) Jessica Wagner (Flora) Rick “Papa Smurf� Melvin (Flora) Adam Fletcher (Fauna) Grant Fleetwood (Fauna) Heather Raschke (Fauna) Pete Tarantola (Editing, Publishing) Sean Kearns (Soils, Hydrology) Erin Harper (Maps) Dr. Rob Porter (Instructor) 2


Natural Resources Inventory Horn Field Campus Western Illinois University 2012 Table of Contents I.

List of Figures…………………………...4

II.

Map of Horn Field Campus……………..6

III. What is a Natural Resources Inventory….7 IV.

Land Use………………………………...8

V.

Historical and Cultural Features………...13

VI.

Existing Infrastructure…………………..16

VII. Soils……………………………………..20 VIII. Hydrology………………………………24 IX.

Flora…………………………………….29

X.

Fauna……………………………………37

XI.

Climate………………………………….47

XII. Closing Statement from the Editor……...52 XIII. Appendices……………………………...53 3


FIGURES Figure I II III IV.1 IV.2 IV.3 IV.4 V.1 V.2 V.3 V.4 V.5 V.6 V.7 V.8 VI.1 VI.2 VI.3 VI.4 VI.5 VII.1

Description

Page

Cabin #2

Cover

Horn Field Campus-aerial view

6

Aquilegia canadensis

7

Oak Hollow trailhead

8

Campfire ring

9

Teams Course-log swing

11

Land use points map

12

Sign at historic white oak

13

Historic white oak

13

Cabin #1

14

Cabin #2

14

Cabin #3

14

View from Campus entrance

15

View from bird-watch station

15

View of Campus prairie

15

Storm drain at Campus

16

Campus entrance sign

17

Communication tower

17

Neighboring farm visible from Campus

18

Zoning map of Campus area

19

Photo of soil on Campus

20

4


VII.2 VII.3 VII.4 VII.5 VIII.1 VIII.2 VIII.3 IX.1 IX.2 IX.3 IX.4 IX.5 IX.6 IX.7 IX.8 X.1 X.2 X.3 X.4 X.5 XI.1 XI.2 XI.3 XI.4 XI.5

Photo of soil on Campus

21

Photo of soil on Campus

22

Photo of soil on Campus

22

Campus soil map

23

Mississippian aquifer running under Campus

24

Water table under Campus

27

Stream erosion points map

28

View of hedgerow on Campus

30

Cabins #2 and #3

31

Ropes course participant

32

Crop circle art on Campus

32

Forest Stand A on Campus

33

Forest Stand B on Campus

34

View of the prairie on Campus

35

Flora points map

36

Ropes course sign on Campus

41

White tail deer

42

Red headed woodpecker

43

American toad

44

Velvet mite

45

Annual precipitation at Campus

47

Average temperature at Campus

48

USDA plant hardiness zone map

49

Air quality measurements for Campus area

50-51

Radon measurement for Campus area

51

5


Figure I 6


What is a Natural Resources Inventory A Natural Resources Inventory (NRI) is information, in regard to natural resources, about a given place. An NRI is a living document, intended to be an unbiased, apolitical look at the location and status of natural features. An NRI should explore it’s area from basic geological data to wildlife habitats. An NRI simply cannot be exhaustive, but a diligent effort can produce a valuable tool for resource protection and resourcebased open space management. Certainly, further work needs to be done to catalogue the flora and fauna of Horn Field Campus. And though soils and hydrology may seems less dynamic, every part of nature is in constant flux, and so must an NRI be. As is the case with every other NRI, the work we have produced should be kept on site and updated regularly. It is our hope that every successive Parks and Open Spaces Management class will add to, or subtract from, this document as new and better information becomes available.

Figure III 7


Land Use Affecting Environment Present and Planned Presently Horn Field Campus is an extension of Western Illinois University Macomb campus. The facility is a total of 92 acres comprising of recreational, forested, prairie, hedgerow, and developed areas. This facility is utilized throughout the year and by hundreds of groups annually. A number of plans have been suggested for the future development and enhancement of Horn Field Campus. These ideas include a multi-purpose facility that incorporates ample storage to equipment or additional lodging to accommodate larger groups on the property.

Figure IV.1 8


Land Use Affecting Environment Open Space Horn Field Campus is comprised of a variety of open spaces such as developed and recreational areas, prairie, agricultural, forest, and hedgerow. These areas each provide a unique perspective to the outdoor recreation experience. Developed Area: Category 1 The developed areas of the property include the roads leading into and throughout the campus. Additionally, this area includes three sleeping cabins, one multi-purpose lodge, and a separate office building. A parking lot and woodshed are also found in this area. Recreational Area: Category 2 The recreational areas of Horn Field Campus provide a plethora of recreational opportunities for visitors. Specifically the following amenities are provided on the property: Teams Course (also known as: Low Ropes Course) High Ropes Course Climbing Tower 5 Trails:

Sunset Trail Oak Hollow Trail Teams Course Trail Lazy Creek Trail Deer Ridge Trail

Camp Fire Circle Figure IV.2 9


Land Use Affecting Environment Horn Field Campus also maintains three sleeping cabins, one multi-purpose lodge, and one small lodge for the office. These facilities are utilized for Horn Field programs and are rented to guest groups throughout the year. The three cabins sleep up to 28 individuals. Each cabin is equipped with a bathroom, micro-fridge, heating and cooling capabilities. The lodge is equipped with a kitchen, multi-purpose room, and two fireplaces. Prairie: Category 3 The prairie, located in the northeast corner of the property, is approximately 6-8 acres. This parcel of land is an example of prairie restoration within Horn Field Campus. Horn Field Campus is working alongside local scientists to restore the prairie to a natural state. The prairie provides a visually pleasing affect for the visitors walking the prairie trail as well as those walking to the recreational areas of campus. Agriculture: Category 4 Approximately 10-12 acres of land is agricultural in Horn Field Campus. This area is leased to a local farmer who plants corn on the land then harvests the crop shortly after the annual Corn Maze special event offered at Horn Field Campus. The farmer performs large-scale agricultural practices on this property versus organic practices. Additionally, the farmer maintains a monoculture crop practice only growing corn annually.

10


Land Use Affecting Environment Forest: Category 5 The forested area of Horn Field Campus is located between the recreational and developed areas. The forest is extensive and provides the unique visual beauty to the property. This area of the property provides a scientific lab for the Forestry and Biology departments of Western Illinois University. Additionally, the forest contributes to the recreational use of the campus. Most of the trails wind through the forest allowing the visitor a unique experience in this agricultural region of the state. Hedgerow: Category 6 A hedgerow runs the length of the entire eastern boundary of Horn Field Campus. This area provides the opportunity for scientific studies to be conducted in addition to enhancing the beauty of the property as seen from multiple vantage points in and around the campus.

Figure IV.3 11


Horn Field Campus Land Use Points Map

Figure IV.4 12


Historical and Cultural Features Historical Trees On the property of Horn Field Campus a historical oak tree was identified. The age of the tree has been estimated at 284 years old. The tree is located off of the Oak Hallow trail.

FIGURE V.1

FIGURE V.2

13


Historical and Cultural Features Existing or Possible Archeological Sites To date an archeological dig has not occurred within or around Horn Field Campus. However, prior to Western Illinois University’s ownership, the family of Frank J. “Pappy” Horn maintained possession of the property. The property was developed during the Depression when the Beacon family owned the property. They planned to use the property as a retreat location. Cabins were constructed by craftsmen and ironworkers utilizing state of the art building practices during the Depression era. *Source: WIU website: http://www.wiu.edu/coehs/rptahorn_field_campus/history.php

A pre-existing dam was identified across the creek. Historical information regarding the building or use of the dam has not been identified to date. Currently the dam is broken up and overgrown with brush.

FIGURES V.3, V.4, V.5 (L to R) 14


Historical and Cultural Features Scenic Qualities and View Sheds The view from within the campus includes a forested area, prairie land, and farm field. The view of Horn Field Campus from outside the facility provides a display of forest. Look ing out from Horn Field Campus to the surrounding area one will primarily see woodland. Past the woodland area runs through the center of the property. A pond is located in an agricultural field north of Horn Field Campus that provides water flow into a creek running through the center of the property. This unnamed creek flows into Troublesome Creek, flowing into the LaMoine River, into the Illinois River, and eventually into the Missis sippi River.

FIGURES V.6, V.7, V.8 (L to R)

15


Existing Infrastructure Storm Water Drainage Storm water drainage is accomplished by means of the un named creek running through Horn Field Campus’ southern boundary.

Sewage Horn Field Campus maintains two septic systems. One system provides waste removal for the facility manager’s residence while the second system services the cabins, multipurpose lodge, and office. The septic system for the primary residence contains an aerator to break down the contents. The cabin septic system was installed much earlier than the residence system. This system has two components including a chlorinator and leach field. An output pipe allows the treated liquid to flow out from the system into the creek. As new development is considered for the Horn Field Campus facilities, the current capacity of the septic system must be a consideration. The addition of facilities will require the septic system to be upgraded to manage the additional waste.

FIGURE VI.1 16


Existing Infrastructure Waste Treatment and Disposal and Recycling Facilities Western Illinois University provides trash removal. A dumpster is located on the property and the university picks up the trash weekly. The university provides recycling for Horn Field Campus. The Horn Field staff must transport the recycling materials to the main campus; the university does not pick up recycling at the facility. Communication Towers One communication tower is located on the property of Horn Field Campus in the agricultural area. The tower pro vides service for WIUM radio station, which is the local affiliate station for National Public Radio (NPR). The tower also provides an internet signal for the area.

Figure VI.2

Figure VI.3

17


Existing Infrastructure Industrial Areas There are no industrial areas on the property of Horn Field Campus and none are adjacent to the property.

Zoning The land of Horn Field Campus is designated as AG1S, Agriculture Special Use. The land directly south and adjacent to Horn Field Campus is under the same designation. However, the land north, west, and east of Horn Field Campus is categorized as AG1, Agriculture. Most of the area outside the city limits of Macomb is zoned as agriculture. The zoning category of AG1S designated for Horn Field Campus contains a variety of mixed use facilities such as mining, golf courses, airports, telecommunications, or feed lots. Specifically Horn Field Campus is classified as a general resort area also categorized under this zoning classification. Any future developments in these areas must be approved by the Macomb City Council prior to development.

Figure VI.4 18


Zoning Map of Horn Field Campus Area

Figure VI.5 19


Soil Report for Horn Field Campus This is a summary of a USDA Natural Resource Conservation Association Service custom Soil Resource Report for McDonough County. This specific survey was done for the property at Horn Field Campus which is owned by Western Illinois University. This soil survey provides specific information about the soils and area that makes up Horn Field Campus. The Map unit symbols represent an area dominated by one or more of the major kinds of soil found in that area. Soil Phases- Soils of one series may differ from others in texture of the surface layer, slope, stoniness, salinity, degree of erosion and other characteristics that may affect their use. For that reason soils are divided into soil phases. Most of the areas shown on the Soil map are phases of soil series. Example: Atlas Silt Clay loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, is a phase of the Atlas series. Map units made up of two or more major soils are called complexes, associations, or undifferentiated groups. A complex consists of two or more soils or miscellaneous areas in which an intricate pattern or in such small areas that they can’t be shown separately on the maps. An Association is made up of two or more geographically associated soils or in such small areas that are shown as one unit on the map. An Undifferentiated group is made up of two or more soils or areas that could be mapped individually but are mapped as one unit because similar interpretations can be made for use and management. Figure VII.1 20


Soil Report for Horn Field Campus Some surveys may include miscellaneous areas. These areas have little or no soil material and support little or no vegetation. Horn Field Campus consists of eight different types of soils: Fishhook silt loam (6C2), Atlas silty clay loam (7D3), Keomah silt loam (17A) and (17B), Ipava silt loam (43A), Clarksdale silt loam (257A) and (257B), and Rozetta silt loam (279C2). The Fishhook silt loam (6C2) appears on 5 to 10 percent slopes and is eroded. This type of soil only appears in an elevation range of 350 to 1,020 feet and on backslopes or shoulders. Fishhook silt loam has poor drainage and a depth to water table of 12 to 24 inches with a low water capacity of 5.0 inches. The Atlas silty clay loam (7D3) appears on 10 to 18 percent slopes and is severely eroded. This type of soil only appears in an elevation range of 340 to 1,020 feet and on backslopes. Atlas silty clay loam has poor drainage and a depth to water table of 6 to 24 inches with a low water capacity of 5.3 inches. The Keomah silt loam (17A) appears on 0 to 2 percent slopes. This type of soil only appears in an elevation range of 650 to 1,230 feet and on talf ground. Keomah silt loam has poor drainage and a depth to water table of 6 to 24 inches with a high water capacity of 11.3 inches. The Keomah silt loam (17B) appears on 2 to 5 percent slopes. This type of soil only appears in an elevation range of 650 to 1,300 feet and on summits, shoulders, and backslopes. Keomah silt loam has poor drainage and a depth to water table of 6 to 24 inches with a high water capacity of 11.2 inches. Figure VII.2

21


Soil Report for Horn Field Campus The Ipava silt loam (43A) appears on 0 to 2 percent slopes. This type of soil only appears in an elevation range of 350 to 1,300 feet and on summits. Ipava silt loam has poor drainage and a depth to water table of 12 to 24 inches with a high water capacity of 12.0 inches. The Clarksdale silt loam (257A) appears on 0 to 2 percent slopes. This type of soil only appears in an elevation range of 400 Figure VII.3 to 1,020 feet and on talf ground. Clarksdale silt loam has poor drainage and a depth to water table of 6 to 24 inches with a high water capacity of 11.3 inches. The Clarksdale silt loam (257B) appears on 2 to 5 percent slopes. This type of soil only appears in an elevation range of 400 to 1,020 feet and on shoulders and summits. Clarksdale silt loam has poor drainage and a depth to water table of 6 to 24 inches with a high water capacity of 11.3 inches. The Rozetta silt loam (279C2) appears on 5 to 10 percent slopes and is eroded. This type of soil only appears in an elevation range of 350 to 1,020 feet and on shoulders. Rozetta silt loam is well drained and a depth to water table of 48 to 72 inches with a very high water capacity of 12.2 inches. Figure VII.4 22


Horn Field Campus Soil Map AOI-Area Of Interest Unit Map Unit Name 6C2 Fishhook silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded 7D3 Atlas silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, 17B Keomah silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 43A Ipava silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes 257A Clarksdale silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes 257B Clarksdale silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 279C2 Rozetta silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded W Water Totals for Area of Interest

Figure VII.5

23

Acres 9.6 24.7 3.7 0.0 30.0 8.7 11.6 0.1 88.4

% AOI 10.8% 27.9% 4.2% 0.0% 34.0% 9.9% 13.2% 0.1% 100.0%


Horn Field Campus Hydrology The Mississippian Aquifer runs directly under Macomb and Horn Field Campus.

Figure VIII.1 24


Hydrology-Mississippian Aquifers Mississippian rocks that are aquifers in the Central Low-land Province in Segment 10 lie beneath Quaternary deposits and Pennsylvanian rocks in parts of western Illinois, eastern Illinois, and southwestern Indiana. Almost all the Mississippian rocks are considered to be aquifers in western Illinois, whereas only the middle and upper parts of Mississippian rocks are considered to be aquifers in eastern Illinois and southwestern Indiana.

The Mississippian aquifers generally are used for water supply where they are less than 200 feet below land surface and where more water can be obtained from them than from the overlying superficial aquifer system. Water in the Mississippian aquifers primarily moves through openings such as bedding planes, fractures, and solution channels. Generally, the water is under confined conditions where the water-yielding zones in the Mississippian rocks lay beneath clay or shale beds. 25


Hydrology-Mississippian Aquifers Recharge to the Mississippian aquifers occurs primarily by water that percolates downward through the overlying Quaternary deposits and Pennsylvanian rocks. Water discharges to these younger rocks in places where the water level in the Mississippian aquifers is higher than that in the overlying aquifers. Water stored in the overlying rocks, especially the Quaternary deposits, serves to replenish ground water withdrawn from the Mississippian aquifers. Freshwater circulates to depths greater than 1,000 feet below sea level in west-central Illinois; consequently, all the Mississippian rocks that are directly overlain by Quaternary deposits and some that are directly overlain by Pennsylvanian rocks contain freshwater in this area.

Ground-Water Quality Sparse data indicate that water from the Mississippian aquifers in western Illinois is very hard, which reflects the pre dominance of limestone in this area. Slightly acidic ground water partially dissolves the limestone, thus increasing the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions (primary hardness-causing constituents) in the water. 26


Hydrology-Depth to the Water Table "Water table" refers to a saturated zone in the soil. It occurs during specified months. Estimates of the upper limit are based mainly on observations of the water table at selected sites and on evidence of a saturated zone, namely grayish colors in the soil. A saturated zone that lasts for less than a month is not considered a water table. Map unit symbol Map unit name 6C2 Fishhook silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded 7D3 Atlas silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, eroded 17B Keomah silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 43A Ipava silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes 257A Clarksdale silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes 257B Clarksdale silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes 279C2 Rozetta silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded W Water Totals for Area of Interest

Figure VIII.2 27

Rating (cn) Acres AOI 46 9.6 38 24.7 38 3.7 46 0.0 38 30.0 38 8.7 153 11.6 200 0.1 88.4

%AOI 10.8% 27.9% 4.2% 0.0% 34.0% 9.9% 13.2% 0.1% 100.0%


Hydrology-Stream Erosion Points Map

Figure VIII.3 28


Flora Plant inventories can provide fundamental information used for assessing and prioritizing invasive plant management efforts. Inventories are conducted for different purposes, use a wide range of methods, and vary in scales and level of detail. This project was designed both to provide a tool for generating qualitative data that will help Horn Field Campus to prioritize areas for control of invasive plants and to engage students and volunteers in mapping new and established infestations on campus grounds, as well as aid in the location and status of other native and endangered species that may exist on HFC. This report is not a complete inventory of species, native, invasive, or endangered, at the Horn Field Campus of Western Illinois University. In addition, this list excludes species which may appear in summer and fall due to the timeliness of this report. This inventory only represents some species, found on site during the months of March to May 2012, and the included species on this list are exclusive to Horn Field Campus and are in no way representative of any other type of species list for the Western Illinois University campus, the city of Macomb, Illinois, or McDonough County, Illinois. In the case of invasive plant inventories, it is the presence, relative abundance, status, and distribution of invasive plant populations that are determined. In this particular circumstance we have been made aware of the most dominant invasive species reported on Horn Field Campus, (honeysuckle, multiflora rose, and autumn olive) and have focused our attention on identifying and plotting the areas where these species exist. In doing so, we have found no other dominant species of plant which may be considered invasive at this point in time.

29


Our goal was to identify and list as many species in each of the following categories: trees, shrubs, vines, grasses, and herbaceous plants, thereby documenting a subset of species which included Native, Non-Native or Invasive, and Endangered. Due to time restraints, weather conditions, and scheduling issues which may have hindered our research, we looked to condense our five categories of flora and fauna into three more generalized ones. Again, our focus is primarily on the areas which contain the most trees, understory, and herbaceous plants. In so choosing this format, the information presented here on out will be relegated under its designated heading. From this point, we will be able to identify and label the Native, Non-Native or Invasive, and Endangered species that exist at Horn Field Campus. One of these labels will be appropriated to each species on our list under the “Description� heading of the appendix. Plant inventories can provide fundamental information used for assessing and prioritizing invasive plant management efforts. Inventories are conducted for different purposes, use a wide range of methods, and vary in scales and level of detail. This project was designed both to provide a tool for generating qualitative data that will help Horn Field Campus to prioritize areas for control of invasive plants and to engage students and volunteers in mapping new and established infestations on campus grounds. This data will also aid in the location and status of other native and endangered species that may exist at HFC. Figure IX.1 30


The vegetative landscape of Horn Field Campus can be broken down into six sectors of focus: Developed, Recreation, Agriculture, Forest, Prairie, and Hedgerows. This specific forest area serves a vital role in the functions for wild life habitat and groundwater recharge. Throughout the six areas of focus the majority of trees found on Horn Field Campus are located in the forest area, excluding those found in the developed sections and hedgerows of the campus. Shrubs and vines of invasive and native origins are also prevalent in the forested and hedgerow areas. Grasses and herbaceous plants can be found in all six areas, with a wide variety located in the prairie and forest.

Developed Within the developed area of Horn Field Campus there is a lot of managed landscape. This includes any purposefully planted trees, herbaceous plants, and shrubs usually in mulched area off of sidewalks or walking paths. The flora planted is of no threat to the natural surroundings and, if anything, introduces plants that are of native origin. Of the developed area the landscaped portions are located around the cabins, trailer and shed. Regular maintenance practices such as mowing, weed removal, planting, edging and overall grooming of the land is done within this section.

Figure IX.2 31


Recreational This section of the campus includes the High Ropes Course, Low Ropes Course, Trails and Playing Field. As with the developed area, this section undergoes regular grounds maintenance practices. More focus is put on preventing line successsion into these recreation areas, thus keeping out nuisance shrubs, trees or plants that would hinder the recreation experience. Plants that have crept into the high-use areas are usually of herbaceous nature and are in no way threatened.

Figure IX.3

Agricultural

Besides purposefully planted flora for agricultural use such as corn, one could commonly find traditional weeds in this section. There is no demand to control these misplaced plants because regular tilling and production practices are performed on these 11 acres. This field contains concentrated flora that would otherwise not occur naturally.

Figure IX.4 32


Forest The forest area is divided into two stands by a main drain age that runs through the property from North to South. The East side of the drainage is Stand A while the West side is referred as Stand B. There is a large non-native woody shrub problem that is existent throughout the property of HFC. High bush honeysuckle exists everywhere within the under-story of both stand A and B. High Bush Honeysuckle is a non-native woody invasive plant which prevents light hitting the forest floor and ultimately disrupts the native plant community. There is also an oak wilt problem that exists on the property, several shingle oak have the oak wilt disease. Other non-native plants prevalent in the area include Autumn Olive and multiflora rose. At a glance Figure 1 depicts what one might see in the forested area of HFC. Although most areas that are close to trails and development represent this picture, there are more densely populated areas. You may see a more dense population of trees, much more shrubs that have taken over the understory and little room to maneuver through. The farther you get from the main development (roads, parking lot, cabin area) the more difficult it seems to traverse through the forest. Figure IX.5 33


Stand A – approximately 33 acres Located on the east side of the main drainage on the property, it has mostly west facing slope. The stand is dominated by white oak in the main canopy but other trees such as walnut, black oak, elm, hedge, buckeye, mulberry, shingle oak, shagbark hickory, mockernut hickory, white ash, slippery elm, basswood, hackberry and black cherry exist in the stand as well. This stand incorporates a large portion of Recreation areas and developed sections as compared to Stand B. Both sections are divided for ease of forest management.

Stand B – approximately 27 acres Located at the west side of the main drainage on the property, it has a mostly east facing slope. There are a large number of mature walnuts in the arrowhead (NE) portion of the stand. The main canopy is a mix of hickory, American elm, white oak, walnut, black oak, and black cherry. Other trees that exist in this stand inFigure IX.6 clude mockernut hickory, hack berry, slippery elm, honey locust, white ash, shingle oak, red oak, basswood and hedge. The black oak and red oak seem to be confined to the southern part of the stand. Shown at the left, Figure 2 is a common display of the dense thickets caused by Honeysuckle prevalent in the majority of Horn Field Campus. In both stand A and B these invaders virtually take over the understory. 34


Prairie At Horn Field Campus the existing prairie is of reestablished origin. Its primary makeup consists of a mixture of grasses and forbs, although grasses dominate this prairie. The prairie is considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrub-lands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type. Consisting of multiple species of grasses, small shrubs and herbaceous plants, the prairie provides extensive protection and habitat for many nesting bird species as well as rodents, small mammals, and even deer. Figure IX.7

Hedgerow Located on the east side of the campus, from the northern most point of HFC south to the end of prairie, the hedge row is approximately 6.26 acres of mixed woods. Hedge row trees are trees that have been allowed to reach their full height and width. The most common species are oak and ash, though in the past elm would also have been common. Around 20 million elm trees, most of them hedgerow trees, were felled or died through Dutch elm disease in the late 1960s. Horn Field Campus’ elm has reestablished itself throughout the campus, including the hedgerow, which separates the eastern property of farm ground and the Horn campus. Many other species are used, notably including beech and various nut and fruit trees. 35


Horn Field Campus Flora Points Map

Figure IX.8 36


Fauna The following list is of species identified by the researchers mostly during observations from March to May, 2012 at Horn Field Campus. Following the list is a brief introduction to exterminated, historic predators from the area, finishing with descriptions of some of the more common species found at Horn Field Campus. Wildlife compilation list: Common (C), Migratory (M)

Prairie: Mammals White-Tail Deer, Odocoileus virginianus (C) Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger(C) Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes (C) Eastern Cottontail Rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (C) Deer Mouse, Peromyscus (C) White Footed Mouse, Peromyscuc leucopus (C) Eastern Mole, Scalopus aquaticus (C) Raccoon, Procyon lotor (C) American Opossum, Didelphis virginiana (C) Birds Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (C) Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis Cardinalis (C) Red- Bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus (C) Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura (C) Reptiles and Amphibians Brown Snake, Pseudonaja textilis (C) American Toad, Bufo americanis (C) Insects and other Velvet Mite, Trombidiidae sp.(C) Golden Northern Bumble Bee, Bombus fervidus (C) 37


Red Admiral Butterfly, Vanessa atalanta (M)

Forested Area Mammals White-Tail Deer, Odocoileus virginianus (C) Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger(C) Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes (C) Eastern Cottontail Rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (C) Deer Mouse, Peromyscus (C) White Footed Mouse, Peromyscuc leucopus (C) Eastern Mole, Scalopus aquaticus (C) Raccoon, Procyon lotor (C) American Opossum, Didelphis virginiana (C) Coyote, Canis latrans (C) Birds Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (C) Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis Cardinalis (C) Red-Bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus (C) Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura (C) Barred Owl, Strix varia (C) Reptiles and Amphibians Brown Snake, Pseudonaja textilis (C) American Toad, Bufo americanis (C) Spring Peepers, Pseudacris crucifer (C) Northern Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens (C) Insects and other Velvet Mite, Trombidiidae sp.(C) Golden Northern Bumble Bee, Bombus fervidus (C) Red Admiral Butterfly, Vanessa atalanta (M)

Developed Area (roads, parking lot, lodge area) Mammals Domestic Dog, Canis domesticus (manager’s pet) 38


Eastern Mole, Scalopus aquaticus (C) Eastern Cottontail Rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (C) Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger(C) White-Tail Deer, Odocoileus virginianus (C) Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes (C) Deer Mouse, Peromyscus (C) White Footed Mouse, Peromyscuc leucopus (C) Raccoon, Procyon lotor (C) American Opossum, Didelphis virginiana (C) Birds Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (C) Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis Cardinalis (C) Red-Bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus (C) Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura (C) Reptiles and Amphibians Brown Snake, Pseudonaja textilis (C) American Toad, Bufo americanis (C) Insects and other Velvet Mite, Trombidiidae sp.(C) Golden Northern Bumble Bee, Bombus fervidus (C) Red Admiral Butterfly, Vanessa atalanta (M)

Agricultural Area (corn field) Mammals Eastern Mole, Scalopus aquaticus (C) Eastern Cottontail Rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (C) Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger(C) White-Tail Deer, Odocoileus virginianus (C) Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes (C) Deer Mouse, Peromyscus (C) White Footed Mouse, Peromyscuc leucopus (C) Raccoon, Procyon lotor (C) American Opossum, Didelphis virginiana (C) 39


Birds Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (C) Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis Cardinalis (C) Red-Bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus (C) Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura (C) Reptiles and Amphibians Brown Snake, Pseudonaja textilis (C) American Toad, Bufo americanis (C) Insects and other Velvet Mite, Trombidiidae sp.(C) Golden Northern Bumble Bee, Bombus fervidus (C) Red Admiral Butterfly, Vanessa atalanta (M)

Recreational Areas (ropes course, trails, playfield) Mammals Eastern Mole, Scalopus aquaticus (C) Eastern Cottontail Rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (C) Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger(C) White-Tail Deer, Odocoileus virginianus (C) Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes (C) Deer Mouse, Peromyscus (C) White Footed Mouse, Peromyscuc leucopus (C) Raccoon, Procyon lotor (C) American Opossum, Didelphis virginiana (C) Birds Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (C) Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis Cardinalis (C) Red- Bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus (C) Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura (C) Reptiles and Amphibians Brown Snake, Pseudonaja textilis (C) American Toad, Bufo americanis (C) Insects and other Velvet Mite, Trombidiidae sp.(C) 40


Golden Northern Bumble Bee, Bombus fervidus (C) Red Admiral Butterfly, Vanessa atalanta (M)

Hedgerow Mammals Eastern Mole, Scalopus aquaticus (C) Eastern Cottontail Rabbit, Sylvilagus floridanus (C) Fox Squirrel, Sciurus niger(C) White-Tail Deer, Odocoileus virginianus (C) Red Fox, Vulpes vulpes (C) Deer Mouse, Peromyscus (C) White Footed Mouse, Peromyscuc leucopus (C) Raccoon, Procyon lotor (C) American Opossum, Didelphis virginiana (C) Birds Red-headed Woodpecker, Melanerpes erythrocephalus (C) Northern Cardinal, Cardinalis Cardinalis (C) Red-Bellied Woodpecker, Melanerpes carolinus (C) Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura (C) Reptiles and Amphibians Brown Snake, Pseudonaja textilis (C) American Toad, Bufo americanis (C) Insects and other Velvet Mite, Trombidiidae sp. (C) Golden Northern Bumble Bee, Bombus fervidus (C) Red Admiral Butterfly, Vanessa atalanta (M)

Figure X.1 41


Common Fauna– Mammal White Tail Deer

Figure X.2

Nourishment: -leaves, twigs, nuts, berries, fungi Habitat: -mainly in woodland though utilize open areas foraging -nNot territorial, though maintain a home range with an array of habitats Breeding: -mature bucks rub antlers on saplings then mark with urine -areas are then repeatedly visited by bucks and does -In the North, breeding takes place in the fall. In the South, it takes place midwinter. -Females mature at 1 year, though begin breeding at 2 years. http://www.outdoor.com/activities/hunting-activities/archery-hunting-for-whitetail-deer/ 42


Common Fauna– Bird Red Headed Woodpecker

Figure X.3

Nourishment: -seeds, nuts, berries, fruit, insects, etc. Habitat: -deciduous woodlands, open woods, orchards, parks, open country with scattered trees, and forest edges. -winters are spent in mature forests Nests are generally found in holes of dead trees or branches -4-7 eggs is a normal clutch size http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/red-headed_woodpecker/lifehistory#at_food

43


Common Fauna– Reptile American Toad

Figure X.4

Nourishment: -insects, worms and snails Habitat: -summer: forest and woodland, grasslands, gardens -winter: subterranean, buries itself below frost line Breeding: -Males make a mating call in water which the females respond to. Females lay up to 20,000 eggs in the water which hatch into tadpoles within a week. The tadpoles remain in the water for about 6 weeks before emerging as small toads. They mature in 2-3 years. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/reptiles_amphibians/frogs_toads/toads/american.html

44


Common Fauna– Insect/Bugs Velvet Mite

Figure X.5

Nourishment: -insects that eat fungi and bacteria Habitat: -woodlands and forests (sensitive to humidity) Breeding: -males release sperm in a trail on small twigs and stalks -females scope out these trails and if the male is to her liking, she will sit in the sperm -If another male finds a sperm trail, he will destroy it and lay his own. http://creepycrawlypoetry.com/Velvetmites.html

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Historic Predators Prior to the twentieth century, there were two major predators in Illinois, which were subsequently extirpated by humans. Western Illinois, including Horn Field Campus, was habitat for the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and mountain lion (Puma concolor). Both of these predators are now extinct in Illinois according to the Department of Natural Resources. However, there have been several documented sightings of each in the state within the last decade. The animals sighted were likely wandering from established populations in neighboring states. In fact, although not properly documented, several areas surrounding Macomb have reported sightings of cougar tracks. If these indications are accurate, there may be a chance of Horn Field Campus becoming a staging point for the reintroduction of the species.

Endangered and Threatened Species (Flora and Fauna) of McDonough County As retrieved from the Illinois Natural Heritage Database Endangered and Threatened Species List: Bartramia longicauda Upland Sandpiper Caecidotea lesliei Isopod Filipendula rubra Queen-of-the-prairie Lanius ludovicianus Loggerhead Shrike Melanthium virginicum Bunchflower Myotis sodalist Indiana Bat Speyeria idalia Regal Fritillary Tradescantia bracteata Prairie Spiderwort Tropidoclonion lineatum Lined Snake 46


Climate Weather Report for Horn Field Campus Located 7.4 miles north of Horn Field the National Weather Service lists the Macomb Municipal Airport at the closest weather station. Normally totals would be taken from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, however its nearest location is Burlington, Iowa; over 40 miles away. Measurement levels of precipitation for the Macomb area were taken from The Illinois State Water Survey over the time period of 1991-2007. The average annual precipitation totals average 38.17 inches; with an average of between 1.6 and 4.5 inches per month. The wettest month is in June with an average of 4.49 inches. Below is the table and graph for annual precipitation from 1991-2007: Year

Precipitation (Inches)

Year

Precipitation

1991

35.92

2000

32.48

1992

33.21

2001

40.18

1993

52.18

2002

36.87

1994

32.36

2003

36.46

1995

41.07

2004

31.48

1996

34.19

2005

28.94

1997

36.08

2006

32.90

1998

44.44

2007

30.94

1999

31.34

Figure XI.1 47


As shown in these charts, the annual precipitation is fairly consistent between 30 and 40 inches each year. The most for one year’s time came in 1993. That was the year of the flood, when the Mississippi River flooded as did the adjoining rivers, including the Lamoine River, which runs through Macomb. In 1993 over 24 inches of rain fell during the summer months (June, July, and August). According to the National Weather Service, The highest re corded temperature was in August, 1934 when the tempera ture reached 113ᾒF. The lowest temperature was recorded in February, 1905 at -30ᾒF. The following table and graph shows a 10 year range from 2001-2011 for average temperatures in Macomb, Illinois: Year

Average Temperature

Year

Average Temperature

2001

54

2007

54

2002

53

2008

52

2003

51

2009

51

2004

50

2010

51

2005

52

2011

53

2006

54

Figure XI.2 48


The charts show a small range for the average annual tem perature. Each year is between 50 and 54 degrees Fahrenheit. July is constantly the warmest month with temperatures above 90áľ’ F. February is the coldest with temperatures often below zero. The temperature is right at the annual average for the springtime months (March, April, and May). Those temperatures allow for the three months to be considered the growing season. USDA recently changed the growing zone map for Illinois due to recent climate changes. Macomb moved from Zone 5a to Zone 5b. These zones describe what plants are suited for growing in a certain area and when the best time to grow them is. The map below shows the map of Illinois and the growing zones.

Figure XI.3 49


Air Quality Report for Horn Field Campus Air quality standards have been set by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for sic pollutants: Carbon, Monoxide, Lead, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone, Particulate Matter and Sulfur Dioxide. Macomb does not have anywhere that measures these standards. The closest for each one is around 70 miles away, in Peoria and Springfield, Illinois. The data graph Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, and Sulfur Dioxide for those sites is below. Both or one site did not have data for Lead, Nitrogen Dioxide and Particulate Matter. *These graphs are for urban areas located 70 miles from Macomb. The data is not a good representation of Macomb and Horn Field Campus. Source: EPA

50


Figure XI.4

As seen with these three sets of graphs, the air quality 70 miles east of Macomb is good. All three levels are below the national standard for good air quality.

Radon Radon is a radioactive element that comes from the decay chain of naturally occurring uranium in soil. Standard accepted levels of radon are at 4.0 picocuries per liter of air (pCi/L). This number is determined by a number of health and environmental agencies. McDonough County has an average of 5.7 (pCi/L), very high levels. Throughout McDonough County, averages are broken up in less than 2.0 between 2.0 and 3.9 and above 4.0. The chart is below:

GREEN-Results under 2 pCi/L YELLOW-Results between 2 and 3.9 pCi/L RED- Results 4 pCi/L and above

Figure XI.5

52% of homes in McDonough County have more than 4 pCi/L while only 24 % under 2 pCi/L. Total of only 48% of homes in McDonough County are under standard accepted levels of radon. 51


Closing Statement from the Editor Thanks for taking the time to learn about Horn Field Campus. It took a great deal of effort to assemble this NRI, but if you put it down thinking, “You know, Horn Field is awesome and I want to help protect it,� than it was all worthwhile. Get out there and do something great. -Pete Tarantola May 2012

On the Web To see this NRI online go to: http://issuu.com/petetarantola/docs/horn_field_nri To see the Powerpoint presentation about this NRI go to: http://issuu.com/petetarantola/docs/horn_nri_ppt

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APPENDIX A– Land Use Horn Field Campus Events The Haunted Corn Maze Visitors weave through designed corn maze that is designed on the agricultural land at Horn Field Campus. Outdoor Skills Seminar University students learn outdoor skills such as; fire building, out door cooking, orienteering, etc. These skills are taught within the Horn Field Campus facility. Various areas are suitable for specific skills to be taught. Camp Rocky Free camp for area children led by university students. At Horn Field Campus, campers are given the opportunity to sit around the fire, participate in the high ropes course, sleep in the cabins, and play around the facility with counselors. Volunteer Improve Preserve (VIP) Days University students volunteer their time each week to help main tain and assist with Horn Field Projects. The Professional Development Conference; Buffalo Tro A reunion for alumni to visit with current students and staff at the facility. Alumni are able to come back to the place where many may have called “home” while at the university. Dads Weekend/ Moms Weekend/Family Weekend High Ropes Course is used during these weekends at the facility. The course provides a wonderful bonding experience for students and parent(s). Harvest Moon of the Prairie Fundraising event for Horn Field Campus Open House Open to the university and Macomb communities as a way to introduce them to the staff and facility Affiliate Events Community Bike n’ Hike A local community group bikes out to Horn Field Campus. There they have a sack lunch and participate in a guided nature hike. 53


Life Long Learning Seminar The office of Non-Credit programs at WIU provides a variety of annual workshops directed to the retired population to enhance life -long learning. Sustainable Garden Tour An annual fundraising event for Horn Field Campus held the 4th Saturday in July. Local community members offer to showcase their homes demonstrating their "sustainable" landscapes and gar dens. This allows others to view the positive ways to maintain a lawn/garden by using sustainable native plants, reducing your car bon footprint by watering and mowing less. No chemicals are used. Family Reunions Horn Field Campus is available for family gatherings. Banquet Rentals Horn Field Campus is available for all types of banquets. Student Organizations that utilize Horn Field Campus These organizations volunteer their time at Horn Field Campus and around the community with various events and projects. For instance, weekly H.E.L.P. meetings are held at the Horn Field Campus Lodge. W.A.V.E. is another organization focusing on volunteering throughout the Macomb community. S.O.A.R.S. uses the facility for various outdoor activities such as camping and learning outdoor skills Horn Environmental Learning Project (H.E.L.P.) Western’s All Volunteer Effort (W.A.V.E.) Student Outdoor Adventure Recreation Society (S.O.A.R.S.) Training Programs Several trainings are conducted annually at Horn Field Campus. Two trainings are led by outside contractors while current staff members lead the third training. Below are the three primary trainings offered: Wilderness First Responder Certification Chainsaw Safety Certification Teams Course, High Ropes, Climbing Wall Facilitator Training Horn Field Campus’ main attractions, teams course and high ropes course, provide recreational opportunities for hundreds of individuals annually. The following groups (stakeholders) routinely schedule programs at Horn Field Campus: 54


Western Illinois University Affiliates: Fraternities and Sororities Athletic Teams Campus Students For Christ Geology Department Recreation, Park, and Tourism Administration Department Forestry Department Kinesiology Department Beu Health Center (Assistant Complex Directors) Veterans Resource Office Outside Group Affiliates: Boy and Girl Scout Troops Area churches Regional high schools Monmouth-Roseville High School Dunlap High School (Peoria) Quincy High School Industry High School Bureau Valley High School Dallas City Elementary School Knox College (Galesburg) Carl Sandburg College (Galesburg) Quad Cities Outdoor Club 2 outside youth groups provide a camp program each July

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APPENDIX A– Land Use Map of Farms in Horn Field Campus Area

56


Appendix B– Soils and Hydrology Description of Soils at Horn Field Campus 6C2—Fishhook silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded Setting Landform: Ground moraines Position on the landform: Backslopes and shoulders Composition Fishhook and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar soils: 10 percent Minor Components Similar soils: • Soils that have a seasonal high water table at a depth of 3 to 5 feet • Soils that have a thinner mantle of loess over the glacial till Dissimilar soils: • The well drained Hickory and Ursa soils on the lower backslopes Properties and Qualities of the Fishhook Soil Parent material: Loess over a paleosol that formed in till Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained Slowest permeability within a depth of 40 inches: Slow Permeability below a depth of 60 inches: Slow Depth to restrictive feature: More than 80 inches Available water capacity to a depth of 60 inches: About 9.6 inches Content of organic matter in the surface layer: 1 to 3 percent Shrink-swell potential: High Depth and months of the highest perched seasonal high water table: 1 foot, January through May Flooding: None Accelerated erosion: The soil has lost 25 to 75 percent of the original surface layer. In most areas, material from the subsoil is mixed with the surface layer. Potential for frost action: High Hazard of corrosion: High for steel and high for concrete Surface runoff class: High Susceptibility to water erosion: High 57


Susceptibility to wind erosion: Slight Interpretive Groups Land capability classification: 3e Prime farmland status: Not prime farmland Hydric soil status: Not hydric 7D3—Atlas silty clay loam, 10 to 18 percent slopes, severely eroded Setting Landform: Ground moraines Position on the landform: Backslopes Composition Atlas and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar soils: 10 percent Minor Components Similar soils: • Soils that have a thicker surface layer Dissimilar soils: • The moderately well drained Elco soils on the higher backslopes • The well drained Hickory and Ursa soils on the lower backslopes Properties and Qualities of the Atlas Soil Parent material: Paleosol that formed in till Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained Slowest permeability within a depth of 40 inches: Very slow Permeability below a depth of 60 inches: Slow Depth to restrictive feature: More than 80 inches Available water capacity to a depth of 60 inches: About 7.9 inches Content of organic matter in the surface layer: 0.5 to 1.0 percent Shrink-swell potential: High Depth and months of the highest perched seasonal high water table: 0.5 foot, January through May Flooding: None Accelerated erosion: The soil has lost more than 75 percent of the original surface layer; the plow layer consists largely of subsoil material Potential for frost action: High Hazard of corrosion: High for steel and moderate for concrete Surface runoff class: Very high Susceptibility to water erosion: High 58


Susceptibility to wind erosion: Very slight Interpretive Groups Land capability classification: 6e Prime farmland status: Not prime farmland Hydric soil status: Not hydric 17A—Keomah silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes Setting Landform: Ground moraines Position on the landform: Summits Composition Keomah and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar soils: 10 percent Minor Components Similar soils: • Soils that have a darker surface layer • Soils that do not have a seasonal high water table within depth of 2 feet • Soils that have slopes of more than 2 percent • Soils that contain less clay in the subsoil Dissimilar soils: • The poorly drained Denny, Rushville, and Sable soils in depressions or other low areas Properties and Qualities of the Keomah Soil Parent material: Loess Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained Slowest permeability within a depth of 40 inches: Slow Permeability below a depth of 60 inches: Moderately slow or moderate Depth to restrictive feature: More than 80 inches Available water capacity to a depth of 60 inches: About 11.3 inches Content of organic matter in the surface layer: 1 to 3 percent Shrink-swell potential: High Depth and months of the highest apparent seasonal high water table: 0.5 foot, January through May Flooding: None Accelerated erosion: The soil has lost less than 25 percent of the original surface layer Potential for frost action: High Hazard of corrosion: High for steel and moderate for concrete 59


Surface runoff class: Medium Susceptibility to water erosion: Slight Susceptibility to wind erosion: Slight Interpretive Groups Land capability classification: 2w Prime farmland status: Prime farmland where drained Hydric soil status: Not hydric

17B—Keomah silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes Setting Landform: Ground moraines Position on the landform: Summits, shoulders, and backslopes Composition Keomah and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar soils: 10 percent Minor Components Similar soils: • Soils that have a darker surface layer • Soils that do not have a seasonal high water table within depth of 2 feet • Soils that have slopes of less than 2 percent or more than 5 percent • Soils that contain less clay in the subsoil Dissimilar soils: • The poorly drained Denny, Rushville, and Sable soils in depressions or other low areas Properties and Qualities of the Keomah Soil Parent material: Loess Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained Slowest permeability within a depth of 40 inches: Slow Permeability below a depth of 60 inches: Moderately slow or moderate Depth to restrictive feature: More than 80 inches Available water capacity to a depth of 60 inches: About 11.3 inches Content of organic matter in the surface layer: 1 to 3 percent Shrink-swell potential: High Depth and months of the highest apparent seasonal high water table: 0.5 foot, January through May Flooding: None Accelerated erosion: The soil has lost less than 25 percent of the original 60


surface layer. Potential for frost action: High Hazard of corrosion: High for steel and moderate for concrete Surface runoff class: High Susceptibility to water erosion: Moderate Susceptibility to wind erosion: Slight Interpretive Groups Land capability classification: 2e Prime farmland status: Prime farmland Hydric soil status: Not hydric

43A—Ipava silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes Setting Landform: Ground moraines Position on the landform: Summits Composition Ipava and similar soils: 90 percent Dissimilar soils: 10 percent Minor Components Similar soils: • Soils that have a thinner surface layer • Soils that contain less clay in the subsoil • Soils that have a grayish subsurface layer Dissimilar soils: • The poorly drained Denny and Edinburg soils in slight depressions on broad flats • The poorly drained Sable and Virden soils in low areas • The well drained Osco soils on summits Properties and Qualities of the Ipava Soil Parent material: Loess Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained Slowest permeability within a depth of 40 inches: Moderately slow Permeability below a depth of 60 inches: Moderately slow Depth to restrictive feature: More than 80 inches Available water capacity to a depth of 60 inches: About 12 inches Content of organic matter in the surface layer: 4 to 5 percent Shrink-swell potential: High 61


Depth and months of the highest apparent seasonal high water table: 1 foot, January through May Flooding: None Accelerated erosion: The soil has lost less than 25 percent of the original surface layer. Potential for frost action: High Hazard of corrosion: High for steel and moderate for concrete Surface runoff class: Low Susceptibility to water erosion: Slight Susceptibility to wind erosion: Slight Interpretive Groups Land capability classification: 1 Prime farmland status: Prime farmland Hydric soil status: Not hydric 257A—Clarksdale silt loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes Setting Landform: Ground moraines Position on the landform: Summits Composition Clarksdale and similar soils: 93 percent Dissimilar soils: 7 percent Minor Components Similar soils: • Soils that have a thicker and darker or lighter surface layer • Soils that have a thicker and darker subsurface layer • Soils that have a lighter colored surface layer Dissimilar soils:  The poorly drained Denny soils in depressions that are subject to ponding • The somewhat poorly drained Keomah soils in positions on the landform similar to those of the Clarksdale soil  The well drained Greenbush soils on the slightly higher summits, shoulders, and backslopes Properties and Qualities of the Clarksdale Soil Parent material: Loess Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained 62


Permeability below a depth of 60 inches: Moderate Depth to restrictive feature: More than 80 inches Available water capacity to a depth of 60 inches: About 11.3 inches Content of organic matter in the surface layer: 2 to 3 percent Shrink-swell potential: High Depth and months of the highest apparent seasonal high water table: 0.5 foot, January through May Flooding: None Accelerated erosion: The soil has lost less than 25 percent of the original surface layer. Potential for frost action: High Hazard of corrosion: High for steel and moderate for concrete Surface runoff class: Medium Susceptibility to water erosion: Slight Susceptibility to wind erosion: Slight Interpretive Groups Land capability classification: 1 Prime farmland status: Prime farmland where drained Hydric soil status: Not hydric 257B—Clarksdale silt loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes Setting Landform: Ground moraines Position on the landform: Shoulders and summits Composition Clarksdale and similar soils: 96 percent Dissimilar soils: 4 percent Minor Components Similar soils: • Soils that have some material from the subsoil mixed in surface layer • Soils that have a lighter colored surface layer Dissimilar soils: • The poorly drained Sable soils in low areas • The poorly drained Denny and Rushville soils in Depressions Properties and Qualities of the Clarksdale Soil Parent material: Loess 63


Drainage class: Somewhat poorly drained Slowest permeability within a depth of 40 inches: Moderately slow Permeability below a depth of 60 inches: Moderate Depth to restrictive feature: More than 80 inches Available water capacity to a depth of 60 inches: About 11.8 inches Content of organic matter in the surface layer: 2 to 3 percent Shrink-swell potential: High Depth and months of the highest apparent seasonal high water table: 0.5 foot, January through May Flooding: None Accelerated erosion: The soil has lost less than 25 percent of the original surface layer. Potential for frost action: High Hazard of corrosion: High for steel and moderate for concrete Surface runoff class: Medium Susceptibility to water erosion: Moderate Susceptibility to wind erosion: Slight Interpretive Groups Land capability classification: 2e Prime farmland status: Prime farmland Hydric soil status: Not hydric 279C2—Rozetta silt loam, 5 to 10 percent slopes, eroded Setting Landform: Ground moraines Position on the landform: Shoulders and backslopes Composition Rozetta and similar soils: 94 percent Dissimilar soils: 6 percent Minor Components Similar soils: • Soils that have a darker surface layer • Soils that do not have a seasonal high water table within depth of 6 feet • Soils that are underlain by paleosol till within a depth of 60 inches Dissimilar soils: • The well drained Hickory soils in the more sloping positions on the lower backslopes • The somewhat poorly drained Keomah soils on summits 64


Properties and Qualities of the Rozetta Soil Parent material: Loess Drainage class: Well drained Slowest permeability within a depth of 40 inches: Moderate Permeability below a depth of 60 inches: Moderate Depth to restrictive feature: More than 80 inches Available water capacity to a depth of 60 inches: About 12.4 inches Content of organic matter in the surface layer: 1 to 3 percent Shrink-swell potential: Moderate Depth and months of the highest apparent seasonal high water table: 4 feet, February through April Flooding: None Accelerated erosion: The soil has lost 25 to 75 percent of the original surface layer. In most areas, material from the subsoil is mixed with the surface layer. Potential for frost action: High Hazard of corrosion: Moderate for steel and moderate for concrete Surface runoff class: Medium Susceptibility to water erosion: High Susceptibility to wind erosion: Slight Interpretive Groups Land capability classification: 3e Prime farmland status: Not prime farmland Hydric soil status: Not hydric

65


Appendix B– Soils and Hydrology

Map of Creek Passing Through Horn Field Campus

66


Appendix C– Flora Flora of Horn Field Campus Common Name Trees

Latin Name

Description

American Basswood

Tilia Americana

NATIVE A medium-sized to large deciduous tree reaching a height of 60 to 120 ft (exceptionally 129 ft) with a trunk diameter of 3–4 ft at maturity. The crown is domed, the branches spreading, often pendulous. The bark is gray to light brown, with narrow, well defined fissures. The twigs are smooth, reddish-green, becoming light gray in their second year, finally dark brown or brownish gray, marked with dark wart-like excrescences. The leaves are simple, alternately arranged, ovate to cordate, inequalateral at the base, long and broad with a long, slender petiole, a coarsely serrated margin and an acuminate apex.

American Elm

Ulmus Americana

NATIVE

Elaeagnus umbellata

The American Elm is a deciduous tree, which, before the advent of Dutch elm disease, commonly grew to > 30 m (100 ft) tall with a trunk > 1.2 m (4 ft) d.b.h. The crown forms a high, spreading canopy with open air space beneath. The leaves are alternate, 7–20 cm long, with doubleserrate margins and an oblique base. The tree is hermaphroditic, having perfect flowers, (i.e. with both male and female parts) and is therefore capable of self-pollination. The flowers are small, purple-brown, and, being wind-pollinated, are apetalous; they emerge in early spring before the leaves. INVASIVE

Autumn Olive

Elaeagnus umbellata is considered an invasive species in various parts of North America where it is naturalized.

Black Cherry

Prunus serotina

NATIVE The leaves are simple, 6–14 cm long, with a serrated margin. The flowers are small (10–15 mm diameter), with five white petals and about 20 stamens, and are fragrant; there are around 40 flowers on each raceme.

67

Picture


Black Oak

Quercus velutina

NATIVE In the northern part of its range, black oak is a relatively small tree, reaching a height of 20–25 m (65–80 ft) and a diameter of 90 cm (35 in), but it grows larger in the south and center of its range, where heights of up to 42 m (140 ft) are known.

Black Walnut

Juglans nigra

NATIVE The black walnut is a large deciduous tree attaining heights of 30–40 metres (98–130 ft). Under forest competition, it develops a tall, clear bole; the open-grown form has a short bole and broad crown. The bark is greyblack and deeply furrowed. The pith of the twigs contains air spaces. The leaves are alternate, 30–60 cm long, odd-pinnate with 15–23 leaflets, with the largest leaflets located in the center, 7–10 cm long and 2–3 cm broad.

Eastern Redbud

Cercis canadensis

NATIVE The flowers are showy, light to dark magenta pink in color, 1.5 cm (½ inch) long, appearing in clusters from March to May, on bare stems before the leaves, sometimes on the trunk itself.

Honey Locust

Gleditsia triacanthos

NATIVE The leaves are pinnately compound on older trees but bipinnately compound on vigorous young trees. The leaflets are 1.5–2.5 cm (smaller on bipinnate leaves) and bright green. They turn yellow in the fall (autumn). Leafs out relatively late in spring, but generally slightly earlier than the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia). The strongly scented cream-colored flowers appear in late spring, in clusters emerging from the base of the leaf axils.

Mockernut Hickory

Carya tomentosa

NATIVE The most abundant of the hickories, common in the eastern half of the US, it is long lived, sometimes reaching the age of 500 years. A straightgrowing hickory, a high percentage of its wood is used for products where strength, hardness, and flexibility are needed. The wood makes an excellent fuelwood, as well.

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Common Hackberry

Celtis occidentalis

NATIVE The Common Hackberry is easily distinguished from elms and some other hackberries by its cork-like bark with wart-like protuberances. The leaves are distinctly asymmetrical and coarse-textured. It produces small berries that turn orange-red to dark purple in the Autumn, often staying on the trees for several months.

Ohio Buckeye

Aesculus glabra

NATIVE The leaves are palmately compound with five (rarely seven) leaflets, 8–16 cm (3-6 in.) long and broad. The flowers are produced in panicles in spring, yellow to yellow-green, each flower 2–3 cm (3/4 - 1⅛ in.) long with the stamens longer than the petals (unlike the related Yellow Buckeye, where the stamens are shorter than the petals). The fruit is a round or oblong spiny capsule 4–5 cm (1½ - 2 in.)diameter, containing 1 -3 nut-like seeds, 2–3 cm (3/4 - 1⅛ in.) in diameter, brown with a whitish basal scar.

Osage-Orange

Maclura pomifera

NATIVE A small deciduous tree or large shrub, typically growing to 8–15 metres (26 –49 ft) tall. It is dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants. The fruit, a multiple fruit, is roughly spherical, but bumpy, and 7– 15 cm in diameter. It is filled with a sticky white latex sap. In fall, its color turns a bright yellow-green.

Red Mulberry

Morus rubra

NATIVE The fruit is a compound cluster of several small drupes, similar in appearance to a blackberry, 2-3 cm long, red ripening dark purple, edible and very sweet with a good flavor.

Shagbark Hickory

Carya ovata

NATIVE A common hickory in the eastern United States and southeast Canada. It is a large deciduous tree, growing up to 27 m tall, and will live up to 200 years. Mature Shagbarks are easy to recognize because, as their name implies, they have shaggy bark. This characteristic is however only found on mature trees; young specimens have smooth bark.

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Shingle Oak

Quercus imbricaria

NATIVE It is a medium-sized tree growing to 20 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter (rarely 1.4 m). It is distinguished from most other oaks by its leaves, which are shaped like laurel leaves, 8-20 cm long and 1.5-7.5 cm broad with an entire margin; they are bright green above, paler and somewhat downy beneath. The fruit is an acorn, 9-18 mm long and wide with a shallow cup.

Slippery Elm

Ulmus rubra

NATIVE Ulmus rubra, the Slippery Elm, is a deciduous tree which can grow to 65 feet (20 m) in height with a 20-inch (50 cm) d.b.h. trunk. The tree's more upright branching pattern differs from the deliquescent branching of the American elm. Its heartwood is reddish-brown, giving the tree its alternative common name 'Red Elm'. The leaves are 4-6 in (10–18 cm) long and have a rough texture (especially above), coarsely doubleserrate margins, acuminate apices and oblique bases.

White Ash

Fraxinus americana

NATIVE The name White Ash derives from the glaucous undersides of the leaves. It is similar in appearance to the Green Ash, making identification difficult. The lower sides of the leaves of White Ash are lighter in color than their upper sides, and the outer surface of the twigs of White Ash may be flaky or peeling.

White Oak

Quercus alba

NATIVE Although called a white oak, it is very unusual to find an individual specimen with white bark; the usual color is a light gray. In the forest it can reach a magnificent height and in the open it develops into a massive broad-topped tree with large branches striking out at wide angles.

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Morrow’s Honeysuckle

Lonicera morrowii

INVASIVE Leafs out quite early in the spring, and in North America is commonly the first deciduous shrub with foliage in March. The flowers are white to pale yellow, and the fruit is a dark red berry 7–8 mm diameter containing numerous seeds. The berries, while eaten frequently by birds, are considered poisonous to humans. It is colloquially called "bush honeysuckle" in the United States, and is considered an invasive species.

Blackhaw

Viburnum prunifolium

NATIVE It is a deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 2–9 m tall with a short crooked trunk and stout spreading branches; in the northern parts of its range, it is a shrub, becoming a small tree in the southern parts of its range. The bark is reddish-brown, very rough on old stems. The branchlets are red at first, then green, finally dark brown tinged with red.

Understory and Shrubs Common Snowberry

Symphoricarpos albus

NATIVE This shrub is an important food source for a number of animals, including bighorn sheep, white-tailed deer, and grizzly bears. Livestock such as cattle and sheep readily browse it. Many birds and small mammals use it for food and cover. Pocket gophers dig burrows underneath it during the winter.

Multiflora Rose

Rosa multiflora

INVASIVE In eastern North America, Multiflora Rose is now generally considered an invasive species, though it was originally introduced from Asia as a soil conservation measure, as a natural hedge to border grazing land, and to attract wildlife. It is readily distinguished from American native roses by its large inflorescences, which bear multiple flowers and hips, often more than a dozen, while the American species bear only one or a few on a branch.

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American Black Currant

Ribes americanum

NATIVE A species of flowering plant in the gooseberry family known by the common names American black currant, wild black currant, and eastern black currant.

Smooth Sumac

Rhus glabra

NATIVE One of the easiest shrubs to identify throughout the year (unless mistaken for Rhus vernix, poison sumac, in the absence of mature fruit) smooth sumac has a spreading, open-growing shrub growing up to 3 m tall, rarely to 5 m. The leaves are alternate, 30–50 cm long, compound with 11-31 leaflets, each leaflet 5–11 cm long, with a serrated margin. The leaves turn scarlet in the fall. The flowers are tiny, green, produced in dense erect panicles 10–25 cm tall, in the spring, later followed by large panicles of edible crimson berries that remain throughout the winter.

Phlox divaricata

NATIVE

Herbaceous Plants Blue Phlox

Wild phlox grows 25-50 cm tall with opposite, unstalked leaves 2.5-5 cm in length and ovate-lanceolate in shape. Flowers appear in early spring and are 2-4 cm in diameter, with five petals fused at the base into a thin tube.

Prairie Trillium

Trillium recurvatum

NATIVE The blossom has three brown to maroon petals that are typically under 3 cm long. The petals are recurved, with tips converging over the stamens. The fruit has 6 well developed ridges.

Common Blue Violet

Viola papilionacea

NATIVE Beyond its use as a common lawn and garden plant, Viola sororia has historically been used for food and for medicine. The flowers and leaves are edible, and some sources suggest the roots can also be eaten. The Cherokee used it to treat colds and headaches.

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May-Apple

Podophyllum peltatum

NATIVE The single secund white flower 3–5 cm diameter, with six (rarely up to nine) petals, is produced at the axil of the two leaves (the upper two in a three-leaved plant); the flower matures into a yellow-greenish fruit 2–5 cm long.

Spring Beauty

Claytonia virginica

NATIVE The flowers are 0.7–1.4 cm diameter with five pale pink or white (rarely yellow) petals, and reflect UV light. It has a raceme inflorescence, in which its flowers branch off of the shoot. The individual flowers bloom for three days, although the five stamens on each flower are only active for a single day.

Purple Coneflower

Echinacea purpurea

NATIVE This perennial flowering plant is 1.2 m tall and 0.5 m wide at maturity. Depending on the climate, it begins to bloom in late May or early July. Its individual flowers (florets) within the flower head are hermaphroditic, having both male and female organs on each flower.

Prairie Blazing Star

Liatris pycnostachya

NATIVE An ornamental plant native to the tallgrass prairies of the Midwestern United States.

Rattlesnake Master

Eryngium yuccifolium

NATIVE A common herbaceous perennial plant, native to the tallgrass prairies of central and eastern North America, It grows to 1.8 m tall, with linear leaves 15–100 cm long but only 1–3 cm broad, with bristly or spiny margins and a sharp tip. The flowers are produced in dense apical umbels 1–3 cm diameter, each flower greenishwhite or bluish-white.

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Canadian Honewort

Cryptotaenia canadensis

NATIVE Honewort is a common plant that occurs in most areas of Illinois. Habitats include mesic deciduous woodlands (especially Sugar Maple & Basswood woodlands), woodland borders, shady seeps, wooded areas along springs, bluffs, fence rows that are overgrown with trees, and shady edges of yards. Closely resembles Longstyle Sweetroot.

Wild Carrot/ Queen Ann’s Lace

Daucus carota

NATIVE The umbels are claret-coloured or pale pink before they open, then bright white and rounded when in full flower, measuring 3–7 cm wide with a festoon of bracts beneath. Similar in appearance to the deadly poison hemlock, Daucus carota is distinguished by a mix of bi-pinnate and tri-pinnate leaves, fine hairs on its stems and leaves, a root that smells like carrots, and occasionally a single dark red flower in its center.

Longstyle Sweetroot

Osmorhiza longistylis

NATIVE Compound umbels with typically +3 primary rays. Rays and umbellets subtended by recurved linearlanceolate bracts. Bracts villous. Primary rays to -5cm long.

Cow Parsnip

Pastinaca sativa

NATIVE Tall, coarse umbelliferous plant of the genus Heracleum, such as H. sphondylium of Europe and Asia, having thick stems and flattened clusters of white or purple flowers. Also called hogweed keck.

Poison Ivy

Toxicodendron radicans

NATIVE The deciduous leaves of poison ivy are trifoliate with three almondshaped leaflets. Leaf color ranges from light green (usually the younger leaves) to dark green (mature leaves), turning bright red in fall.

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Common Black Snakeroot

Sanicula odorata

NATIVE The stems are light green to pale red or purple, glabrous, and veined. The leaves are alternate, opposite, or basal. The basal and lower leaves are palmately divided into 5 leaflets. The middle to upper leaves are trifoliate with 3 leaflets; they are smaller in size and usually sessile.

Common Milkweed

Asclepias syriaca

NATIVE The stem and all parts of the plants produce a white latex when broken. The leaves are opposite, simple broad ovate-lanceolate, 7-25 cm long and 3 -12 cm broad, usually with an undulate margin and a red-colored main vein. They have a very short petiole and a velvety underside.

Aeisaema triphyllum

NATIVE

Jack in the Pulpit

The flower is an unusual green and maroon striped spathe surrounding a fleshy, maroon-colored spadix that bears the tiny, embedded flowers.

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Appendix D– Fauna Birds of McDonough County, Illinois, United States

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Appendix D– Fauna Butterflies and Moths of McDonough County, Illinois, United States The BAMONA database currently includes verified sighting records for 116 butterfly and moth species from this region.

Hesperiidae Skippers Epargyreus clarus Silver-spotted Skipper Thorybes pylades Northern Cloudywing Thorybes bathyllus Southern Cloudywing Staphylus hayhurstii Hayhurst's Scallopwing Erynnis brizo Sleepy Duskywing Erynnis juvenalis Juvenal's Duskywing Erynnis horatius Horace's Duskywing Erynnis baptisiae Wild Indigo Duskywing Pyrgus communis Common Checkered-Skipper Pholisora catullus Common Sootywing Ancyloxypha numitor Least Skipper Hylephila phyleus Fiery Skipper Hesperia leonardus Leonard's Skipper Atalopedes campestris Sachem Polites peckius Peck's Skipper Polites themistocles Tawny-edged Skipper Polites origenes Crossline Skipper Wallengrenia egeremet Northern Broken-Dash Pompeius verna Little Glassywing Anatrytone logan Delaware Skipper Problema byssus Byssus Skipper Poanes hobomok Hobomok Skipper Poanes zabulon Zabulon Skipper Euphyes vestris Dun Skipper Amblyscirtes vialis Common Roadside-Skipper Lerodea eufala Eufala Skipper

Papilionidae Parnassians and Swallowtails Battus philenor Pipevine Swallowtail Eurytides marcellus Zebra Swallowtail Papilio polyxenes Black Swallowtail Papilio glaucus Eastern Tiger Swallowtail Papilio troilus Spicebush Swallowtail Papilio cresphontes Giant Swallowtail

Pieridae Whites and Sulphurs Pieris rapae Cabbage White Pontia protodice Checkered White Colias philodice Clouded Sulphur Colias eurytheme Orange Sulphur Zerene cesonia Southern Dogface

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Phoebis sennae Cloudless Sulphur Pyrisitia lisa Little Yellow Abaeis nicippe Sleepy Orange Nathalis iole Dainty Sulphur

Lycaenidae Gossamer-wing Butterflies Feniseca tarquinius Harvester Lycaena phlaeas American Copper Lycaena dione Gray Copper Lycaena hyllus Bronze Copper Lycaena helloides Purplish Copper Callophrys gryneus Juniper Hairstreak Callophrys henrici Henry's Elfin Satyrium titus Coral Hairstreak Satyrium caryaevorus Hickory Hairstreak Satyrium edwardsii Edwards' Hairstreak Satyrium calanus Banded Hairstreak Satyrium liparops Striped Hairstreak Strymon melinus Gray Hairstreak Parrhasius m album White-M Hairstreak Cupido comyntas Eastern Tailed-Blue Celastrina ladon Spring Azure Celastrina neglecta Summer Azure Celastrina nigra Dusky Azure

Nymphalidae Brush-footed Butterflies Libytheana carinenta American Snout Danaus plexippus Monarch Euptoieta claudia Variegated Fritillary Speyeria cybele Great Spangled Fritillary Speyeria idalia Regal Fritillary Boloria bellona Meadow Fritillary Limenitis arthemis Red-spotted Purple or White Admiral Limenitis arthemis astyanax 'Astyanax' Red-spotted Purple Limenitis archippus Viceroy Asterocampa celtis Hackberry Emperor Asterocampa clyton Tawny Emperor Chlosyne nycteis Silvery Checkerspot Chlosyne gorgone Gorgone Checkerspot Phyciodes tharos Pearl Crescent Euphydryas phaeton Baltimore Checkerspot Junonia coenia Common Buckeye Polygonia interrogationis Question Mark Polygonia comma Eastern Comma Polygonia progne Gray Comma Aglais milberti Milbert's Tortoiseshell Nymphalis antiopa Mourning Cloak Vanessa atalanta Red Admiral Vanessa cardui Painted Lady Vanessa virginiensis American Lady Anaea andria Goatweed Leafwing 81


Enodia anthedon Northern Pearly-eye Megisto cymela Little Wood-Satyr Cercyonis pegala Common Wood-Nymph

Saturniidae Wild Silk Moths Automeris io Io moth Actias luna Luna moth Antheraea polyphemus Polyphemus moth Dryocampa rubicunda Rosy maple moth Eacles imperialis Imperial moth Sphingicampa bicolor Bicolored honey locust moth Sphingicampa bisecta Bisected honey locust moth

Sphingidae Sphinx Moths, Hawkmoths Agrius cingulata Pink-spotted hawkmoth Amorpha juglandis Walnut sphinx Ceratomia amyntor Elm sphinx Ceratomia catalpae Catalpa sphinx Ceratomia hageni Hagen's sphinx Ceratomia undulosa Waved sphinx Manduca quinquemaculata Five-spotted hawkmoth Manduca sexta Carolina sphinx Paonias excaecata Blinded sphinx Paonias myops Small-eyed sphinx Paratraea plebeja Plebeian sphinx Smerinthus jamaicensis Twin-spotted sphinx Sphinx gordius Apple sphinx Amphion floridensis Nessus sphinx Darapsa choerilus (pholus) Azalea Sphinx Darapsa myron Virginia creeper sphinx Deidamia inscriptum Lettered sphinx Eumorpha achemon Achemon sphinx Eumorpha pandorus Pandorus sphinx Hemaris diffinis Snowberry clearwing Hemaris thysbe Hummingbird clearwing Hyles lineata White-lined sphinx

http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/checklists?species_type=All&tid=966

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Appendix D– Fauna Crustaceans of McDonough County, Illinois, United States

Common Name

Order

Family

Genus

Isopoda Asellidae Caecidotea Amphipoda Crangonyctidae Bactrurus Minor Cave Amphipod Amphipoda Crangonyctidae Devil Crayfish Decapoda Cambaridae Calico Crayfish Decapoda Cambaridae Northern Crayfish Decapoda Cambaridae Grassland Crayfish Decapoda Cambaridae

Crangonyx Cambarus Orconectes Orconectes Procambarus

http://www.inhs.uiuc.edu/cbd/main/misc/crust/mcdonough.html

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Species intermedia mucronatus minor diogenes immunis virilis gracilis


Appendix D– Fauna Reptiles & Amphibians of McDonough County, Illinois, United States

Ambystoma texanum Smallmouth Salamander Ambystoma tigrinum Tiger Salamander Hemidactylium scutatum Four-Toed Salamander Bufo americanus American Toad Bufo fowleri Fowler's Toad Acris crepitans Cricket Frog Pseudacris triseriata Western Chorus Frog Rana blairi Plains Leopard Frog Rana catesbeiana Bullfrog Rana clamitans Green Frog Rana sphenocephala Southern Leopard Frog Chelydra serpentina Snapping Turtle Terrapene ornata Ornate Box Turtle Clonophis kirtlandii Kirtland's Snake Coluber constrictor Racer Heterodon platirhinos Eastern Hognose Snake Nerodia sipedon Northern Water Snake Storeria dekayi Brown Snake Thamnophis sirtalis Common Garter Snake Crotalus horridus Timber Rattlesnake

http://www.inhs.illinois.edu/animals_plants/herps/counties/mcdonough.html

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Appendix D– Fauna Mammals of McDonough County, Illinois, United States

ORDER / Family Common Name MARSUPIALIA Didelphidae

Species

Status

Distribution

Comments

common

statewide

nocturnal marsupial

common

north 3/4, southcentral counties

venomous; most abundant mammal in forested areas

common

south 1/5

smaller than B. brevicauda

Cryptotis parva

uncommon

statewide

active day and night

Pygmy shrew Microsorex hoyi

uncommon

Masked shrew Sorex cinereus

common

north 1/3

active day and night

Virginia opos- Didelphis virginsum iana

INSECTIVORA Soricidae

Northern Shorttailed shrew

Blarina brevicauda

Southern short- Blarina carolintailed shrew ensis Least shrew

Talpidae

NE and SE corners smallest mammal in the world

Southeastern Shrew

Sorex longirostris

common

south 2/3

primarily diurnal

Eastern mole

Scalopus aquaticus

common

statewide

fossorial

CHIROPTERA Tadarida baziliensis

accidental

Vespertilionidae Big brown bat

Eptesicus fuscus

common

statewide

closely associated with man; roosts in barns, caves, mines, bridges & hollow trees

Silver-haired bat

Lasionycteris noctivagans

common

statewide

year-round resident in southern Illinois

Red bat

Lasiurus borealis

common

statewide

roosts in trees; interfemoral membrane is heavily furred

Molossidae

Brazilian freetailed bat

85

DeKalb and Jack- one specimen from son Counties two counties; tail not enclosed by membrane


Hoary bat

Lasiurus cinereus

commonuncommon

statewide (as migrants)

roosts in trees; interfemoral membrane is heavily furred; generally present during migratory flights to the N or S.

Southeastern myotis

Myotis austroriparius

endangered

southern tip

hibernating individuals are easily disturbed

Gray myotis

Myotis grisescens

endangered

southwest 1/4

wing membrane attached to ankle

Keen's myotis

Myotis keenii

commonuncommon

statewide

hibernates in caves, mines, and occasionally buildings

Little brown myotis

Myotis lucifugus

common

statewide

hibernates in caves

Indiana myotis

Myotis sodalis

endangered

statewide

90% of population occupies five caves in surrounding states

Evening bat

Nycticeius humeralis

uncommon

statewide

frequently found in man-made structures; does not hibernate in Illinois

Eastern pipis- Pipistrellus subtrelle flavus

common

statewide, although males significantly less common in outnumber females northeast in hibernaculum

Rafinesque's big Plecotus rafi-eared bat nesquii

endangered

southern 1/4

form small colonies in summer; smaller groups or solitary in winter

White-tailed jack rabbit

Lepus townsendii

uncommon

northwesternmost corner

dark summer pelage; white winter pelage (ears black at tip)

Swamp rabbit

Sylvilagus aquaticus

rare

southern 1/3

swamp habitat

common

statewide

female may produce 20 to 25 young per breeding season

commonuncommon

statewide

largest rodent in North America

LAGOMORPHA Leporidae

Eastern cotton- Sylvilagus floritail danus

RODENTIA Castoridae

Beaver

Castor canadensis

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Muridae

Prairie vole

Microtus ochrogaster

common

statewide

build and maintain intricate network of runways

Meadow vole

Microtus pennsylvanicus

common

northern 1/2

extending its range southward along habitat created by interstate highways

Woodland vole Microtus pinetorum

common

statewide

woodland inhabitant

House mouse

common

statewide

from Europe; frequently associated with man made structures

endangered

southern tip

"pack rat"; inhabits rugged terrain

Mus musculus

Eastern woodrat Neotoma floridana Golden mouse

Ochrotomys nuttalli

threatened

southwest 1/4

prepare characteristic nests in vines, bushes, and trees

Muskrat

Ondatra zibethicus

common

statewide

tail flattened laterally

Marsh rice rat

Oryzomys palustris

threatened

southern 1/5

live in wet, swampy fields and marshes

Cotton mouse

Peromyscus gossypinus

extirpated

southern tip

last captured in Illinois in 1909

White-footed mouse

Peromyscus leucopus

common

statewide

all terrestrial habitats in Illinois, but prefer wooded or brushy areas

Deer mouse

Peromyscus maniculatus

uncommon

statewide

occur in prairie or grassland habitat in Illinois

Norway rat

Rattus norvegicus

common

statewide

from Europe; possibly the most destructive of all mammals

Black rat

Rattus rattus

rare

Eastern harvest Reithrodontomouse mys humulis Western harvester mouse

Reithrodontomys megalotis

Chicago and Cook from Europe; disCounties placed by the Norway rat

possible occurrence commonuncommon

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grooved upper incisor; occurs south of Ohio River northern 1/2

increasing their range to the south and east


Hispid cotton rat Sigmodon his- possible occurpidus rence

occurs south of Ohio River

Southern bog lemming

Synaptomys cooperi

commonuncommon

Erethizontidae

Porcupine

Erethizon dorsatum

extirpated

Geomyidae

Plains pocket gopher

Geomys bursarius

Myocastoridae

Nutria

Sciuridae

Southern flying squirrel

Glacomys volans

common

statewide

nocturnal; great gliders; common in hardwood forests

Woodchuck

Marmota monax

common

statewide

populations has been increasing since mid-1800's

Gray squirrel

Sciurus carolinensis

common

statewide

populations have decreased in numbers with the reduction of forest

Fox squirrel

Sciurus niger

common

statewide

woodland dweller, occupying forest edge habitat; largest tree squirrel in U.S.

Franklin's ground squirrel

Spermophilus franklinii

commonuncommon

northern 2/3

may feed on bird eggs and small ground-dwelling birds

common

northern 4/5

nearly half the year may be spent in hibernation

statewide

live in wooded areas or those with much underbrush; internal cheek pouches

statewide

barbed quills; may have been extirpated before 1850 St. Clair and Madi- unique among midson Co., e. and s. of west populations, Illinois River to Junc- most individuals tion with Kankakee are black river, s. to Indiana

Myocastor coy- possible occurpus rence

Thirteen-lined Spermophilus ground squirrel tridecemlineatus

occur sporadically in Illinois; good swimmers

Eastern chipmunk

Tamias striatus

common

Red squirrel

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus

uncommon

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this introduced animal has a round tail; may cause damage to agriculture and wildlife

Kankakee River range reduced with eastward, north to E. destruction of forest Will Co., south along land Iroquois River


Zapodidae

Meadow jumping mouse

Zapus hudsonius

commonuncommon

statewide

routinely leaps up to one meter

Coyote

Canis latrans

common

statewide

population has been increasing rapidly since 1970's

Gray wolf

Canis lupus

extirpated

Gray fox

Urocyon cinereoargenteus

commonuncommon

statewide

commonly climbs trees

Red fox

Vulpes vulpes

common

statewide

may have been introduced from Europe

Mountain lion

Felis concolor

extirpated

Bobcat

Lynx rufus

threatened

southern 1/3

short tufts of hair on ears; once occurred statewide

River otter

Lontra canadensis

endangered

statewide

was once widely distributed, now it is rarely encountered

Marten

Martes americana

extirpated

extirpated after 1859; occupied north 1/4

Fisher

Martes pennanti

extirpated

extirpated after 1859

Striped skunk Mephitis mephitis

common

CARNIVORA Canidae

Felidae

Mustelidae

Ermine

largest range of any mammal in North America; extirpated by end of 1800's

statewide

Mustela erminea possible occurrence

Long-tailed wea- Mustela frenata sel Least weasel

federally endangered; was once widespread in Illinois

Mustela nivalis

predominately feeds on insects (also known to eat other invertebrates, fruits, vegetables, small mammals, birds, grasses, amphibians, reptiles and carrion) may occasionally wander in from southern Wisconsin

uncommon

statewide

this is the most likely encountered of the weasels

uncommon

northern 1/2

smallest carnivore in the world

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Mink

Mustela vison

common

statewide

Eastern spotted Spilogale puto- possible occurskunk rius rence

semi-aquatic occur in eastern Iowa

Badger

Taxidea taxus

commonuncommon

northern 4/5

tree removal has increased badger distribution throughout state

Procyonidae

Raccoon

Procyon lotor

common

statewide

does not wash food

Ursidae

Black bear

Ursus americanus

extirpated

occasionally wanders in from neighboring states

Bison

Bos bison

extirpated

were once common -uncommon on Illinois prairies

American elk (or Cervus elaphus wapiti)

extirpated

ranged widely throughout state in early 1800's

Odocoileus virginianus

common

ARTIODACTYLA Bovidae

Cervidae

White-tailed deer

http://www.mammalsociety.org/mammals-illinois

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statewide

Illinois population was practically exterminated by late 1800's; they have since rebounded


Horn Field Campus Natural Resources Inventory