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2019 Quarter 4 Vol. 5, No. 4

Market Trends in 3D Printing Applied Coating Cost Comparison LED for Decontamination Medical & Dental Curing Uses

Official Publication of RadTech International North America


With a worldwide installation base unequaled in the industry that spans multiple markets and applications, our UV experience is OLWHUDOO\VHFRQGWRQRQH:HRIIHUWKHะบQHVWLQSURYHQ89WHFKQRORgy including LED, Traditional and Hybrid combinations of the two. When considering the addition of UV curing to your operation, let ,67SURYLGHWKHXOWLPDWH89VROXWLRQIRU\RXUFRPSDQ\7KHUHDUH lots of choices out there, as true UV professionals we can help you make an educated and informed decision on the right UV path to pursue to meet and exceed the needs of your company. IST AMERICA U.S. OPERATIONS 121-123 Capista Drive Shorewood, IL 60404-8851 Tel. +1 815 733 5345,

GENOMER* 4259 Low viscosity, fast-reacting, exceptionally high hardness/ modulus Urethane Acrylate.

RAHN AG, Zurich, Switzerland RAHN GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany RAHN USA Corp., Aurora, Illinois, USA RAHN Trading (Shanghai) Co. Ltd., Shanghai, China



Utilizing UV Technology to Develop Medical Devices: An Overview of GMP Conformal Processes and Documentation Technology in medical device production, including UV polymerization of adhesives and varnishes, requires process validation to determine quality standards. By Chris Davis, IST America



The cover was finished by Royle Printing Company, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, using a multi-step UV-curing process called Rough Reticulated Strike-Through. First, the 4-color process was laid down and a UV varnish was applied as a spot application in the areas that did not receive the gloss UV treatment (photograph and copy). The UV varnish was cured with UV lights, and then an LED curing system was used to cure the 4-color process inks. A flood gloss UV was applied over the entire cover, which “reacted” to the UV varnish and created the matte varnish – staying glossy in the areas that were knocked out to receive the gloss UV. The final step was a pass under another UV curing system to cure the coating. This process was performed in one pass on press.


Effectiveness of UV Light-Emitting Diodes for Inactivating Biomolecules and Microorganisms UV LED effectiveness for decontamination and disinfection of biological molecules and microorganisms is examined. By Theresa Thompson, Ph.D., Phoseon Technology


Comparison of Coating Coverage and Applied Cost for Solvent-Based, Water-Based and 100% Solids UV Coating A return-on-investment analysis is conducted to compare coating costs for a pipe production operation. By Michael Kelly, Allied PhotoChemical, Inc., and Michael Bonner, Saint Claire Systems



President’s Message ............................................ 4 Association News ................................................ 6 Technology Showcase ....................................... 28 Industry ............................................................... 40 Faces................................................................... 44 Regulatory News ............................................... 54 Calendar ............................................................. 56 Advertising Index .............................................. 56

Market Outlook: The Future of 3D Printing Growth opportunities and limitations for 3D printing are explored, with input from various industry studies and subject matter experts from BASF, Carbon and Tactile Materials Solutions. By Dianna Brodine, UV+EB Technology

UV LED Makes a Strong Showing at PRINTING United The recent PRINTING United event in Dallas, Texas, featured a number of companies promoting UV LED technology in a variety of print-related markets. By Dianna Brodine, UV+EB Technology


Resin Viscosity Determines Validity of Exposure Reciprocity Law in Resin-Based Dental Composites The article aims to clarify the validity debate and provide guidance on the applicability of the exposure reciprocity law as it pertains to resin-based dental composites. By S. Palagummi, T. Hong and M.Y.M. Chiang, National Insititute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and Z. Wang, Wuhan (China) University


Tech Accelerator, Emerging Technology Awards Now Accepting Applications Two opportunities exist for innovators in the UV/EB technology space with upcoming awards and recognition from RadTech International North America. By Dianna Brodine, UV+EB Technology

2 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 +

TECHNOLOGY 2019 Quarter 4 Vol. 5, No. 4


RadTech International North America’s Editorial Board facilitates the technical articles featured in UV+EB Technology. Smaller teams of Issue Champions review and approve articles and provide overall content management for each issue, as needed.

Susan Bailey

Syed T. Hasan

Editorial Board Co-Chair Business Development Manager, Digital & Specialty Printing Michelman, Inc.

Editorial Board Co-Chair Key Account Manager, Security Inks BASF Corporation

Amelia Davenport

Charlie (Chunlin) He

Maria Muro-Small

Sheng “Sunny” Ye


UV Curing Technology Implementing Best Practices in UV Measurement is No PICNIC By Jim Raymont, EIT LLC


Innovations: Industry Advances with RadLaunch Winners RadLaunch Serves as Connector for Sulfluor Research By Nancy Cates, UV+EB Technology


Professor’s Corner Changing Polymer Properties through Manipulation By Byron K. Christmas, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus

Senior Scientist Colorado Photopolymer Solutions

Lead Materials Scientist Glidewell Laboratories

UV+EB TECHNOLOGY EDITORIAL BOARD Susan Bailey, Michelman, Inc. Co-Chair/Editor-in-Chief Syed Hasan, BASF Corporation Co-Chair/Editor-in-Chief Darryl Boyd, US Naval Research Laboratory Byron Christmas, Professor of Chemistry, Retired Amelia Davenport, Colorado Photopolymer Solutions Charlie He, Glidewell Laboratories Mike Higgins, Phoseon Technology Molly Hladik, Michelman, Inc. Mike J. Idacavage, Colorado Photopolymer Solutions +

JianCheng Liu, PPG Industries Sudhakar Madhusoodhanan, Applied Materials Gary Sigel, Armstrong Flooring Maria Muro-Small, Spectra Group Limited, Inc. Jacob Staples, Ashland, Inc. R.W. Stowe, Heraeus Noblelight America LLC Chen Wang, Formlabs, Inc. Huanyu Wei, ITW Sports Branding Division Jinping Wu, PolyOne Corporation Sheng “Sunny” Ye, Facebook Reality Labs

Director of Marketing Spectra Group Limited, Inc.

Facebook Reality Labs

UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 3



few years ago, I heard a speaker refer to UV/EB technology as “maturing.” At that time, this seemed to be true, but I have learned to never undersell the inventiveness and adaptability of our members to further develop our technology. Add to that the emergence of UV LEDs, the reemergence of 3D printing/ additive manufacturing, the development of new materials and application methods Eileen Weber – such as inkjet printing – and I think we President can rightly claim that UV/EB still is on the upswing. This was evident as the RadTech technical committee recently reviewed abstracts for our upcoming UV+EB 2020 Conference in Orlando. Not only was the number of submissions the highest in recent memory, but the topics are diverse – and, in several cases, completely novel. At this writing, we are evaluating sessions for familiar areas such as developments in formulation, 3D printing, photoinitiators, wood and printing/packaging, but also advances in adhesion to difficult substrates, applications and dual cure. We also have received a number of submissions to create sessions for completely new areas, including exterior coatings, Industry 4.0 and micropatterning. Unlike legacy technologies limited by their chemistry, UV/EB offers a virtual toolbox of possibilities – a toolbox once limited to a small group of developers but now extending to numerous researchers, universities and start-ups. With this wider reach of our technology, RadTech members actively are working with customers to ensure our processes adhere to regulatory and consumer demands. Our new Sustainability Committee, chaired by Todd Fayne of Pepsico and David Biro of Sun Chemical, is taking on such tasks, generating

considerable interest from other customers and nonprofits with a strong interest in working with RadTech. Groups such as Specialty Graphic Imaging Association (SGIA); the National Association of Printing Ink Manufacturers (NAPIM); the Association of International Metallizers, Coaters and Laminators (AIMCAL); and the American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) are engaging with us to develop data and information to help validate our efforts. To paraphrase a quote the “Spiderman” movies have made more famous: With much interest in your technology, comes much responsibility. It is a responsibility important not just to our sustainability committee, but also to our Environmental Health and Safety and 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing committees – and I invite all of you to become involved with these efforts. As we put the finishing touches on programming for RadTech 2020, the UV/EB community once again is providing considerable enthusiasm and energy to help us present significant new opportunities for our technology, and at the same time the important scientific and regulatory underpinnings that go with our “responsibility.” One final note: As you know RadTech now manages the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA), and we are excited about IUVA’s decision to co-locate its event with RadTech 2020. Admission to the RadTech 2020 Conference includes admission to IUVA programming, and I encourage you to explore the synergies between our groups and technologies. We look forward to seeing you in Orlando! Eileen Weber President, RadTech Board of Directors Global Marketing Manager, PC&I Radcure, allnex USA, Inc.


Published by:

President Eileen Weber – allnex USA., Inc.

TECHNOLOGY An official publication of: RADTECH INTERNATIONAL NORTH AMERICA 6935 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 207 Chevy Chase, MD 20815 240-497-1242 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Gary M. Cohen SENIOR DIRECTOR Mickey Fortune

4 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

President-elect Jo Ann Arceneaux – allnex USA Inc. Secretary Jennifer Heathcote – Eminence UV Treasurer Paul Elias – Miwon North America Immediate Past-President Lisa Fine – Joules Angstrom UV Printing Inks Board of Directors Susan Bailey – Michelman David Biro – Sun Chemical Mike Bonner – Saint Clair Systems, Inc. Todd Fayne – Pepsico Mark Gordon – INX International Ink Company Michael Gould – Rahn USA Jeffrey Klang – Sartomer George McGill – Precision Ink Jim Raymont – EIT LLC Chris Seubert – Ford Motor Company P.K. Swain – Heraeus Noblelight America Hui Yang – Procter and Gamble Sheng “Sunny” Ye – Facebook Reality Labs

2150 SW Westport Drive, Suite 101 Topeka, Kansas 66614 785-271-5801 Publisher Jeff Peterson

National Sales Director Janet Dunnichay

Art Director Becky Arensdorf

Managing Editor Dianna Brodine

Contributing Editors Nancy Cates Liz Stevens

Circulation Manager Brenda Schell

ENews & Website Developer Mikell Burr +

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Register Now for ‘Early Bird’ Pricing for RadTech UV+EB 2020 Conference The RadTech UV+EB 2020 Conference will be held March 8 through 11, 2020, at the Disney Coronado Springs Resort in Orlando, Florida. For the first time, the conference will be colocated with the 2020 IUVA Americas Conference. The early rate offers members of both RadTech and IUVA – as well as nonmembers – a substantial discount off the general registration or on-site rate. General registration will be available Dec. 21, 2019, through February 21, 2020. Registration at a higher rate will be available thereafter and on-site through the conference. Singleday registration also is available online or on site. Full conference registration includes the following:  Admission to all RadTech and IUVA conference sessions  Copy of RadTech and IUVA conference proceedings via online link sent by email  Admission to exhibition  Continental breakfast  Group luncheons each day  Refreshment breaks  Admission to receptions  Conference and show directory Online registration for the “early bird” rate for the RadTech UV+EB 2020 Conference is open through Dec. 20, 2019, at

Register Now for Dec. 5 Webinar: UV LED for Wide Web, Flex Packaging RadTech will present an introduction to UV LED technology (systems, coatings, adhesives) and its impact on migration, sustainability and a converter’s bottom line in an upcoming webinar, set for 1 pm CT Dec. 5, 2019. UV LED technology is the dominant curing source in various industry segments including digital inkjet printing and spot cure adhesives. In other markets, such as narrow web label, UV LED technology is an increasingly viable option for both new presses and retrofits and has been steadily gaining market share. Presenters Joe Spinnato of Ashland and Jennifer Heathcote of Eminence UV are subject matter experts in UV LED-curable 6 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

materials and curing systems. Topics to be covered include an introduction to UV LED curing technology, industry market trends, migration and sustainability needs, wide web UV LED coating and adhesive applications, and product development plans. The webinar is focused to assist converters as they pursue improved business results and is intended for those new to UV LED technology and its application in mid and wide web flexible packaging. For additional details and to register, visit

RadTech/TAGA Poster Contest Deadline Approaching RadTech and The Technical Association for the Graphic Arts (TAGA) are partnering again on the UV+EB Technology Student Poster Design Competition, which offers students cash prizes for creative poster designs. Interested graphic arts and design students need not have experience in UV+EB technology, and are encouraged to learn more and sign up at CHICAGO


MAY 7–9

Entries must be submitted to RadTech by Dec. 31, 2019. RadTech will display and celebrate winning entries at the 2020 RadTech Conference at Disney’s Coronado Springs Resort in Orlando, Florida, March 8 through 11, 2020. The winning design also may be featured as the cover artwork for a future issue of UV+EB Technology magazine. THE ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE CURING SOLUTION

RadTech Announces Contract with Heathcote, Eminence UV, LLC RadTech has contracted with Jennifer Heathcote of Eminence UV, LLC, to provide the organization with applications expertise as the technology continues to enable new products and manufacturing methods. Heathcote brings 20 years of industry experience in applications engineering, sales, business development and general management roles.


“Jennifer has proven herself to be a leading authority on our technology and its use across a broad range of industrial applications,” said RadTech President Eileen Weber, of allnex. “Her experience spans a wide range of applications, including digital and analog printing, structural bonding adhesive and industrial coatings.” Heathcote earned a degree in mechanical engineering from Purdue University and an MBA from the Fisher College of Business at The Ohio State University. +

California Senate Resolution Recognizes UV/EB Technology and RadTech

Rita Loof, RadTech’s director of environmental affairs, and Sen. Mike Morrell (R), 23rd Senate District for California.

The California State Senate has adopted a resolution recognizing the benefits of ultraviolet and electron beam technologies, as well as the contributions of RadTech: The Association for UV+EB Technology. The resolution was spearheaded by Sen. Mike Morrell (R), who represents California’s 23rd Senate District, covering portions of Riverside, San Bernardino and Los Angeles counties.

“This California State Senate resolution will encourage adoption of pollution prevention technologies while retaining manufacturing jobs in California,” said Rita Loof, RadTech’s director of environmental affairs. “UV and EB technology already has been recognized on various occasions by the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and the City of Los Angeles, and we welcome the statewide recognition.” The resolution recognizes UV/EB technology as pollutionprevention processes that produce little to no harmful emissions. The nature of the process is such that virtually no volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are generated. Additionally, UV/EB processes do not produce combustion contaminants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide or greenhouse gases, which are heavily regulated in California. The SCAQMD and City of Los Angeles previously presented RadTech with Clean Air Awards for Advancement in Air Pollution Control Technology. The SCAQMD also recently deemed UV/EB technology as a “control strategy” in its Air Quality Management Plan. The technology is listed as a Best Available Control Technology, which exempts it from many SCAQMD regulations.

RadTech Rewards, Encourages Interest in STEM RadTech International North America annually hosts the Emerging Technology Awards and the RadLaunch Tech Accelerator – opportunities for innovators in the UV/EB technology development space to be recognized and connected with industry resources. In 2018, a young inventor was recognized as the first RadLaunch “Future Scientist” when the competition committee learned of her invention: an Air/Water Purification Ion-Exchange Resin & UVC Filtration System. As the deadlines for this year’s Emerging +

Technology Awards and RadLaunch Tech Accelerator approach (see page 50), UV+EB Technology reached out to Mealy Cronin to learn more about her interest in science and technology. Have you always had an interest in science and technology? Cronin: In second grade we passed the science and technology magnet school near my house. My mom told me that kids who loved math and science learned about, and invented, all sorts of amazing things there. That made an impact on me and, from that point on, I was hooked. I read anything STEM related that I could get my hands on. In seventh grade, I even started a YouTube channel aimed at inspiring girls to love STEM as much as I do. Who encouraged and inspired you? Cronin: I credit my 5th and 6th grade science teacher with inspiring my love of all things STEM related. He encouraged me to keep asking questions and to delve more deeply into the answers I received. He felt any idea could be turned into a science experiment, and any experiment could lead to an invention. Why did you invent the air/water purification system? Cronin: The movie Waterworld began after global warming caused the ice caps to melt, so the oceans rose to cover all seven continents. Since then, I have worried about the effects of global warming and I wanted to help air quality and reduce carbon gases. I was talking to my grandfather about the concept of ionic exchange, which I learned about in school, and it turned out he was working on a UVC project to help eliminate viruses and bacteria. I wondered if it was possible to use ion exchange and UVC, in addition to filters and giant turbines, to clean air and water. How is your invention different from other systems? Cronin: What is different is that my approach uses the combination of UVC light (254nm), ionic exchange, filtered activated charcoal and HEPA filters, rather than any one singular approach to filter air and water. The UVC interference of viral and bacteria DNA, in combination with the other elements, elevates the ability to purify the air and water. What did the development process look like? Cronin: First, I made an outline of the concept and sketched what I thought it would look like and what each part would be responsible for. I looked at off-the-shelf products that resembled what I had in mind and which I could use for testing. Then after building several models, I began the testing process. Once I had the data to prove my concept worked, I submitted a final nonprovisional patent application to the United States Patent and Trademark Office. What’s next? Cronin: One idea I am particularly interested in involves the harnessing of alternate sources of energy for use in our everyday activities – but I am pretty busy with my studies. I am currently in 9th grade, a competitive figure skater and swimmer, and I also run on my school’s varsity cross country team.  UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 7


Implementing Best Practices in UV Measurement is No PICNIC F

or UV measurement and process control, “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” even though I prefer to use properly measured and documented values that include Joules and Watts. The best technology can be held hostage to bad everyday practices. This column compiles best practices implemented by EIT customers to improve their process monitoring and control. The IT team at EIT classifies my computer challenges as “PICNIC” errors: “Problem In Chair, Not In Computer.” For analyzing customercollected UV data, I have repurposed our IT “PICNIC” acronym to: “Problem In Collection, Not In Calibration.”

The following suggestions should improve your UV measurement data collection and minimize your UV “PICNIC” errors. Implement as many of these best practices as you can. 1. Organize Your Recordkeeping A messy desk can lead to the loss of valuable information – or at least a loss of time while searching for it. Create an Excel spreadsheet in company intranet or cloud-based folders to allow for easy entry, access, sharing and retrieval of data from anywhere. Back up the information on a regular basis either manually or through a service provider. Name your files so the right data can be located quickly, and missing data is easily apparent. Naming your file “UV Data 12_20_19 Line 4” is more descriptive than “UV Data Backup.” Hanging a clipboard next to your UV line to enter key process parameters, including UV values, is simple and easy but lacks the data analysis tools available in a spreadsheet. Whatever approach you take, have the data available. Relying only on your ink and coating suppliers to take and keep your important process data could leave you in a bind if they are not available. 2. Use Consistent Data Collection Techniques For the most accurate and reliable results, it is important to pay attention to small details that can introduce unintended (and often unobserved) variations. Place the instrument in the same location (with the optics in the same orientation) each time a measurement is made. A small index mark – using tape or a permanent marker – on the UV system allows the user to align the optics in the same location and orientation on the conveyor each time. On wide arc-based systems, take multiple readings across the width of the conveyor.

8 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

Measurements are best collected under comparable conditions, including internal instrument temperature. Instruments too hot to touch are too hot to take a reading. Consistency in measurement means allowing your UV system Figure 1. Index marks to align optics. to warm up and stabilize per the recommendations of the manufacturer. During warm-up, review and confirm a checklist of desired settings – such as power level, lamp height and conveyor speed – before taking a reading. Confirm (with appropriate UV eye/skin protection) that the instrument optics are maintained at a consistent height throughout the path of travel in the UV system. Consider the use of a fixture to stabilize the instrument movement. On lines with rollers, use a fixture to prevent the radiometer riding an up and down “surfing” motion between the rollers, which can lead to inconsistent Watt values. 3. Perform UV System Maintenance For quality control, change is a persistent enemy. Some changes are due to natural aging of equipment and are expected as the production hours increase. Other changes, such as premature equipment failures and self-inflicted human error, can occur unpredictably and at any time. Below is a checklist of common issues that require attention. It is not comprehensive, but a good starting point. Use it to brainstorm with your team to identify sources of change and/or failure on your system.  Reflectors are contaminated, transmitting less energy, especially in the shortwave (UVC) region.  Belt/conveyor tension has changed, causing slippage.  Conveyor speed changed, causing variations in Joule readings.  Incorrect bulb type (e.g. mercury vs. doped) installed.  UV LEDs have burned out.  Replacement lamps are improperly situated in the reflector.  Light source location has changed.  Bulb manufacturer has changed.  Cooling supply air and or water has changed.  Power supply settings have been altered by an operator. +

1.5 1 0.5 01 40 79 118 157

Figure 2. Uniformity of an arc lamp in 21 different positions across the width and length of the bulb. Courtesy of Jenton International Ltd. (UK)

    

Shutters are sticky or failing. Quartz plates have become contaminated. Specialty (e.g., dichroic) reflectors have become contaminated. RF screens and gaskets have been damaged. Magnetrons are aging.

4. Establish and Document a Process to Collect, Record and Maintain UV System Data Based on the needs and requirements of your UV process, decide the who, how, frequency, where, when and what data will be collected and recorded. Suggested “best practice” process information considerations include date and time; operator name; line conditions, such as conveyor speed; power supply levels; and frequency of measurement. Each radiometer has its own specific optical response. Instruments from different suppliers may provide different values, even with the same UV source, data collection process and measurement position. Radiometer settings (see this column in Issue 3, 2019), such as the effective sample rate, also can affect how values are reported. Suggested “best practice” radiometric information includes:  Recording the data and also specifying the radiometer manufacturer, model, UV band and, if applicable, the effective sample rate.  Reporting 616 mW/cm2 and 227.8 mJ/cm2 [EIT PowerMAP II, UVA (320-390 nm), 2048 Hz/Smooth Off ] is clear and conveys more information than only reporting 616 mW/cm2 and 227.8 mJ/cm2. You may need different radiometers for different types of UV sources – both in output levels and the type of source. A radiometer optimized to measure the UV from a high-intensity curing source may not work on UV from a low-intensity source. A radiometer designed and calibrated for a mercury lamp may not provide accurate numbers when measuring a UV LED. Recording detailed information provides a complete picture of the UV system performance that will make comparisons and problem-solving easier when trouble arises and these details are +

Figure 3. This data collection and analysis software allows operators to record notes about the system that become integrated with the data.

long forgotten. Radiometers that will allow you to save the data/ irradiance profile to a computer also may allow you to add notes to be entered directly into the file so all process information is in one location and the process conditions stay with the file. 5. Maintain Your Instrument Just as your UV line changes over time, so do your test instruments. UV radiometers often operate in harsh conditions, including intense energy (UV, visible, infrared), temperature and coatings, and are not always handled with tender loving care. Instruments can become coated, dropped or stuck in a system. To rely on the radiometer’s data, the instrument has to be calibrated and well maintained. When your instrument requires service, send it to the manufacturer or use a manufacturer’s authorized service center that can conduct genuine repairs. Between calibrations, follow the manufacturer’s instrument care and cleaning guidelines. Small mistakes – wiping the optical window with a contaminated shop rag or abrasive cotton swab – can damage the optics and prevent an accurate reading. You may even wish to purchase packets of optical wipes designed for cleaning your instrument to prevent accidental damage. Parting Thoughts In the words of the famous cartoon character Yogi Bear: “Be smarter than the av-er-age bear.” Avoid UV-related PICNIC errors by implementing the best practices that make sense for your organization. Start 2020 with solid data, and find time to enjoy a real “pic-a-nic” basket” … away from work. 

Jim Raymont Director of Sales EIT LLC UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 9


RadLaunch Serves as Connector for Sulfluor Research By Nancy Cates, contributing editor, UV+EB Technology


ulfluor, a fluorinated hypervalent sulfur-containing polymer, may have the potential of competing with other hard, thin films, such as plasma-deposited silicones or Kevlar. Hard, photochemically cured coatings may find applications in 3D printing, protection of sensor windows, optical fibers, electronic devices and other surfaces where scratch-resistance and chemical stability are important. Kelly Bonetti, a graduate student at the State University of New York at Albany, said being associated with a winning project for Radlaunch opened new opportunities for the research group. “One of the primary benefits of RadTech was connecting with other researchers outside of academics. It inspired interest that would not have been possible without exposure to people who can test and implement the research.” Bonetti – along with fellow graduate student Michael T. Murphy at SUNY Polytechnic Institute in Utica, New York, and mentor John T. Welch, who leads research in organofluorine chemistry at SUNY Albany – submitted a winning proposal for the 2019 RadLaunch Class. Winners were announced at the BIG IDEAS for UV+EB Technology Conference last March in Redondo Beach, California. Making connections with fellow RadLaunch honorees – such as Radu Reit (whose research with Ares Materials was highlighted in Issue 3, 2019, of UV+EB Technology), as well as UV+EB Technology editorial board member Darryl Boyd, with the US Naval Research Laboratory – was important in considering even larger potential for Sulfluor, Bonetti said. “From our academic background, we were seeing it through a limited lens. As a team, attending a RadTech conference in Chicago opened our eyes. Our photochemistry may be applicable to other markets. We found that the polymer can be coated onto a silicon substrate and photochemically cured. These hard, thin coatings may be useful in a business sector beyond the integrated circuit industry.” Development was originally funded by a National Science Foundation grant that focused on the material’s lithographic potential. The grant enabled the group to attend the RadTech conference to identify other target markets that could appreciate the photochemistry.

As an academic research project, Bonetti said Sulfluor is a technology in search of an end use. “We are spin-coating a 10 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

John T. Welch, Ph.D., leads research in organoflourine chemistry at SUNY Albany and acted as mentor for the RadLaunch-winning project. (Photo Mark Schmidt)

uniform polymer film onto a silicon substrate. Michael, whose expertise is in EUV lithographic techniques, determined the process conditions needed for reproducible thin coats of varying thicknesses. The light sensitivity initially described in the winning NSF grant was first studied as a photoresist for patterning circuits in electronics. As the project developed, we wanted a thorough understanding of the material properties and used the nanoindentation technique to get a relative sense of our material compared to other thin polymer films. We decided first to compare our material to other polymer materials known for their resist chemistry. We found that our thin films, of similar thickness and coated on a silicon substrate, resulted in hardness and modulus values two to four times as hard and stress-resistant as PMMA.” The polymer can be spun-cast and patterned by UV and EB lithography. The RadLaunch application notes the thin films’ hardness and modulus – after UV curing – outperformed most polymer materials from PMMA, Teflon and Polystyrene. The material could be used in displays, optics or electronics, and the UV-curable thin films may have coating applications. “Because we are limited by grants and connections in academics,” Bonetti continued, “RadTech has helped us identify areas where our chemistry may fit commercially and how to make a business pitch. It gave us an alternative way to view the research. Because +

the research is in such a beginning stage, we need to test it thoroughly, retest to determine reproducibility and consider modifying materials.” She said the material was tested using the same techniques as those used in testing other thin films on silicon substrates. In some cases, the fluorinated polymers matched Kevlar’s mechanical values as thin films. “What if we can spin it into fibers or form 3D shapes?” Bonetti asked. “Or what if it is used as a photocurable coating, able to reinforce surfaces? Dr. Welch was able to put together another grant proposal for the Department of Defense, which may be interested in using it as a hard, chemically cured thin film coating for naval propellers. Currently there is no framework for boundaries. We want to continue exploring the chemistry and define those limits. We don’t know its limit because it’s so new.” For the future, Bonetti sees the need to align with a company that is interested in taking the technology further. The research group is hopeful regarding interest from the Japanese chemical company UBE Industries. “We need commercial connections, infrastructure, financing and feedback,” she said. “We need a partnership to guide the research project, help it evolve and find market fit and end use.

RadTech has helped us identify areas where our chemistry may fit commercially and how to make a business pitch. It gave us an alternative way to view the research. “I’m a graduate student,” Bonetti continued. “I want to pay it forward so there can be resources, testing and knowledge transfer for the Welch Research Group. Our lab does a lot of creative and commercially relevant research. Professor Welch is doing great things and coming up with creative chemical solutions. I’m grateful for the exposure and connections we have made through RadTech – for the people that saw his vision and where it’s taken us so far.” 

Transform... the economics of UV +

UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 11


Changing Polymer Properties through Manipulation I

n the first three editions of this column, the groundwork for better understanding the nature of polymers – vis-à-vis lower molecular mass materials – was laid. In this edition, we will look at factors that chemists, chemical engineers and materials scientists can, in principle, manipulate to change polymer properties. These include changes that can be made in composition, molecular structure and morphology. Chemical Composition Changing the chemical composition of the polymer through changes in monomer selection is perhaps the most obvious way to change polymer properties. After all, one would not expect poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) to have the same set of properties as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) or polycarbonate (PC). Different monomers, obviously, have different sizes, geometric structures, polarities and molecular masses – all of which have significant impact on the properties of the resulting polymer. Arrangement of Monomers in a Macromolecular Chain Homopolymers. Polymers consisting of a single monomer have only one possible arrangement of the monomer units in a macromolecular chain or “backbone.” This is illustrated in Figure 1. ~~AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA~~ Figure 1. Linear homopolymer

Copolymers. Polymers produced using two different monomers have several ways they can be arranged in the backbone. These different arrangements of the same two monomers would be expected to produce different polymer properties. Alternating: In this case, one monomer is attached only to the second one and never to itself, as shown in Figure 2. To achieve this through synthesis, the two monomers must have little or no tendency to homopolymerize and a strong tendency to copolymerize with each other.

when both monomers may readily either homopolymerize or copolymerize with each other. In other words, they have no preference when reacting together. ~~BAAABBABAABBBAABABABAAA~~ Figure 3. Linear random copolymer

Block: A third possibility for two monomers reacting to make a copolymer is that they can form long “blocks” of homopolymer within the copolymer backbone, as illustrated in Figure 4. If the blocks differ in hydrophilicity (“water-loving”) characteristics, these can serve as surfactants. Blocking can occur when both monomers have a strong tendency to homopolymerize, but only a slight tendency to copolymerize with each other. ~~AAAAAA-BBBBBBBBB-AAAAAAA~~ Figure 4. Linear block copolymer

Terpolymers or Higher Order. Obviously, the larger the number of different monomers that are used to make a polymer, the larger the number of possible arrangements there are along the chain and the greater the number of end-use properties that are obtainable. It is not unusual for photopolymerizable formulations to contain an oligomer and two, three or more functional monomers. Macromolecular Structure As discussed in the first edition of Professor’s Corner, polymers can take on various structural arrangements. Linear Polymers. Figures 1 through 4 all illustrate linear polymers, those that consist of single strands of macromolecules. Schematically, a linear polymer can be illustrated by a single, randomly oriented line, as shown in Figure 5. These may have a relatively high degree of microcrystallinity, due to the ability of the macromolecules to align with one another.

~~ABABABABABABABABABABAB~~ Figure 2. Linear alternating copolymer

Random: It also is possible for two monomers to form a random arrangement in the polymer chain (Figure 3). This occurs 12 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

Figure 5. Schematic of a linear polymer

Branched Polymers. Branched polymers contain long backbone chains with much smaller, but significant, side chains attached. +

Figure 6 depicts tree limbs illustrating a branched polymer. For branched polymers, the branches are the same monomer composition as that of the polymer backbone. Branched polymers tend to have relatively fewer microcrystalline Figure 6. A “tree limb” model domains, since the branches of a branched polymer inhibit the backbones of the macromolecules from aligning. However, the branches themselves may align, producing branch microcrystallinity. Graft Copolymers. This type of polymer is produced by reacting a previously synthesized linear polymer with a different type of monomer to produce “branches” that are different in composition from the polymer chain. The “tree limb” model in Figure 6 can be viewed to illustrate both a branched polymer and a graft copolymer. However, for the latter, one must imagine that the branches are made of a different type of wood than that of the tree! Such a strange mental image provides a fairly good conceptual understanding of the similarities and differences between branched polymers and graft copolymers.

significant changes in final end-use properties. These topics will be explored in future editions of Professor’s Corner.  Technical Questions? The Professor’s Corner provides science-based information to people employed in the UV/EB industry or in related research. Topics may range from the fundamentals of polymer chemistry to the detailed science of photopolymerization to provide a deeper understanding of the chemistry and technology of UV/EB polymerization and a framework to clarify industry terminology. What are your technical questions about polymer science, photopolymerization or other topics concerning the chemistry and technology of UV/EB polymerization? Please submit questions or comments via email to Dianna Brodine, managing editor for UV+EB Technology at

Byron K. Christmas, Ph.D. Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus University of Houston-Downtown

Crosslinked or “Network” Polymers. All commercially viable UV/EB-produced polymers are crosslinked. However, they also may contain oligomeric or polymeric fragments, as well as unreacted monomers that – for a variety of reasons – are not crosslinked into the three-dimensional network structure. A schematic representation of a crosslinked polymer is given in Figure 7. While this is a two-dimensional illustration, network polymers are three-dimensional in structure. A useful model for an idealized crosslinked polymer is a diamond. Diamond is one of several known allotropic forms of carbon wherein every carbon atom is attached with covalent single bonds to four other carbon atoms which, in turn, are Figure 7. Schematic attached to three additional atoms, and of a crosslinked so forth. Effectively, a pure, perfect polymer diamond would be a single molecule of exceptionally large – essentially infinite – molecular mass. A diamond’s rigidity and hardness are a direct result of its heavily crosslinked structure. Other Factors Along with chemical composition, arrangement of monomers along the backbone and the overall structure of the macromolecules, a chemist can manipulate the molecular mass, molecular mass distribution and other factors – including how the polymer is processed during or after production – to bring about +

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HANDCURE LED Mobile Curing UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 13

PROCESS VALIDATION By Chris Davis, head of sales – Industrial Systems, IST America

Utilizing UV Technology to Develop Medical Devices: An Overview of GMP Conformal Processes and Documentation C

omplex technical processes, used in the production of medical devices, require validation if the results cannot be measured immediately. Examples of such processes are:  sterilization,  aseptic packaging/assembly,  injection molding and  UV polymerization of adhesives and varnishes.

UV polymerization is widely accepted for its fast and reliable results as well as its relatively uncomplicated installation and operation. It also offers a strong cost/benefit ratio. The rigorous guidelines of good manufacturing process (GMP) conformal production supervision control demand an evaluation of these technologies, and the supervisory authorities require detailed and documented validation. The scope of documentation varies depending on whether the final product is considered a Class 1, 2 or 3 product. When there is uncertainty about the validation requirement or scope of the validation for the critical processes/ plants, the Global Harmonization Task Force (GHTF) Guidelines “Process Validation” and the recommended decision scheme1 provide an outline to the desired validation. A workable approach seems to be detailing the process, analyzing every part of it regarding an eventual risk and implementing it into the existing risk management system. Risk management should be understood as a continuous iterative process throughout the lifecycle of a product that requires regular, systematic updating. A methodic approach to risk management has been described by ISO EN 14971. For reference, tools for risk analysis include the following:  Direct-/Indirect-Impact, as identified by the International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE)  Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Ishikawa (Fishbone)-Diagram  Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) When the curing process can be numerically modeled, an approach to failure effects can be determined using statistical values such as 6 Sigma, knowing the parameters of the process window. This article is intended to define a numerical approach, to enable UV curing technology and to present a rigorous description for GMP validation delivering reproducible and repeatable results. A quick side note on the guiding standards: ISO 13485 vs. FDA QSR 21 CFR 820; ISO 13485:2016 and FDA QSR 21 CFR 820 differ in several points, avoiding a harmonization in the past. 14 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 +

Figure 1. Extinction of light in cross-linked molecules

 ISO 13485:2016 is a standard based upon ISO 9001:2008 and is specific to the design and manufacture of medical devices. This standard is projected to be adopted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2019. Originally intended to be implemented in April 2019, as this issue of UV+EB Technology went to press, this step was still pending due to necessary congressional action. (See https://  Title 21 CFR 820 is the current quality system for medical devices used by the FDA. Further observations in this article relate to ISO 13485 as the common international standard.

Finding the process window Analytical determination of the degree of curing - FTIR spectroscopy Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a spectroscopic technique that operates by receiving a continuous infrared spectrum of absorption or emission of a solid, liquid or gas. An FTIR spectrometer (with connected data storage) collects high spectral resolution data over the selected range, thereby capturing variations in specific wavenumbers as a derivate of the wavelength, which then quantifies the number of waves in a unit distance. At 810 cm-1 the interesting changes in acrylates can be observed and indicate whether the material is polymerized. Unfortunately, the use of FTIR for epoxies is limited, although it is possible to find indicators in other wavenumbers. Using this method, the cross-linking, as a result of a given dose/ intensity combination, can be precisely determined. Different layer thicknesses can be determined by adequate experiment setup. The graphic contains the complete information for a given formulation from the wet state to fully achievable crosslinked +

state. The key information is the area under the curve as a direct proportion to unlinked acrylates. In other words, the less area under the curve, the more the sample is crosslinked. When this information is added to a speed/UV energy density diagram, a process window can be defined within necessary parameters. The next step is to determine the necessary energy density/ intensity combination so it is analytically defined and therefore predictable. This involves a statistical approach to determine a GMP-validated process window using Design of Experiments (DOE) and multivariable data analysis.

DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS Introduction For a company to continue to successfully evolve in existing markets, the manufacturing and production functions/processes are designed to allow ongoing innovation and, ultimately, optimization. Key areas are as follows: • Production volume • Production development time • Cost cutting To drive continuous development (and the accompanying change to production characteristics and subsequent process results), DOE is a tool with clear benefits. To make this as efficient as possible, statistical methods are used for experimental design.

Why statistics in the design of experiments? When carrying out experiments to optimize production processes in industrial operations, the same measurements are not always obtained, despite careful work. Among other things, random differences (for example, the base materials) play a role in the measurement conditions, and the experimental results can be scattered. page 16  UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 15

PROCESS VALIDATION  page 15 In order to grasp these divergences, a central point must be defined: Statistics enable rational decision-making, despite random scatter of the measured values. Therefore, through statistics, test differences between process and production variants are recognized and can be quantitatively assessed. Trials cost time and money. For the given experimental design, it must be ensured – in the interest of economic feasibility – that the number of trials is proportionate to the amount of time, resources and material available for the experiment to have a reasonable return.

experimental results show deviation (the measure is the standard deviation σ), the more individual tests are required. For the factors and target sizes, the picture in Figure 2 emerges. For a practical evaluation of the test results, integration of a software package is helpful not only for analysis but also to structure the results, as this can be problematic in the experimental design, due to the abundance of information. The software (statistical analysis) can be used to determine the following parameters, among others: page 18 

Typical targets are (according to literature2) a project time reduction of 40% to 75% and a trial cost reduction of 40% to 75%.

Procedure for a DOE (Principle) At the outset of the experiment planning, all participants (research and development, marketing, production) should agree on the investigation objective to avoid unsatisfactory results. Process results and product parameters should be translated into specific technical parameters. Of central importance is the mean value and the statistical deviation of the measurements. Process results/product parameters themselves are suitable target values. The quantitative knowledge of the target values and the impact on the product’s quality allow the definition of a process window that guarantees the product’s desired characteristics. Within the parameters of this process window, the statistical deviations are included, so that even after worst-case deviations, the desired product parameters don’t suffer more than the allowable and predefined tolerances.

Figure 2. Factors and targets in process development

For a robust process and product, it is then valid that disturbance factors are minimized in the production process. The dispersion of the control variables (process parameters) should be kept as low as possible, as this reduces the duration and associated costs of the analysis. An optimal trial design will then depend on the following parameters: • Target sizes (see Figure 2) • Number of factors (see Figure 2) • Desired accuracy of the results The more one wishes to determine the effect of the factors and the more the 16 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

Figure 3. C = C conversion (determined by FTIR, band at 810 cm-1, of a determined set of samples. +

PROCESS VALIDATION  page 16 • Numerical values for the size of the effects • Width of the confidence intervals • Statements about the significance of the effects Once the results are technically understood, improvements to the process can be implemented.

Production development and DOE As illustration, a process from a known application development will be analyzed, and the evaluation and interpretation will be briefly presented: Background and task This particular project is to investigate UV curing of prosthetic limbs, irradiated by UV with a plastic layer. A good starting point value can be determined with the help of a test plan (DOE). Evaluation of the experimental design and conclusions To describe an experiment successfully, quantitative or qualitative values must be determined. For a simple exposure series, this might be speed, distance, lamp type, etc. The test objective can be quality tests, such as tensile strength, scratch resistance or other factors that are generally selected in pre-evaluation. Other variables can be added after starting the experiment, when the first correlations between different factors are calculated. The results of the resulting parameter sets can then be represented graphically.

Figure 4. FTIR-C = C (%) vs. energy (mJ / cm2)

Figure 5. FTIR-C = C conversion (%) vs. wavelength (nm)

Figure 4 illustrates C = C % vs. energy. As desired, the percentage of cross-linking increases with higher energy. On the other hand, if the C = C conversion vs. wavelength is plotted (Figure 5), it can be seen that the conversion is around 385 nm (red tint), despite lower turnover. Therefore, 385 nm is most suitable for curing. A three-dimensional representation of the three parameters (C = C conversion, wavelength, energy) isshown in Figure 6, confirming the expected result, and these are based on Figures 4 and 5. High energy and a wavelength of 385 nm lead to the desired high conversions.

Summary and perspective With the increasing speed in development, production and time to market of innovative medical devices, determining quality 18 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

standards is a typical dilemma of manufacturing. One challenge in individualized mass production is identifying commonalities and making targeted use of them to minimize differences and expense in product design. An important factor is the complete documented development of the product along the entire value chain. This allows a digital image to be created that maps all information about the product and the processes from the physical to the digital world. This not only enables efficient process design and organization but allows measures for avoiding errors and increasing efficiency. In order to build technical knowledge about data, however, the networking of all processes along the product life cycle is necessary. The development of a technological product +

The development of a technological product description starts with the factors that have been assumed and then qualified for its development. The focus is on optimal planning, harmonizing and securing the product within the processes. description starts with the factors that have been assumed and then qualified for its development. The focus is on optimal planning, harmonizing and securing the product within the processes.

Figure 6. FTIR-C = C conversion (%) vs. wavelength (nm) and energy (mJ / cm2)

With DOE, an instrument is created that enables an agile process design. The results will provide the basis for documentation that conforms to DIN ISO 13485 (which stipulates the requirements for documentation in the process development). This method responds to the need for consistent documentation from the beginning and allows for later design adaptions. Desirability for the lowest deviations around a mean value can be found by analytical evaluation of the multivariable database and automated to exclude possible human factors. This allows for a consistent set-up for complex curing applications and will be an important factor in digitally describing production environments. ď ľ References 1. GHTF/SG3/N99-10:2004 (Edition 2) 2. W. Kleppmann, Experimental design - Optimizing products and processes, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich - Vienna, 2016

Chris Davis is head of Sales – Industrial Systems at IST America. A degreed mechanical engineer, Davis joined the industry in 1993 driving narrow- and mid-web press sales until 2015 when he joined IST. Areas of expertise include printing, converting and industrial radiation curing applications. For more information, visit +

UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 19

MARKETS By Dianna Brodine, managing editor, UV+EB Technology

Market Outlook: The Future of 3D Printing A

dditive manufacturing – or 3D printing – is a rapidly growing technology with applications across a wide variety of markets. From prototyping and tooling to small-scale production and the potential for highvolume manufacturing, the process is only limited by the ability of materials and equipment developers to keep up with the imagination of the engineers anxious to utilize it. A number of additive manufacturing process types exist, but two of the more popular processes utilize UV technology to cure the printed materials. Stereolithography (SLA) and Digital Light Processing (DLP) utilize UV to cure the layers of resin as a 3D-printed object is built up, typically from a CAD file. A 2019 study by Markets and Markets lists SLA and DLP as holding the fourth and ninth largest market share of the various 3D printing techniques, respectively (Figure 1). Both techniques are expected to grow significantly within the next five years1 in industries from automotive and appliance to jewelry and medical. This article will explore growth opportunities and limitations for 3D printing, with input from various industry studies and subject matter experts from BASF, Carbon and Tactile Materials Solutions.

Global surveys predict growth Global surveys from industry studies by MarketsandMarkets, Allied Market Demand and IDTechEx agree that the global 3D printing market is prepared to explode with significant growth. Although the numbers vary (MarketsandMarkets predicts market size at $34.8 billion by 2024, while IDTechEx says it will take a little longer - $31 billion by 2029), conservative estimates still anticipate global market size to triple within the next 10 years. A sampling of text from three industry forecasts follows:  The global 3D printing market size is estimated to be USD 9.9 billion in 2018 and is expected to reach USD 34.8 billion by 2024. Factors such as ease in development of customized products, reduction in manufacturing cost and process downtime, government investments in 3D printing projects and development of new industrial-grade 3D printing materials are driving the growth of the 3D printing industry.1  The global 3D printing market was valued at $4,164.2 million in 2014, and is projected to reach $44,393.1 million by 2025, registering a CAGR of 21.8% from 2019 to 2025. North America was the highest contributor to the global market, with $1,728.1 million in 2014, and is estimated to reach $16,838.3 million by 2025, registering a CAGR of 20.8% during the forecast period.2  IDTechEx forecasts that the global market for 3D printing equipment, materials, software and services is estimated to be worth $31 billion by the year 2029.3

Application and market opportunities So, what’s driving these growth predictions? Where are the opportunities for material developers, equipment manufacturers and – most importantly – application designers? The interest in 3D printing has been driven by the lure of shorter product development times, the ability to quickly prototype and try out new product ideas and the ability to customize production runs of limited numbers. However, one study reports: “Currently, the trend in the 3D printing applications is shifting from prototyping to functional part manufacturing in various verticals, such as automotive, medical, aerospace and consumer goods.”1 Automotive companies have invested heavily in the technology, as another study reports. “With the help of 3D printing, the manufacturing of lightweight vehicle components is possible for reducing the weight of vehicles, improving car performance and increasing fuel economy. Moreover, higher efficiency can be gained in manufacturing tools for injection molding using this technology.”2 20 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 +

the complete list of materials that are commonly used in parts manufacturing. Plus, many parts need to be made of more than one material, a task to which the 3D printers of the time were not well suited. Fast-forward to the beginning of 2019, and the list of possible 3D-printable materials has expanded to more than double what it was five years earlier, and mixed-material printers are becoming more common.”4

A spokesperson for Carbon, a digital manufacturing technology company based in California, said, “Part lightweighting is a big opportunity in this particular space. In traditional manufacturing processes, making a part – especially a plastic part – often requires filling an entire geometry with material due to the way injection molding works. With an additive process, a minimum amount of material is placed to get a maximum mechanical effect.” The customization and cost reductions afforded by additive manufacturing make the technology appealing in the healthcare industry. A study commentary on this market opportunity read: “The 3D printing technology has enabled a more patient-centric approach in this field by enabling customization of prosthetics and dentistry and with the help of bio-printing, researchers can print human-sized bones, cartilage and muscles. The time required to produce human body parts is reduced, which curtails the cost of manufacturing artificial body parts. These factors are expected to create lucrative growth opportunities for the 3D printing market in future.”2 The dental industry embraces that same patient-centric, customized approach and was one of the early mass adopters of the technology. “We see one of the biggest near-term opportunities in dental applications,” said Kara Noack, director regional business manager for BASF 3D Printing Solutions NA. “It is by far the most mature market in 3DP photopolymer technologies and driving its largest near-term growth.” Expansion into new markets is key for future growth of additive manufacturing. From jewelry and consumer products to aerospace, unique applications will drive imaginations. Recent news stories have reported 3D printing applications in the creation of prosthetic limbs, plane interior components, custom eyeglasses and even specialty cake molds. And, opportunities exist for new hardware entries into the space, too, as certain technology firms – including Stratasys and 3D Systems reach the end of their patent terms.2 Much of this expansion has been made possible by increased availability of materials suitable for 3D printing. According to an article by Deloitte, “In 2014, the list of materials that could be used in 3D printing was already long, but still far short of +

The Carbon spokesperson agreed, saying, “Traditional stereolithography resins used raw materials developed for coatings and paints, but could be limited when formulated into bulk materials. Recent developments have drawn from a broader range of materials options.” These include dual-cure materials that have allowed heat-curable chemistries, like polyurethane and epoxy, to be designed into 3D-printable formulations. Stephanie Benight, president of Tactile Materials Solutions, a consulting company working with clients in additives, says materials development remains a priority as companies prepare for the new year. “The ability to rapidly print an elastomer that has high elongation, good elasticity, fast rebound and can withstand fatigue in a variety of market applications is a significant opportunity for development. Primarily, the major applications that come to mind are functional parts, like gaskets and shoes. There also is potential in end-of-arm robotic tooling, where you need a high level of fatigue cycling durability and it’s highly desirable to be able to customize on demand in the factory.” Noack says BASF is working to enable wide adoption of digital manufacturing across its technologies. “With our product line Ultracur3D photopolymer solutions, we are working on formulations to be able to achieve thermoplastic-like behavior for functional parts,” she said. “We are making strides in environmental stability and toughness.” Benight says the advantages that photopolymers have over other 3D printing technologies leave UV-curable additive manufacturing poised to increase market share. “With the control that users get to achieve by doing the chemical polymerization reaction in the printer, a variety of material properties are possible, lending photopolymers to high-volume manufacturing and customization opportunities.”

Growth limitations The growth predicted in the 3D printing space comes with a few caveats. First, although equipment costs are significantly lower than when the technology was first introduced, other factors are in play, including energy costs. According to a global study, “There are numerous factors that lead to higher cost of the 3D printing devices. To name a few, the energy taken by 3D printing to produce items is enormous. For instance, the energy released by some of the 3D printing processes utilizes up to 50 to 100 times more electricity as compared to the injection molding machines.”2 page 22  UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 21

MARKETS  page 21 Also, despite the expansion of materials availability, limitations still exist. Benight notes concerns about the ability to meet certain industry standards, saying, “The automotive industry is very strict on the standards that materials must meet – and rightly so, because there are safety and reliability concerns. We need to have an accepted set of standards created with photopolymers and the additive technologies that enable them in mind, so these materials can be tested for different manufacturing applications. These standards need to be performed on materials prior to their use for production to build customer confidence.” She continued, “The reason these tests exist is to avoid massive recalls down the road, so testing is important for safety, consumer confidence and when assessing the costs to remanufacture or replace product. Work is being done in the photopolymer additive community – NIST is creating characterization methods to further understand 3D-printed photopolymers and what should go into those standards, and ASTM has a committee focused on additive manufacturing. It’s going to take an effort from the material developers and equipment providers working with customers in order to adopt standards and build confidence in these materials for mass production applications.”

What’s next?

closer to the high-volume space. “Our partners with high-volume production needs, like adidas and Riddell, can now manufacture parts more quickly and efficiently. For adidas, we produced more than 100,000 pairs of high-performance footwear in 2018 and are scaling production into the millions in the next two years.”

When Benight was asked if 3D printing technology is feasible as a larger-scale production process, she said, “That is literally the question that leads off every symposium on this topic. Everyone in the photopolymer industry – material and equipment – is working toward it, but in order to run, you have to walk first.”

Continued chemistry development also plays a part. “Many of the recent advances have been in incorporating different base chemistries into resins, including hybrid chemistries, rather than solely relying on acrylate-based materials,” said Benight. “These lead to a wider range of material properties for many applications.”

Benight says the first step on that walk is the limited run production that already is occurring. “Limited run production is a step toward those higher volumes that will eventually substantiate the anticipated market growth,” she explained. “If those are successful, customers will see the gains in additive vs. traditional manufacturing, and once those proofs of concepts are seen, there will be wider adoption of photopolymer technology for 3D printing.”

It seems clear that additive manufacturing is creating growth opportunities for companies invested in UV-curable chemistries and equipment. Overcoming the limitations in materials development and testing standards seems achievable with collaboration among equipment manufacturers, materials developers and potential end users. 

Noack concurs, saying, “3D printer manufacturers are developing new technologies that are making dramatic improvements in throughput as well as the size of parts that can be printed. Also, we are seeing innovative systems capable of new functionality, like multi-material printing, that to date had not been possible. These process improvements – coupled with improved materials – will certainly help to enable production opportunities. Another part of the equation, too, is the end user’s readiness to plan in their product development to take advantage of these new technologies. A new way of thinking in designing for additive is necessary.” The Carbon spokesperson agreed that hardware and software providers need to work together to increase the feasibility of largescale production. The company has introduced a new printer to the market with a larger build area, which helps customers reduce print time and make parts more efficiently, bringing producers 22 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

References 1. Markets and Markets: 3D Printing Market by Offering (Printer, Material, Software, Service), Process (Binder Jetting, Direct Energy Deposition, Material Extrusion, Material Jetting, Powder Bed Fusion), Application, Vertical, Technology, and Geography - Global Forecast to 2024 2. Allied Market Demand: 3D Printing Market by Technology [Stereolithography (SLA), Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Electron Beam Melting (EBM), Digital Light Processing (DLP), and Others], Component (Hardware, Software, and Services), and End User (Automotive, Healthcare, Industrial, Consumer Electronics, Aerospace & Defense, and Others): Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2019 – 2025 3. IDTechEx, 3D Printing 2019-2029: Technology and Market Analysis 4. Deloitte Insights article, December 2018: 3D printing growth accelerates again +

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LED DISINFECTION By Theresa Thompson, Ph.D., Application Scientist, Phoseon Technology

Effectiveness of UV Light-Emitting Diodes for Inactivating Biomolecules and Microorganisms U

ltraviolet (UV) LED technology for curing is one of the market segments that has gained worldwide acceptance and continues to grow. But, there are many other industrial and life sciences applications throughout the UV spectrum that utilize UV LED technology. This article examines the effectiveness of UV LED for decontamination and disinfection applications. UVC is known as “germicidal UV” for its effectiveness in decontamination and disinfection. While particular wavelengths affect different bonds within biological molecules, both nucleotides and proteins can be modified by deep ultraviolet light. Thus, both microorganisms and biological material can be inactivated with the right dose. (See Table 1.) High-intensity UV LED technology offers unmatched levels of deep UV irradiance, which enables significant process improvements, including faster analysis and operations, and increased capabilities for decontamination and disinfection applications that require low wavelengths. UV LED technology enables complete inactivation of contaminants in minutes, as compared to traditional methods (Table 2). This article makes the case as to why UV LED technology deserves serious consideration by research labs and manufacturing facilities for inactivating biological molecules and microorganisms. It describes research findings related to the different levels of inactivation. Decontamination: Inactivation of Biomolecules High-irradiance UV LEDs successfully inactivate biological molecules such as DNA and RNA. Hard targets, such as RNase A, can be completely inactivated with the right wavelength and intensity of UV. Complete inactivation of laboratory contaminants can be accomplished by UV LED in under five minutes and at a fraction of the cost of traditional methods. Disinfection: Inactivation of Microorganisms Ultraviolet light-emitting diode technology provides a new method for inactivating microorganisms. UVC, or germicidal UV, is effective for its disinfection properties, the perfect choice for sensitive surfaces of a laboratory or equipment. (See Table 3.) UV LED inactivation of microorganisms assures that surfaces are disinfected without chemicals and time-consuming rinsing. Effectiveness of UV LED for Inactivating Ribonucleases (RNases) In a lab environment, the single most important aspect of RNA protocols is isolating and maintaining fulllength, un-degraded RNA for analysis or use as a reaction substrate. Hindering this process is the presence of RNase. Whether preparing total RNA libraries for Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) or looking at individual RNAs (iCLIP), degradation by RNases is a recurring laboratory handling issue requiring diverse cleaning methods. RNases – specifically RNase A – are difficult to irreversibly inactivate in the absence of long-term heat treatment or harsh chemicals. Such methods may be incompatible with common laboratory materials or

24 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 +

two wavelengths interact synergistically to inactivate RNase A (Figure 1). We conclude that high-intensity UV LED irradiation represents a novel, fast and convenient irreversible inactivation method for RNases on surfaces. Effectiveness of UV LED for Inactivating Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile spore transmission from contaminated surfaces is a continuing problem for healthcare facilities. Clostridium difficile, also known as Clostridioides difficile and often referred to as C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. In a study from Phoseon, high-intensity UV LED was used to rapidly inactivate Clostridium difficile spores.

Table 1. Illustration of UV, visible and infrared spectrum

Table 2. High-irradiance UV LEDs can be used for decontamination, disinfection and sterilization

Table 3. UVC exposure inactivates various microorganisms

complicate subsequent biochemical reactions. Fast, complete and irreversible inactivation of RNase A with mercury arc lamp sources has been difficult to achieve due to low power output at targeted wavelengths and the need to filter harmful wavelengths that do not contribute to the inactivation. Reported here is the use of high-irradiance UV LED engines for enzyme inactivation. Results show that both irradiance (intensity) and radiant fluence (dose) contribute to rapid inactivation of the RNase A enzyme. UV at 275 nm is thought to act on RNase A via an effect on the aromatic amino acids proximal to disulfide bonds. The 365 nm wavelength is targeted to the lysine side chain with the intent to destabilize the RNase A reaction pocket. These +

High-intensity UV LED 275 nm alone and 275 nm + 365 nm combination, wavelengths targeted to protein disulfide functional groups, drive a greater than 5 log (5.79 log) colony forming units (CFU) reduction of Clostridium difficile spores on a surface in less than 30 seconds. This is consistent with results showing synergism between 275 nm and 365 nm high-intensity UV LED when irreversibly inactivating RNase A. Targeting protein stabilization and functional groups represents a new approach to spore inactivation. High-intensity UV LED technology effectively inactivated C. diff spores by 5.79 log10 in seconds. (See Figure 2.)

Effectiveness of UV LED for Inactivating Staphylococcus Aureus Staphylococcus aureus contamination of food processing and contact surfaces is a source of foodborne infection for consumers of meat and meat products. In this study, surfaces contaminated with high loads of Staphylococcus aureus were exposed to 265 nm UVC LED to assess the effects of multiple doses and irradiances. One-inch square stainless steel targets inoculated with S. aureus were exposed to a UVC LED (265 nm) array source at 1.3, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mW/cm2 (at the target) from a distance of 15 mm. Doses ranged from 26 mJ/cm2 through 150 mJ/cm2. page 26 ď ľ UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 25

LED DISINFECTION  page 25 Conclusion UV has been recognized for decades for its ability to inactivate biological molecules. However, complete inactivation of difficult targets, such as enzymes and spore-forming microorganisms, has been out of reach for traditional UV sources. By targeting specific molecular bonds, UV LED technology exhibits higher efficacy with lower total power consumption than broadband sources such as mercury. UV LED technology is enabling new methods and discoveries by research labs.

Figure 1. UV LED wavelengths effect on RNase A

A UV LED system has been developed that surpasses 5 W/cm² at 275nm, significantly higher than the levels reached previously by other LED systems, and surpassing many other technologies in the market by an order of magnitude. This milestone development enables users to utilize UV LED systems where they were prohibited in the past, bringing improved disinfection capability to various processes. LEDs are on the verge of reaching sterilization levels for difficult and clinically relevant pathogens. In addition to high-performance decontamination and disinfection systems, exciting research is on the way in other applications as well. Studies are underway to extend the breadth of data to reach higher levels of disinfection (with a goal to achieve sterility) and include more organisms – specifically viruses and mixed cultures. 

Phoseon Technology has pioneered the use of LED technology for Life Science and Industrial Curing applications, delivering innovative, highly engineered, patented LED solutions. The company is focused 100% on LED technology and provides worldwide support. For more information about Figure 2. UV LED wavelengths synergize to reduce Clostridium difficile Phoseon Technology products and services, please Surviving bacteria were plated and colony forming units contact Theresa Thompson at, assessed. Log reduction was calculated as the difference in the visit or call (503) 439-6446. log of geometric means between the unexposed control and the exposed test samples. Each test sample included four independent References 1. Rapid inactivation of RNase A by high irradiance UV LEDs; exposures at each condition. Irradiances of 1.3 and 1.5 mW/cm resulted in four- to five-log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus colony forming units on exposed targets. This corresponded to doses of between 20 and 52 mJ/cm2. Increasing the irradiance to 2, 2.5, and 3.0 mW/cm2 to deliver a dose of 150 mJ/cm2 resulted in a five-log reduction in all cases. 2

Short 265 nm UVC exposures of ≤60 seconds were sufficient to result in a four-log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of food products by 265 nm UVC LEDs represents a viable investigation path for decreasing foodborne Staphylococcus aureus infections in consumers.

26 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019




Thompson, T,; Eliason, G.; Pasquantonio, J. American Society of Cell Biology/European Molecular Biology Organization Scientific Sessions 2017 ASCB-EMBO-poster_Tabloid_v2.pdf Theresa L. Thompson and Jay Pasquantonio “High-intensity UV LED inactivation of Clostridium difficile spores.” Proc. SPIE 10863, Photonic Diagnosis and Treatment of Infections and Inflammatory Diseases II, 1086314 (7 March 2019); doi: 10.1117/12.2507993; Pasquantonio, J.; Eliason, G.;Thompson, T. “Reproducible Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus on a Surface Using UV LED.” International Association for Food Protection 2019, Louisville, KY Paper/21498 Breakthrough UV-C LED Performance Enables New Life Science Applications. +

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Roland DGA Introduces New VersaUV LEC2-300 Printer/Cutter Roland DGA Corporation, Irvine, California, a provider of wide-format inkjet printers, printer/cutters and other digital imaging devices, announced its redesigned VersaUV® LEC2-300 UV printer/cutter. With a new design, the streamlined 30-inch LEC2 includes features of Roland’s original LEC-300, plus improvements for increased versatility, more vibrant color and greater image detail – for less than half the price. The LEC2-300 was engineered to offer higher overall performance. In addition to printing, contour cutting, creasing and folding in one automated workflow, the LEC2 boasts a newly designed print head and new LED lamps. The LEC2 is built to handle labels and stickers, signs and displays, package prototyping, short-run package production and specialty graphics. For more information, visit or

AMS Spectral UV Offers New XFlex™ Connectors AMS Spectral UV, River Falls, Wisconsin, a Baldwin technology company and manufacturer of high-performance UV LED, H-UV and UV ARC lamp systems, now offers a new power-and-water connection design called XFlex™ which simplifies the process when installing a UV LED curing system onto a new or existing press. The flexible connectors make it easier to fit modules into tight spaces. The XFlex™ connector, available on XPi FLEX™ modules, is an easy-to-use, flexible “pivot-style” water and electrical connection design that improves upon former designs and was engineered for faster installations by OEMs, printers and converters. For more information, visit

Carbon® Introduces RPU 130 Resin Digital manufacturing company Carbon, Silicon Valley, California, introduced a new resin, RPU 130, to fill the need for a rigid and high-temperature additive manufacturing material suitable for rigorous applications. Carbon developed RPU 130 for superior impact resistance and dimensional stability at elevated temperatures. Well-suited to automotive, it also is relevant for 28 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

industrial and consumer product applications such as air ducts and brake caliper covers for vehicles, sunglasses, tool housings and device enclosures. RPU 130 was made with environmentally sustainable raw materials. Carbon partnered with DuPont Tate & Lyle Bio Products to use Susterra® propanediol, a 100% bio-based building block that delivers high performance. Carbon RPU 130 is available via Carbon’s resin store in the US, Canada and Europe. For more information, visit and www.

Innovations in Optics Offers Compact UV LED Light Engine for Flood Curing LED light source provider Innovations in Optics, Inc., Woburn, Massachusetts, offers the LumiBright™ UV LED Light Engine Model 2990B-100, designed for UV flood curing systems to cure large parts or many small parts simultaneously. The light engine can be used alone or placed in tiled arrays to provide large area coverage. The 2990B-100 is intended for use within OEM equipment or integrated into automated assembly systems for photocuring of light-curable adhesives, coatings, encapsulants, gaskets, maskants and potting compounds. Other applications include UV curing of photoresist and solder masks for printed circuit boards and inkjet curing of printed electronics. Three standard versions are available with UV LED wavelengths centered near 365 nm, 385 nm and 405 nm. Additional LED curing wavelengths are available upon request. For more information, visit

Phoseon Technology Launches FirePower™ FP401 and FireJet™ FJ645 LED technology manufacturer Phoseon Technology, Hillsboro, Oregon, has launched the FirePower™ FP401 LED curing solution for mid- and wide-web curing applications, with high power output to enable faster print speeds. The new FirePower FP401 delivers peak intensity +

of 24W/cm² and sizes ranging from 750 mm to 1500 mm. It integrates with the Flex Tower FT5380 series, providing a modular power and control system for web applications with easy installation for retrofit or new equipment. The company also has introduced the FireJet™ FJ645 UV LED self-contained, aircooled curing lamp for flexographic applications. With a 40 mm wide emitting window, the FJ645 provides longer UV exposure time and greater dose, improving through-cure and adhesion of difficult-to-cure materials. It is available in print widths up to 525 mm and includes advanced digital interface capabilities for tight process control. For more information, visit

Gigahertz-Optik Announces MSC15 Spectral Light-Color Meter Product Updates Gigahertz-Optik, Amesbury, Massachusetts, a manufacturer of innovative UV-VIS-NIR optical radiation measurement instrumentation, has announced updates to its MSC15 spectral light meter. Updates include internal memory for the local storage of up to 10 measurements, which can be managed directly by the MSC15 or by the supplied S-MSC15 software, and a menu for individually switching on and off the many possible display screens. This touchscreen customization no longer requires connection to a PC, thereby simplifying the configuration of the device for individual measurement tasks. Additionally, melanopic illuminance measurement capability has been added to the +

MSC15 based on CIE TN 003:2015. The “melanopic response” has become the basis for today’s evolving recommended practices in circadian-based lighting (human centric lighting). For more information, visit

Sun Chemical Launches SolarVerse UV Inks Sun Chemical, Parsippany, New Jersey, producer of printing inks, coatings and supplies, pigments, polymers, liquid compounds, solid compounds and application materials, is launching SolarVerse, a range of highly pigmented, low viscosity, multipurpose UV flexo base concentrates. The concentrates are easily dispensed through a standard UV flexo dispenser. By blending a SolarVerse base concentrate with a specific, optimized technology varnish, different finished ink profiles can be produced, ready for use on press in whatever color specified. SolarVerse bases are formulated with materials suitable for migration-compliant applications when mixed with the appropriate technology varnish, ideal for UV flexo food packaging and label applications. With the same SolarVerse base concentrates being used for each ink profile, color consistency also is maintained, regardless of the end print use. For more information, visit

page 30 

UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 29


LogoJET Releases New H2™ UV Curable Inks Inkjet printing equipment maker LogoJET, Lafayette, Louisiana, has announced the release of LogoJET H2™ branded ink. This new ink formulation opens up applications that were unattainable with prior ink technologies, and enhances performance in established applications. Some benefits of H2™ ink include its expanded color gamut and new levels of durability on all substrates, particularly golf balls, with advanced coatings that typically present ink adhesion issues. H2™ inks also provide increased flexibility, with a bend tolerance of more than 270°, making it suitable for many fabrics and other flexible applications. Combined with its enhanced durability on rigid substrates, there’s typically no need to change inks to accommodate different substrates. LogoJET H2™ inks are available for Epson and Ricoh print heads and are made in the US. For more information, visit

Print + Digital Don’t miss this chance to stay up-to-date on new technologies and learn about the latest developments in the industry.

Xaar’s Engineered Printing Solutions Offers BottleJET 2.0 Cylindrical Inkjet Printer Cambridge, UK-based Xaar, a manufacturer of customized and automated digital inkjet and pad printers, offers the Engineered Printing Solutions BottleJET 2.0 Cylindrical Inkjet, a multicolor, UV LED, highresolution 1200x900 dpi industrial inkjet printer designed specifically for decorating flat-walled The new BottleJET 2.0 Cylindrical or tapered cylindrical Inkjet Printer is designed bottles and cups at various specifically for decorating flatdiameters from 1.57 to 5.51 walled or tapered cylindrical inches and lengths up to bottles and cups. 8.66 inches. The BottleJET 2.0 has synchronized printing and curing operations, bottledetection and collision sensors, and also can be loaded with a jetted varnish or primer for better adhesion to glass and metal. For more information, visit

IST Metz Introduces New LED System and Flexo Printing Machines UV system manufacturer IST Metz, Nürtingen, Germany, has introduced its new LEDcure SCR LED system for retrofitting label printing presses. The LEDcure SCR meets the requirements of label production and easily can be integrated into existing printing presses. The system is available in lengths from 270 to 540 mm and can be adapted to all requirements of offset and flexo printing machines. IST Metz also has introduced an Excimer lamp which has a low penetration depth and can be used for matting varnishes, for example. Matting with Excimers produces surfaces with an extremely high scratch and abrasion resistance as well as a high chemical resistance. For more information, visit 

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COST COMPARISON By Michael Kelly, Allied PhotoChemical, Inc., and Michael Bonner, Saint Clair Systems

Comparison of Coating Coverage and Applied Cost for Solvent-Based, Water-Based and 100% Solids UV Coating I

n this article, we provide a guide comparing the cost of solvent-based and water-based coatings to UV coatings, using a real-life customer example.

The customer is running a return-on-investment analysis of coating costs for a pipe production operation. The goal is to reduce the part cost. Current operation:

Steel pipe 9.625" diameter 45' long 1.0 mils dry film thickness (DFT)

Application needs:

Enhanced corrosion resistance Reduced part cost

Current production:

2,760 pieces per day 938,400 pieces per year

Case example:

300,000 pieces ROI analysis

Wet film thickness and dry film thickness Figure 1 illustrates the difference between an 18% solids solvent-based coating, a 27% solids water-based coating and a 100% solids UV coating. For solvent-based coating at 18% solids, the user needs to spray 5.6 mils WFT to get 1.0 mils DFT. (Math: 0.18 x 5.6 mils WFT = 1.00 mils DFT) For water-based coating at 27% solids, the user needs to spray 3.7 mils WFT to get 1.0 mils DFT. (Math: 0.27 x 3.7 mils WFT = 1.00 mils DFT) For UV coating with 100% solids, the user needs to spray 1.0 mils WFT to get 1.0 mils DFT. (Math: 1.00 x 1.00 mils WFT = 1.00 mils DFT)* *Note: At 1.0 mil, shrinkage in the film is considered negligible. Coating costs per gallon The customer currently uses a solvent-based coating system and would like to transition to either water-based or UV coating. The basic question: Which coating costs less? Solvent-based coating 18% solids $11.71 per gallon Water-based coating 27% solids $15.13 per gallon UV coating 100% solids $51.24 per gallon + 32 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

In reality, cost can be viewed two ways. At first glance, at $11.71 per gallon, the solvent-based coating appears lower in price than the waterbased coating, at $15.13 per gallon, or the UV coating, at $51.24 per gallon. While that may be how coatings are purchased, it is certainly not how they are used. Coating in a gallon pail is not the same as coating on a product. Applied cost per square foot What the user is really concerned with is how much product can be covered for the lowest possible cost. So it’s important to consider how much product can be covered with each gallon.

Figure 1. WFT = wet film thickness vs. DFT = dry film thickness

First, there is 1,604 sq. ft. at 1 mil thick, in a US gallon of any liquid. Second, consider the percent solids of solvent, water and UV coatings. The solvent-based coating is 18% solids, so effective coverage can be calculated as: 18% x 1,604 square feet x 1.0 mils = 288.7 sq. ft. Cost per sq. ft. is: $11.71/288.7 sq. ft. = $0.0406/sq. ft. The water-based coating is 27% solids. Using the same approach, the effective coverage can be calculated as follows: 27% x 1,604 sq. ft. x 1.0 mils of film build = 433.1 sq. ft. The cost per sq. ft. is: $15.13/433.1 sq. ft. = $0.0349/sq. ft. The UV coating, however, is 100% solids. Therefore, its effective coverage will be: 100% x 1,604 sq. ft. x 1 mils = 1,604 sq. ft. The cost per sq. ft. is: $51.24/1,604 sq. ft. = $0.0319/sq. ft. Therefore, the lowest coverage cost is represented by the UV coating, despite the fact that it has the highest cost per gallon.

Table 1. Cost per linear foot calculations based on 9.625-inch diameter / 1.0 mils thick

So how does this information affect our customer’s application? Does the UV coating really enable the customer to produce at the lowest part cost? To review, the customer is coating steel pipe with the following physical characteristics: Pipe Outside Diameter: 9.625 inches Dry Film Thickness: 1.0 mils / 25.4 microns Length: 45-foot segments

Functional pipe coating model – Linear foot calculation The measurement centers around linear feet of pipe. Table 1 details the actual linear foot of pipe per gallon of coating for each of the three formulations. +

Figure 2. Graphic illustration of the number of 45-foot pipe sections treated per gallon of coating

page 34  UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 33

COST COMPARISON  page 33 Pieces of 45-foot pipe per gallon While coverage in feet per gallon is important, in particular, the customer needs to know how many 45-foot lengths can be produced per gallon of coating. Based on the calculations shown in Table 1, the results can be summarized as follows:  At 115 feet, the 18% solids solvent-based coating will yield 2.55 pieces of 45-foot pipe per gallon.  At 172 feet, the 27% solids water-based coating will yield 3.83 pieces of 45-foot pipe per gallon.  At 637 feet, the 100% solids UV coating will yield 14.17 pieces of 45-foot pipe per gallon.

As expected, the UV coating finishes many more lengths of pipe per gallon than the solvent-borne or water-borne coatings. The case continues to be strong for UV coating, so the next comparison is the production cost for each, with 1 gallon of UV coating as the baseline: Cost: $51.24.

Figure 2 provides a visual comparison of lengths produced per gallon of coating for each of the three formulations.

Figure 4 shows that 3.70 gallons of water-based coating would be required to achieve the same level of production as was achieved with UV coating. Cost: $55.98.

As shown in Figure 3, more than 14 lengths of 45-foot pipe can be coated with one gallon of UV coating.

Similarly, Figure 5 shows that achieving the same production level with solvent-based coating as seen with one gallon of UV coating would require 5.56 gallons of solvent-based coating. Cost: $65.07. Costing Summary In a side-by-side comparison (Figure 6), UV offers significant per-part production savings, which add up considerably over time when compared to water-based and solvent-based coating.

Figure 3. Number of UV-based gallons needed to coat 14.17 pieces of 45-foot pipe.

Figure 4. Number of water-based gallons needed to coat 14.17 pieces of 45-foot pipe

Process Savings UV coatings applications offer significant process savings as compared to solvent- and water-based applications (see Table 2). Additional benefits and savings can be factored into the overall ROI of the project, including the following: Faster: Ability to run faster speeds results in greater production output. Smaller: Equipment footprint for a typical UV line is less than 20 feet, compared to many more linear feet for solvent- and water-based systems. Quality: UV cure is instant, so no wet or damp coating arrives downstream to result in scrap or compromised product. Cleaner: No volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are created. As outlined above, UV offers significant savings, over time, when compared to both water-based and solvent-based coatings. A case example illustrated in Table 3 shows that UV 100% solids offers savings of more than $101,000 over page 36 

34 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 +

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COST COMPARISON  page 34 water-based coating, and UV 100% solids offers savings of more than $292,000 over solvent-based coating.

Figure 5. Number of solvent-based gallons needed to coat 14.17 pieces of 45-foot pipe.

Figure 6. Number of solvent-based gallons needed to coat 14.17 pieces of 45-foot pipe.

Table 2. UV coatings: Additional benefits and cost savings over solvent- and water-based coatings

36 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

Summary In short, solvent-based coatings have a low price per gallon, but users are paying for as much as 85% solvent. These high solvent concentrations raise other areas of concern, such as:  Flammability: Solvents are highly flammable.  Globally Harmonized System (GHS): Chemical classification and labeling could create issues with in-plant storage.  Transportation: Transporting hazardous materials requires special consideration and can be costly.  Air Quality Management District environmental compliance: Most solvents are considered VOCs and are highly regulated. This can result in excess costs for both handling the materials and eliminating the VOCs from the curing process (oven) exhaust. As the most widely publicized alternative, waterbased coatings have a low price per gallon, but users are paying for as much as 80% water. As with solvent-based coatings, these carry other areas of concern, such as:  Transportation costs: Customers are paying to transport water as part of the coating material.  Winter shipment: Shipping water-based coatings in extreme cold conditions can create significant issues.  Storage: As with shipping, water-based coatings cannot be stored at or below 32°F.  Flammability: Water-based coatings often use co-solvents (such as alcohols) to improve rheology properties and can be flammable. While perhaps a less publicized alternative due to their higher cost per gallon, with UV coatings users receive 100% of the functional product purchased – no water, solvent or fillers. In addition, they provide a host of other benefits to the operation:  Significantly improved corrosion protection (per ASTM B117 testing)  Excellent coating properties in terms of adhesion, non-shrinkage, abrasion resistance, etc. +

 Nonflammable  No winter shipment restrictions  Can be stored in unheated areas without fear of degradation  Reduced shipping costs (often >65%) due to lower volumes  Lower overall applied coating cost per linear foot In addition to above-mentioned advantages, the following characteristics of the UV process are important.

Table 3. Material dollars and percentage savings of UV coatings over solventand water-based coatings in a 300,000 pipe piece run case example

Smaller equipment footprint  Small physical footprint of equipment (see Images 1 and 2)  Significantly less space required: 21 feet versus 100 to 200 feet in length Faster  Speed: Production line can run faster and produce more pipe feet per minute due to instant cure of coating.  Coating is fully dry, eliminating sticky, uncured coating that can damage downstream equipment. Cleaner and Smarter  Environmentally friendly, with near zero VOC’s and no HAP’s  No co-solvents  No emission abatement systems required  Higher overall quality, with fewer manufacturing rejects

Image 1. Courtesy of Terrell Manufacturing Company –

Safer  Less chance for slippage when handling the pipe due to the reduced lubrication effect of the cured coating This analysis disproves the concept that UV coating is more expensive than conventional coating based solely on the per-gallon cost. When all factors are considered, it is clear that the UV coating option presents significant quality improvement and lower operating cost for the case study customer and is the best choice for that business. 

Image 2. Courtesy of Terrell Manufacturing Company – +

UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 37


UV LED Makes a Strong Showing at PRINTING United By Dianna Brodine, managing editor, UV+EB Technology


n October, nearly 30,000 visitors converged in Dallas, Texas, for PRINTING United. The event was hosted by Specialty Graphic Imaging Association (SGIA) and replaced the former SGIA Expo. With more than 700,000 square feet and 600+ exhibitors, the tradeshow built on SGIA Expo’s foundation of apparel, graphics/wideformat and industrial printing application technologies and added the commercial and package printing segments. Scattered throughout the event floor, three amphitheaters provided educational sessions for attendees without requiring that they leave the exhibit space. Additional classroom sessions – more than 100 in total – took place within educational tracks for the graphics, apparel, functional/industrial, in-plant, commercial and packaging communities. And, in a nod to the ways these various print markets interact, a 4,000-square-foot PRINTING United Experience Zone simulated home, retail, restaurant and outdoor environments by showcasing a wide variety of printed applications. “The vision for PRINTING United has been two years in the making,” said Mark J. Subers, president, PRINTING United. “Seeing it all come together was surreal. We worked hard to provide this industry across all segments with solutions and resources they need to make their businesses successful. For some, that means expanding their capabilities within their traditional industries; for others it’s collaborating and converging with adjacent segments and markets.”

UV LED featured across the show floor Jennifer Heathcote, a technical and commercial consulting advisor for UV curing, walked the show floor throughout the three-day event, speaking to exhibitors and attendees alike to get a feel for the technologies featured at PRINTING United. “From a UV curing perspective, the show was roughly divided into thirds – digital inkjet printing, screen printing and commercial printing,” said Heathcote. “On the digital inkjet 38 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

printing side, more than 90% of platforms exhibiting UV technology are using LED. There still are a few companies exclusively using arc lamps – HP being one of them – but in all the wide format and single-pass digital inkjet markets where UV technology is used for signs, banners and product decoration, the vast majority of new models being released feature UV LED curing.” Heathcote said the screen printing equipment industry still contains a heavy concentration of mercury arc lamps, but many vendors now are promoting LED as well. Graphic screen printing is an industry segment that is more slowly expanding into LED when compared to digital inkjet – although many bottle, container and personal care decorating OEMs – like OMSO – already are heavy into LED. “But, if you go into the privately held, smalland medium-sized screen printing shops, most of what they’re still using is mercury – because it’s installed technology that gets the job done,” she said. “While these printers will consider UV LED for new purchases, they aren’t rushing to upgrade existing equipment.” On the commercial side, the sheet offset market is seeing strong interest and a rapidly increasing adoption rate in LED. In fact, +

the sheetfed offset growth rate in UV LED when compared to mercury is the highest of the three categories, including both new machine purchases and retrofits. The sheetfed offset press exhibited by RMGT was demonstrating its use of UV LED curing technology to an attentive audience throughout the show. “I thought the event attendance was great,” Heathcote concluded. “There was a lot of traffic, and it was good to see that UV LED now is considered a viable curing technology across all three categories. All vendors had some LED offering, whether they were ink suppliers, coating suppliers or equipment suppliers. Everyone is promoting the technology – and now that UV LED curing has gained mainstream acceptance, focus is shifting to innovative application development which leverages all the benefits LED offers.”

Technology introductions at PRINTING United UV LED technology was featured on equipment across all segments at PRINTING United. Sakurai conducted demonstrations on its new Maestro MS-102AX cylinder screen press, equipped with a Natgraph UV dryer, stacker and new LQM 105 in-line hot foil stamper. The ScreenFoil LQM 105 can be combined with any size or vintage Sakurai screen press and allows dieless foil application for business cards, packaging, labels, automotive, appliance and plastic card applications, among others. David Rose, vice president of Sakurai USA, Inc., said “The use of the screen printing press to deposit the image in registration allows the heated foil to be applied in any size or image configuration. No dies - just print the image you want foiled, UV cure and then pass through the foil applicator.” The press received significant attention from those in the foil decorating arena. Mimaki introduced a new approach to 3D printing with the 3DUJ553 UV LED printing solution. According to the company, this is the world’s first 3D printer capable of achieving over 10 million colors while producing ultra-fine details. The Mimaki 3DUJ-553 printer is ideal for appearance modeling, visual prototyping, and photorealistic 3D output, using a full-color UV LED-cure method that enables unprecedented 3D modeling, yielding vibrant colors and high definition imaging. The system allows a large 20" x 20" x 12" (500 x 500 x 300mm) build area and allows users to mix clear and CMYK inks to achieve transparent color effects. Inkcups featured the award-winning Helix® Hi-Fi – “the world’s first and only photorealistic rotary printing machine,” according to the company’s website. The Helix® Hi-Fi allows users to digitally print finer skin-tones and smoother gradients that are less grainy and more high-resolution on glassware and plastic substrates. This machine offers one-off printing, meaning printing one to 200 easily can be done, eliminating the need for minimum order quantities.The Helix® Hi-Fi photorealistic rotary printing machine achieves its fine detail due to the addition of two colors. Completing the 6-color design, the Helix Hi-Fi can print +

in CMYKLcLmW+Varnish (Lc = Light cyan and Lm= Light magenta). Working together, these colors can produce vibrant colors. Currently, the Helix® Hi-Fi photorealistic rotary printing machine is able to utilize the DL UV LED ink series. For the high-volume, production-level superwide printing market, EFI™ introduced the VUTEk® 32h LED hybrid inkjet printer with UltraDrop™ technology. The versatile 3.2-meter hybrid flatbed/ roll-fed printer is suitable for materials up to 2 inches thick. The EFI LED technology meets the growing demand for higher quality with quicker turnaround times while extending the range of supported substrates, including lower cost and added-value specialty media. It also satisfies customer requests for a greener print solution with low VOCs, lower power consumption, and less waste and consumables. Resolutions of true 600 or 1000 dpi are available, utilizing eight colors plus white and multi-layer printing in a single pass. Optional clear ink can be utilized for spot, flood and unique applications, and the printer can produce up to 60 4 ftx8 ft boards per hour. MGI and Konica Minolta debuted the new JETvarnish 3D One digital embellishment press, an expansion of MGI’s JETvarnish 3D Series of print enhancement technologies. Aimed at market entry for commercial and in-plant printers, the system offers 2D/3D spot coating and dimensional textures, along with an onboard Image Editor and Job Cost Calculator software programs. The patented varnish formula allows both flat 2D Spot UV highlighting and sculptured 3D raised special effects on a wide range of substrate media (such as paper, synthetics and plastics). Sheet sizes range up to 14x29" and the 2D/3D effects reach 116 microns in a single pass. Curing is provided by LED lamps. “MGI and Konica Minolta had a truly inspirational experience at the inaugural PRINTING United exposition,” said Jack Noonan, MGI marketing manager. “The sense of energy and optimism at the show about the future growth of our industry was astonishing. The concept of a ‘big tent event’ to house all segments of the marketplace proved to be a visionary concept for all participants.”

PRINTING United 2020 Ford Bowers, president and CEO of SGIA, summarized the 2019 experience: “Many commented on how revitalizing it was to see such a full, and comprehensive, event. We were most thrilled about all the buying taking place on the show floor. This is the best testament that our industry, indeed, is thriving. We just needed the right model, and we are confident that we have produced that with PRINTING United.” PRINTING United 2020 will be held October 21 to 23 in Atlanta, Georgia. The event will expand into a total of one million square feet, and more than two-thirds of the 2020 show floor already has been reserved. For more information, visit 

UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 39

INDUSTRY Inkmaker Acquires Businesses of Rexson and Vale-Tech Inkmaker SRL, Turin, Italy, a manufacturer of integrated dispensing systems, announced the acquisition of Rexson Systems Limited and its subsidiary, ValeTech Limited. The two businesses will join the Italian-based global enterprise, an important step in achieving Inkmaker Worldwide’s global strategy of offering a total supply chain within its industries. Rexson Systems – an ISO 9001:2015 fully compliant global manufacturer of color dispensing systems – includes Rexson software designed in house and products developed by the brand’s highly experienced 3D design and modeling-package designers. Vale-Tech, acquired by Rexson in August 2016, principally supplies dispensing equipment in the offset, paste and UV liquid and narrow web sectors. The ValeTech range of systems complements the liquid ink, paint and chemical systems in which Inkmaker Worldwide is already an established leader. For more information, visit

Per Smithers: Functional and Industrial Print Market to Reach $136.8 Billion in 2024 Functional and industrial print is presenting exciting new market opportunities even as traditional print segments decline, according to the latest research from Smithers, a multinational provider of testing, consulting, information and compliance services, headquartered in Akron, Ohio. Its new market report, The Future of Functional and Industrial Printing to 2024, values functional and industrial print at $97.7 billion in 2019. This has risen at 11.9% year-on-year since 2014. Future strong growth of 7.0% per year is forecast to push this total to $136.8 billion in 2024 as the market begins to mature. This exclusive study provides market data and insights into functional and industrial printing, segmented by print process, end-use application and geographic regional/national market. For more information, visit

Brand Print Americas 2020 Officially Launches in Chicago The official lead-in to Brand Print Americas 2020 was announced during PRINT 19. This event – a collaboration between Tarsus Group, the organizer of Labelexpo Americas, and the Association for PRINT Technologies – will be held next year at the 40 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

Donald E. Stephens Convention Center in Rosemont, Illinois September 15 through 17. Co-located with the 2020 edition of Labelexpo Americas, Brand Print Americas will bring together the commercial print and the label converter communities for an opportunity to explore business-expanding solutions. Brand Print Americas is focused on the growth areas of print and how printers themselves are growing their businesses. Exhibitors will include manufacturers of technology that exists to facilitate putting ink on paper and materials that have not yet been printed on. For more information, visit

Michelman Associates Participate in Commitment to Community Day Michelman, a global developer and manufacturer of environmentally friendly advanced materials for industry, held its 8th annual Commitment to Community Day on September 6, 2019. The company’s associates volunteered at a variety of charitable and nonprofit organizations around the globe. In the US, over 200 associates volunteered for organizations throughout the Cincinnati region. Associates from the company’s Belgium locations spent their day serving 15 different organizations. Michelman’s team in Japan explored environmental issues at the Japan Environmental Action Network (JEAN). The Singapore team volunteered at Yishun Community Hospital. Associates from Michelman China prepared 12,123 books for electronic borrowing for the Wenxin School library. And in Mumbai, India, after a rain/flood delay, the team served the Subhedar Ramji Ambedkar Vidyalaya School in Dahisar. For more information, visit

Glycidyl Methacrylate Market Predicted to Exceed $250 Million by 2025 Per a new research report by Global Market Insights, Inc., a global market research and management consulting company, the global glycidyl methacrylate market is set to grow from its current market value of more than $135 million to more than $250 billion by 2025. Significant economic growth and rising polymer demand from the manufacturing sector should stimulate market growth. Growing demand for polymer coating from the booming automotive industry should further drive glycidyl methacrylate market growth. Global <97% purity market surpassed $40 million in 2018 due to growing demand for electrical equipment, such as transformers and switchgears. Global glycidyl methacrylate >=97% market from adhesive applications should surpass $35.5 million by 2025 due to growing demand as a welding substitute from the automotive industry. For more information, visit www.

Automotive Paints and Coatings Market to Reach $27.5 Billion by 2025 Global Market Insights, Inc., a global market research and management consulting company, reports rapid proliferation of the global automotive industry has been driving the automotive paints and coatings market size. Additionally, a rising trend of vehicle customizations also supports the industry growth. The page 42  +

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INDUSTRY  page 40 application of paints and coatings not only improves the vehicle aesthetics but also protects the exterior from corrosion-causing elements. The rising cases of accidents and crashes will propel repair and restoration services, providing further significant traction for the market outlook. According to a research report by Global Market Insights, automotive paints and coatings market size will exceed $27.5 billion by 2025. For more information, visit

program, will be able to gain exposure to real-world experience through internships and other programs. The Siegwerk Lab will help with that by providing students the ability to build innovative package design through ink technology, enhance their capabilities to explore visual appearance and functionality of packaging in terms of inks and coatings, and guide their research in energycurable technologies and other ink technologies. For more information, visit

BASF’s Colors & Effects® Opens Laboratory in Germany International chemical company BASF’s global brand Colors & Effects® has opened a new research laboratory in Besigheim, Germany, to support development of the company’s inorganic color pigments as well as the Paliocrom® effect pigments. Prior to this laboratory opening, the research activities that will be bundled in Besigheim in the future had mainly taken place in Ludwigshafen. Fine chemicals company DIC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, recently entered into a definitive agreement to acquire BASF Colors & Effects (BCE). A transition team will be put in place to ensure a smooth transition for customers and employees by the expected closing date in the fourth quarter of 2020. For more information, visit or www.colors-effects.

Siegwerk Announces Grand Opening of Ink Lab at Clemson University’s Sonoco Institute German-based ink manufacturer Siegwerk held a ribbon-cutting and grand opening ceremony to celebrate the new Siegwerk Ink Lab at Clemson, South Carolina-based Clemson University’s Sonoco Institute of Packaging Design and Graphics in September. Faculty, students and industry leaders were present to get the first look at the redesigned lab. The approximately 350 students currently enrolled in Clemson’s Graphic Communications

The packaging concept consists of a paper banderole, a printed coffee capsule, the corresponding praline packages and an espresso cup. IST Metz has developed a total of three different coffee packages and personas – the Adventurer, the Cosmopolitan and the Fair Trade Pendant.

IST Metz Wins Red Dot Award for Good Design UV specialist and system manufacturer IST Metz, Nürtingen, Germany, won the Red Dot for the Packaging Design category in the Red Dot Award: Brands & Communication Design 2019 with its “X-Press-U” packaging concept. Based on the high design quality and creative accomplishment of the concept, the jurors awarded the Red Dot to IST Metz out of a field of 8,697 international entries. IST Metz accepted its honor at the awards ceremony in Berlin on November 1, 2019. The “X-Press-U” concept combines UV printing and finishing techniques with culinary delights. It features a selection of coffee capsules paired with matching pralines, individual personas and a printed paper sleeve. A visual representation of the symbiotic relationship between coffee and praline, the personas offer high recognition potential. For more information, visit

Excelitas Launches New Website

From left to right: Himanshu Rana, Student; Robert Congdon, Assistant Director of the Sonoco Institute; Jarred Carter, BU Head of Flexible Packaging, Siegwerk; Chip Tonkin, Sonoco Institute Director and Chair of Graphic Communications; and Kailey Arnold, student.

42 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

Excelitas Technologies Corp., a Waltham, Massachusettsbased global technology corporation offering off-the-shelf and customized photonic solutions, has launched a new corporate website. The website highlights Excelitas’ range of product and technology offerings, expert custom engineering and manufacturing capabilities, and extensive markets and applications expertise. The redesigned site encompasses the company’s solutions in electronics and power, lighting and illumination, optics and optomechanics, and sensing and detection technologies. It features all of Excelitas’ brands, including page 44  +

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INDUSTRY  page 42 Qioptiq, OmniCure®, Axsun Technologies, X-Cite® and REO precision optical solutions. The website includes Excelitas’ commercial, defense and aerospace photonics products, brands and technologies. It features a careers section with current open opportunities, a geographic dealer/distributor locator tool, an archive of press releases and knowledge base articles, and listings of upcoming industry events. For more information, visit

SONGWON International-Americas Sets Up Distribution Network for Coatings Market Specialty chemical provider SONGWON InternationalAmericas, Inc., headquartered in Ulsan, South Korea, has signed an exclusive agreement with a new distribution network in the

United States, which includes Trans Western Chemicals (west coast), Chem-Materials (midwest/southeast) and Callahan Chemical Company (northeast). Now fully operational, the network supplies Songwon’s line of UV absorbers, HALS, photoinitiators and antioxidants for the coatings, inks and related markets in the various US regions. The network will cater to SONGWON’s expansion in the US and enhance its supply and technical services. Specialty chemicals raw material supplier Trans Western Chemicals is headquartered in Fullerton, California. Chem-Materials, a chemical raw materials supplier, is headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio. Chemical distributor Callahan Chemical Company is based in Palmyra, New Jersey. For more information, visit,, and

FACES New Leadership at FPE: Alexander Baumgartner Elected Chairman Alexander Baumgartner, CEO of Constantia Flexibles, was unanimously elected chairman of Flexible Packaging Europe (FPE). In his acceptance speech Baumgartner reaffirmed FPE’s objective to be a single authoritative voice for the industry, which is dedicated to food safety, the avoidance of food waste and sustainability as a priority. Baumgartner takes over from Gérard Blatrix of Amcor, who served two terms. For more information, visit

Simon Roberts Heads Senior Management Team at Integration Technology Integration Technology Ltd., an Oxfordshire, UK-based UV curing solution provider and part of the IST METZ GROUP, has welcomed new Managing Director Simon Roberts to the senior management team. Roberts, who has been with the business since May, was formally appointed to the board in August and has joined the team to take on day-to-day operational responsibility of managing Integration Technology. Roberts is a highly experienced business leader, formerly managing director of Antonov Automotive Ltd., head of business development and strategy for Tata Motors UK, and head of product group and business development for Ricardo UK Ltd. For more information, visit

SONGWON Saddened by Unexpected Death of CEO Maurizio Butti The Board of Directors of SONGWON Industrial Group, a specialty chemical manufacturer headquartered in Ulsan, South 44 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

Korea, announced with deep sadness the unexpected death of the company’s CEO, Maurizio Butti on September 7, 2019. Butti has served as chief executive officer and executive board member of SONGWON Industrial Group, since March 2016. In the interim, Jongho Park will serve as acting CEO while the company works on succession planning. For more information, visit

Michelman Names Jason Wise Company’s New CFO Developer and manufacturer of advanced materials for industry Michelman, Cincinnati, Ohio, announced the appointment of Jason Wise as chief financial officer. Wise previously served as the company’s VP of finance since 2016. Michelman’s board of directors approved his appointment to CFO at its August 2019 board meeting. Before joining Michelman in 2012 as corporate controller, Wise held senior level managerial and auditing positions at companies including Baker Concrete Construction, Sun Chemical, Deloitte and Arthur Anderson. For more information, visit

DSM Appoints Shruti Singhal as President of DSM Engineering Plastics Royal DSM, a global company in nutrition, health and sustainable living, announced that Shruti Singhal was appointed President DSM Engineering Plastics effective October 1, 2019. Singhal, a US national, joined DSM in July 2018 as managing director Global Powder, Can and Coil and CMO at DSM Resins and Functional Materials. Previously, Singhal served as senior vice president and president EMEA of General Cable. He has held positions with Henkel, Cognis, Rohm & Haas, The Dow Chemical Company, Ashland and Solenis. Singhal succeeds Roeland Polet and will report to Dimitri de Vreeze, member of the DSM managing board. For more information, visit  +

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DENTAL COMPOSITES By S. Palagummi, T. Hong and M.Y.M. Chiang, all of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and Z. Wang, Wuhan (China) University

Resin Viscosity Determines Validity of Exposure Reciprocity Law in ResinBased Dental Composites I

n restorative dentistry, the replacement of quartz tungsten halogen lamps with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for photocuring dental composites has been a trend due to their narrow bandwidth of operation that closely overlaps with the absorption profile of the photoinitiator, lower heat generation and better power efficiency. These advancements, along with the ever-increasing demand from dentists for reducing the exposure time (i.e., reducing chairside time), has led to high irradiance (radiant flux per unit area) LED curing units (e.g., > 2 W/cm2)1. The justification of using high irradiance and short exposure time springs from the Bunsen-Roscoe reciprocity law2 in photochemistry, termed as the exposure reciprocity law (ERL). The ERL states that, for a given radiant exposure (defined as the total radiant energy received per unit area = irradiance Ă&#x2014; exposure time), the photopolymerization (degree of conversion from monomer to polymer, [DC]) of the dental resin/composite does not change with any combination of irradiance and exposure time. However, studies in the literature have debated rather inconclusively about the validity of the ERL in dentistry3-15. The results of these studies depended on the combination of the photocuring conditions (irradiances and radiant exposures) and the materials (model dental resins/composites and commercial composites) used. The objective of this work is to clarify the validity debate and provide guidance on the applicability of the ERL as it pertains to resin-based dental composites. Although a few studies showed that ERL for dental materials was valid 14, 15, most studies showed the ERL was invalid. These studies can be divided broadly into two categories. First, ERL has been demonstrated not to be valid, since a higher DC was obtained using a higher irradiance in comparison to lower irradiances5,13,16. For example, Wydra et al.13 showed that using a high irradiance (0.024 W/cm2) UV cure on a dimethacrylate resin mixture resulted in a higher DC when compared to using a low irradiance (0.003 W/ cm2). Leprince et al.5 showed the same trend when a dimethacrylate resin and composite were cured with Lucirin-TPO as the initiator. Conversely, in the second category, a large number of studies have indicated ERL not to be

46 | UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Issue 4, 2019 +

(,7Â&#x160;89%URDGEDQG0HDVXUHPHQW valid, as a lower DC was obtained using a higher irradiance in comparison to lower irradiances 3-12. For example, Hadis et al.10 showed that DC achieved using a high irradiance (3 W/cm2) was significantly lower than that using a lower irradiance (0.4 W/cm2) for a range of commercial dental composites. Similar trends were seen by Feng et al.3,4 when they examined the validity of ERL on a range of multifunctional acrylate resins, methacrylate resins and commercial composites. This study will primarily address the debate on the ERL validity in this category since there is abundant literature on the subject and, subsequently, provide discussion regarding the first category. In addition to exploring the validity of ERL, some studies also discussed the effect of irradiance, at a constant radiant exposure, on other key polymerization properties. These properties involve, but are not limited to, polymerization stress (PS) due to shrinkage and the temperature change (TC) due to the reaction exotherm and absorbance associated with the photocuring process. For example, it has been discussed that photocuring with high irradiance may increase PS and effectively decrease the bond strength to the tooth17-19. Under a constant radiant exposure, increase in irradiance will increase the rate of PS, however, it is speculative as to whether this will lead to a higher PS13,20-24. The exothermic temperature increases because of increasing irradiance, which, along with the temperature rise due to absorbance from the irradiance, can potentially lead to pulpal and dental tissue damage. Only a few studies on the validity of ERL16,25 have addressed the effect of TC due to the high irradiance used. As these properties are clinically relevant, in the current study they will also be measured and discussed in conjunction with the validity of ERL for dental composites. A systematic study by varying the composition of model dental composites and the photocuring conditions has been carried out in this work to address the validity of ERL with respect to DC. A NIST-developed standard reference instrument (NIST SRI 6005)26,27, coupled with near-infrared spectroscopy â&#x20AC;&#x201C; which simultaneously measures DC, PS and TC in real time during the photocuring process â&#x20AC;&#x201C; was used in this study. Model dental resins blended of Bis-GMA (bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate)/ TEGDMA (triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) or UDMA (urethane dimethacrylate)/TEGDMA at different ratios were used. The resin blends were mixed with a fixed mass of visible-light initiator system (camphorquinone and ethyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate) and with various content of a silanized micro-sized glass fillers.


â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘


Graph View from EIT UV PowerView Software III showing focused and non â&#x20AC;&#x201C;focused lamps


Data and Graph Display modes shown


The results from the study indicate that, for every composite, there exists a minimum radiant exposure, depending primarily on its resin viscosity (not depending on the filler content), above which the exposure reciprocity law is valid. An analytical model is established based on the resin viscosity to predict this minimum. Above this minimum, for the composites with high resin viscosity, higher irradiance induces higher PS, while for the composites with low resin viscosity, higher irradiance page 48 ď ľ +


Phone: 703-478-0700 Email: Web: 309 Kellyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ford Plaza SE Leesburg, VA 20175

UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Issue 4, 2019 | 47

DENTAL COMPOSITES  page 47 induces lower PS. The TC, as expected, increases with irradiance for composites tested. Using this minimum concept, the study clarifies discrepancies on the validity of exposure reciprocity law for dental materials reported in the literature. More importantly, the analytical model can enable one to determine the exposure time required to sufficiently cure a given dental composite with the available curing light unit (irradiance). Finally, when employing a high irradiance and the corresponding exposure time, based on the law, care should be taken such that the associated temperature change in the underlying tissue is clinically acceptable.  Acknowledgements Financial support was provided through an Interagency Agreement between the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [ADE12017-0000]. The donation of the monomers from Esstech, Inc., and the filler particles from Dentsply Sirona are greatly appreciated. References 1. Jandt, K.D.; Mills, R.W. A brief history of LED photopolymerization. Dent Mater 2013;29:605-617. 2. Bunsen R.; Roscoe, H. Photochemical studies. Ann Phys 1923;108193. 3. Feng L.; Suh, B.I. Exposure Reciprocity Law in Photopolymerization of Multi-Functional Acrylates and Methacrylates. Macromol Chem Phys 2007;208:295-306. 4. Feng, L.; Carvalho, R.; Suh, B.I. Insufficient cure under the condition of high irradiance and short irradiation time. Dent Mater 2009;25:283-289. 5. Leprince, J.G.; Hadis, M.; Shortall, A.C.; Ferracane, J.L.; Devaux, J.; Leloup, G.; Palin, W.M. Photoinitiator type and applicability of exposure reciprocity law in filled and unfilled photoactive resins. Dent Mater 2011;27:157-164. 6. Musanje, L.; Darvell, B.W. Polymerization of resin composite restorative materials: exposure reciprocity. Dent Mater 2003;19:531541. 7. Peutzfeldt, A.; Lussi, A.; Flury, S. Effect of High-Irradiance LightCuring on Micromechanical Properties of Resin Cements. BioMed Res Int 2016;2016. 8. Dewaele, M.; Asmussen, E.; Peutzfeldt, A.; Munksgaard, E.C.; Benetti, A.R.; Finné, G.; Leloup, G.; Devaux, J. Influence of curing protocol on selected properties of light-curing polymers: Degree of conversion, volume contraction, elastic modulus, and glass transition temperature. Dent Mater 2009;25:1576-1584. 9. Peutzfeldt, A.; Asmussen, E. Resin Composite Properties and Energy Density of Light Cure. J Dent Res. 2005;84:659-662. 10. Hadis, M.; Leprince, J.G.; Shortall, A.C.; Devaux, J.; Leloup, G.; Palin, W.M. High irradiance curing and anomalies of exposure reciprocity law in resin-based materials. J Dent 2011;39:549-557. 11. Selig, D.; Haenel, T.; Hausnerová, B.; Moeginger, B.; Labrie, D.; Sullivan, B.; Price, R.B.T. Examining exposure reciprocity in a resin based composite using high irradiance levels and real-time degree of conversion values. Dent Mater 2015;31:583-593. 12. Halvorson, R.H.; Erickson, R.L.; Davidson, C.L. Energy dependent polymerization of resin-based composite. Dent Mater 2002;18:463469.

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13. Wydra, J.; Cramer, N.; Stansbury, J.; Bowman, C. The reciprocity law concerning light dose–relationships applied to BisGMA/ TEGDMA photopolymers: Theoretical analysis and experimental characterization. Dent Mater 2014;30:605-612. 14. Miyazaki, M.; Oshida, Y.; Moore, B.K.; Onose, H. Effect of light exposure on fracture toughness and flexural strength of light-cured composites. Dent Mater 1996;12:328-332. 15. AlShaafi, M.M. Effects of delivering the same radiant exposures at 730, 1450, and 2920 mW/cm2 to two resin-based composites. Eur J Dent 2017;11:22-28. 16. Randolph, L.D.; Palin, W.M.; Watts, D.C.; Genet, M.; Devaux, J.; Leloup, G.; Leprince, J.G. The effect of ultra-fast photopolymerisation of experimental composites on shrinkage stress, network formation and pulpal temperature rise. Dent Mater 2014;30:1280-1289. 17. Price, R.B.; Shortall, A.C.; Palin, W.M. Contemporary Issues in Light Curing. Oper Dent 2014;39:4-14. 18. Feng, L.; Suh, B.I. A mechanism on why slower polymerization of a dental composite produces lower contraction stress. J Biomed Mater Res B 2006;78B:63-69. 19. Unterbrink, G.L.; Muessner, R. Influence of light intensity on two restorative systems. J Dent 1995;23:183-189. 20. Asmussen, E.; Peutzfeldt, A. Polymerization contraction of resin composite vs. energy and power density of light-cure. Eur J Oral Sci 2005;113:417-421. 21. Braga, R.R.; Ferracane, J.L. Contraction Stress Related to Degree of Conversion and Reaction Kinetics. J Dent Res 2002;81:114-118. 22. Sakaguchi, R.L.; Wiltbank, B.D.; Murchison, C.F. Contraction force rate of polymer composites is linearly correlated with irradiance. Dent Mater 2004;20:402-407. 23. Bang, H-; Lim, B-; Yoon, T-; Lee, Y-; Kim, C-. Effect of plasma arc curing on polymerization shrinkage of orthodontic adhesive resins. J Oral Rehabil 2004;31:803-810. 24. Emami, N.; Söderholm, K.M.; Berglund, L.A. Effect of light power density variations on bulk curing properties of dental composites. J Dent 2003;31:189-196. 25. Armellin, E.; Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Pasquantonio, G.; Cerroni, L. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites. BioMed Res Int 2016;2016:10. 26. Chiang, M.Y.M.; Giuseppetti, A.A.M.; Qian, J.; Dunkers, J.P.; Antonucci, J.M.; Schumacher, G.E.; Gibson, S. Analyses of a Cantilever-Beam Based Instrument for Evaluating the Development of Polymerization Stresses. Dent Mater 2011;27:899-905. 27. Wang, Z,.; Landis, F.A.; Giuseppetti, A.A.M.; Lin-Gibson, S.; Chiang, M.Y.M. Simultaneous measurement of polymerization stress and curing kinetics for photo-polymerized composites with high filler contents. Dent Mater 2014;30:1316-1324.

Sri Vikram Palagummi, T. Hong and M.Y.M. Chiang serve in the Biosystems and Biomaterials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. Zhengzhi Wang, of the Department of Engineering Mechanics, School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China, is a research associate in NIST’s Biomaterials Group. For more information and contact, visit programs-projects/biomaterials-oral-health. +


Tech Accelerator, Emerging Technology Awards Now Accepting Applications A

t RadTech’s 2020 UV+EB Technology Conference, set to take place March 8-11, 2020, at Disney Coronado Springs in Orlando, Florida, more than 100 presentations on the latest innovations in UV LEDs, 3D printing materials, printing and packaging, coatings, formulations and more will be featured. The event also offers academic educational opportunities in undergrad- and graduate-level polymer chemistry and a course on Design of Experiments. The expo and conference, the world’s largest UV/EB industry event, also will include more than 80 exhibitors demonstrating the application of this exciting technology. Two unique opportunities exist for innovators in the UV, UV LED or electron beam curing space: the Emerging Technology Awards and the RadLaunch Tech Accelerator.

Emerging Technology Awards RadTech is accepting nominations for the biennial UV+EB Emerging Technology awards. Self-nominations are welcome. Over the past several years, RadTech has recognized a wide range of applications from 3D printing/additive manufacturing to floor coatings to novel electronics to unique uses for automotive and aerospace. A committee selects award winners among end users of the technology, based on new, promising and/or novel use of UV and/ or electron beam. End users are defined as any company that uses UV and/or EB to make a finished product or otherwise utilizes UV or EB as a novel way for disinfection. RadTech now is partnering with the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA) and welcomes entries for disinfection and public health applications. Past award winners include: Dentsply, Eastern Michigan University, Lumii Displays, HRL Labs, the Johnson County School District, Gillette-Proctor and Gamble, Total Door, Toyota, Ford Motor Company, General Motors, 3M, 50 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

the US Air Force, Breit Technologies, Columbia Forest Products and Mohawk Industries.

RadLaunch Tech Accelerator Start-ups, academics, students, and innovators are invited to apply for the RadLaunch Tech Accelerator, now in its 3rd year. Cash awards, travel grants and outreach opportunities will be made available for novel work with ultraviolet and electron beam processes (UV/EB). New innovations in materials, optics, design and data are propelling UV/EB in additive manufacturing/3D printing, inkjet, food packaging, automotive, medical and electronics applications. RadTech created RadLaunch in recognition of the growing importance of the technology with the digitization of manufacturing and requirements for safe, clean, rapid processes. RadTech has expanded the competition to include the use of UV for disinfection, partnering with the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA) Americas Conference. IUVA focuses on public health and the environment, with a special focus on water, food and beverage and health care. Evidence of an early prototype, minimal viable product or proof of concept is expected. Evidence of an early prototype, minimal viable product or proof of concept is expected. Applicants are asked to develop a video and/or article presenting the concept and prototype work, highlighting the importance of UV/EB technology. RadLaunch 2020 finalists will win cash and trip assistance to speak and present at RadTech 2020 and IUVA Americas 2020. Emerging Technology Award winners are asked to attend as well in order to appear at the event’s award dinner. For more information and to apply, visit and https://  +



7ˑˎ3˘ˠˎ˛˘ˏ(ˡˌˎ˕˕ˎ˗ˌˎ Miltec UV · · Stevensville, MD-USA ·

March 8-11, 2020

Disney Coronado Springs Orlando, Florida C Co-Located with R RadTech 2020 2020 AMERICAS CONFERENCE

With more than 100 presentations, the latest innovations in UV LEDs, 3D printing and additive manufacturing materials, printing and packaging, industrial coatings, formulations and more will be featured. The event also offers short courses in polymer chemistry, Design of Experiments, and a special UV LED Bootcamp. RadTech Conference attendees will also have access to exhibitors and presentations at the co-located, 2020 IUVA Americas Conference with topics on UV disinfection for water, food & beverage, healthcare, and UV-C LED development.

SCHEDULE-AT-A-GLANCE SUNDAY, MARCH 8 Registration Express Check-In .................. 8:00 AM – 7:00 PM UV+EB University/Short Courses ............12:00 PM – 9:00 PM MONDAY, MARCH 9 Registration Express Check-In .................. 7:00 AM – 6:00 PM Conference Sessions ................................ 8:00 AM – 5:30 PM Exhibition ................................................. 10:00 AM – 6:30 PM Opening Reception ....................................5:30 PM – 6:30 PM TUESDAY, MARCH 10 Registration Express Check-In .................. 7:00 AM – 6:00 PM Conference Sessions ................................ 8:00 AM – 5:30 PM Exhibition ................................................. 10:00 AM – 6:30 PM President’s Reception................................5:30 PM – 6:30 PM Emerging Awards Dinner ...........................6:30 PM – 8:30 PM WEDNESDAY, MARCH 11 Registration Express Check-In ................ 7:00 AM – 12:00 PM Conference Sessions ................................ 8:00 AM – 3:15 PM Exhibition ................................................. 10:00 AM – 2:00 PM EXHIBITORS As of November 12, 2019

Aal Chem Alberdingk Boley Allied Photochemical allnex Alpha-Purify American Ultraviolet Aquisense Technologies Austin Chemical Company, Inc. BCH BYK USA Changzhou Tronly New Electronic Materials Co.,Ltd Chitec Technology Co, Ltd. Colorado Photopolymer Solutions

Daicel ChemTech, Inc. Double Bond Chemical Industries USA, Inc. Dowa International Corporation DSM Dymax EIT Instrument Markets Evonik Corporation Excelitas Technologies Hamamatsu Corporation Hampford Research Heraeus Noblelight America Honle UV America Hybrid Plastics Inc. IGM Resins USA, Inc. Innovations in Optics Integration Technology Limited

52 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019

HOTEL Disney Coronado Springs Resort 1000 Buena Vista Drive Orlando, Florida 32830 $209 per night if you book prior to February 17, 2020. To make your hotel reservation, please book your room online through the sites linked on our website by February 17, 2020 or call (407) 939-4686 (Reservations) Visit for reservation information, discount Disney park tickets, directions, parking and shuttle service.

REGISTER AT International Light Technologies Jarchem Industries, Inc. Jelight Company, Inc. Keyland Polymer Material Sciences Kowa American Corporation Kromachem Ltd. Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc. Luminus, Inc. Miltec UV Miwon North America Nagase America National Academy of Inventors Nedap NewSun Poly Tech Co., Ltd. Nippon Shokubai Co., Ltd. PCI Magazine

PCT Ebeam and Integration, LLC Phoseon Technology PL Industries division of Esstech RAHN USA Corporation Red Spot Paint & Varnish Co. Rodman Media San Esters Corporation Sartomer Americas Showa Denko America Siltech Corporation The Waterborne Symposium Ushio America UV+EB Technology Violumas +

MONDAY, MARCH 9, 2020 TRACK A Applications I 8:00 AM – 10:00 AM

TRACK B Micropatterning & Low Gloss 8:00 AM – 10:00 AM

TRACK C Introduction to the Basics of UV/EB Curing (Open to All Attendees) 9:00 AM – 9:30 AM

Break + Exhibits 10:00 AM – 10:15 AM TRACK A Applications II 10:15 AM – 12:15 PM

TRACK B Additives 10:15 AM – 12:15 PM

TRACK C New Product Debut I (Open to All Attendees) 10:15 AM – 10:45 PM

Lunch + Exhibits 12:15 PM – 1:15 PM TRACK A Printing & Packaging 1:15 PM – 3:15 PM

TRACK B Materials I 1:15 PM – 3:15 PM

TRACK C Characterization 1:15 PM – 3:15 PM

Break + Exhibits 3:15 PM – 3:30 PM TRACK A UV LED 3:30 PM – 5:30 PM

TRACK B Materials II 3:30 PM – 5:30 PM

TRACK C Formulation 3:30 PM – 5:30 PM

TUESDAY, MARCH 10, 2020 TRACK A Industry 4.0 8:00 AM – 10:00 AM

TRACK B Measurement 8:00 AM – 10:00 AM

TRACK C Introduction to the Basics of UV/EB Curing (Open to All Attendees) 9:00 AM – 9:30 AM

Break + Exhibits 10:00 AM – 10:15 AM TRACK A 3D Printing 10:15 AM – 12:15 PM

TRACK B Exterior Coatings 10:15 AM – 12:15 PM

TRACK C New Product Debut II (Open to All Attendees) 10:15 AM – 10:45 PM

Lunch + Exhibits 12:15 PM – 1:15 PM TRACK A Formulating for 3D Printing 1:15 PM – 3:15 PM

TRACK B Wood & Building Products 1:15 PM – 3:15 PM

TRACK C RadLaunch Presentations 1:15 PM – 3:15 PM

Break + Exhibits 3:15 PM – 3:30 PM TRACK A Advanced Materials for 3D Printing 3:30 PM – 5:30 PM

TRACK B Adhesion to Difficult Substrates 3:30 PM – 5:30 PM

TRACK C Hybrid / Dual-Cure 3:30 PM – 5:30 PM

WEDNESDAY, MARCH 11, 2020 TRACK A Electronics 8:00 AM – 10:00 AM

TRACK B Equipment 8:00 AM – 10:00 AM

TRACK C Sustainability & Regulatory 8:00 AM – 10:00 AM

Break + Exhibits 10:00 AM – 10:15 AM TRACK A Photoinitiators 10:15 AM – 12:15 PM

TRACK B Adhesives 10:15 AM – 12:15 PM

TRACK C New Product Debut III (Open to All Attendees) 10:15 AM – 10:45 PM

Lunch + Exhibits 12:15 PM – 1:15 PM TRACK A Global Market Overview 1:15 PM – 3:15 PM

TRACK B Kinetics 1:15 PM – 3:15 PM

Visit for conference schedule and program details. +

UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 53

REGULATORY NEWS Updated TSCA Inventory with Unique ID Information

Doreen M. Monteleone, Ph.D., director of sustainability & EHS initiatives, RadTech International North America doreen@

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has posted the first public Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory to include unique identifier (UID) information. The UID is a numerical identifier assigned to a chemical substance when EPA approves a confidential business information (CBI) claim for specific chemical identity. The agency is required to  assign a unique identifier to that chemical identity;  apply this unique identifier to other information or submissions concerning the same substance; and  ensure that any nonconfidential information received by the agency identifies the chemical substance using the unique identifier, while the specific chemical identity of the chemical substance is protected from disclosure. This is the first time the public version of the TSCA Inventory includes a field containing a unique identifier for those chemical substances with approved confidentiality claims for specific chemical identity and a field containing the 10-year expiration date from the assertion of such approved claims. The unique identifiers provide the public with a way to connect the specific chemical identity previously listed on the confidential portion of the TSCA Inventory with other relevant information in the agency’s holdings.

OSHA Reporting Requirements Employers that haven’t already done so should submit the 2018 Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses (Form 300A) to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The report is required from  establishments with 250 or more employees that are required to keep OSHA injury and illness records, and  establishments with 20 to 249 employees in certain industries. Learn more at

Proposal Levels Playing Field for Sources Reducing HAPs The US EPA has proposed a rule to implement the clear language of the Clean Air Act that allows a “major source” of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) to reclassify as an “area source,” after acting to limit emissions to below the levels that define major sources. This proposal would relieve reclassified facilities from regulatory requirements intended for much larger emitters and encourage other sources to pursue innovations in pollution reduction technologies, engineering and work practices. This action would implement EPA’s reading of the Clean Air Act described in a January 2018 guidance memo withdrawing the “once in, always in” policy. Established in 1995, the “once in, always in” policy determined that any facility subject to major source standards always would remain subject to those standards – even if production processes changed or controls were implemented that eliminated or permanently reduced that facility’s potential to emit hazardous air pollutants. States, state organizations and industries frequently noted that the “once in, always in” policy discouraged voluntary pollution abatement and prevention efforts as well as technological innovations that would reduce hazardous air pollution emissions. The EPA’s January 2018 memo found the agency had no authority under the Clean Air Act to limit when a facility may be determined to be an area source and that it may be reclassified as an area source after its potential to emit hazardous air pollutants falls below the levels that define a major source.

OSHA Training Institute OSHA Training Institute Education Centers offer training courses designed for workers, employers and managers on safety and health hazard recognition and abatement at convenient locations nationwide. Find courses at

Support Sustainability: Become an SGP Community Member Today’s consumers demand sustainable products that are delivered as part of a sustainable supply chain. Learn about how the Sustainable Green Printing Partnership (SGP) can help businesses invest in a sustainable future and achieve their goals. SGP’s Resources Page has information about its certification program and archived webinars at Learn more about getting involved at http://sgppartnership. org/contact-us/.

54 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 +

News from the West Coast SCAQMD Sponsors RadLaunch

Rita Loof, director of regional environmental affairs, RadTech International North America

The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) partnered with RadTech in the RadLaunch program, which connects selected companies to UV/EB industry leaders through funding, guidance and speaking/exhibiting opportunities. The program fits within the mission of the SCAQMD’s Technology Advancement Office, established “to expedite the development, demonstration and commercialization of cleaner technologies and clean-burning fuels.” Technologies that can reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been identified as a high priority for the SCAQMD. The development of new technologies through the RadLaunch program can help the district achieve its clean air goals. The district has made a $5,000 commitment to the project.

Clean Air Awards Committee Includes RadTech RadTech has been chosen by the SCAQMD as a member of the Clean Air Awards Nomination Review Committee. The agency presents the awards to honor those who have made outstanding clean air contributions to the health of communities and the economy. In 2005, the RadTech Association received a Clean Air Award for “Excellence in Advancement of Air Pollution Technology.” When RadTech first applied for the award, there was no category that fit the association’s mission of advancing technologies that also achieve environmental benefits. In recognition of RadTech’s contribution to the region, the agency created the award – now called “Innovative Clean Air Technology.”

SCAQMD Considers Test Method for Paints South Coast Air Quality Management District is working with members of industry, academia and other regulatory agencies to address issues with laboratory volatile organic compound (VOC) test methods. Most regulations rely upon a gravimetric analysis, using either the US Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Method 24 or the SCAQMD Method 304. The agencies have recognized inherent uncertainties to these tests when the VOC content of the material being tested approaches zero. Most industry laboratories have switched to direct gas chromatography (GC) method: either ASTM D6886 or SCAQMD Method 313. RadTech has long opposed using GC methods on UV/EB/LED materials, citing lack of reproducibility and added cost. The “Scope and Application” section of Method 313 specifically states: “This method is not to be used for two-component coatings, Ultraviolet/Electron Beam (UV/EB)-cured coatings or other coatings which require specialized curing conditions.” The current work appears to be focused on low-VOC architectural coatings, most commonly called architectural and industrial maintenance (AIM) coatings. The district formed a working group composed of industry representatives, regulators and California State University at San Luis Obispo to update Method 313 and address the definition of a VOC. A draft of SCAQMD Method 319 – Determination of Exclusion Status for Compounds in Film-Forming Coatings – can be found at default-source/planning/architectural-coatings/current-activities-support-documents/south-coast-aqmd-draftm3194178a6efc2b66f27bf6fff00004a91a9.pdf?sfvrsn=0.

Source Testing Group Formed In response to requests from stakeholders for updated default toxic emission factors, including streamlined staff review and approval of source tests used for emissions reporting; the South Coast Air Quality Management District board has directed its staff to assess and improve its source test review/approval process. Source tests are used in permit processing, demonstration of compliance and criteria pollutant, as well as air toxic emissions quantification. The agency receives more than 800 source tests per year. SCAQMD has seen an increase in source testing requirements in recent years. The staff attributes it mostly to:  requirements for compliance demonstrations  periodic testing requirements through permit conditions and  new technology and reformulations that require broader testing for toxic emissions. In consultation with the Equate Working Group – an advisory committee – the agency plans to set priorities for processing the existing and anticipated inventory of source tests. It is developing a process and schedule to address the expected increase in source test reviews due to a recent increase in fees for toxic materials. Reducing current inventory of source tests, as well as targets for completion of reviews, also will be reviewed. Electronic submissions, tracking/dashboard and routing system are some of the solutions under consideration. A report to the Stationary Source Committee is expected in December 2019.  +

UV+EB Technology • Issue 4, 2019 | 55

CALENDAR DECEMBER 5: Webinar: UV LED for Wide Web, Flex Packaging, For more information, visit

MARCH 2020 8-11: RadTech 2020, Disney Coronado Springs Resort, Orlando, Florida. For more information, visit https:// 15-18: TAGA Annual Technical Conference, Sheraton Oklahoma City Downtown Hotel, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. For more information, visit 29-April 2: SPE ANTEC 2020, Marriott Rivercenter, San Antonio, Texas. For more information, visit 31-April 2: American Coatings Show, Indiana Convention Center, Indianapolis, Indiana. For more information, visit

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ADVERTISING INDEX American Ultraviolet ................................................................. ...................................................................................... 43 BCH North America Inc............................................................ .................................................................................................... 17 Dymax ........................................................................................ 27 EIT Instrument Markets ............................................................ ............................................................................................................ 35, 47 Excelitas Technologies ............................................................. .........................................................................................Back Cover GEW........................................................................................... ............................................................................................................ 11 Heraeus ..................................................................................... .................................................................. 29 Honle UV America Inc. ............................................................. ........................................................................................................... 5 IGM Resins ................................................................................ ..............................................................Inside Back Cover IST America ............................................................................... ............................................................................. Inside Front Cover, 13 Miltec UV ................................................................................... ............................................................................................................ 51 Miwon Specialty Chemical Co., Ltd. ....................................... ......................................................................................................... 23 Nagase ...................................................................................... ................................................................................... 45 Phoseon Technology ................................................................ ........................................................................... 41 RadTech UV+EB 2020 ............................................................... .................................................................................................. 52 RAHN ......................................................................................... 1 Siltech Corporation .................................................................. ............................................................................................................ 19 Sun Chemical ............................................................................ ...................................................................... 31 Ushio .......................................................................................... ........................................................................................................ 49

56 | UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Issue 4, 2019 +


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