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2020 Quarter 3 Vol. 6, No. 3

Safety & Sustainability in Print & Packaging UV-Curable Inks and Coatings Applications Maintaining UV-Curing Equipment

ANNUAL BUYERS GUIDE EDITION

UV LED for Narrow Web

Official Publication of RadTech International North America


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With a worldwide installation base unequaled in the industry that spans multiple markets and applications, our UV experience is OLWHUDOO\VHFRQGWRQRQH:HRIIHUWKHะบQHVWLQSURYHQ89WHFKQRORgy including LED, Traditional and Hybrid combinations of the two. When considering the addition of UV curing to your operation, let ,67SURYLGHWKHXOWLPDWH89VROXWLRQIRU\RXUFRPSDQ\7KHUHDUH lots of choices out there, as true UV professionals we can help you make an educated and informed decision on the right UV path to pursue to meet and exceed the needs of your company. IST AMERICA U.S. OPERATIONS 121-123 Capista Drive Shorewood, IL 60404-8851 Tel. +1 815 733 5345 info@usa.ist-uv.com, www.ist-uv.com


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FEATURES 16

Food Packaging-Compliant Inks and Set-Off Migration

A migration study completed with a food packaging-compliant ink set with specific focus on set-off migration will be reviewed. By Julie Cross and Marina Santos, Domino Printing Services

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Shining a Light on UV-Cured Decoration Capabilities

Gold Leaf Print & Packaging created a guide to showcase the range of decorative capabilities it achieves with UV curing technologies. By Lara Copeland, UV+EB Technology

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Oxazolidinone-based reactive diluent structures offer technical benefits and formulating capabilities in UV inkjet printing and other inks and coatings applications. By Nikolas Kaprinidis, Simon Werrel, Elmar Kessenich and Giovanni D’Andola, BASF

ON THE COVER

Cover inspired by Gold Leaf Packaging’s guide, which showcases the range of decorative capabilities the company achieves with UV curing technologies. The cover was finished by Royle Printing Company, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, using a multi-step UV-curing process called Rough Reticulated Strike-Through. First, the 4-color process was laid down and a UV varnish was applied as a spot application in the areas that did not receive the gloss UV treatment (photograph and copy). The UV varnish was cured with UV lights, and then an LED curing system was used to cure the 4-color process inks. A flood gloss UV was applied over the entire cover, which “reacted” to the UV varnish and created the matte varnish – staying glossy in the areas that were knocked out to receive the gloss UV. The final step was a pass under another UV curing system to cure the coating. This process was performed in one pass on press.

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2 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

SGP and Sustainability Movement Remain Strong During Challenging Year

Companies continue to move forward with sustainability goals and certification, despite a year impacted by COVID-19. By Doreen Monteleone, RadTech International North America

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2020 Buyers Guide

46

27th Annual FSEA Gold Leaf Awards

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Novel Light Stabilizer Enhances the UV-Filtering Ability of Waterborne UV-Curable Coatings without Sacrifice on Curing Speed

The Foil & Specialty Effects Association recognized UV-curing decorative applications in print and packaging over nine categories during its most recent awards competition.

Results of a study are discussed in which a novel light stabilizer could block UV without compromising UV curing speed, making it suitable to enhance weatherability of clear waterborne UV-curable coatings. By Yung-Chi Yang, Pei-Yun Lee and Dr. Yao-Hsing Huang, Specialty Chemical Business Unit, Everlight Chemical Industrial Corp.

DEPARTMENTS

President’s Message ............................................ 4 Association News ................................................ 6 Industry ............................................................... 24 Technology Showcase ....................................... 44 Regulatory News ............................................... 62 Calendar ............................................................. 64 Advertising Index .............................................. 64

Reactive Diluents to Overcome Challenges in UV-Curable Inkjet Inks and Coatings Applications

56

Maintaining a Healthy UV Curing System

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Evaluating UV LED for Narrow Web Applications

Maintaining a healthy UV curing system is critical to obtain successful results and save money by reducing downtown caused by poorly maintained equipment. By Bob Malone and John Phillips, Miltec UV For narrow web converters evaluating UV LED technology, the paper focuses on specific aspects that are suited for labels and flexible packaging. By Mike Higgins, Phoseon Technology uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


TECHNOLOGY 2020 Quarter 3 Vol. 6, No. 3

CHAMPIONS THIS ISSUE

RadTech International North America’s Editorial Board facilitates the technical articles featured in UV+EB Technology. Smaller teams of Issue Champions review and approve articles and provide overall content management for each issue, as needed.

COLUMNS 8

Susan Bailey

UV Curing Technology Home Hone on the Range By Jim Raymont, EIT LLC

10

Syed T. Hasan

Editorial Board Co-Chair Business Development Manager, Digital & Specialty Printing Michelman, Inc.

Editorial Board Co-Chair Key Account Manager, Security Inks BASF Corporation

Darryl Boyd

Amelia Davenport

Innovations PepsiCo Explores Electron Beam Curing for Flexible Packaging By Liz Stevens, UV+EB Technology

12

Professor’s Corner Understanding Glass Transition Temperature: Part 3 By Byron K. Christmas, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus

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EB Curing Technology What Can You Do with Electron Beam? By Sage Schissel, PCT Ebeam and Integration, LLC

Research Chemist, Optical Sciences Division Naval Research Laboratory

Senior Scientist Colorado Photopolymer Solutions

UV+EB TECHNOLOGY EDITORIAL BOARD Susan Bailey, Michelman, Inc. Co-Chair/Editor-in-Chief Syed Hasan, BASF Corporation Co-Chair/Editor-in-Chief Darryl Boyd, US Naval Research Laboratory Byron Christmas, Professor of Chemistry, Retired Amelia Davenport, Colorado Photopolymer Solutions Rachel Davis, Azul 3D, Inc. Charlie He, Glidewell Laboratories Mike Higgins, Phoseon Technology Molly Hladik, Michelman, Inc.

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Mike J. Idacavage, Colorado Photopolymer Solutions JianCheng Liu, PPG Industries Sudhakar Madhusoodhanan, Applied Materials Gary Sigel, Armstrong Flooring Maria Muro-Small, Spectra Group Limited, Inc. Jacob Staples, Wausau Coated Products Chen Wang, National Renewable Energy Lab Huanyu Wei, Chase Corp. Sheng “Sunny” Ye, Facebook Reality Labs

Mike Higgins

East Regional Sales Manager Phoseon Technology

Gary Sigel

Senior Principle Scientist Armstrong Flooring

UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 3


PRESIDENT’S MESSAGE

A

s we now are into the second half of 2020, I pause and think how different this year is now versus the many goals and expectations we so excitedly had at the beginning of the year. It has been a wild ride, and there is still certainly more to come. Absolutely, I do not want to casually overlook all the challenges that have and still confront us, as if it now is simply business as usual. But, even during these challenging Eileen Weber times, I am encouraged by all of the positive President activities of RadTech that further expand our reach and relevance for the UV/EB community.

them access to experienced UV/EB developers as a way to gain knowledge and make connections.

First, with thanks to all of our nominators and nominees, RadTech is honored to present our first class of the National Academy of Inventors® (NAI)! (Please see page 6 for a list of our inductees.) NAI is a nonprofit organization comprising US and international universities, as well as governmental and nonprofit research institutes, with over 4,000 inventor/innovator members and Fellows spanning more than 250 institutions worldwide. We are honored that RadTech is the very first nonacademic institution to host an NAI chapter, and I hope you join me in congratulating members of our first class. You may note that we have uniquely segmented our NAI class to include an “emeritus” category to recognize individuals retired from our field; “academia,” as we continue to foster ties with colleges and universities; and “start-ups,” so that we can encourage and help nurture young people and companies innovating in our technology.

On another note, joining our circle is a new RadTech consultant, Mark Tibbetts. (See page 6.) Mark has been hired to work with RadTech to strengthen our sustainability efforts. He is a former executive director of the Tag and Label Manufacturers Institute (TLMI), and he brings our group a wealth of important knowledge of key customer activities. The emphasis on sustainability is extremely important as we work to provide our customers the necessary data on how we fit into their efforts in the fast-emerging circular economy. In addition, RadTech is excited to be working with our partners at RadTech Europe to ensure a coordinated, global sustainability effort.

We not only consider our efforts with NAI a way to honor our members and these innovations in UV/EB, but as an important component of RadLaunch, as we work to identify and offer assistance to new UV/EB ventures. We now have recognized more than 20 start-ups as RadLaunch winners, with our most recent class presented at RadTech 2020 in Orlando. When we ask our RadLaunch winners what we can do to help them, the No. 1 answer is simply to offer

RadTech also is embarking on an important effort to engage our young professional (YP) community. A July survey of RadTech members indicated our YPs are interested in getting more involved and building their UV/EB network. Our survey also asked if our more experienced community would be interested in helping YPs. Again, we received an overwhelming positive response. Interaction among members always has been one of our strongest benefits, leading to new projects and ideas in UV/EB advancement. By connecting our community and fostering efforts with our NAI class, RadLaunch winners, YPs and mentors, we are building an ever-stronger UV/EB circle.

While RadTech is on the move, we still are mindful of the upheaval caused by COVID-19. I have learned that we can find great strength in our families, our communities and our meaningful work. Our RadTech community is doing great things – and if you are interested in learning more or getting more involved, we hope you will contact us. Stay safe, and be kind, Eileen Weber President, RadTech Board of Directors Global Marketing Manager, PC&I Radcure, allnex USA, Inc.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Published by:

President Eileen Weber – allnex USA, Inc.

TECHNOLOGY An official publication of: RADTECH INTERNATIONAL NORTH AMERICA 6935 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 207 Chevy Chase, MD 20815 240-497-1242 radtech.org EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Gary M. Cohen gary@radtech.org SENIOR DIRECTOR Mickey Fortune

President-elect Jo Ann Arceneaux – allnex USA, Inc. Secretary Susan Bailey – Michelman Treasurer Paul Elias – Miwon North America Immediate Past-President Lisa Fine – Ink Systems, Inc. Board of Directors Evan Benbow – Wikoff Color Corporation David Biro – Sun Chemical Mike Bonner – Saint Clair Systems, Inc. Todd Fayne – Pepsico Michael Gould – Rahn USA Jeffrey Klang – Sartomer Diane Marret – Red Spot Paint & Varnish Jim Raymont – EIT LLC Chris Seubert – Ford Motor Company P.K. Swain – Heraeus Noblelight America Karl Swanson – PCT Ebeam and Integration Hui Yang – Procter and Gamble Sheng “Sunny” Ye – Facebook Reality Labs

4 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

2150 SW Westport Drive, Suite 101 Topeka, Kansas 66614 785-271-5801 petersonpublications.com Publisher Jeff Peterson

National Sales Director Janet Dunnichay janet@petersonpublications.com

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ASSOCIATION NEWS Videos Offer Training on Safe Use of UV/EB RadTech has released a six-module video series, “The Safe Use of UV/EB Materials.” The modules, available only to RadTech members, include Introduction/Health Effects/Toxicity; Personal Protective Equipment (PPE); Personal Hygiene Plus Housekeeping; SDSs and Other Safety Literature and Labels/First Aid; Storage and Disposal; and Photoinitiators/Additives and Equipment Safety/Precautions. To receive the access password, email Mickey Fortune at mickey@radtech.org. If not a member, visit https://radtech.org/join-radtech to join. RadTech Adds Sustainability Consultant Mark Tibbetts – an independent consultant with more than 15 years’ experience in association management, environmental policy and program development – now is consulting with RadTech on sustainability issues. Other clients include the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), for which he manages a mercury-added lamp recycling program. Tibbetts’ prior experience includes serving as president of the Tag and Label Manufacturers Institute (TLMI), leading the Thermostat Recycling Corporation and directing recycling initiatives for the NEMA. RadTech Announces First NAI Class RadTech recently announced its inaugural National Academy of Inventors Class. NAI is a nonprofit organization created to encourage invention and innovation. RadTech is the first nonacademic institution to host an NAI chapter, and its first inductees were selected by a nomination process, with nominations for the 2021 class of inductees now being accepted. For more information, visit www.radtech.org and https:// academyofinventors.org/. The RadTech NAI Chapter 2020 inductees are as follows: Ben Curatolo, president of Light Curable Coatings, holds 41 US patents, including seven in UV technology. He has developed and commercialized a UV-curable industrial floor coating based on biologically renewable materials that has been recognized with a 2018 R&D 100 Award and an additional 2018 R&D 100 Special Recognition Merit Award for Green Technology. Mike Dvorchak’s work with 100% UV cure oligomers and UV cure polyurethane dispersions coatings at Bayer Material Science (Covestro) and allnex helped result in more than 15 UV/EB US and international patents. Current projects are the development of a shark-skin UV cure coating that could reduce drag for aerospace vehicles, a methane-sensing project using UV cured coatings on 6 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

fiber optics for a University of Pittsburgh/Department of Energy Project and authoring a chapter for a UV cure textbook. Mike Idacavage helped develop and commercialize a UVcurable, water-processable newspaper printing plate that became an industry standard. He developed several novel products based on Eastman Chemical’s water-dispersible polymers and also was responsible for new products related to a by-product, Lignin, from a $1 billion development program at Eastman. Idacavage also has been recognized as an inventor on patents assigned to his customers. Jim Raymont has developed products to measure complex 3D shapes – both large and small – as part of the respected professionals at EIT Instruments. He has worked extensively with UV suppliers, customers and potential customers to help them better understand UV measurement and process control. Special inductees represent long-term contributions to the technology, academia and emerging innovations. Emeritus: Tony Berejka developed the radiation-processed corrosion protection for below-grade sections of the Alyeska Pipeline in 1975. Today, it remains the single largest radiation cure project ($124 million) and still is good condition after 45 years. Berejka has served as a consultant to the National Academies and its operating arm, the National Research Council, and to the International Atomic Energy Agency. Most recently, he reviewed a textbook on radiation chemistry and its industrial uses for a European group. Academic: Vijay Mannari is a distinguished professor, Polymers and Coatings Technology, and director, Coatings Research Institute, at Eastern Michigan University. His group has developed and customized coating materials derived from sustainable resources, enabling this technology to be Green + Green. Mannari’s contributions in UV-initiated crosslinking systems using photo-acid/photo-base have not only expanded cure chemistries (sol-gel, Michael-Addition) but also opened possibilities for high-performance and corrosion-resistant coatings. Start-up – New Innovations: Henry Bilinsky invented direct contactless microfabrication (DCM) as a scalable method of printing functional microstructures out of UV-curable materials. Shark-skin inspired “riblet” surfaces, printed with DCM, have demonstrated a 7% drag reduction, and Bilinsky’s company, MicroTau, has won contracts to develop this technology for the US Air Force. MicroTau is working to develop functional materials inspired by nature – including anti-fouling, antibacterial, optical and superhydrophobic properties – using UVcurable coatings by micro-patterning with DCM technology. 

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UV CURING TECHNOLOGY QUESTION & ANSWER

Home Hone on the Range B

ands were discussed in the last column and Ranges are discussed in this one. Together, these topics account for a large portion of EIT’s customer “education” efforts. Consistent UV measurements start with a radiometer with the correct band and range for your application.

To determine the correct instrument range (and also band), we ask questions, including: Type of UV source?  Broadband (arc, microwave, flood, spot, pulsed)  LED (array, flood, spot)

Are we talking the same language in the context of UV curing? Dynamic Exposure: continuously moving or changing. Your product/radiometer is exposed to varying irradiance levels when it passes under a UV source(s) or when a source(s) is passed over the product or the radiometer. At some point, the product or radiometer will “see” the “peak” UV intensity. Dynamic Range: This is the span between the minimum and maximum irradiance to which a radiometer will accurately respond. It can be expressed as a ratio or in measured units (Watts/ cm2). Making measurements above or below the levels for which the measurement device is designed provides misleading or useless information. If you have experienced a “pinned meter” when making measurements, you are familiar with the problem.

Has the source supplier specified the expected UV output in terms of W/cm2 or mW/cm2?  Clarify the values and what instrument was used?  Is the output a wide band (UVA + UVB +UVC) or narrow band (UVA) value?  If an LED, was the value right at the quartz window at 100% applied power?

Suggested Operating Range: Some manufacturers will state the instrument range as the lowest and highest levels at which the instrument will operate to specifications (UVA, 100 mW/cm2- 10 W/cm2).

If the source output is not available, we ask about the application.  Does the customer have target irradiance values from the coating supplier? Clarify the values and what UV bands and instrument were used.  If the customer only has energy density (mJ/cm2) targets, how long is the expected exposure when the speed changes? A process running with a single UV source at 40 fpm will give the same energy density as a process running at 80 fpm as long as the conditions and set-up of the two lamps are the same as those of the first lamp. The effective energy density (“dose rate”) can have a dramatic effect in manufacturing processes on product performance.  How far away from the source is the cure/measurement location?

Start Threshold: This is the point at which the instrument will turn on and start counting UV. This is a function of instrument design and also is impacted by calibration factors. Measurements made near the start threshold are prone to significant variations.

If two vehicles each consume five gallons of fuel, that information does not tell us about their travel range (fuel efficiency), horsepower, performance or cargo-carrying capacity. What if one vehicle is a motorcycle and the other a large truck?

How do you determine the best instrument range needed? Weighing an infant on a truck scale or using a weather thermometer to measure the internal temperature on your holiday turkey can produce poor and dangerous results. Radiometers, like other instruments, need to be sized and matched to intensity of the UV source. Instrument manufacturers work hard to balance the amount and type (UV, Visible, IR) of energy impinging on their optics.

The applied (input, consumed) electrical power of a UV system can be a source of confusion. The applied power for a light source can be expressed in multiple ways and, like the two vehicles, equal applied (consumed) power numbers do not mean equal output. We can sometimes work backward to get the correct instrument range.

High amounts of energy allow for a faster instrument response and, when used with the appropriate electronics, allow instruments to be used at fast production speeds. Higher amounts of energy can saturate or “peg” detectors. Optical components, if exposed to high amounts of UV energy over an extended time, can degrade (solarize) with the instrument performance impacted.

8 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

A 300-Watt source consumes 300 Watts of electrical power. This is the total applied electrical power – not the UV output in mW/cm2 or W/cm2. When the applied power is described, we need to know the size of the array or source and the expected measurement distance. The applied electrical power on sources with bulbs is described as the power consumed per bulb length. The amount of UV reaching the cure surface will vary based on how the UV source is set up, and the bulb type. A 600 Watts per Inch (240 Watts per Centimeter) uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


mercury microwave source can deliver 6+ Watts /cm2 (UVA) when run in focus. This same source, used to cure medical products in a large chamber, will deliver less than 0.100 W/cm2 of UVA. In a recent exchange, a customer asked for a way to measure a 300Watt source. We initially assumed this meant a single 300-Watt UV source. Digging a little deeper, we discovered the source was 12 germicidal lamps rated at 75 Watts each, with 25 Watts in the UVC area. The 300-Watt rating came from the UVC band (12 lamps X 25 Watts each). The target energy density (50 to 600 J/m²) and irradiance (0.5 to 50 W/m²) values were based on the measurement distances between 1 and 5 meters. Both values were expressed in m2, not cm2. After a clarification and a little bit of math, we determined this application was not a fit for our products. Curing applications ordinarily consider square centimeters (cm2) for the area (mW/cm2, W/cm2, J/cm2, mJ/cm2), however this is not the case for all applications. Double-checking is a good practice. Instrument Operating Ranges The level at which a radiometer is designed to turn on and begin measuring UV values is the Start Threshold. This threshold is a function of the instrument’s electronic design and optics. The actual start threshold can vary slightly from instrument to instrument, due to slight variations in optical stack and electronic components, as well as calibration factors. Eliminating any variation in these components would greatly increase the price of the instrument. The UVA band in EIT’s 10-Watt Power Puck II has a recommended operating range 100 mW/cm² to 10 W/cm². The start threshold for this band in this instrument is 4 to 12 mW/cm2. When the instrument is used within the suggested operating range, the minor differences in the optics, electronics and start threshold are virtually eliminated. Use your radiometer within the manufacturer’s suggested operating range, and use it with common sense. Question readings that do not make sense, and make sure you have the right instrument range. When you use an instrument scaled for high-power sources on a low-power source:  It measures below the suggested operating range of the instrument.  Some runs may show up as zero, or the readings will vary run to run or instrument to instrument because of differences in the start threshold.  You may see large variations in the Joules – especially on longer duration runs or exposures. When you measure a high-power source with an instrument that is optimized for low-power sources:  Be careful not to over-range or “peg” the irradiance values on the instrument. This can mislead you into thinking that your source is very stable.  Check with the manufacturer to see if the instrument warns of an over-range situation. On EIT’s Puck, an over-range is indicated by an *OR in the upper left corner of the display. uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org





Some instruments do not have the dynamic range to support high-power LEDs. Check your instrument to see if the display units need to be adjusted from mW-mJ/cm2 to W-J/cm2 If the EIT LEDCure display is set to read mW-mJ, the highest value the instrument can display in this mode is 9999.99 mW/cm2. Adjust the display to W-J units to display values over 10 W/cm2 If you have high-power source and are using an instrument optimized for lower-power sources, you also run the risk of prematurely damaging/solarizing the instrument optics with repeated exposures.

Dynamic range is the span between the minimum and maximum irradiance to which a radiometer will accurately respond. The area where the instrument will accurately respond is the suggested operating range. Be careful of instruments with large dynamic ranges that may dip down into values that are closer to the start threshold instead of a region that will give you the best repeatable performance. UV sources (including LEDs) can generate a good deal of heat. Understand the temperature limits on the radiometer and follow them to avoid damaging the instrument. Avoid IR and convection ovens, and let the instrument cool down between readings. The *OT display indicator, and/or audible warning indicate that the unit has reached an over-temperature situation. Summary Two important themes emerge when it comes to “honing” in on the correct radiometer range: 1. Match the radiometer to the irradiance values of the curing process to assure accurate, repeatable measurements as well as the best performance and longevity of the device. 2. Multiple light sources with vastly different intensities may require instruments with different ranges, since a one-size-fitsall solution can yield unreliable results. Parting Thoughts I used to work at a company that made tiny measuring devices. It was a small-scale operation.  “They’ve done studies, you know. Sixty percent of the time, it works every time.” – Brian Fantana from the movie “Anchorman”

Jim Raymont Director of Sales EIT LLC jraymont@eit.com UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 9


INNOVATIONS INDUSTRY ADVANCES WITH RADLAUNCH WINNERS

PepsiCo Explores Electron Beam Curing for Flexible Packaging By Liz Stevens, contributing writer, UV+EB Technology

R

adTech International North America celebrated the 2020 Emerging Technology Award winners at the RadTech 2020 Conference, March 8-11, in Orlando, Florida. RadTech’s Emerging Technology Committee selects award winners among end users of the technology, based on new, promising and/or novel use of ultraviolet and/or electron beam curing. RadTech has recognized applications ranging from 3D printing/additive manufacturing to floor coatings to novel electronics to unique uses for automotive and aerospace.

PepsiCo was one of the 2020 Emerging Technology Award winners. The company, which markets food and beverages in 200 countries and territories, is working to develop advanced materials and processes for packaged foods. PepsiCo is exploring electron beam curing as a fast, clean and energy-efficient way to process inks, coatings and adhesives in flexible packaging operations. To learn about PepsiCo’s use of electron beam (EB) curing, we spoke with Todd Fayne, principal engineer and associate director, Global Snacks R&D at PepsiCo. A University of Rhode Island graduate with a BS in Chemical Engineering, Fayne is co-chair of the new Sustainability Committee at RadTech. At PepsiCo, Fayne is exploring using EB overprint varnish and inks in surface print applications for flexible food packaging. With brands such as Lay’s, Ruffles, Cheetos, Tostitos, Fritos and Sun Chips under the PepsiCo umbrella, flexible packaging is a major component in the company’s food production operations. In describing why the company is investigating the use of EB curing for packaging, Fayne said that two factors make EB the top choice: food safety and package durability. For food safety – Fayne’s No. 1 requirement in choosing a curing method – Fayne explained why he favors EB over UV curing. 10 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

“Under perfect conditions,” said Fayne, “UV technology can produce safe packaging for direct food; however, using an electron to initiate cross-linking is more consistent and easier to control.” And, since EB, a higher energy process than UV, does not need the photoinitiator that UV requires, its use eliminates the potential for the photoinitiator to migrate into food. Additionally, with EB curing, said Fayne, “there also are much higher levels of cross-linking that ensure lower migration of acrylate monomers. These higher levels provide an extra safety factor for direct-food applications.” EB also delivers a durable and scratch-resistant surface, yielding packaging that can hold up throughout production and distribution. “When compared to water-based and even two-part PU systems,” said Fayne, “EB outperforms. Not all applications require EB performance, but many applications that are converting from reverse-print to surface-print have machinery and distribution systems that are very rough on the packaging materials.” To PepsiCo, it is very important that the company’s product packaging can go through the production process without a scratch and reach the store shelf looking just as attractive as it does when it is first taken off press. In addition to food safety and product appeal, Fayne considers EB superior to other curing options because its process controls are more easily managed, thus ensuring a consistent cure over the equipment’s lifespan of thousands of hours. The EB equipment in use at PepsiCo is programmed to deliver a specific dose, to not fall below a certain threshold. The machinery also automatically adjusts its power to compensate for speed changes on the press. If the machine senses a problem with the vacuum level, the oxygen concentration or the quality of the EB filament, the press can be set either to signal an alarm and flag any uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


material being produced as “out of spec” or to shut down entirely for highly critical faults. Most machine problems are precluded by preventive maintenance that is scheduled for two to three times per year. Filaments, foils (which separate the vacuum from the nitrogen blanket), pumps and seals are parts that are checked or automatically replaced during preventive maintenance, and the machine’s software constantly monitors for any degradation in performance during operation. In Fayne’s experience, the biggest challenge in developing EB curing has been to address the concern over the cost of this technology. Electron beam has been viewed as very expensive, and Fayne acknowledges that an EB unit does require a capital investment, but says that cost is less of an issue than it used to be. “The EB unit costs have gone down a lot over the past 10 years with improvements in the technology,” said Fayne. “Now that the ink systems on flexo have improved significantly, there is comparable performance to standard inks. I expect that to improve even further as the market grows with larger scale and more experience on press.” Fayne feels that the cost of the technology is easily justified. “What you get for your money,” he said, “is the unique capabilities of surface printing, and the ability to print opaque, cavitated films, which means less plastics per package and lower marginal film costs per package.” In discussing the capital outlay for EB curing on-press, Fayne noted that there are two main elements involved: an EB unit and a nitrogen source. An EB unit includes a chamber, vacuum pumps and an electrical transformer. The cost for a unit will vary, depending upon the unit’s size and its power rating; a price tag in the high hundreds of thousands is typical for a printing application. The nitrogen required can be delivered to the location – as LN2 – or can be produced on-site with a nitrogen-capture system. “Developed markets like the US and Canada will opt to have the LN2 delivered, as it’s lower maintenance,” Fayne said, “and the delivered costs are comparable to a nitrogen-capture system that becomes a whole other unit operation.” He explained that nitrogen-capture is used in remote or developing markets where specialty gas suppliers don’t operate or where the delivered costs are higher than the cost of making it on-site. While the cost for nitrogen equipment varies, it is generally about 10% of the EB unit’s price. Incorporating an EB unit is best done by including it in the design of a new installation. Retrofitting a press to accommodate an EB unit can be done, but it involves extra effort and cost to deal with utilities, physical space and the web path. Any press with an EB unit will require a state license and special safety training that will be supplied by the manufacturer/installer. uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

While PepsiCo has some commercial production online in Latin America and does have applications running that use EB to cure labels, the company’s use of EB for flexible packaging still is in the exploration and experimentation phase. Fayne describes the current landscape: “There just aren’t a lot of EB installations on flexo presses today,” he said. “The ones with EB tend to be smaller presses. As the technology is implemented by more printers, there will be more opportunities to take advantage of it.” Fayne said that the ideal future-state is to build presses that do not need gas-powered dryers and, instead, do it all with EB. “There still needs to be some development on ink chemistry,” he said, “and a lot more experience printing with EB before that can become a reality.” The work done with EB curing at PepsiCo has contributed substantially to the technology, specifically in the quality of inks. “The inks were very raw at the beginning,” said Fayne. “To meet the tight standards over millions of impressions, a lot of work was put in to improve the formulations, research pigments and assess every part of the press affecting ink (sticky back, anilox, plate design, etc.).” Fayne’s ink research has been expansive. “We have put in hundreds of hours,” he explained, “refining the process on a variety of press types, testing different pigments, tapes, blades, plates, etc.” The research has been conducted for 7-color and also for some spot colors. Developing and refining the ink posed a logistical challenge for Fayne. “Because it’s a brand new ink and not initially installed on a commercial press,” he said, “getting line time and running film that ultimately cannot be used in the market forced us to be very efficient in our experimental design.” Carving out sufficient chunks of testing time was especially crucial for this new ink since Fayne found that the ink runs best when it’s allowed to run for a long time. As Fayne refines and perfects inks, and fine-tunes the best designs for adding EB to new press configurations, he is optimistic about the impact of the technology. When EB curing for flexible packaging does become mainstream at PepsiCo, Fayne believes that the technology can be a factor in recycling and take its place in the circular economy. “EB can enable the use of less plastics,” he said, “and can help drive toward mono-material structures. It is a small piece to the puzzle, but critical as its durable surface printing capability allows for cost and material-reducing strategies that were historically unavailable.” 

UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 11


PROFESSOR’S CORNER BACK TO THE BASICS OF UV/EB

Understanding Glass Transition Temperature: Part 3 I

n the last two installments of Professor’s Corner, the concept of the glass transition temperature (Tg) was introduced and discussed.1, 2 That discussion continues as we look at the structural and compositional factors that influence the Tg – factors such as polymer backbone rigidity, morphology, cross-link density and pendant side-group length, shape and polarity. Since the Tg is the temperature at which the onset of long-range segmental motion occurs,3 any structural factor that inhibits the free movement of the polymer chain segments will increase the Tg. For this segmental motion to occur, the atoms along the polymer chain must be able to freely rotate around the bonds connecting them. Thus, a double or triple bond within the backbone will inhibit rotation, raising the Tg. Also, any inherently rigid components within the backbone, or any large or bulky pendant side-group that interacts with the polymer chain, will restrict this free rotation.

Morphology Recall that the Tg is a property of the amorphous domains only, within a polymer sample.2 Microcrystallites do not exhibit a Tg. However, separate amorphous domains within the sample connect through the microcrystallites if they are present. This causes the amorphous regions to have increased difficulty in achieving the “onset of segmental motion.” So, the higher the microcrystallinity, the higher the Tg of the amorphous domains is expected to be. Cross-link Density Essentially, all energy-cured formulations are cross-linked. This cross-linking can preclude alignment of polymer chains, creating more amorphous character. So, how does cross-linking affect the Tg of the amorphous domains? Higher cross-link density polymers have cross-links that are closer together than in lower cross-link density materials. The sites where the chains link up – the crosslinks – inhibit the free rotation of the chemical bonds near them. Also, the cross-links themselves may have structures that restrict free rotation. Therefore, the higher the cross-link density, the more inhibition to free rotation, meaning that a higher temperature is needed for the onset of segmental motion. At a sufficiently high cross-link density, segmental motion may be completely inhibited, precluding the effective measurement of the Tg. Recall from “Part 2” of this Tg discussion that a DMA scan of a cross-linked polymer will show higher storage moduli (“stiffness”) in the “rubbery plateau” at higher cross-link densities. This increase in “stiffness” indicates – along with the value of the peak of the Tan  curve – that the Tg of the polymer has increased. 12 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Pendant Side-Group

Tg (oC)a

CH3-

5

CH3CH2-

-24

CH3CH2CH2-

-40

CH3CH2CH2CH2-

-50

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2-

-31

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2Data from Stevens.4

-41

a

Table 1. Glass transition temperatures for n-alkyl pendant sidegroups Pendant Side-Group

Tg (oC)a

CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2-

-31

(CH3)2CHCH2CH2-

-14

(CH3)3CCH2a Data from Stevens.4

59

Table 2. Glass transition temperatures for isomers of 5-carbon alkyl side-group

Pendant Side-Group Effects The pendant side-groups along the backbone of the polymer result from the selection of monomers and oligomers. Consider polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), poly(1-butene) and longer poly(1-alkene)s. PE has no pendant side-groups. With PP, however, there are methyl groups (CH3-) hanging from the ~[C-C]n~ backbone. And likewise, there are ethyl side-groups (CH3CH2-) along the backbone of poly(1-butene), n-propyl sidegroups (CH3CH2CH-) along the backbone of poly(1-pentene), etc., etc. The Tg values of this homologous series of nonpolar hydrocarbon-based polymers provides insight into the effects of side-group length on the polymer Tg. The first effect expected is that the side-groups will prevent strong alignments among the macromolecules. Thus, in general, one might expect the Tg to decrease as the side-group chain length increases. And this is the case, generally speaking. Table 1 indicates that from PP, with its one-carbon side-group, to the four-carbon side-group of poly(1-hexene), this trend is evident. However, for poly(1-heptene), with its five-carbon side-group, this trend is reversed! This indicates that, at this particular length, the side-groups begin to interact more strongly, limiting free rotation. But then, at poly(1-decene), the trend reverses yet again! uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Tg (oC)a 5 81 85

Pendant Side-Group CH3ClHOa

Data from Stevens.4

Table 3. Glass transition temperatures for polymers with polar side-groups

Pendant Side-Group PMMA Poly(Ethyl Methacrylate) Poly(Propyl Methacrylate) PBMA

Tg (oC)a 100-120 65 35 20

Data from the Macrogalleria of the University of Southern MS.5

a

Table 4. Glass transition temperatures for poly(alkyl methacrylates)

Besides the length, the shape or bulkiness of the side-group also has a predictable effect on the Tg of the polymers. Side-groups, e.g. isopropyl, isobutyl and tertiary-butyl – and isomers of longer alkyl side-groups – do exhibit higher Tgs than their n-alkyl isomers. This indicates a stronger interaction among these bulkier side-groups, further restricting free rotation. Table 2 provides Tg data for the isomers of the n-pentyl side-groups. The previous examples, of course, are for nonpolar pendant side-groups. It is expected that polar side-groups will cause significantly stronger interactions among macromolecules and their side-groups, and this, in fact, is observed. Comparing the Tg of PP with that of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) illustrates this. While the pendant side-group for PP is nonpolar, the chlorine atom that is pendant to PVC is quite electronegative compared with the carbon atom to which it is bonded, producing a significant dipole-dipole attraction among macromolecules. Then, for PVOH, there is an even stronger macromolecular attractive force: hydrogen-bonding (H-bonding). Table 3 provides Tg data for these three polymers. In some cases, the pendant side-groups of polymers may exhibit both length and polar effects. Table 4 provides Tg data for a homologous series of methacrylate monomers from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA). As the pendant side-group increases in length, just as with the poly(1alkenes), the Tg decreases. But another factor is at work here. The poly(alkyl methacrylates) all contain a polar carboxyl group (COO-). This makes the side-groups polar. But as the nonpolar alkyl chain gets longer, the overall polarity of the pendant sidegroups decreases. So, the strength of the dipole-dipole attractions uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Essentially, all energy-cured formulations are crosslinked. This cross-linking can preclude alignment of polymer chains, creating more amorphous character. among the macromolecules decreases. This decreases the resistance to the onset of segmental motion within the polymer, decreasing the Tg. The decrease in both length and polarity, then, results in a lowering of the Tg for these methacrylate polymers. Summary The structure and composition of polymers are central factors in the resulting glass transition temperatures. While it may be difficult to determine, a priori, the Tg of a polymer from its unpolymerized components, the basic principles discussed here should allow one to make relative predictions among a related group of polymers.  Technical Questions? What are your technical questions about polymer science, photopolymerization or other topics concerning the chemistry and technology of UV/EB polymerization? Your question will help guide future topic decisions for this column. Please submit your questions via email to Dianna Brodine at dianna@ petersonpublications.com. References 1. Christmas, B. K., “Professor’s Corner,” UV+EB Technology, 6, No. 1, 1st Quarter, 2020, pp. 16-17. 2. Christmas, B. K., “Professor’s Corner,” UV+EB Technology, 6, No. 2, 2nd Quarter, 2020, pp. 12-13. 3. Stevens, Malcomb P., Polymer Chemistry: An Introduction, 3rd Edition, 1999, pg. 70. 4. ibid., Table 3.1, pg. 72. 5. https://pslc.ws/macrog/tg.htm, The Macrogalleria, School of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Southern Mississippi.

Byron K. Christmas, Ph.D. Professor of Chemistry, Emeritus University of Houston-Downtown b4christmas@gmail.com UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 13


EB CURING TECHNOLOGY QUESTION & ANSWER

What Can You Do with Electron Beam? F

ood packaging and flooring, shrink-wrap and sterilization, cold seal adhesives and so much more – electron beam (EB) is a versatile technology used in a multitude of applications with potential yet untapped.1-3 The key reason for this versatility is electron beam’s ability to break chemical bonds without the assistance of an initiator and under ambient conditions. While EB is not unique in this ability (other technologies include x-ray and gamma ray), it certainly is distinctive when compared to similar applications of thermal and UV technologies.

Broken chemical bonds produce free radicals (unpaired valence electrons), which drive the free-radical chemical reactions that make up the vast majority of current industrial EB uses.1 These reactions include cross-linking, chain scission, polymerization and grafting. The diversity of reactions an electron beam can initiate, simply by exposing a material to accelerated electrons, has propelled the technology into a variety of markets. When EB first was commercialized in the 1950s and ’60s, one of the original applications was cross-linking plastic film.3 Crosslinking is the chemical bonding of linear or branched polymer chains into a linked network (Figure 1A). Electron beam crosslinks plastics by breaking bonds within the polymer, which then can reform with neighboring chains to produce a net-like structure. No additional chemistry is needed for EB crosslinking – a benefit for both efficient processing and regulated applications, such as medical and direct food contact. By bonding the polymer chains together instead of relying on simple mechanical entanglement, properties such as heat resistance, solvent resistance, tensile strength and shrink are improved.1-3 Often, cross-linking allows for the downgauging of film without sacrificing performance. Pressure-sensitive adhesives can be cross-linked to control the level of tack. Applications of EB cross-linking include shrink films, vacuum skin packaging, cable insulation, tires and tapes.

are destroyed. Electron beam can be used to produce aseptic packaging and to sterilize food products, such as spices, without the use of added chemicals.4 Another example of EB chain scission is the recycling of PTFE, commonly known as Teflon®.3,5 EB is used to degrade PTFE – which can be a difficult material to work with – into a powder form that can be used in lubricants, inks and coatings.

Not all polymer materials will cross-link under the electron beam; some materials undergo a degradation process called chain scission.3 As with cross-linking, the beam breaks bonds within the polymer, but these bonds remain broken during chain scission (Figure 1B). In reality, cross-linking and scission always occur in concert, and which of the two reactions dominates is dependent on the polymer chemistry. EB sterilization is an example of chain scission: The DNA (a natural polymer) of microorganisms scissions with electron beam exposure, and the microorganisms

Both cross-linking and chain scission are reactions that start with a polymer. Electron beam also can be used to initiate the polymerization of prepolymers, such as monomers and oligomers, to create polymers (Figure 1C).1-3,6 As the polymer chains are formed during the reaction, generally cross-linking also occurs, resulting in robust coatings, inks and adhesives with low migration and low to no odor. As with other EB reactions, polymerization is a virtually instant reaction, taking place in milliseconds, without initiator or solvent. Because electrons are

14 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Figure 1. The basic EB reactions: (A) cross-linking, (B) chain scission, (C) polymerization and (D) grafting

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


not governed by optical clarity, it is the density of the material that affects penetration. EB can cure through opaque inks or metallized laminates. Electron beam inks, coatings and adhesives have been formulated for use on a variety of different substrates – including paper, paperboard, film, wood and metal – and with a variety of different print methods, both analog and digital. These attributes have facilitated the adoption of EB polymerization in exterior and interior architectural products, décor paper, paperboard and flexible food packaging, and silicone release materials, among other applications. When polymer and prepolymer are exposed to the beam together, the result is grafting (Figure 1D).1 The accelerated electrons break bonds within the polymer, creating reaction sites for the prepolymer to bond and polymerize. Grafting has been used extensively for surface modification. For example, a hydrophilic prepolymer can be grafted to a hydrophobic membrane or filter to make a hydrophilic surface without altering the bulk properties of the original membrane. In addition to the more established applications of electron beam technology, new uses are ever on the horizon. Whether it’s expanding the scope of an existing application – for instance, the inclusion of compostable and recyclable substrates in flexible packaging7 – or developing entirely new applications – e.g., batteries8, gas-to-liquid conversion9 and modification of inorganic materials10 – researchers and companies alike are realizing the vast potential of electron beam technology. This potential further is bolstered by EB’s ability to operate with relatively little energy consumption,11 solvent free and, in some applications, with no added chemicals. This ability makes electron beam inherently a green technology – an important attribute of any emerging application as societies strive for greater environmental consciousness.

6.

Fouassier, J.P., Rabek, J.F. (Eds.), 1993. Radiation curing in polymer science and technology. Vol. 3, 301-339. 7. Schissel, S.M., 2020. Attainable sustainable: using electron beam technology in compostable flexible packaging. UV+EB Tech. (2) 14-20. 8. Du, Z., Janke, C.J., Li, J., Wood, D.L, 2019. High-speed electron beam curing of thick electrode for high energy density Li-ion batteries. Green Enrgy. Envir. 4, 375-381. 9. Ponomarev, A.V., 2009. Electron beam radiolysis of gaseous alkanes under circulation conditions: gas-to-liquid transformation. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 78, 48-56. 10. Kim, B., Park, J.H., Lee, H.S., Kim, M.M., 2016. Fabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles by using a low energy electron accelerator with a flow reactor. J. Korean Phys. Soc. 69, 1163-1167. 11. Golden, R., 2012. What’s the score? A method for quantitative estimation of energy use and emission reductions for UV/EB curing. RadTech Report. (3), 44-48.

Sage Schissel, Ph.D. Applications Specialist PCT Ebeam and Integration LLC sage.schissel@pctebi.com

The core principle of electron beam technology is accelerated electrons break chemical bonds. What happens afterward (bonds remain broken, reform and/or initiate a reaction) is chemistry. How this principle is used to create new EB applications is up to your ingenuity!  References 1. Clough, R.L., 2001. High-energy radiation and polymers: a review of commercial processes and emerging applications. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 185, 8-33. 2. Mehnert, R., 1995. Electron beams in research and technology. Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B. 105, 348-358. 3. Makuuchi, K., Cheng, S., 2012. Radiation processing of polymer materials and its industrial applications. Wiley. 4. Gryczka, U., Kameya, H., Kimura, K., Todoriki, S., Migdal, W., Bulka, S., 2020. Efficacy of low energy electron beam on microbial decontamination of spices. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 170, 108662. 5. Burillo, G., Clough, R. L., Czvikovsky, T., Guven, O., Le Moel, A., Liu, W., Signh, A., Yang, J., Zaharescu, T., 2002. Polymer recycling: potential application of radiation technology. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 64, 41-51. uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

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UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 15


FOOD-COMPLIANT INKS By Julie Cross and Marina Santos, Domino Printing Sciences

Food Packaging-Compliant Inks and Set-Off Migration Abstract he challenges associated with migration when working with low-viscosity inkjet systems for food packaging applications are well understood in the industry. We will discuss the terms “low migration” and “food packaging-compliant” and then will review a migration study completed with a food packagingcompliant ink set with specific focus on set-off migration.

T

Introduction The requirement to prevent contamination of food via migration of printing inks through the packaging is well understood. Food packaging materials are covered by the Commission Regulation (European Commission) No 1935/2004, which provides a harmonized legal European Union framework and sets out the general principles of safety and inertness for all food contact materials (FCMs)1. Significant focus has been put on understanding this issue since the photoinitiator ITX (isopropyl thioxanthone) was found to have migrated from the UV-cured offset ink printed on the outside of the packaging into baby milk in September 20052. In this case, the transfer of the ITX most likely was as a result of set-off migration. Later, in December 2005, ITX also was found to have migrated through the packaging into olive oil and fruit juice3. Following these incidents, significant effort has been put into formulating inks to minimize or prevent migration. The term “low migration” was introduced to the printing industry more than 15 years ago to refer to inks that were suitable for indirect food packaging applications in that they had been formulated to meet the required migration limits. The term “low migration” only could be used as a relative term, as there is no absolute value associated with it. When the term is used, it usually refers to the fact that the inks are compliant with the Swiss Ordinance and, in some cases, the Nestlé Guidance Notes on Packaging Inks4. In 2018, the European Printing Ink Association (EuPIA) announced that it would no longer be using this term5 in light of advances that had been made in this field and were reflected in the 2016 revision of the EuPIA Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for printing inks used on food contact materials6. This change also has been reflected in the printing industry, and many ink suppliers now are referring to “food packagingcompliant” inks. Development of a food packaging-compliant ink for inkjet is considerably more difficult compared to analog inks, such as flexo, due to the viscosity requirements of the commercially available printheads. Inkjet printhead technology necessitates use of low-viscosity inks to achieve reliable jetting and, as a consequence, low molecular weight photoinitiators and 16 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Figure 1. Three main routes by which migration can occur from a printing ink into food uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


monomers are required to control the viscosity. The mobility of such molecules is far greater, which makes arresting migration a larger challenge. Types of migration Migration is the transfer of substances from the printing ink into the food. Figure 1 illustrates the different routes that migration can occur.

Figure 2. Food simulants used for migration testing

Direct migration can occur when the printed ink is in direct contact with the food material. Due to the chemical nature of the photoinitiators and monomers/polymers used in inkjet inks, they are not suitable for direct food contact and, as a result, direct migration is not discussed in this paper. Through migration Figure 3. Migration testing conditions available to represent storage conditions of food packaging occurs when components of the printing ink pass from the printed image on the outside through intended to be inside the packaging7,8. Figure 2 provides an the label and packaging and into the food inside. This can be explanation of the simulants typically used. reduced through careful selection of the label or packaging material, which can act as a barrier. This form of migration is of Once the appropriate simulant has been chosen, the testing significant concern for digitally printed labels using inkjet ink. conditions (temperature and exposure period) are selected, again to represent the environment and time under which the product Set-off migration can occur when prints are stored in a stack or will be stored9. Figure 3 gives an overview of the standard test tightly wound roll and when, under pressure, components from conditions that can be employed. the printed surface can migrate to the nonprinted, reverse side of wound labels or stacked sheets, and it is then that this surface Similar methodology can be used to analyze for through and setcomes into contact with food. This form of migration is of less off migration10 and for both, standard stainless-steel migration concern when self-adhesive label stock is used, as the label stock cells (cell type B of EN 1196-1) are used. usually has a liner that is removed when the label is applied to the packaging. However, for foils, flexible packaging and liner-less For through migration, the sample is positioned so that the printed substrates, this form of migration must be considered. surface is in direct contact with the steel plate of the migration cell so that the ink is not in direct contact with the simulant. Migration analysis methodology The migration cell then is closed and filled with the simulant of A simulant that mirrors the properties of the foodstuff is used choice. The cell then is placed in the incubator using one of the in place of the food sample and is chosen to reflect the product standard conditions shown in Figure 3. page 18 ď ľ uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 17


FOOD-COMPLIANT INKS  page 17 Component

Specific Migration Limit (SML)

Hexane-1,6-diol diacrylate (HDDA)

10 μg/Kg

Esacure KIP 160

50 μg/Kg

Omnirad TPO-L

10 μg/Kg

mercury NUVA2 lamp (rated at 240W/cm2) set to 50%.

Migration then was investigated for all food types using 10% ethanol (aqueous foods), 4% acetic acid (acidic foods) and Table 1. Acrylate and photoinitiators used in simplified inks for migration study 95% ethanol (worse case simulant for fatty foods). Incubation parameters were used to For set-off migration, a similar process is used, but instead of cover usage on food packaging items for long-term storage at placing the printed sample in the cell, a piece of unprinted film room temperature: 50oC for 10 days. In all cases, the ratio was that has been in contact with the printed image with a weight on equivalent to 6dm2 per kilogram of food (“EU cube, 10x10x10 top of both films for 10 days is used. The unprinted sample then is cm, 1 kg food”). positioned in the cell so the surface that was previously in contact with the printed image is in direct contact with the food simulant. Set-off migration. The printed image shown in Figure 4 was used The cell then is filled with the simulant of choice and placed in the for this part of the study. In this case, the image was printed onto incubator. a 50μm PET substrate using the N610i digital printing press at 50m/min, with the pinning lamp (Phoseon FP200 395nm rated at After the incubation period, the migration cells are cooled to 8W/cm2) set to 100% and a GEW iron doped mercury NUVA2 room temperature and the simulant transferred to suitable vials for lamp (rated at 240W/cm power) set to 100%. analysis via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Four different samples were prepared to simulate conditions that Migration study the prints may experience when printed on a hybrid digital/analog Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) press where several flexo stations may be present after the digital The analysis was carried out using ultra high-performance unit: liquid chromatography (uHPLC)-mass spectrometry (MS). The 1. No extra treatment studies were performed on a Thermo Q Exactive Focus mass 2. One extra pass at 50m/min through the iron doped mercury spectrometer equipped with a Dionex RS 3000 uHPLC system. NUVA2 lamp (rated at 240W/cm2 at 95% power) The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACE 3. Two extra passes at 50m/min through the iron doped mercury Excel C18 column, 50 x 2.1 mm I.D., 1.7 μm particles. The NUVA2 lamp (rated at 240W/cm2 at 95% power) mobile phase consisted of (A) water/0.1% formic acid and (B) 4. Three extra passes at 50m/min through the iron doped acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid. An increasing linear gradient (v/v) mercury NUVA2 lamp (rated at 240W/cm2 at 95% power) of solvent B was used (t(min), %B): (0, 10), (10, 90), (11-15, 90), (16-20, 10) with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min and a column The printed image then was put into contact with a 50μm PET temperature of 25oC. The mass spectrometer was operated in unprinted film with a 1Kg weight on top of both films for six electrospray positive ion mode. The capillary voltage was kept at days. The film that had previously been in contact with the printed 3.5 kV (positive mode) and the capillary temperature at 320oC. image then was used for the set-off migration test. The chosen Nitrogen was used for sheath gas (flow rate: 46), aux gas (flow simulant was 50% ethanol (dairy foods) and the incubation rate: 11) and sweep gas (flow rate: 2). parameters were 40oC for 10 days. Formulation and specific migration limits A simplified set of inks that had been formulated to be food packaging-compliant was used for this migration study. Table 1 shows the acrylate and photoinitiators used in the formulations, along with their specific migration limits. Sample Preparation Through migration. Circles consisting of two layers of white ink (200% coverage) plus one layer of cyan ink (100% coverage) plus one layer of yellow ink (100% coverage) to represent worst case conditions were printed onto PE (82μm, AH941 PE TOP WHITE 1S-85, FassonTM) and PET (45μm, Shrink PET CL 1S-45 UHS, FassonTM) films using the N610i digital printing press at 50m/min, the pinning lamp set to 40% for the white layers and a further pinning lamp set to 80% for the color layers (both Phoseon FP200 395nm rated at 8W/cm2) and a GEW iron doped 18 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Results Through migration. The data in Table 2 show that on PE, when the LC-MS peak areas found from the migration test samples were compared to the peak areas for the standard solution, the HDDA was found to migrate to a level significantly above the specific migration limit for all food simulants tested. No further analysis was therefore carried out for the photoinitiators. page 20 

Figure 4. Printed label used for set-off migration study uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


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FOOD COMPLIANT INKS  page 18 82 μm PE Simulant

HDDA

10% Ethanol

> SML

4% Acetic Acid

> SML

95% Ethanol

> SML

45 μm PET

KIP 160

TPO-L

HDDA

KIP 160

TPO-L -

Not completed due to HDDA results

< SML

-

< SML

-

-

< SML

< SML

< SML

Table 2. Through migration results on PE and PET substrates

When the substrate was PET, traces of HDDA were found in all simulants, however the two photoinitiators were only found to migrate in the fatty food simulate (95% Ethanol). In each case, when the LC-MS peak areas found from the migration test samples were compared to the peak areas for the standard solutions, the concentration of each was below the specific migration limits.

Set-off migration also should be taken into account when a liner-less substrate is used and should not be considered safe just because the ink set has been formulated to be food packagingcompliant. The data show that, for some components (in this case the acrylate HDDA and photoinitiator TPO-L), set-off migration above the specific migration limit was measured unless additional passes through a mercury arc lamp were included.

These results indicate that, even though the simplified inks were formulated to be compliant with the Swiss Ordinance and the Nestlé Guidance Notes to be food packaging-compliant, a functional barrier (in this case 45 μm PET) still was required to prevent through migration above the specific migration limits, when worst-case print coverage (400%) was used.

Many printers now are investing in hybrid presses that merge the capabilities of analog and digital printing techniques by

Set-off migration. The set-off migration samples printed with the simplified inks were analyzed for HDDA, Esacure KIP160 and Omnirad TPO-L. No evidence of set-off migration of Esacure KIP 160 was found in any of the samples. The data in Figures 5 and 6 show that, where no additional passes were made through the iron doped mercury lamp, the concentrations of both the acrylate HDDA and the photoinitiator TPO-L were above the specific migration limits. However, only one additional pass through the lamp was required to reduce the set-off migration in each case to below the specific migration limits, with further reductions in set-off migration being measured with additional passes.

Figure 5. Set-off migration data for acrylate HDDA

Conclusions Although the use of the term “low-migration” still is prevalent in the printing industry, it is becoming widely understood that, as there are no absolute values associated with it, it can only be used as a relative term. Because of this, the industry is moving toward using terms such as “food packaging-compliant.” The data presented show that, even when an inkjet ink set has been formulated to be food packaging-compliant, through migration still can occur when high levels of ink are deposited unless a functional barrier, such as 45μm PET, is present. 20 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Figure 6. Set-off migration data for photoinitiator TPO-L uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


(,7Â&#x160;89%URDGEDQG0HDVXUHPHQW integrating a digital press into a flexo line. This typically results in one or more flexo stations being positioned after the digital print engine, allowing the digitally printed image to receive a larger dose of UV to achieve better cure and remove the concern for setoff migration. ď ľ Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the work carried out by Axa Romero, from the analytical team of the Marking Materials group in Domino Printing Sciences, who performed the migration testing reported in this paper. References 1. https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/chemical_safety/food_contact_ materials/legislation_en 2. Jamnicki and Jamnicki; Migration of ITX (Isopropyl Thioxanthone) from Tetra Pak Bricks into Food, ACTA GRAPHICA 21(2010)1-2. 7-13 3. Haglind; Migration of Isopropylthioxanthone (ITX) in fat containing food products, RASFF 2005. 631, 2005, 1-3 4. https://www.nestle.com.pe/sites/g/files/pydnoa276/files/nosotros/ informacion-proveedores-nestle/documents/actualizacion%20 2019/guidance%20note%20on%20packaging%20inks%20-%20 version%202018.pdf 5. https://www.eupia.org/fileadmin/FilesAndTradExtx_edm/181030_ EuPIA_Statement_on_Low_migration_Inks.pdf 6. https://www.eupia.org/fileadmin/FilesAndTradExtx_edm/2016-0331-EuPIA_GMP_4th_version_final.pdf 7. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32011R0010 8. https://www.smithers.com/en-gb/resources/2016/jul/migrationtesting-simulants 9. https://www.smithers.com/resources/2016/apr/overall-migrationlimit-testing-conditions 10. https://www.eupia.org/fileadmin/FilesAndTradExtx_edm/181031_ EuPIA_Guidance_on_Migration_Test_Methods.pdf

Julie Cross started her career as a formulation scientist for Kodak Limited before becoming a project leader of group developing a proprietary vapor deposition process for applications such as Thin Film Transistors. She joined Domino in 2009 as the Drop On Demand Ink Development Manager. She joined the Digital Printing group within Domino in 2013 as Technical Director and is now responsible for all technical aspects of the Digital Printing products, including product development and customer support. Dr. Marina Santos is currently a Team Leader within the R&D Analytical Division of Domino Printing Sciences, Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. She obtained her Ph.D. in chemistry in 2006 from the University of Central Florida. She developed expertise in chromatographic methodologies and trace analysis in pharmaceutical products at Merck & Co., and was later appointed Head of Analytical Development and Process Control at the National Institute of Industrial Technology (INTI) in her home country, Argentina. Since she joined Domino in 2016, she has been pivotal in the development of migration testing methods and the analysis of food packaging printing inks. uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

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UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020 | 21


APPLICATION customers to really feel the difference that specialty embellishments can make on a product.” The graphics were created in-house by Gold Leaf’s award-winning graphic designers. Assembled with wire binding, the 11-page brochure features a front cover with dark-green trees scattered across it. The trees have been digitally printed and then highlighted with a raised spot UV coating. The company name and symbol on the cover also are embellished with a raised gold foil. Using 120# Opus Dull Cover, the piece was printed on a Konica C1100 with a soft-touch laminate added to the front and back cover pages. The soft-touch aqueous coating also was applied to the majority of the inside pages before being finished with raised spot coatings and foil accents using the MGI JETvarnish 3DS.

Shining a Light on UV-Cured Decoration Capabilities By Lara Copeland, contributing writer, UV+EB Technology

G

old Leaf Print & Packaging is a premier cannabis printing company located in Pelham, Alabama, that specializes in creating custom collateral, packaging and branding. With the ability to embellish packaging with digital foil and varnish (eliminating the need for custom dies), Gold Leaf can save its customers money and time in creating pieces that stand out – especially for short- to medium-sized applications. Recently, this US-based company created a guide to showcase the range of technological and decorative capabilities that it brings to its clients. “The brochure is a visual representation of some of the embellishments we can accomplish in-house, as well as a sampling of products and services that we offer,” Stephanie Salvago, digital marketing manager for Gold Leaf Print & Packaging, explained. “The booklet also showcases the Gold Leaf brand and allows potential 22 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

The JETvarnish 3DS utilizes UV LED curing as a solution to the type of environment in which these smaller units often are used. In comparison to their bigger brothers that need higher speeds and outputs due to larger formats and segment profiles, the JETvarnish has advantages in lower electrical consumption and a lack of generated ozone, making it ideal for printers who produce mostly on digital presses. Gold Leaf Print & Packaging appreciates that the machine offers its clients a total solution for raised spot varnish and foil. Its website explains: “Most people have seen packaging or stationery with some form of foil embellishments. Usually, it’s gold or silver and has been debossed using a method of hot foil stamping. This method requires the purchase of a die and creates indentions on the reverse side of the page… Working hand-in-hand with our raised foil is raised varnish. Raised varnish is similar to spot UV in that it accents elements of a printed piece to give it a bit of shine. However, one of the key ways it differs is our raised varnish is raised. This allows us to create textures and truly unique cannabis packaging options.” The guide created by Gold Leaf provides specific details on how these uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


The sample above encompasses all of Gold Leafâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s embellishment capabilities, showcasing a layer of holographic foil, 4-color overprinting of the foil and a final pass of raised spot varnish â&#x20AC;&#x201C; all is perfect register.

embellishments can be used on eye-catching examples, using spot varnish, foil, 4-color overprinting and a final run of spot varnish to provide detail and texture on one example â&#x20AC;&#x201C; all in perfect registration. In addition to the spot varnish and foil samples, the guide also provides information on the different types of standard boxes available, including straight tuck, snap-lock bottom and auto-lock bottom. It also showcases samples of how labels can be produced with digital coatings and foils and provides information on how to order. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The biggest challenges in printing this project were the multiple steps and runs on multiple machines that had to happen to create the embellishments for this print,â&#x20AC;? Salvago emphasized. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We had to make sure that the tolerance of all of the machines was perfect in order to ensure that the prints would be correctly lined up.â&#x20AC;? Through many trial runs and the expertise of Gold Leafâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s master printers, the print and finishing runs were successful and â&#x20AC;&#x153;an amazing product was created,â&#x20AC;? she said. Gold Leaf Print & Packaging entered its brochure into the FSEA Gold Leaf Awards and received a bronze for Best Foil/UV Coating Selection Guide. Customers also responded favorably to the project. â&#x20AC;&#x153;They enjoyed being able to see and feel the different types of embellishments, and we received many compliments on it, with many commenting on the high quality of the print,â&#x20AC;? Salvago stated. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We bring this level of quality to all our products and pride ourselves on being a one-stop shop for our clients.â&#x20AC;? ď ľ

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INDUSTRY PRINTING United Digital Experience Unveiled PRINTING United, Fairfax, Virginia, has announced the decision to transition from an in-person event in Atlanta to a comprehensive digital platform. The company has planned four weeks of hosted global programming and new product unveilings across PRINTING United Month, beginning October 5 and running through the week of October 26. A new series will kick off each week, highlighting a community focus spanning apparel, commercial, digital textile, graphics/wideformat, in-plant, industrial, mailing/fulfillment and packaging. The printing industry will experience highly-focused hosted tracks and exclusive ways in which vendors and customers can interact. Further detailed information will be announced and made available on printingunited.com in the coming weeks. Kopp Glass Releases New Version of Popular UV LED Product Database Glass manufacturer Kopp Glass, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, has updated its UV LED Product Database to now include over 1,380 UV LED products from 27 manufacturers – including products from industry leaders such as Seoul Viosys and SemiLEDs. That is an increase of 97% over last year’s database. This UV LED product selection resource has become an industry standard that assists engineers and new product developers in identifying the LED best suited for unique application and performance goals. The database is available for public download at https://bit.ly/3f6Z4EU. For more information, visit www. koppglass.com. Epoxy Technology Announces New Logo Epoxy Technology, Inc. (ETI), Billerica, Massachusetts, a developer and manufacturer of specialty epoxy, UV and UVhybrid adhesives, has revealed its new logo. This change in ETI’s visual identity coincides with the company’s focus on increasing its global presence in the market. ETI plans to present its updated branding efforts in the near future, including the company’s social media presence, advertising campaigns and packaging. The company also is in the process of developing a new website to optimize ETI’s online experience and simplify customers’ use of the site. For more information, visit www. epotek.com. DSM Takes Over Part of Clariant’s 3D Printing Business Royal DSM, Geleen, The Netherlands, a multinational company in nutrition, health and sustainable living, and Clariant, a Swiss specialty chemical company, announced an agreement for DSM to take over parts of Clariant’s 3D printing business portfolio. The agreement allows DSM to offer customers rapid product development iterations for filaments and pellets. The transaction includes part of Clariant 3D’s printing team, a selection of its portfolio and pipeline of engineering-grade filament and pellet materials and customer relations, expertise in powder development and a production line. For more information, visit www.dsm.com. 24 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Baldwin Technology Acquires Western Quartz Products Baldwin Technology Company, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri, a manufacturer and supplier of innovative process-automation equipment, parts, service and consumables, has announced the acquisition of certain assets of Western Quartz Products, a long-standing leader in the ultraviolet curing and exposure industry. Known for manufacturing state-of-the-art UV curing lamps, Western Quartz began in 1931 in Hermosa Beach, California, and was one of the first producers of quartz lamps for medical purposes. Following decades of continued research and development, Western Quartz grew to become a preeminent supplier of UV curing and exposure lamps worldwide. For more information, visit baldwintech.com. Sun Chemical and DIC Corporation Acquire Digital Inks Business from Sensient Technologies Sun Chemical Corporation, Parsippany, New Jersey, and its parent company, DIC Corporation, have acquired 100% of the shares and certain other assets related to the production of inks of Sensient Imaging Technologies, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Sun Chemical is a producer of printing inks, coatings and supplies, pigments, polymers, liquid compounds, solid compounds and application materials. Sensient Imaging Technologies is a manufacturer and marketer of colors, flavors, inks and other specialty ingredients. The transaction was finalized in July. For more information, visit www.sunchemical.com. DKSH Enters Agreement with Keyland Polymer Zurich-based DKSH Business Unit Performance Materials, a market expansion services provider, has become an exclusive partner for Keyland Polymer, Cleveland, Ohio, to grow its presence and market share for resins. The partnership will cover Europe, India, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Australia and New Zealand. DKSH will provide exclusive distribution for Keyland Polymer’s UV curable resins, with a focus on the powder coatings market. The UV resins are used in powder coatings for metals, plastics, carbon fiber and composites, and are particularly well suited for heat-sensitive applications. For more information, visit www.keylandpolymer.com. RAHN Introduces New Resins RAHN USA Corp., Aurora, Illinois, a supplier of additives, oligomers, reactive diluents and photoinitiators, has introduced three new resins. GENOMER* 3430 – Amine modified polyether tetraacrylate – is a highly reactive, low viscosity resin designed to improve LED cure response and enhance surface cure. GENOMER* 4259 – Aliphatic urethane diacrylate – is a low viscosity resin that exhibits excellent cure response and delivers outstanding toughness and durability. GENOMER* 4514 – Amine modified pentafunctional aromatic urethane acrylate – is a low viscosity resin that provides exceptional cure speed in LED systems and imparts outstanding hardness and toughness. All three resins are REACH registered, TSCA listed. For more information, visit www.rahn-group.com. uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Innovations in Optics Announces Facility Expansion Following several years of growth, Innovations in Optics, Inc., has moved into a larger facility at 10K Gill Street in Woburn, Massachusetts. The new location is nearly three times larger than the current facility, which will provide much-needed flex space for offices, laboratories and manufacturing cells to accommodate continued expansion. The company produces high-power LED light sources for applications in science and industry. As an essential supplier to several life science companies that manufacture diagnostic equipment, the move is well-timed to intensify the company’s contributions to the fight against COVID-19. For more information, visit www. innovationsinoptics.com. ACTEGA Increases Capacity for Overprint Varnishes ACTEGA, Adliswil, Switzerland, a manufacturer of specialty coatings, inks, adhesives and sealing compounds with a focus on

the packaging and printing industry, is significantly expanding its production capacities for water-based and UV overprint varnishes. Its global production output has increased to more than 150,000 tons per year. Around 2 million euros have been invested in a new site in Brazil, where a total of 180 employees will be located to support the business. For more information, visit www.actega.com. Michelman Joins 4evergreen Alliance to Advance Fiber-Based Packaging in a Circular Economy Michelman, Cincinnati, Ohio, a manufacturer of environmentally friendly advanced materials for industry, has joined 4evergreen, a new alliance sponsored by the Confederation of the European Paper Industry. 4evergreen is a cross-industry alliance formed to boost the contribution of fiber-based packaging in a more sustainable and circular economy. The three-year-long project brings together organizations and stakeholders throughout the value chain, including brand owners, suppliers, packaging convertors and recyclers, to develop the best solutions for the future of fiber-based packaging. For more information, visit www.Michelman.com.

NEW FACES IGM Resins, The Netherlands, a provider of radiation-curable materials, has announced the retirement of Andrew Chambers and the promotion and appointment of key team members Chambers van der Ent to strengthen photoinitiator leadership. Chambers will step down from his executive position as vice president Photoinitiators. He will remain in an advisory role to the company after his official retirement. Wilson Gu, vice president Asia has been promoted to executive vice president Photoinitiators & Asia. The Photoinitiators business team will be expanded with the appointment of Martine van der Ent as business manager Photoinitiators, reporting directly to Wilson Gu. Stora Enso – a provider of renewable solutions in packaging, biomaterials, wooden constructions and paper, based in Finland – has appointed Lars Völkel as EVP, head of Wood Products division and a member of the Group Leadership Team. Völkel is a German citizen who is currently the CEO of Ambibox GmbH, a renewable energy and electronic vehicle charging company in Germany. Michelman, Cincinnati, Ohio, a developer and manufacturer of environmentally friendly advanced materials for industry, has announced the hiring of Ralph Giammarco as global business development and applications director for printing and packaging. Giammarco has over Giammarco 30 years in the printing and packaging industry with numerous global development roles at Avery Dennison, uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Tekra and General Electric, along with leadership and ownership roles at Utopia Digital Technologies and S-One Holdings Corporation. Pete Petrie joins Michelman as the sales director for Printing and Packaging, Americas region. He began his career at Avery Dennison and most recently spent 23 years with WS Packaging Group. Dave Jeffers joins Michelman as territory sales manager for Digital Printing. He spent over 17 years with Yupo Corporation America, managing technical service and new business development. Innovations in Optics, Inc. (IOI), Woburn, Massachusetts, a provider of high power LED light sources for science and industry, has announced the addition of Karen Allardyce as customer success engineer. She earned a B.S. and M.S. in optics from the University of Rochester, followed by post-graduate studies at both Harvard and UCLA.

Allardyce

IXS Coatings, Huntsville, Alabama, a provider of highperformance, proprietary protective coatings for automotive, manufacturing and industrial operations, has announced Barry J. McConway as its new president. McConway previously served as the executive vice president of IXS Coatings and Ultimate Linings LTD. McConway has 30 years’ experience in the automotive industry with Toyota Motor Sales USA, Toyota Financial Services, Gulf States Financial Services and Sky Alland Marketing. 

UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 25


INKJET INKS By Nikolas Kaprinidis, Simon Werrel, Elmar Kessenich and Giovanni D’Andola, BASF

Reactive Diluents to Overcome Challenges in UV-Curable Inkjet Inks and Coatings Applications Abstract olving the challenges facing UV-/EB-curable applications – such as regulatory pressure for favorable toxicological profiles and enhanced technical performances of UV-curable formulations – are addressed herein by oxazolidinone-based reactive diluent structures. Compared to traditional reactive diluents in the industry, vinyl methyl oxazolidinone offers technical benefits and formulating capabilities over incumbent technologies, such as being liquid at room temperature, with a very low viscosity of 4 mPa/s (at 20o C), a low color and odor, and favorable toxicological profile.

S

Introduction Vinyl methyl oxazolidinone (VMOX) is a newly launched vinyl monomer that has been available in commercial quantities in North America since early 2020. It is particularly suited for use as a reactive diluent in UV curing coatings and inks applications, for example, in UV inkjet printing. In these applications, the monomer has distinct technical benefits when compared to conventional reactive diluents: high reactivity, very low viscosity, good color brilliance, low odor and performance characteristics such as adhesion on plastic substrates. Furthermore, it allows innovative formulations with a favorable toxicological profile, which recently has been a challenge and is increasingly difficult to overcome with current chemistries. An overview of the effects on formulating capabilities, characteristics and registration status is provided. Discussion In general, vinyl-ether and/or -amide monomers – along with other industry-standard monomers such as acrylates – have been used extensively in photoinitiated copolymerization reactions with acrylate oligomers, epoxy and unsaturated polyester resins in both radical and cationic UV curing systems.1,2,3 They have shown to efficiently decrease viscosity at low levels, increase conversion of acrylate oligomers and improve performance properties of the cured system, such as adhesion, shrinkage and flexibility, along with scratch, thermal and chemical resistance. In recent years, current technologies such as N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) and N-vinyl caprolactam (NVC), although technically well performing and competent, have come under regulatory scrutiny and are in danger of being phased out due to restrictions, reassessment and potential 26 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Figure 1. Comparison of example inkjet, coating and 3D printing formulation viscosity uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


reclassification. As an example, the European Printing Ink Association (EuPIA) has banned products with mutagenic or carcinogenic profile, such as NVP, in all printing formulations, and NVC is expected to follow. Thus, continued regulatory pressure – and the need for materials to be readily available and easily handled in formulations – have created a substantial hurdle for the industry to overcome. The new monomer, vinyl methyl oxazolidinone, is particularly suited to solve these challenges. The liquid state of VMOX at room temperature (melting point of 20°C) makes obsolete the need for melting equipment, reducing cost, time and handling complexity. In contrast, for example, NVC is solid at room temperature and must be heated to be liquified and dosed into the formulations, potentially leading to undesired yellowing effects. Furthermore, the low viscosity of VMOX (4 mPA*s) imparts a significant diluting effect while enabling high performance of UV ink formulations in which significant viscosity reductions are needed and are below 10 mPA*s.

Table 1. Composition comparison of example inkjet, coating and 3D printing

Table 2. Reactivity comparison of inkjet formulations: 34% reactive diluent, 60% other monomers and 6% others, including photoinitiator. Irradiation at 395 nm, 550 mW/cm2

Figure 1 compares the effect of several reactive diluents on the viscosity of typical inkjet inks, coatings and 3D printing formulations. VMOX consistently achieves superior viscosity reduction when compared to NVC or acryloyl morpholine (ACMO) in all three example formulations. The individual formulation components are shown in Table 1. Due to its high affinity to traditional acrylate monomers, VMOX shows a high copolymerization reactivity with all state-of-the-art acrylate monomers (i.e. DPGDA, IBOA, TBCH, POEA, CTFA, etc.) and N-vinyl lactams, and a high affinity for traditional acrylate oligomers being used in the industry. In Table 2, the reactivity of VMOX is compared with NVC, NVP and ACMO. The reactivity was measured based on a standard protocol in which ink formulations are cured on a belt that runs under an LED or mercury lamp at a speed of 15 m/min. Subsequently, the number of runs to fully cure the formulation was determined and compared among the different monomers. VMOX performed similarly to the other tested materials (rating of 3). Another critical technical performance characteristic of reactive diluents and UV formulations for printing applications is the adhesion to all common substrates. VMOX promotes excellent adhesion of inks or coatings, presumably due to its high polarity that can promote adhesion via etching and swelling. As shown in Table 3, the adhesion of formulations containing VMOX, NVC and NVP is compared based on a standard peel test protocol. The ratings are determined with 0 peel being the best and 5 peel being the worst. Five peels were contacted on each entry and recorded uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

for failure. VMOX-based formulated inks displayed similar adhesive properties compared to NVC and NVP, even in lower concentrations compared to the other monomers listed in Table 3. Yellowing and color-related issues, along with undesired odor, have been a challenge in these applications. Formulations containing NVP or NVC are prone to yellowing due to autooxidation and decomposition. As a result, NVP or NVC monomers are usually stabilized with various amines, which tend to slow the yellowing, but do not eliminate it. While pure VMOX exhibits the highest APHA color value among the set of monomers shown in Table 4, the color of the cured coating is in line with NVP, NVC and ACMO (cf. Clear Lacquer Formulation). Additionally, VMOX showed an improved color response, as indicated by the CIELAB color space measured on a white plastic substrate. VMOX-containing formulations resulted in higher brighter whites (L*) and more neutral color channels (a*, b*). Another unique feature of the monomer is the very low odor. Even after printing VMOX-based formulations are virtually odorless. To expand the scope beyond use in UV inkjets, VMOX testing has demonstrated success in UV coatings (as a reactive diluent and monomer), UV adhesives (as a reactive diluent and additive for adhesives) and 3D printing applications (as a photomonomer). VMOX is registered with the European Union’s Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals regulation page 28  UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 27


INKJET INKS  page 27 (REACH) and was recently listed in the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for use in UV printing inks and 3D printing applications. In contrast to commonly used reactive diluents – such as NVC, NVP, and ACMO – and in accordance with the classification of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), VMOX is not mandated to be labeled with the “serious health hazard” and “acute toxicity” warning labels. Prior to VMOX, there was a very limited range of choices and virtually no technically comparable alternatives for those formulators whose materials require the absence of such labeling. Figure 2 summarizes the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) pictograms and compares them to those of the above-mentioned monomers. Further registrations for countries such as Switzerland and the Philippines already have been published, while those for China and Japan are in progress. Conclusion VMOX is the newest addition to BASF’s vinyl monomer portfolio. It provides solutions to help meet both technical and regulatory challenges in UV printing inks and coatings applications. Furthermore, it has been shown that VMOX has excellent diluting power and can be used effectively for reducing viscosities below 10 mPA*s. Its liquid state at room temperature ensures easy handling and results in formulations that are less prone to yellowing or undesired odor. VMOX also offers a favorable toxicological profile that expands the toolbox of formulators who require a unique blend of technical performance, improved handling and regulatory compliance.  References 1. Comprehensive Polymer Science, Vol. 3, Chapter 42, pp. 673-697, Pergamon Press (1989) 2. C. Decker and D. Decker, J.M.S., Pure Appl. Chem., A34(4), pp. 605-625 (1997) 3. S.C. Lapin, in Radiation Curing – Science and Technology (S. P. Pappas, Ed.), Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1992, p. 241

Table 3. Adhesion comparison of various polymer substrates: 34% reactive diluent, 60% other monomers and 6% others, including photoinitiator. Manual scratch and tape test after curing three days: 0 for full adhesion; 5 for complete peel-off.

Table 4. Color comparison of example formulations containing different reactive diluents (50% reactive diluent, 42% other monomers and 8% others, including photoinitiator)

Figure 2. VMOX structure and GHS pictogram comparison with other monomers

Nikolas Kaprinidis holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from New York University and had post-doctoral residences at U.C. Berkeley and Columbia University. He has worked for 24 years at BASF, currently in business development and strategic sourcing for procurement. Simon Werrel received a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from University of Oxford (UK) and joined BASF in 2017. He is the product manager for BASF’s acetylenics portfolio in North America.

28 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Elmar Kessenich earned his Ph.D. in chemistry from the LudwigMaximilians-University in Munich. He has been with BASF since 2001, currently serving as senior product manager for the portfolio of vinyl monomers at the Intermediates Division of BASF SE. Giovanni D’Andola received his doctorate in chemistry from Imperial College London (UK). He has worked 14 years at BASF SE Headquarters in Ludwigshafen, Germany, currently serving as the senior innovation manager for the chemical intermediates division. uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Bringing it all together Formulators and suppliers. High-quality materials and innovative solutions. NAGASE is bringing it all together to address the challenges of the UV/EB market. Backed by a team of industry experts, NAGASE offers a diverse range of solutions and a robust materials portfolio. Talk to us about how we can address your needs with cationic and free-radical solutions, hybrid grades, acrylamides, thiols, long wavelength and UV-LED active photoinitiators, photosensitizers and more. Learn more at: nagaseamerica.com/UV-EB


SUSTAINABILITY

SGP and Sustainability Movement Remain Strong During Challenging Year By Doreen Monteleone, director of sustainability and EHS initiatives, RadTech International North America

T

he year 2020 will go down as one of the most turbulent and unpredictable in recent history. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the global economy and challenged businesses – from business continuity to employee protection. The various printing processes have many commonalities, but their products were impacted very differently. Textiles and signage for tradeshows saw a sharp decrease while food packaging saw a significant increase. Also, depending on where a facility was located and the infection rate of the pandemic, a facility could have been shut down completely at any given time. However, even during some of the darkest days of the pandemic, companies continued to move forward with sustainability goals and certification by the Sustainable Green Printing Partnership (SGP). SGP adapted to the situation and continued its mission to promote sustainable printing. Accommodating Impact of COVID-19 In spring 2020, SGP needed to modify the on-site audit portion of its certification process to accommodate travel restrictions and social distancing measures cause by the COVID-19 pandemic. Auditors could no longer visit facilities, yet some needed on-site audits to become certified or recertified. In response, SGP moved to a more enhanced remote audit, in lieu of an on-site visit, so facilities could move forward with certification and recertification. This new process involved more communication with the assigned auditor and detailed information to be uploaded to the SGP Impact Tracker, SGP’s cloud-based system of reporting metrics. Unfortunately, some facilities were hit particularly hard and had to temporarily suspend operations. SGP stands ready to help those companies resume the certification program when they are able to do so. Support from Print Buyers Expands During the spring, InnerWorkings (INWK) joined the SGP community as its newest SGP Brand Leader. SGP Brand Leaders are print buyers that promote their print suppliers to become certified, and they also work with existing SGP Printers. INWK is advancing toward the sustainability goals of its clients and partnered with SGP to move forward its mission of delivering measurable, sustainable value. The data from the SGP Impact Tracker have shown that certified SGP Printers are making great, 30 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

measurable strides in sustainability. Long-term, sustainable solutions will continue to be on the minds of brand managers. By partnering with SGP, brands can improve the sustainability of their supply chain and help print supplier partners emerge stronger and more differentiated in their capabilities. As one of its main sustainability initiatives, INWK is advocating for its suppliers to become certified SGP Printers and prioritize business relationships with those that are certified. Printers Continue to Make Great Strides Data collected early in 2020 from SGP Printers through the SGP Impact Tracker demonstrate continuous improvements to sustainability indicators. Aggregate data show that the print community significantly reduced water and energy consumption, carbon footprint and waste produced. Currently, there are more than 50 SGP Printers, accounting for more than nine million square feet of facility space. With the SGP certification program’s emphasis on continuous improvement, on average, SGP Printers reduced: • • • •

Electricity consumption by 60 percent Water use by 52 percent Carbon footprint by 63 percent Solid waste from 76 percent to 83 percent

These accomplishments equate to monetary savings for SGP Printers as well as substantial reductions in environmental impacts. For example, a 90,000-square-foot operation saves $26,000 per year for energy and water when compared to a 2010 baseline. The average annual greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for SGP Printers is equivalent to about 2,700 trees and letting them grow for 10 years. SGP Continues Its Evolution SGP’s Executive Committee monitors advancements in the printing industry to consider inclusion in future iterations of the criteria. The current criteria document has gone through two revisions since its inception in 2008. The current version was issued in 2016 and will be revised in 2021. Members of the SGP community, its SGP Printers, SGP Patrons, SGP Resource Partners and SGP Brand Leaders will be asked to join a uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Each certified SGP printer must commit to: â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Reduce waste and hazardous materials Conserve energy Source sustainable materials Lower its carbon footprint Create a safer workplace Conform to all relevant environmental, health, safety & labor laws â&#x20AC;˘ Adopt a comprehensive annual continuous improvement project â&#x20AC;˘ Undergo a third-party recertification audit every two years Source: www.sgppartnership.org

committee to make revisions. By engaging the entire community involved, SGP ensures that all aspects of sustainability are included, keeping it the most comprehensive program specific to the printing industry. Part of the SGP criteria involves printers seeking out more sustainable methods to print from their supply chain. In the rapidly advancing industry, there could be more sustainable ink formulations, along with better and safer ways to handle chemicals, on the horizon. That is why the entire print supply chain of the SGP Community is involved in criteria development. SGP Supplier Certification Being Developed SGP has drafted criteria for an SGP Supplier certification that will be open to companies such as ink manufacturers, film producers and others that are part of the print supply chain. The supplier certification program will parallel the criteria for the printers in that it will define a sustainable operation, not the product. It will include many of the same aspects, such as a sustainability management system, best practices, reporting metrics, setting goals and compliance with regulations. A draft of the certification criteria is available on SGPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s website www.sgppartnership.org and is open for comment through Oct. 15, 2020. A September webinar will explain the draft criteria. Certification for suppliers to the printing industry should begin by 2021. SGP Patron Support Increases The support from the print supply chain has continued to be steady through 2020. Recently, Sun Chemical increased its support of SGP from a silver to a gold level. Companies such as INX International also have been supporting SGP for many years. It is the financial and intellectual support of SGP Patrons that keeps costs low for printers and provides input into the program about state-of-the-art technology and techniques that are available uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

to printers. It is the involvement of SGP Patrons that keeps the program relevant on the sustainability journey. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t Stand on the Sideline: Get Involved in 2020 A commonly heard phrase during the COVID-19 pandemic is that we are â&#x20AC;&#x153;In this Together!â&#x20AC;? It is the way we gather and share ideas, skill sets and efforts to reach our common goal. This has also been true for the SGP Community and its goal to improve sustainability in the printing industry. The SGP Community includes SGP Printers, SGP Patrons (suppliers), SGP Brand Leaders (buyers) and SGP Resource Partners (associations and academia). We work together to try to ensure that products and packaging are printed in the most sustainable manner possible. That requires a holistic approach that includes making smart choices for inks and solvents. The opportunities to work toward our goal continue to evolve and need to be promoted. SGP is the only sustainability certification program for printers, and it has the full support of RadTech, along with all major print and ink organizations in North America. ď ľ Learn more about SGP, those already certified and how to become a member of the SGP Community at www.sgppartnership. org or contact Doreen Monteleone at Doreen@RadTech.org.

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UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020 | 31


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ANNUAL BUYERS GUIDE Products/Services .................................................................................................................... 33 Manufacturers Directory .......................................................................................................... 37

PRODUCTS/SERVICES 3D PRINTING RESINS/ PHOTOPOLYMERS Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. Allnex USA Inc. Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Colorado Photopolymer Solutions Hybrid Plastics, Inc. Keyland Polymer Material Sciences, LLC Nazdar Ink Technologies National Polymer Penn Color, Inc. PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc. RAHN USA Corporation Sartomer Americas Siltech Corporation Toagosei America Inc.

Allied Photochemical, Inc.

Hybrid Plastics Inc., 2, 3 Kromachem Inc., 3 Sartomer Americas, 2 Siltech Corporation ZEXI USA LLC, 1, 2, 3, 4

ADHESIVES/SEALANTS Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. Applied Molecules, LLC Ashland Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Dymax Corporation Honle UV America, Inc. National Polymer PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc. Sartomer Americas Toagosei America Inc. Wikoff Color Corporation ZEXI USA LLC

CATIONIC

16024 Angelo Drive Macomb, MI 48042

1. Photoinitiators 2. Monomers/Oligomers

Phone: 586-232-3637 Website: alliedphotochemical.com

Aalchem, 1, 2

0LFKDHO.HOO\&KLHI&XVWRPHU2IŅFHU Email: mkelly@alliedphotochemical.com

ADDITIVES 1. Acrylamides 2. Cationic Solutions 3. Free Radical Solutions 4. Thiois Aalchem, 2, 3 Allnex USA Inc. Brandt Technologies, LLC

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

BCH North America Inc. 15720 Brixam Hill Avenue Charlotte, NC 28277 Phone: 704-470-2340 Website: bch-bruehl.com

BCH, 1 Brandt Technologies, LLC, 1 Hybrid Plastics Inc., 2 Nagase America LLC, 1, 2 PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc., 1, 2 Sartomer Americas, 1, 2 Siltech Corporation, 2 Toagosei America Inc., 2 ZEXI USA LLC, 1, 2

COATING EQUIPMENT/ MACHINERY Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. American Ultraviolet Finishing Technology Solutions, LLC Honle UV America, Inc. National Polymer Nedap Prime UV – IR Systems, Inc. Vergason Technology, Inc. XDS

COATINGS 1. 100% Solids 2. Clear Coat 3. Pigmented 4. Solventborne 5. Silicone-based 6. Water-based Alberdingk Boley, Inc., 2, 3, 6 Allied PhotoChemical, Inc., 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Applied Molecules, LLC, 1, 2, 5, 6 Ashland, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Colorado Photopolymer Solutions, 1, 2, 3 Dvorchak Enterprises LLC, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Dymax Corporation, 1 Energy Sciences, Inc., 1, 2 Hybrid Plastics, Inc., 1, 2, 5 INX International Ink Co., 6

Allied Photochemical, Inc. 16024 Angelo Drive Macomb, MI 48042 Phone: 586-232-3637 Website: alliedphotochemical.com 0LFKDHO.HOO\&KLHI&XVWRPHU2IŅFHU Email: mkelly@alliedphotochemical.com

Kao Collins, Inc., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Keyland Polymer Material Sciences, LLC, 1, 2, 3 Kromachem Inc., 3, 6 Light Curable Coatings, 1, 2, 3 Michelman, 6 National Polymer Nazdar Ink Technologies, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Penn Color, Inc., 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Precision Ink Corp., 1, 2, 3, 6 rad-solutions LLC, 1, 2, 3, 6 Sartomer Americas Siegwerk EIC LLC, 3, 4, 6 Sun Chemical, 2, 4, 6 Toagosei America Inc., 1, 2 Van Technologies, Inc. (Mfgr of GreenLight Coatings), 1, 2, 3, 6 Wikoff Color Corporation, 1, 4, 6

CONSULTING SERVICES Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. Applied Molecules, LLC Colorado Photopolymer Solutions Dvorchak Enterprises LLC Ebeam Consulting Energy Sciences, Inc. Finishing Technology Solutions, LLC

UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 33


PRODUCTS/SERVICES Honle UV America, Inc. IST America Corporation Keyland Polymer Material Sciences, LLC Kromachem Inc. Light Curable Coatings National Polymer Prime UV – IR Systems, Inc. rad-solutions LLC XDS ZEXI USA LLC

CURE/DOSE MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT 1. Sensors American Ultraviolet Boston Electronics, 1 Ebeam Consulting EIT Instrument Markets, 1

Energy Sciences, Inc., 1 GEW, Inc., 1 Gigahertz-Optik, 1 Honle UV America, Inc., 1 Prime UV – IR Systems, Inc., 1

CURING SOURCES 1. Electron Beam 2. UV LED 3. Ultraviolet Allied PhotoChemical, Inc., 2, 3 American Ultraviolet, 2, 3 American Opto Plus LED Corp., 2 Boston Electronics, 2 Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Dymax Corporation, 2, 3 Ebeam Consulting Energy Sciences, Inc., 1 Finishing Technology Solutions, LLC, 2, 3 GEW, Inc., 2, 3

CUSTOM RAW MATERIALS

Heraeus Noblelight America, 2, 3 Honle UV America, Inc., 2, 3 IST America Corporation, 2, 3 Kyocera International, Inc., 2 Miltec UV, 2, 3 National Polymer, 3 Nedap, 2, 3 Phoseon Technology, 2 Prime UV – IR Systems, Inc., 2, 3 XDS, 2, 3 ZEXI USA LLC, 1, 2, 3

Aalchem Alberdingk Boley Applied Molecules, LLC BCH Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Dymax Corporation Hybrid Plastics, Inc. Keyland Polymer Material Sciences, LLC Kromachem Inc. Miwon North America PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc. rad-solutions LLC Toagosei America Inc. Van Technologies, Inc. (Mfgr of GreenLight Coatings) ZEXI USA LLC

Nedap N.V. Parallelweg 2 7141 DC Groenlo The Netherlands Phone: +31 544 471860 Website: nedap-uv.com

BCH North America Inc.

Boston Electronics

Boston Electronics

91 Boylston Street Brookline, MA 02445 Phone: (617) 566-3821 Website: www.boselec.com Email: uv@boselec.com

91 Boylston Street Brookline, MA 02445 Phone: (617) 566-3821 Website: www.boselec.com Email: uv@boselec.com

EIT Instrument Markets .HOO\V)RUG3OD]D6( /HHVEXUJ, VA 201 Phone: 703-478-0700 Email: uv@eit.com Website: eit.com

Honle UV America, Inc. 261 Cedar Hill St. Bldg. C Marlboro, MA 01752

CUSTOM FORMULATED PRODUCTS Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. Applied Molecules, LLC Ashland Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Colorado Photopolymer Solutions Dymax Corporation Keyland Polymer Material Sciences, LLC Kromachem Inc. Light Curable Coatings National Polymer Penn Color, Inc. PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc. rad-solutions LLC Sartomer Americas Toagosei America Inc. Wikoff Color Corporation ZEXI USA LLC

15720 Brixam Hill Avenue Charlotte, NC 28277 Phone: 704-470-2340 Website: bch-bruehl.com

ELECTRON BEAM CURING EQUIPMENT/ MACHINERY 1. Wide Web 2. Narrow Web Ebeam Consulting Energy Sciences, Inc., 1, 2 Miltec UV, 2 PCT Ebeam and Integration, 1, 2

Phone: 508-229-7774 Fax: 508-229-8530 Website: HonleUV.com

Energy Sciences Inc. 42 Industrial Way Wilmington, MA 01887

Gigahertz-Optik

IST America Corporation

Bldg B – Ste 205, 110 Haverhill Rd Amesbury, MA 01913

121 - 123 Capista Drive Shorewood, IL 60404-8851

Phone: 978-462-1818 Website: gigahertz-optik.com

Phone: 815-733-5345 Website: ist-uv.com

34 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Phone: 978-694-9000 Website: ebeam.com

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


PRODUCTS/SERVICES EMULSIONS/ DISPERSIONS 1. Acrylate Functional Aalchem Alberdingk Boley, Inc., 1 Brandt Technologies, LLC Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Kromachem Inc. National Polymer Sartomer Americas Penn Color, Inc. ZEXI USA LLC

GLASS OPTICS Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Hybrid Plastics, Inc. Miltec UV Prime UV – IR Systems, Inc.

LED CURING EQUIPMENT/MACHINERY 1. Conveyer 2. Spot 3. In-line 4. Hand-held Allied PhotoChemical, Inc., 1, 2, 3, 4 American Ultraviolet, 1, 2, 3, 4 Dymax Corporation, 1, 2, 4 GEW, Inc., 1, 3 Heraeus Noblelight America LLC, 1, 3, 4 Honle UV America, Inc., 1, 2, 3, 4 IST America Corporation, 1, 2, 3, 4 Miltec UV, 1, 3 Nedap, 1, 2, 3, 4 OmniCure® UV Curing Solutions, 1, 2, 3, 4 Prime UV – IR Systems, Inc., 1, 2, 3 XDS, 3

Brandt Technologies, LLC, 1, 2 Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Miwon North America, 1, 2 Nagase America LLC, 1, 2 PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc., 1, 2 rad-solutions LLC, 1, 2 RAHN USA Corporation, 1, 2 Sartomer Americas Siltech Corporation, 1, 2 Toagosei America Inc., 1, 2 ZEXI USA LLC, 1, 2

OLIGOMERS OVERSPRAY COLLECTION EQUIPMENT

1. Acrylate 2. Methacrylate 3. Other Aalchem, 1, 2, 3 Alberdingk Boley, Inc., 1 Allnex USA Inc. BCH, 1, 3 Brandt Technologies, LLC, 1, 2, 3

HYBRID POLYMERS

Aalchem Alberdingk Boley, Inc., 1 Applied Molecules, LLC Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Hybrid Plastics, Inc. Nagase America LLC National Polymer Siltech Corporation

IST America Corporation 121 - 123 Capista Drive Shorewood, IL 60404-8851

BCH North America Inc.

Phone: 815-733-5345 Website: ist-uv.com

15720 Brixam Hill Avenue Charlotte, NC 28277 Phone: 704-470-2340 Website: bch-bruehl.com

INKS

Allied PhotoChemical, Inc., 1, 3, 4 Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Colorado Photopolymer Solutions Energy Sciences, Inc., 2 INX International Ink Co., 2, 4 Kao Collins Inc., 1 Kromachem Inc., 1, 2 Nazdar Ink Technologies, 1, 2, 3, 4 Penn Color, Inc., 1, 2 Precision Ink Corp., 2, 4 Sartomer Americas Siegwerk EIC LLC, 1, 2, 3, 4 Sun Chemical, 1, 2, 3, 4 Toyo Ink America, LLC, 1, 2, 4 Wikoff Color Corporation, 1, 2, 3, 4 ZEXI USA LLC, 1, 2, 3, 4

Finishing Technology Solutions, LLC

PHOTOINITIATORS/ SENSITIZERS 1. UV LED Active 2. Visible Wavelength 3. Low Migration

1. Acrylate Functional

1. Inkjet 2. Flexo 3. Screen 4. Offset

Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Dymax Corporation, 1, 2 Hybrid Plastics Inc., 1, 2, 3 Miwon North America, 1, 2, 3 Nagase America LLC, 1, 2, 3 PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc., 1, 2, 3 rad-solutions LLC, 1,2 RAHN USA Corporation, 1, 2, 3 Sartomer Americas Siltech Corporation, 1, 3 Toagosei America Inc., 1 ZEXI USA LLC, 1, 2, 3

LIGHT STABILIZERS

Aalchem, 1, 2, 3 American Opto Plus LED Corp., 1 BCH, 1, 2, 3 Brandt Technologies, LLC, 1, 3 Breckenridge Technologies, LLC INX International Ink Co., 1, 3 Nagase America LLC, 1, 2, 3 National Polymer PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc. rad-solutions LLC, 1, 3 Sartomer Americas

Aalchem Hybrid Plastics, Inc. National Polymer PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc. rad-solutions LLC

MONOMERS 1. Acrylate 2. Other Aalchem, 1, 2 Allnex USA Inc.

Miwon North America 100 Arrandale Blvd., Suite 104 Exton, PA 19341 Phone: 484-872-8177 Fax: 484-872-8717 Website: miramer.com

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Miwon North America 100 Arrandale Blvd., Suite 104 Exton, PA 19341 Phone: 484-872-8177 Fax: 484-872-8717 Website: miramer.com

RAHN USA Corporation

American Opto Plus LED Corp. 1206 E. Lexington Ave. Pomona, CA 91766 Phone: 909-465-0080 Website: www.aopled.com

BCH North America Inc.

1005 N. Commons Drive Aurora, IL 60504

15720 Brixam Hill Avenue Charlotte, NC 28277

Phone: 630-851-4220 Website: rahn-group.com

Phone: 704-470-2340 Website: bch-bruehl.com

UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 35


PRODUCTS/SERVICES RAHN USA Corporation, 1, 2, 3 ZEXI USA LLC, 1, 2, 3

PIGMENTS DISPERSIONS Aalchem Brandt Technologies, LLC Breckenridge Technologies, LLC Kromachem Inc. Nagase America LLC National Polymer Penn Color, Inc. PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc. rad-solutions LLC Sartomer Americas Wikoff Color Corporation ZEXI USA LLC

PILOT LINES SERVICES Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. Energy Sciences, Inc. Honle UV America, Inc. National Polymer

REACTIVE SILICONES Aalchem National Polymer Siltech Corporation

TOLL SERVICES Aalchem Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. Applied Molecules, LLC BCH Dymax Corporation Energy Sciences, Inc. Honle UV America, Inc. Hybrid Plastics, Inc. Kromachem Inc. National Polymer Penn Color, Inc. PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc. rad-solutions LLC Wikoff Color Corporation

1. Conveyor 2. Spot 3. In-line 4. Hand-held Allied PhotoChemical, Inc., 1, 2, 3, 4 American Ultraviolet, 1, 2, 3, 4 Dymax Corporation, 1, 2, 3 Finishing Technology Solutions, LLC, 1, 3 GEW, Inc., 1, 3 Hanovia Specialty Lighting LLC, 1, 3 Heraeus Noblelight America LLC, 1, 3, 4 Honle UV America, Inc., 1, 2, 3, 4 IST America Corporation, 1, 2, 3, 4 Miltec UV, 1, 3 Nedap, 1, 2, 3, 4 Prime UV – IR Systems, Inc., 1, 2, 3, 4 XDS, 3

Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. Heraeus Noblelight America Honle UV America, Inc. IST America Corporation Prime UV – IR Systems, Inc.

SURFACE PREPARATION EQUIPMENT Aalchem Enercon Industries Finishing Technology Solutions, LLC Honle UV America, Inc. Nedap

Phone: 815-733-5345 Website: ist-uv.com

Nedap N.V. Parallelweg 2 7141 DC Groenlo The Netherlands Phone: +31 544 471860 Website: nedap-uv.com

OmniCure® UV Curing Solutions 2260 Argentia Rd. Mississauga, Ontario L5N 6H7

225 Wicksteed Ave. Toronto, ON Canada M4H 1G5

REFLECTORS

121 - 123 Capista Drive Shorewood, IL 60404-8851

UV CURING EQUIPMENT/ MACHINERY

Siltech&RUSRUDWLRQ Phone: 416-424-4567 Fax: 416-424-3158 Website: siltech.com

IST America Corporation

Phone: 905-821-2600 Fax: 905-821-2055 Website: excelitas.com

Allied Photochemical, Inc. 16024 Angelo Drive Macomb, MI 48042 Phone: 586-232-3637 Website: alliedphotochemical.com 0LFKDHO.HOO\&KLHI&XVWRPHU2IŅFHU Email: mkelly@alliedphotochemical.com

Heraeus Noblelight America LLC 910 Clopper Road Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Phone: 301-527-2660 Fax: 301-527-2661 Website: heraeus-noblelight.com

36 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY Aalchem 2240 29th Street SE Grand Rapids, MI 49508 616-247-9851 aalchem.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Wood and Building Products

American Opto Plus LED Corp.

BCH

1206 E. Lexington Avenue Pomona, CA 91766 909-465-0080 aopled.com

15720 Brixam Hill Avenue Charlotte, NC 28277 336-338-9192 bch-bruehl.com

Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Electronics

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Concrete, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Printing & Packaging, Wood and Building Products

Alberdingk Boley, Inc. 6008 W. Gate City Boulevard Greensboro, NC 27407 866-220-4750 alberdingkusa.com Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation, Concrete, Consumer Products, Glass, Industrial, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. 16024 Angelo Drive Macomb, MI 48042 586-232-3637 alliedphotochemical.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Allnex USA Inc. 9005 Westside Parkway Alpharetta, GA 30009 800-433-2873 / 770-280-8300 allnex.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Boston Electronics

American Ultraviolet

91 Boylston Street Brookline, MA 02445 617-566-3821 boselec.com

212 S. Mount Zion Road Lebanon, IN 46052 765-483-9514 americanultraviolet.com

Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Medical Devices, Printing & Packaging, Wood and Building Products

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Consumer Products, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Medical Devices

Applied Molecules, LLC 7275 Joy Road, Suite D Dexter, MI 48130 810-355-1475 appliedmolecules.com Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation, Consumer Products, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Print, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Ashland 5475 Rings Road, Atrium II, North Tower, 5th Floor Dublin, OH 43017 800-274-5263 ashland.com Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation, Consumer Products, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Printing & Packaging, Wood and Building Products

Brandt Technologies, LLC 231 W. Grand Avenue, Suite 202 Bensenville, IL 60106 630-787-1800 brandttech.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Automotive/Transportation, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

Breckenridge Technologies, LLC 2333 San Ramon Valley Boulevard, Suite 460 San Ramon, CA 94583 800-348-4800 brecktech.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Medical Devices, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Wood and Building Products

UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020 | 37


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY Colorado Photopolymer Solutions

Finishing Technology Solutions, LLC

1880 S. Flatiron Court, Suite J Boulder, CO 80301 720-573-8667 cpspolymers.com

2740 Shady Lake Drive Vermilion, OH 44089 877-967-2889 finishingtechsolutions.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Medical Devices

Dvorchak Enterprises LLC 706 Heartwood Drive Monroeville, PA 15146 412-996-5225 dvorchakenterprisesllc.com Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Electronics, Wood and Building Products

Dymax Corporation 318 Industrial Lane Torrington, CT 06790 860-482-1010 dymax.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites

Ebeam Consulting

EIT Instrument Markets 309 Kellyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ford Plaza SE Leesburg, VA 20175 703-478-0700 eit.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Enercon Industries

GEW, Inc. 11941 Abbey Road, Unit X North Royalton, OH 44133 440-237-4439 gewuv.com Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation, Biomedical/Medical, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Metal Finishing, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring

W140 N9572 Fountain Boulevard Menomonee Falls, WI 53051 262-255-6070 enerconind.com Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Consumer Products, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

235 Billerica Road Chelmsford, MA 01824 978-455-8230 ebeamconsulting.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Biomedical/Medical, Consumer Products, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Ceramics, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Manufacturing: Metals, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Energy Sciences, Inc. 42 Industrial Way Wilmington, MA 01887 978-694-9000 ebeam.com

Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation, Biomedical/Medical, Consumer Products, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

Gigahertz-Optik

110 Haverhill Rd., Bldg. B, Ste. 205 Amesbury, MA 01913 (978) 462-1818 www.gigahertz-optik.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Hanovia Specialty Lighting LLC 6 Evans Street Fairfield, NJ 07004 973-651-5510 hanovia-uv.com Industries Served: Ceramics, Concrete, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

38 | UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020

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MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY Keyland Polymer Material Sciences, LLC 4641 Hinckley Industrial Parkway Cleveland, OH 44109 216-741-7191 keylandpolymer.com

Heraeus Noblelight America 910 Clopper Road Gaithersburg, MD 20878 301-527-2660 heraeus-noblelight.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

INX International Ink Co.

150 N. Martingale Road, Suite 700 Schaumburg, IL 60173 630-382-1800 inxinternational.com Industries Served: Consumer Products, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Metal Finishing, Printing & Packaging

Kromachem Inc.

IST America Corporation 121 - 123 Capista Drive Shorewood, IL 60404-8851 815-733-5345 ist-uv.com

Honle UV America, Inc. 261 Cedar Hill Street Marlborough, MA 01752 508-229-7774 honleuv.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Hybrid Plastics Inc. 55 WL Runnels Industrial Drive Hattiesburg, MS 39401 601-544-3466 hybridplastics.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Biomedical/Medical, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Medical Devices, Plastics & Composites

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Consumer Products, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Kao Collins Inc. 1201 Edison Drive Cincinnati, OH 45216 513-948-9000 kaocollins.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

c/o RRBB, 265 Davidson Avenue, Suite 210 Somerset, NJ 08873-4120 +44 (0) 1923 223368 kromachem.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Apparel, Automotive/ Transportation, Ceramics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

Kyocera International, Inc. 25 Northwest Point Boulevard, #660 Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 847-981-9665 global.kyocera.com/uvled Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/Medical, Ceramics, Consumer Products, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Medical Devices, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

Light Curable Coatings 140 Sheldon Road Berea, OH 44017 216-642-0626 lccoat.com Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Concrete, Industrial, Manufacturing: Metals, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020 | 39


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY Michelman 9080 Shell Road Cincinnati, OH 45236 513-793-7766 michelman.com Industries Served: Inkjet/Digital Printing, Printing & Packaging

Nagase America LLC 546 Fifth Avenue, 19th Floor New York, NY 10036 212-703-1373 nagaseamerica.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/Medical, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Wood and Building Products

Miltec UV

146 Log Canoe Circle Stevensville, MD 21666 410-604-2900 miltec.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Miwon North America

100 Arrandale Boulevard, Suite 104 Exton, PA 19341 484-872-8177 miramer.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Concrete, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

National Polymer 10200 Gottschalk Parkway Chagrin Falls, OH 44023 440-708-1245 nationalpolymer.com Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation, Ceramics, Industrial, Medical Devices, Plastics & Composites, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

Nazdar Ink Technologies 8501 Hedge Lane Terrace Shawnee, KS 66227 913-422-1888 nazdar.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

40 | UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020

Nedap

Parallelweg 2 7141 DC Groenlo Netherlands +31 544.471860 nedap-uv.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/Medical, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

OmniCureÂŽ UV Curing Solutions 2260 Argentia Road Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 6H7 Canada 905-821-2600 excelitas.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/Medical, Consumer Products, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Medical Devices, Printing & Packaging

PCT Ebeam and Integration 8700 Hillandale Road Davenport, IA 52806 563-285-7411 pctebi.com Industries Served: Biomedical/Medical, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY

Penn Color, Inc.

400 Old Dublin Pike Doylestown, PA 18901 215-345-6550 | 866-617-7366 penncolor.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Automotive/Transportation, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Consumer Products, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Medical Devices, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

Phoseon Technology 7425 NE Evergreen Parkway Hillsboro, OR 97124 503-439-6446 phoseon.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Medical Devices, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Wood and Building Products

Precision Ink Corp.

Sartomer Americas

151 Stanley Street Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 847-952-1500 precisioninkcorp.com

502 Thomas Jones Way Exton, PA 19461 610-363-4188 americas.sartomer.com/en/

Industries Served: Printing & Packaging

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Ceramics, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Prime UV â&#x20AC;&#x201C; IR Systems, Inc. 416 Mission Street Carol Stream, IL 60188 630-681-2100 primeuv.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/Medical, Ceramics, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Aerospace/Defense, Apparel, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Collision Repair & Refinishing, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

1 Quality Products Road Morganton, NC 28655 800-368-4657 siegwerk.com Industries Served: Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging

rad-solutions LLC 2221 Justin Road, Suite 119-142 Flower Mound, TX 75028 214-213-7472 rad-solutions.com Industries Served: Inkjet/Digital Printing, Plastics & Composites, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

Siltech Corporation

225 Wicksteed Avenue Toronto, Ontario, M4H 1G5 Canada 416-424-4567 siltech.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Consumer Products, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Printing & Packaging

PL Industries, division of Esstech, Inc. 48 Powhattan Avenue Essington, PA 19029 610-299-4118 plindustries.esstechinc.com

Siegwerk EIC LLC

RAHN USA Corporation 1005 N. Commons Drive Aurora, IL 60504 630-851-4220 rahn-group.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/ Digital Printing, Wood and Building Products

Sun Chemical

135 W. Lake Street Northlake, IL 60164 708-236-3798 sunchemical.com Industries Served: Consumer Products, Glass, Printing & Packaging

UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020 | 41


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY Toagosei America Inc.

XDS

1450 W. Main Street West Jefferson, OH 43162 614-879-9411 aronalpha.net

2461 Progress Court Neenah, WI 54956 920-886-4222 teamxds.com

Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Automotive/Transportation, Electronics, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Medical Devices, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring

Toyo Ink America, LLC 1225 N. Michael Drive Wood Dale, IL 60191 630-930-5100 toyoink.com Industries Served: Inkjet/Digital Printing, Printing & Packaging

Van Technologies, Inc. (Mfgr of GreenLight Coatings) 5791 Bergquist Road Duluth, MN 55804 218-525-9424 greenlightcoatings.com

Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense, Biomedical/Medical, Consumer Products, Electronics, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Medical Devices, Printing & Packaging, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Wood and Building Products

Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense, Automotive/Transportation, Biomedical/ Medical, Ceramics, Concrete, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Manufacturing: Metals, Medical Devices, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Residential & Commercial Flooring, Sporting Goods, Wood and Building Products

Wikoff Color Corporation 1886 Merritt Road Fort Mill, SC 29715 803-548-2210 wikoff.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Print & Packaging

ZEXI USA LLC

7361 Calhoun Place, Suite 550 Rockville, MD 20855 (240) 450-2588 zexi-usa.com Industries Served: 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing, Consumer Products, Electronics, Glass, Industrial, Inkjet/Digital Printing, Manufacturing: Metals, Metal Finishing, Plastics & Composites, Print & Packaging, Wood and Building Products

TECHNOLOGY The UV+EB Technology Buyers Guide is available online all year. Visit uvebtechnology.com and click on the Buyers Guide tab. 42 | UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


0LZRQ«WKHGHULYDWLRQÁRZV from “Original Beauty” As the leading-edge supplier of the highest market quality materials, Miwon now offers unique Monomers and Oligomers as compliant alternatives (HAP/Toluene - Free materials) to meet increasingly stringent downstream enduse ink, coating & adhesive market formulation requirements. *HW LQ WKH ´ÁRZµ DQG H[SHULHQFH WKH Beauty of Market Compliance with Miwon Products and Technology! Contact toll-free – 1-877-44 MIWON www.Miramer.com


TECHNOLOGY SHOWCASE Knowde Offers ADDITOL® TPO, Alpha Cleavage Photoinitiator Chemical, polymer and ingredient supplier Knowde, San Jose, California, offers allnex ADDITOL® TPO, a radical photoinitiator that can be used alone or in combination with other photoinitiators in formulations containing unsaturated materials such as acrylates, methacrylates, vinyls and unsaturated polyesters. With exposure to UV, it undergoes a photochemical reaction that generates radicals and initiates polymerization through the unsaturated groups present in the system. Products formulated with ADDITOL® TPO are characterized by low yellowing on UV cure and increased depth of cure. Due to its photo-bleaching properties, ADDITOL® TPO is well suited for UV curing of white pigmented formulations and thick clear coatings, and in applications like screen inks, particularly white; white flexographic inks; white offset inks; thick clear coatings; and pigmented coatings, particularly white. For more information, visit www.knowde.com. Konica Minolta Announces AccurioJet KM-1e B2+ LED UV Inkjet Press Konica Minolta Business Solutions U.S.A., Inc., Ramsey, New Jersey, a provider of industrial and commercial printing and packaging solutions, has announced the AccurioJet KM-1e digital color B2+ sheetfed UV LED inkjet production press, continuing its growth path within the industrial print market. Konica Minolta amplified benefits of the UV LED inkjet technology to maximize quality and printing capability on various types of media. The AccurioJet KM-1e will continue to help customers pursue high value-added products where high-quality production, extensive media compatibility and personalization are required. For more information, visit kmbs.konicaminolta.us. ColDesi Announces Braille Printing Capabilities for XpertJet 461 & 661UF ColDesi, Inc., Tampa, Florida, a seller of printing equipment, has partnered with Mutoh to offer braille printing capabilities for the new XpertJet 461UF and 661UF. The Braille Module for the Compress Designer and RIP software controls braille translation, positioning and sizing. Currently, braille signs are made via laser and rotary engraving, photopolymer, cast metal and raster braille. “With a UV-LED printer, you can quickly start producing custom braille signs in-house to open a whole new income stream – oftentimes selling to existing customers who already need to add compliant signage to their buildings,” said Mark Stephenson, director of marketing. For more information, visit www.coldesi.com. For more information on UV printing braille, visit www.compressuvprinter.com/braille-signage/. 44 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Hönle Introduces Steri UVC Line of Products Hönle UV America, Munich, Germany, a supplier of industrial UV technology, is introducing a new Steri UVC-disinfection line of products with certified SARS-COV-2 test results confirming the ability to meet 99.99% (Log-4) inactivation of the virus for air and surfaces. The new product series STERICUBE and STERIAIR consists of UVC cabinets, UVC chambers and UVC hand lamps for germ inactivation. These UVC units can be used for disinfecting protective equipment and devices in laboratory and surgery as well as keys/key cards, credit cards or cash. It is possible to irradiate books and teaching materials or smartphones, tablets and tools. Besides being effective on surfaces, Hönle UVC units inactivate germs in the ambient air and thus avoid a COVID-19 infection caused by aerosols. For more information, visit www.hoenle.com. Paxis and Sartomer Develop Advanced Materials for New Technology Sartomer, Exton, Pennsylvania, a maker of advanced photocurable resin solutions, and Paxis, Crystal Lake, Illinois, a 3D printing innovator, are co-developing custom materials for Paxis’ WAV™ (Wave Applied Voxel) additive manufacturing process technology. The WAV™ process is a new, scalable industrial additive manufacturing process designed to solve the limitations of existing liquid-resin-based technologies. The patented WAV technology enables scalability in size and speed, significant reduction in post-processing requirements, multiple-material production, exotic material management, lower operating costs, elimination of a large vat during large-part production and the ability for embedded components. Sartomer will work with Paxis to develop a library of new custom materials tailored to work with the WAV technology and solve application-specific needs. For more information, visit www.paxis.com and www.sartomer.com. SAKATA INX Develops Environmentally Friendly Ink for Corrugated Packaging SAKATA INX Corp., Schaumburg, Illinois, has introduced BSR-Bio, an environmentally friendly UV inkjet ink for corrugated packaging applications. The new sustainable ink option is formulated with 20% to 30% plant-derived materials, allowing reduced regulatory risk and measurable, reportable CO2 savings. BSR-Bio is an advancement of the original BSR formulation that has enjoyed success in North America on Barberán Jetmaster digital printers. SAKATA’s proprietary technology for nano-pigment dispersion enables its inkjet inks to have high-performance jetting properties at very fast print speed, with high reliability for inkjet print heads. BSR-Bio consists of standard CMYK colors with Orange + Green or Orange + Violet as an option when wider color gamut is required. It is extremely low odor and has high durability and good flexibility to reduce cracking problems. For more information visit www. inxinternational.com.  uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


who can use energy curable inks to give food safety a real boost? you can. Power up the performance and protection of your packaging with UV, EB, ďŹ&#x201A;exo, and LED inks from Sun Chemical. Our broad portfolio keeps brand owners happier and consumers saferâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; no matter your printing process. So, when you need to meet the strictest standards, choose a partner who is easy to work with and offers technical resources that are second to none.

Request your Energy Curable Inks Whitepaper at www.sunchemical.com/ energy_curable or call 1-708-236-3798.

working for you.


AWARDS

27th Annual FSEA Gold Leaf Awards T

he Foil & Specialty Effects Association (FSEA) recognized UV-curing decorative applications in print and packaging over nine categories during its 27th Annual FSEA Gold Leaf Awards Competition. In a departure from the typical awards presentation that would have occurred during an in-person conference event, the FSEA released a video awards presentation to honor the winners as a part of the FSEA Online Learning Experience (www.fseaconference.com).

BEST USE OF FILM CASTING (CAST & CURE™) GOLD Apartment Ideas Business Card Box Submitted by: Apartment Ideas Cast & Cure™ Film: Breit Technologies, LLC Foil Supplier: Kurz Transfer Products Laminating Film: Skador Soft Grip Laminate Machinery Suppliers: LasX Laser System, Scodix Ultra 202 SILVER The World of Printing Submitted by: Multifol Print Finishing Company

Entries were received from countries around the world, including the US, Canada, Denmark and Taiwan. Gold, silver and bronze winners were honored in each category. The competition evaluates submissions that utilize a wide range of specialty finishing techniques, from foil stamping and embossing to specialty coating, film laminating, laser cutting, diecutting and cold foil applications. Submissions come in a variety of formats, including book covers, point-of-purchase displays, folding cartons, promotional pieces, calendars and more.

BEST USE OF COLD FOIL – LABEL/CARTON GOLD Oscar de la Renta Bella Essence Submitted by: Diamond Packaging Foil Suppliers: ITW Foils Machinery Suppliers: Heidelberg Speedmaster (with Compact Foiler’s cold foil unit), Iijima MJ-1040ES Hot Foil Stamper/ Embosser SILVER ARC Teeth Whitening Pen Submitted by: Diamond Packaging BRONZE Crest Gum & Breath Purify Healthy White Submitted by: Diamond Packaging

BRONZE Jergen’s Body Butter Collection (Rose) Submitted by: Berry Global

BEST USE OF DIGITAL INKJET FOIL BEST USE OF COLD FOIL – SELF-PROMOTION GOLD Univacco Cold Foil Label Collection Submitted by: Univacco Technology Inc. Foil Suppliers: Univacco Foils Machinery Suppliers: Labelmen PW-260-R8C SILVER Tudor English Dry Gin Submitted by: K Laser Technology Co. LTD BRONZE 2020 Calendar Submitted by: Diamond Packaging

46 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

GOLD Be Seen. Spicer’s Invercote Magazine insert Submitted by: Print Panther Foil Suppliers: Crown Roll Leaf Machinery Suppliers: MGI JETvarnish 3Ds with iFoil-S SILVER Into the Void Submitted by: DMS Color BRONZE Minnesota Timberwolves Mailer Submitted by: The Occasions Group

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


BEST USE OF DIGITAL INKJET COATING

BEST USE OF DIGITAL INKJET – COATING/FOIL (SUPPLIER PROMOTION)

GOLD From All Angles Submitted by: Jostens Foil/Embossing Die Suppliers: Owosso Graphic Arts Machinery Suppliers: Saroglia, Scodix

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UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 47


WATERBORNE COATINGS By Yung-Chi Yang, Pei-Yun Lee and Dr. Yao-Hsing Huang, Specialty Chemical Business Unit, Everlight Chemical Industrial Corp.

Novel Light Stabilizer Enhances the UV-Filtering Ability of Waterborne UVCurable Coatings without Sacrifice on Curing Speed Abstract aterborne UV-curable coatings have been developed to replace conventional UV-curable coatings to lower volatile organic compound (VOC) content. Due to fast drying and short processing time, UVcurable coatings are widely used in various industries. However, there are two major challenges: discoloration after long-term exposure to sunlight and UV filtering ability, since waterborne UV-curable coatings are usually applied to the surface as a protection topcoat.

W

The novel light stabilizer (NLS) is developed specifically for waterborne UV-curable coatings. Design of Experiment (DOE) was used in the study. Test data show that the designed NLS would not interfere with the curing speed of the tested clear waterborne UV-curable coating system. Moreover, the results confirmed that increasing the concentration of NLS could enhance the UV filtering ability and weatherability of the tested clear topcoat more effectively than increasing the coating thickness. At 365 nm wavelength, the effect factor of NLS is 62.5%, while the effect factor of DFT (dry film thickness) is 20.9%; at 380 nm, the effect factor of NLS is 47.7%, while the effect factor of DFT is only 27.4%. Test results confirmed the designed NLS could block the UV without compromising the UV curing speed, making it suitable for enhancing the weatherability and protection ability of clear waterborne UV-curable coatings. Introduction UV curing is a photochemical process that offers higher production efficiency, compared to traditional drying methods, and is widely used in such industries as packaging, printing inks and various protective coatings for wood, plastics, metal, etc. [1] Among different UV-curable resins, waterborne UV-curable resin combines the advantages of both UV curing and the waterborne system, offering a viable option for eco-friendly coatings with low VOCs, nontoxicity and fast processing time. However, there are still challenges in using waterborne UV-curable coatings: • discoloration after long-term exposure to ultraviolet light, which leads to degradation of the coating layer • instant yellowing during the UV curing process, which causes appearance and quality concerns, and • the protection requirement for near-visible light-sensitive materials. To solve the above-mentioned challenges, usually UV absorbers (UVA) and hinder amine light stabilizers (HALS) are used. UV absorbers will absorb UV energy to protect the polymer from degradation. However, in the UV curing process, photoinitiators are used, with UV energy required to initiate the curing reaction. As the result, the UV absorber and photoinitiator compete for UV energy, negatively impacting curing speed and production efficiency. 48 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

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A novel light stabilizer (NLS) is rolled out to meet the challenges above [11-16]. The objectives of this article are to demonstrate a recent development in liquid NLS especially designed for waterborne UVcurable coating systems and to effectively enhance weatherability without sacrificing curing speed. Experiment Materials • Waterborne UV-curable polyurethane (Bayhydrol® UV 2282), Industrial Grade, Bayer • Photoinitiator (Omnirad®500), Industrial Grade, IGM Resins (formerly Irgacure® 500 by BASF) • Novel Light Stabilizer Blend (NLS), Industrial Grade, Everlight Chemical • Waterborne UV Absorber, Waterborne HALS, Industrial Grade, Everlight Chemical Equipment • UV Curing Drying Equipment: C Sun / UV-201M • High-Energy UV Integrating Radiometer: EIT / Model: UVICURE Plus® PLUS-365; • QUV Accelerated Weathering Tester: Q Panel / Model: QUV Basic • Spectrophotometer: KONICA MINOLTA / Model: CM-3500d

Materials

Characteristic

Bayhydrol® UV 2282

Structure

Polyurethane Dispersion

---

( for water-based system ) 50% Acyloin

Omnirad® 500

+

+

(Irgacure 500) ®

50% Benzophenone

Table 1. Compositions of waterborne UV model formulation Ingredients

Characteristic UVA

WUVA

(for Water-based system)

NLS

Formulation of novel light stabilizers HALS

WHALS

(for Water-based system)

Table 2. Classification of light stabilizers

Energy (J/cm2) vs. Speed (cm/s)

Methods • Design of Experiment (DOE) was used to design test runs as well as to analyze the data. • Waterborne UV-curable coating preparation and UV curing process: waterborne UV-curable coating formulation is shown in Table 1. The blended waterborne UV-curable coating was mixed with different types and doses of light stabilizers (Tables 2 and 3). A film coater was used to evenly apply the mixed blend onto a tinplate or glass plate 10 cm×7 Figure 1. Correlation between the UV energy (J/cm2) delivered to the coating surface cm×0.1 cm in size. The coated plate and the rotation speed of the conveyer belt (cm/s). was placed in a 60℃ oven for 2 mins, then transferred into the UV curing drying machine sample. A wire-wound rod (WWR) was used to apply the for the curing process. tested coatings on Leneta Charts, and the tested sample was • Minimum Required Energy Test: The high-energy UV cured under 1 x 150 W/cm high-pressure Hg lamp. The integrating radiometer was used to monitor the minimum cured-completion speed was recorded with no visible marks energy required to complete the curing process on the tested page 50  uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 49


WATERBORNE COATINGS ď ´ page 49

Eco-friendly coatings are among the most important development trends in the coating industry. In this article, we demonstrated the benefits of using the novel light stabilizer (NLS) in a waterborne UV-curable coating system.

(Îźm)

The min. energy to reach curing need (J/cm2)

--

15

0.108

1%

15

0.123

DFT

RUN

Pattern

UVA

NLS

HALS

1

++--

1%

1%

2

--+-

--

--

3

-++-

--

1%

1%

15

0.123

4

+-+-

1%

--

1%

15

0.197

5

-+--

--

1%

--

15

0.071

6

----

--

--

--

15

0.071

7

+++-

1%

1%

1%

15

0.197

8

+--+

1%

--

--

15

0.108 0.057

9

++-+

1%

1%

--

50

10

--++

--

--

1%

50

0.063

11

-+++

--

1%

1%

50

0.063

12

+-++

1%

--

1%

50

0.065

13

-+-+

--

1%

--

50

0.051

14

---+

--

--

--

50

0.051

15 ++++ 1% 1% 1% 50 0.065 on the coating surface caused by fingernail-scratching. Figure 1 illustrates UV energy (J/cm2) delivered to 16 +--+ 1% --50 0.057 the coating surface as a function of the conveyer belt 2 Table 3. Details of screening design and test results(R =0.99, speed (cm/s). Coatings receive less UV energy at Radj2=0.97, RMSE=0.008) higher belt speeds, but the correlation between energy delivered and belt speed is nonlinear. If the coating SS WUVA  M WUVA u MS E 0.003540  1u 0.000084 could be cured at low energies, it represents a U WUVA 10.1 % SS T 0.03432 highly efficient production process. SS WHALS  M WHALS u MS E 0.006480  1u 0.000084 â&#x20AC;˘ Accelerated weathering test: ASTM G154-1 (2006 U WHALS 18.6% SS T 0.03432 version). Test standard: 340 nm, 60â&#x201E;&#x192;, 8 hrs / 50â&#x201E;&#x192;, SS NLS  M NLS u MS E 0  1u 0.000084 4 hrs cool down) U NLS # 0% SS T 0.03432 â&#x20AC;˘ Testing method for blocking efficiency of wavelength at 365 nm and 380 nm: A Curing Energy Y (J/cm 2 ) spectrophotometer was used to monitor the blocking 0.1179  0.02975 u >WUVA @  0.04025 u >WHALS@  0.0165 u >WUVA - 0.5@u >WHALS - 0.5@ status of 365 nm or 380 nm during the accelerated  0.001879 u >DFT@  0.001471u >WUVA - 0.5@>DFT - 32.5@ weathering test.  0.001729>WHALS  0.5@>DFT  32.5@ r 2 u 0.00042 â&#x20AC;˘ Software and analysis: JMP version 5.0 (SAS Figure 2. The effect of curing energy with waterborne UVA, HALS and Institute)

NLS in waterborne UV-curable model formulation

Results and Discussion Screening Design Screening design (Table 3) was used to identify factors that affect the curing speed of waterborne UV-curable coatings. The mathematical model derived from data (Tables 4 and 5) indicates all factors â&#x20AC;&#x201C;waterborne UVA, HALS, NLS and film thickness â&#x20AC;&#x201C; exhibit some degrees of influence to the curing speed. Effects of waterborne UV absorber The photoinitiator absorbs UV energy to initiate the curing processes. UV absorber (UVA) absorbs UV page 52 ď ľ

Term Intercept WUVA

Estimate

Std. Error

t Ratio

Prob>|t|

0.1179286

0.006255

18.85

<.0001

0.02975

0.004584

6.49

0.0013

NLS

8.327e-17

0.004584

0.00

1.0000

(WUVA-0.5)*(NLS-0.5)

-8.67e-18

0.009168

-0.00

1.0000

WHALS

0.04025

0.004584

8.78

0.0003

0.0165

0.009168

1.80

0.1318

(NLS-0.5)*(WHALS-0.5)

1.735e-18

0.009168

0.00

1.0000

DFT

-0.001879

0.000131

-14.34

<.0001

(WUVA-0.5)*(DFT-32.5)

-0.001471

0.000262

-5.62

0.0025

(WUVA-0.5)*(WHALS-0.5)

(NLS-0.5)*(DFT-32.5)

-1.74e-17

0.000262

-0.00

1.0000

(WHALS-0.5)*(DFT-32.5)

-0.001729

0.000262

-6.60

0.0012

Table 4. Parameter estimates (R2=0.99, Radj2=0.97, RMSE=0.008)

50 | UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020

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WATERBORNE COATINGS ď ´ page 50 Source

DF

Sum of Squares

Mean Square

Model

10

0.03389750

0.003390

Error

5

0.00042025

0.000084

15

0.03431775

C. Total

Table 5. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

DFT:

365 nm (T%)

380 nm (T%)

Î&#x201D;Y: Delta Yellowness Index

(NLS)/%

Film thickness (Îźm)

0

10

82.5

89.0

6.5

0

30

71.0

81.3

7.6

(After weathering test for 120 hrs.

0

50

68.4

79.2

8.4

0

140

52.3

62.1

12.4

1

10

68.7

80.5

3.1

1

30

39.0

62.5

4.5

1

50

33.5

57.4

5.4

1

140

2.9

19.2

6.7

3

10

50.2

74.0

1.8

3

30

12.0

37.1

2.5

3

50

7.9

33.0

3.2

3

140

1.7

18.0

3.7

5

10

24.6

55.1

0.8

5

30

6.7

31.6

1.3

5

50

0.7

11.5

1.9

5

140

0.1

6.9

2.2

Effects of waterborne HALS Although HALS functionally donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t absorb UV light, surprisingly they exhibit the highest negative impact on curing speed among all the factors. One possible reason is the fact that HALS are effective free radical scavengers, possibly interfering with the free radical chain reaction initiated by photoinitiators and leading to premature termination of the curing process and an incompletely cured coating layer. As a result, for HALS, the effect factor for curing energy is about 18.6% â&#x20AC;&#x201C; higher than that of UVA (Figure 2). Effects of film thickness Film thickness is the least significant factor in this study (Figure 2). Its negative coefficient is in agreement with a known fact to the industry: In the free radical polymerization mechanism, oxygen inhibition affects thinner film more than thicker film. Moreover, a positive coefficient in the model (0.1179) indicates oxygen inhibition did occur to the coatings (Figure 2).

Table 6. Evaluation of optimal results

Source

DF

Sum of Squares

Mean Square

Model

5

11922.124

2384.42

22.6657

Error

10

1051.997

105.20

Prob > F

C. Total

15

12974.120

F Ratio

<.0001*

Table 7. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (R =0.92, Radj =0.88, RMSE=10.26) 2

U NLS

SS NLS  M NLS u MS E SST

U DFT

SS DFT  M DFT u MS E SST

8218  1 u 105.2 12974 2813  1 u 105.2 12974

2

62.5 % 20.9%

T 365nm % 65.63  12.69 u >NLS @  0.48 u >DFT @  2.97 u >NLS %  2.25@ u NLS %  2.25

 0.03 u NLS %  2.25 u DFT  57.5 r 2 u 10.26

energy to prevent coatings from UV degradation. UV absorbers and 40.3302 photoinitiators compete for UV Prob > F energy and, therefore, negatively 0.0004 impact curing speed. Our experiment results match the assumption mentioned previously. The model derived from data confirms the waterborne UV absorber is a significant factor that causes curing speed to drop considerably. For UVA, the effect factor of curing energy is about 10.1% (Figure 2).

F Ratio

Effects of novel light stabilizer (NLS) NLS is developed specifically for a waterborne UVcurable coating system. Test data show that NLS added in the waterborne UV-curable clear coating would not interfere with curing speed. For NLS, the effect factor of curing energy is about 0% (Figure 2).

Evaluation of optimized situation Evaluations of optimized situation tests and results are shown in Table 6. The evaluation identifies the effect of NLS (novel light stabilizer) concentration and DFT (dry film thickness), factors that affect UV filtering ability at 365 nm, 380 nm wavelength and the yellowing status after weathering for 120 hours. The mathematical model derived from data indicates two factors â&#x20AC;&#x201C; NLS and DFT â&#x20AC;&#x201C; exhibit some degree of influence on UV filtering and yellowing after the weathering test.

Figure 3. Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

52 | UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020

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Effects of novel light stabilizer (NLS) and film thickness on 365 nm UV filtering NLS is developed specifically for waterborne UV-curable coatings. According to the results analyzed from Tables 6 through 8 and Figure 2, the effect factor of NLS on 365 nm UV filtering is 62.5%. For film thickness, the effect factor is only 20.9%. The result indicates that increasing NLS concentration in waterborne clear coatings will have better 365 nm UV filtering efficiency compared with increasing film thickness (Figure 3). Effects of novel light stabilizer (NLS) and film thickness on 380 nm UV filtering The UV filtering at 380 nm shows the same trend as at 365 nm. For NLS, the effect factor on 380 nm UV filtering is 47.7%. For film thickness, the effect factor is only 27.4% (Figure 4). The effect factor of NLS concentration is stronger than film thickness. To improve UV filtering performance at 380 nm, increasing NLS concentration is more effective than increasing film thickness.

Estimate

Std. Error

t Ratio

Prob>|t|

Intercept

Term

65.628924

5.517302

11.90

<.0001*

NLS%

-12.688560

1.435575

-8.84

<.0001*

DFT

-0.477817

0.092393

-5.17

0.0004*

(NLS%-2.25)*(NLS%-2.25)

2.9716709

0.987260

3.01

0.0131*

(NLS%-2.25)*(DFT-57.5)

0.0302167

0.026875

1.12

0.2871

Table 8. Parameter estimates DF

Sum of Squares

Mean Square

F Ratio

Model

Source

3

9452.817

3150.94

19.9193

Error

12

1898.223

158.19

Prob > F

C. Total

15

11351.040

<.0001*

Table 9. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (R =0.91, Radj =0.88, RMSE=9.98) 2

Term

2

Estimate

Std. Error

t Ratio

Prob>|t|

Intercept

86.278277

5.366302

16.08

<.0001*

NLS%

-10.38896

1.396286

-7.44

<.0001*

DFT

-0.510645

0.089864

-5.68

0.0002*

(NLS%-2.25)*(NLS%-2.25)

1.5204397

0.960240

1.58

0.1444

(NLS%-2.25)*(DFT-57.5)

-0.006172

0.026139

-0.24

0.8181

(DFT-57.5)*(DFT-57.5)

0.0043549

0.001699

2.56

0.0282*

Table 10. Parameter estimates

Source Model

DF

Sum of Squares

Mean Square

F Ratio

5

142.84709

28.5694

51.0815

Error 10 5.59291 0.5593 Effects of NLS and film thickness C. Total 15 148.44000 on yellowing The effects of NLS and film thickness Table 11. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (R2=0.96, Radj2=0.94, RMSE=0.75) to reduce yellowing were evaluated. For NLS, the effect factor of reducing yellowing SS NLS  M NLS u MS E 5509  1 u 99 is 76.8%, while for film thickness, the effect factor 47.7 % U NLS 11351 SST is only 7.7% (Figure 5). The results show that, SS DFT  M DFT u MS E 3213  1 u 99 compared with film thickness, NLS concentration U DFT 27.4% used in waterborne clearcoats is the dominant factor SST 11351 for yellowing.

The optimal prediction profiler The optimal prediction profiler shows effects of NLS and DFT on UV filtering at 365 nm, 380 nm and yellowing difference after weathering for 120 hours. The results suggest the best condition of NLS concentration is 5% and film thickness is 140 Îźm (Figure 6).

<.0001*

T(380nm)% 86.28 - 10.39 Ă&#x2014; >NLS@  0.51 u >DFT @  1.52 u >NLS %  2.25@ u NLS %  2.25

 0.006 u NLS %  2.25 u DFT  57.5  0.004( DFT  57.5) u ( DFT  57.5) r 2 u 9.98 Figure 4. Effects of NLS and film thickness at 380 nm wavelength in waterborne UV-curable model formulation

Response surface methodology (RSM) Response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical and statistical techniques for empirical model building. By careful design of experiments, the objective is to uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Prob > F

optimize a response (output variables are 365 nm, 380 nm and â&#x2C6;&#x2020;Y) influenced by several independent variables [input variables are NLS (%) and DFT (Îźm)]. The highlighted area from this model is the optimal result in UV filtering at 365 nm, 380 nm and reduced yellowing (Figures 7 through 9). page 54 ď ľ UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020 | 53


WATERBORNE COATINGS ď ´ page 53 Conclusion Eco-friendly coatings are among the most important development trends in the coating industry. In this article, we demonstrated the benefits of using the novel light stabilizer (NLS) in a waterborne UVcurable coating system.

Estimate

Std. Error

t Ratio

Prob>|t|

Intercept

Term

5.2930763

0.402289

13.16

<.0001*

NLS%

-1.498163

0.104674

-14.31

<.0001*

DFT

0.0313252

0.006737

4.65

0.0009*

(NLS%-2.25)*(NLS%-2.25)

0.3394158

0.071985

4.72

0.0008*

(NLS%-2.25)*(DFT-57.5)

-0.006483

0.001960

-3.31

0.0079*

(DFT-57.5)*(DFT-57.5)

-0.000192

0.000127

-1.51

0.1619

Table 12. Parameter estimates

The test results show that the designed NLS would not interfere with the curing speed of the tested waterborne UV-curable clear coating and, therefore, wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have a negative impact on the curing process. Moreover, the result confirms that increasing the NLS concentration in the clearcoat provides higher efficiency in enhancing the UV filtering ability, as compared with increasing film thickness. At 365 nm wavelength, the effect factor of NLS is 62.5%, while DFT (dry film thickness) is 20.9%. At 380 nm, the effect factor of NLS is 47.7%, while DFT is only 27.4%. For NLS, the effect factor of reducing yellowing is 76.8%. For film thickness, the effect factor is only 7.7%.

U NLS

SS NLS  M NLS u MS E SS T

114.57  1 u 0.559 148.4

76.8 %

U DFT

SS DFT  M DFT u MS E SS T

12.09  1 u 0.559 148.4

7.7%

'Y 5.29 - 1.5 u >NLS@  0.03 u >DFT@  0.34 u >NLS% - 2.25@u NLS% - 2.25

- 0.006 u NLS% - 2.25 u DFT - 57.5 - 0.0002 DFT - 57.5 u DFT - 57.5 r 2 u 0.75 Figure 5. Effects of NLS and film thickness to yellowing reduction in waterborne UV-curable model formulation

Our test results prove the designed NLS could block UV without compromising curing speed and provides a solution for enhancing weatherability of waterborne UV-curable coatings. Coating manufacturers may still need to replicate experiments to confirm compatibility. A customized UV absorber and light stabilizer package could be tailored to fulfill special needs. ď ľ References 1. Fouassier J P, Rabek J F. Radiation Curing in Polymer Science and Technology [M]. Vol. 1. New York: Elsevier Applied Science, 1993: 1-47. 2. MIN-HEE LEEA, HEE-YOUNG CHOIA, KIEYOUN-JEONGBb, JUNG-WOOK LEEB, TAE-WON HWANG, BYUNG-KYU KIMA, High performance UV cured polyurethane dispersion [J]. Polymer Degradation Stability, 2007(92): 1677-1681. 3. WOOD K A. Waterborne radiation curable coating for wood[J]. Polymers Paint Colour Journal, 1993, 183(4334):34. 4. GARRATT P G, KLMESCH K F. Radiation curable waterborne coating [J]. Polymers Paint Colour Journal, 1994, 184(4334):30-32. 5. JOHANSSON M, GLAUSER T, JANSSON, et al. Design of coating resins by changing the architecture: solid and liquid coating systems [J]. Progress in Organic Coatings, 2003, 48(2):194-200. 6. DECKER C, MASSON F, SCHWALM R. How to speed up the UV curing of water-based acrylic coatings [J]. Journal of Coatings Technology and Research, 2004, 1(2): 127-136.

54 | UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Quarter 3, 2020

Figure 6. Effects of NLS and DFT at 365 nm, 380 nm and reduced yellowing after weathering for 120 hrs (Optimal Prediction Profiler) uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Figure 7. Response surface methodology (NLS vs. DFT vs. 365 nm)

Figure 8. Response surface methodology (NLS vs. DFT vs. 380 nm)

11.

12.

13.

14. 15.

Figure 9. Response surface methodology (NLS vs. DFT vs. ΔY) 7.

Sow C., Riedl B., Blanchet P.: Kinetic studies of UV waterborne nanocomposite formulations with nanoalumina and nanosilica [J]. Progress in Organic Coatings, 2010, 67:188–194. 8. CHENYAN BAI, FRANK ZHANG. Waterborne UV-curable PU coatings for interior and exterior wood applications [J]. Asia Pacific Coatings Journal, 2011, 24(05):37-38. 9. HUANG PING, YE DAIYONG. Effect of C=C double bond on the properties of waterborne UV PUD [J]. Paint & Coatings Industry, 2011, 41(10): 48-53.9 10. Z. H. Fang, J. J. Shang, Y. X. Huang, J. Wang, D. Q. Li, Z. Y. Liu. Preparation and characterization of the heat-resistant UV curable

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

16.

waterborne polyurethane coating modified by bisphenol A [J]. Express Polymer Letters, 2010, 4(11): 704-711 YUNG-CHI YANG, YU-SHU SUNG, CHIN-HSIEN CHEIN, YAO-HSING HUANG. Novel light stabilizers for waterborne UV-curable coatings [J]. Polymers Paint Colour Journal, 2013, 203(4583):13-15. YUNG-CHI YANG, LAI MING-HUA, SUNG YU-SHU, LAI YIN-TING, CHIOU SHIAN-FANG, CHEIN CHIN-HSIEN, YAOHSING HUANG. Light stabilizers make the UV protection of waterborne UV-curable coatings easier [J]. Coatings World, 2014, 19(6): 38-40 YUNG-CHI YANG, LAI MING-HUA, SUNG YU-SHU, LAI YIN-TING, CHIOU SHIAN-FANG, CHEIN CHIN-HSIEN, YAOHSING HUANG. Less yellowing in uv coat [J]. European Coating Journal, 2017(4): 136-140 YAO-HSING HUANG, YUNG-CHI YANG. Light stabilisers for clear coatings [J]. Polymers Paint Colour Journal, 2010, 200(4544):38. YUNG-CHI YANG, YU-SHU SUNG, CHIN-HSIEN CHEIN, YAO-HSING HUANG. Light stabilisers for environmentally friendly coatings[J]. Polymers Paint Colour Journal, 2012, 202(4571):16-18. YUNG-CHI YANG, STEVEN LEE, YAO-HSING HUANG. Light stabilizers make the UV protection of environmentally friendly coatings easier [J]. Coatings World, 2012, 17(4):83-85.

UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 55


SAFETY By Bob Malone and John Phillips, Miltec UV

Maintaining a Healthy UV Curing System I

s your UV curing system not performing as it should? Are you constantly replacing overheated lamps? Maintaining a healthy UV curing system is crucial to obtain successful results in curing and save money by reducing unexpected downtime caused by poorly maintained UV equipment. There are five main ingredients that make up a healthy UV system. These include proper lamp cooling with adequate airflow, power supply maintenance, proper light shielding, maintaining the reflector condition and lamp maintenance. Paying close attention to each one of these may solve existing, ongoing problems with your UV curing process, or it may prevent curing problems that you might otherwise experience with your equipment. The five topics that will be discussed apply to both arc lamp UV systems and microwave-powered (electrodeless) UV lamp systems.

Cooling and airflow It is critical for virtually all UV curing lamp systems to maintain proper air-cooling delivered to the lamp to ensure a heathy UV curing system. UV lamps operate at very high temperatures (at around 800°C or 1,500°F bulb surface temperature) in order to maintain a consistent, fully developed mercury plasma state inside the UV bulb. More advanced UV lamp systems require a cooling system that not only maintains the lamp stability in that range but also protects the integrity of the metal structure in which the lamp is operating. The most common method to cool a UV lamp is with air flowing through its housing and across the UV bulb and reflector. However, to ensure consistent UV output and long life of your UV bulbs, several things should be considered when designing a proper UV lamp air-cooling system. UV lamps do have a “cooling window” when it comes to proper air cooling. They can be over-cooled or under-cooled. To make it a bit more complicated, the required amount of air cooling that is to be delivered past the UV bulb will depend on the power level at which you operate the UV lamp. Most modern UV lamp systems are powered by variable power ballasts, which can deliver a power range from 20% to 100%. Such a wide power adjustment range will allow the lamp to be changed from about 130 W/inch up to about 650 W/inch. For some UV systems, the power setting is adjusted by the front panel controls, but for more sophisticated UV systems, the lamp power is automatically adjusted as a function of line speed via a 0 to 10 VDC or 4 to 20 milliamp signal provided by the customer. As the lamp ramps up in power, it requires more cooling air delivered past the UV bulb to prevent overheating. Conversely, as the lamp power is reduced, the cooling air must be reduced to ensure the lamp is not overcooled. Consequently, to avoid lamp cooling problems, it is essential that the cooling system adjust automatically to match the lamp power and heat load to maintain stability of the lamp and ensure that it operates within its proper temperature range. Operating lamps in an overheated condition will result in shortened lamp life and possible lamp swelling or warping, which adversely affects the UV Figure 1. Insufficient lamp cooling. Overheating of the lamp will output. Lamps that operate in an result in warped and wrinkled reflectors and UV bulbs that sag into a overcooled condition will suffer banana shape, reducing UV irradiance output. from shortened lamp life and low UV output as well. When a lamp is overcooling, it cannot develop the correct voltage, and the current (amps) remains high, putting adverse wear on the electrodes over time. In most cases when the lamp is overcooled, the mercury plasma will begin to become unstable and the lamp will inadvertently extinguish. Only when a lamp is operating within the correct cooling parameters consistently will maximum lifespan of the UV bulb be realized and consistent output from the UV bulb be achieved. 56 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

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Reflector condition Another critical part of any UV system that must be maintained to ensure a healthy curing system is the condition and performance of the reflector, which typically is in the shape of a semi-elliptical or parabolic geometry that wraps around the upper half of the bulb and runs the full length of the UV bulb. Figure 1 shows an overheated reflector. The lamp reflectors are an important part of the UV lamp system because they are typically responsible for reflecting about 65% of the UV energy emitted from the bulb to the customer’s product, shown in the reflector/light-ray diagram in Figure 2. When the reflectors are not cooled properly, they can warp and wrinkle as a result of thermal expansion. Reflectors that lose their curved shape will cause the light ray pattern that reflects toward the customer’s product to become scattered or diffused, which will negatively impact its ability to cure. Figure 2 illustrates two conventional light ray patterns that are used in most UV curing systems. It is essential that the curved shape of the reflector does not change during lamp operation in order to maintain these UV light ray patterns. The curved shape of the reflectors is typically designed to concentrate (or focus) the light rays to a very small area, creating extremely high UV peak irradiance at the customer’s product, which is one of the keys to UV curing. In addition to maintaining the desired reflector curve, routine maintenance to the reflector also is extremely important. When the reflectors become dirty, contaminated or dulled over a period of usage, the percentage of reflectivity is reduced significantly, in turn reducing the UV energy and intensity delivered to the product. Poor reflector conditions will result in uncured product. The reflector is considered a consumable part for all UV systems, and it is a component that requires attention and maintenance (or periodic cleaning) to help ensure consistent UV output from the lamp system. Some UV systems use replaceable reflector liners, which are normally made of a thin, polished aluminum material with a protective coating (which looks much like a conventional mirror finish) and typically pre-curved and cut to fit into a reflector holder inside the lamp housing. Other UV lamps use “cold mirror” reflectors, which also are thin, pre-curved and cut aluminum or glass reflectors that are held in a holder of some type inside the lamp housing. Cold mirror reflectors have special coatings applied to the reflective side of the substrate. They are designed to efficiently reflect UV light but absorb the IR energy (heat) emitted by a UV bulb. Cold mirror reflectors will reduce the heat load on the customer’s product as it travels under the UV lamps. Less sophisticated UV systems use a polished aluminum extrusion as the reflector, which is curved around the UV bulb and acts as a reflector and a lamp shutter. Regardless of the reflector type, it is important that the reflector condition is maintained with a clean, shiny appearance. If the reflector begins to look dull or dirty, it needs to be cleaned or replaced. Reflectors can be cleaned using a lint-free cloth and isopropyl alcohol or a surface cleaner that does not leave a film. Cleaners that contain ammonia are not uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Figure 2. These two conventional light ray patterns are used in most UV curing systems. The reflector provides more than 65% of the radiant energy emitted by the UV bulb to the customer’s product.

recommended. If, after cleaning, the reflector still appears to be dull or dirty, it should be replaced. In almost all cases, a dirty or dulled reflector will have more impact on UV output reduction than an old, poor performing UV bulb. Measuring the UV output also will help diagnose a poor performing reflector. The best device that is available to measure UV output is a “puck” style radiometer that measures UV energy in all four UV ranges: UVA, UVB, UVC and UVV. The puck style radiometer is placed on the conveyor belt and run under the UV lamp at some pre-defined constant speed. It will measure the total UV energy delivered by the lamp. When the UV energy reduces to a point where there is danger of not achieving proper cure, then it is most likely time to clean and/or replace the lamp reflector. Lamp maintenance Routine lamp maintenance also is key to maintaining a healthy UV curing system. Most UV lamps operate in industrial environments, which are typically less than ideal conditions. It is important to try to keep the lamp as clean as possible to help ensure consistent UV output and prolong its useful life. Neglected lamps will suffer from low UV output, age quickly and fail prematurely. The simplest way to keep UV bulbs clean is by cleaning them with a designated UV glass bulb cleaner and a lint-free cloth. The frequency of cleaning the UV bulbs will vary, depending on the environment in which they are operating. Dirty and contaminated UV bulbs that operate for prolonged periods of time are more prone to overheating, and then swelling or warping (Figure 3). If a UV bulb swells or warps, it will negatively impact the UV peak irradiance output of the lamp and the system’s curing performance. Once a UV bulb appears swollen or warped, it should be replaced. If air filters are used to help keep the lampcooling air clean (which is common for microwave-powered UV lamp systems), then it is important to change these filters regularly to help ensure the lamp-cooling air delivered into the housing and past the UV bulb (and reflector) is clean. Maintaining clean air filters also helps ensure that the volume of air delivered to the lamp is maintained within the required specification. Operating page 58  UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 57


SAFETY  page 57 a UV lamp system with dirty and clogged air filters will almost always result in overheated UV bulbs and a significant reduction in bulb life. Power supply maintenance Let’s move onto the next reason why maintaining a healthy UV curing system is important: power supply maintenance. The heart of any UV system is the expensive power supply that drives the UV lamp. Whether a conventional iron core ballast or a solid-state power unit is used, the proper volume of filtered cooling airflow delivered to the ballast is critical to the health and life expectancy of any ballast and other electrical components inside the ballast enclosure. Power supplies operating in a dirty or overheated environment will deteriorate or fail prematurely, resulting in low UV output or lost production. Maintaining a clean air filter and the proper amount of air flow to the ballast will ensure the ballasts are properly cooled and kept clean. Air filters should be replaced as often as needed, depending on the environment. In the event the ballast and other internal power supply components (such as capacitors) become coated with dirt or dust (as shown in Figure 4), it is highly recommended to do two things: 1. 2.

Figure 3. Dirty, overheated lamps will warp and swell on the ends, drastically reducing UV output and lamp life expectancy.

Check the air filter, and replace it if needed. Blow out the ballast and all other internal components with clean, dry compressed air, and then vacuum out the settled dust.

Light shielding The last ingredient to maintaining a healthy UV curing system involves light shielding. The primary purpose of light shielding is to protect personnel from any direct UV light exposure (Figure 5). Good shielding in and around the UV lamp housing will protect the lamp module components and the production machine to which it mounts. A properly designed light shield will prevent any machine hardware near the UV lamp from reaching unsafe temperatures or deteriorating from direct UV exposure. The secondary function of the light shield is to support the UV lamp housing in such a manner that it will efficiently cure the product. If the light shielding is removed from the machine for equipment maintenance, it is critical that it be reinstalled in the same position and location to ensure the lamp is positioned in the correct location and orientation. The third function of the light shield is its contribution toward good air cooling. Some light shields may have air intake vents or louvers to allow air to enter the inside the light shield for lamp cooling, substrate cooling and/or light shield cooling. If the air intake vents become clogged with dust or dirt, it can cause an increase in temperature of the UV lamp, light shield and the substrate. The result can be poor lamp performance, short bulb life or overheating the customer’s substrate. Periodically cleaning out the air intake vents (or louvers) on the light shield with brushes and a vacuum, or by blowing them out with dry compressed air should be part of the routine preventive maintenance schedule. Conclusion Five keys to maintaining a healthy UV curing system include: proper lamp air cooling, power supply maintenance, proper light shielding, maintaining good reflector condition and performing routine lamp maintenance. Keeping the system in healthy condition enhances its performance, saves down time, maintains personnel safety and results in proper cure.  Miltec UV’s service department plays an important role in helping our customers maintain their UV equipment properly, as well as helping our customers troubleshoot technical problems with virtually all UV equipment. The Miltec UV team is committed to helping you understand UV curing and address UV process related questions and issues. We possess the expertise to answer questions and help solve problems. 58 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Figure 4. Dirty ballast and internal electrical components will overheat power supplies and shorten the life of these components.

Figure 5. Poor UV light shielding can cause harmful UV light exposure to personnel near the UV equipment.

Furthermore, we offer customized UV system training for our customers, including basic to advanced UV curing equipment maintenance, UV measurement and microwave and arc lamp technology. If in need of a new UV system, we can assist with that as well. Miltec manufactures the highest output and most user-friendly UV system that is available in today’s UV curing industry. Miltec can offer arc lamp UV systems, microwave powered UV systems and LED UV systems. For more information, visit www.miltec.com.

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UV LED By Mike Higgins, Phoseon Technology

Evaluating UV LED for Narrow Web Applications Imagine two very similar paths headed in different directions but ultimately ending at the same destination. How do you decide which one to pursue, and how do you identify and evaluate tangible differences along the way that may not be obvious from the start? Now imagine that one of the options is very familiar and wellused, while the other is a bit uncertain and less traveled. Do you follow gut instincts and fearlessly charge ahead in one direction, or do you find yourself stalled with indecision? Maybe you take time to employ the latest decision-making toolkit designed to systematically and strategically compare both options in order to reveal the more suitable choice, or perhaps you are content letting others figure everything first before following their lead later. You may be wondering what this dual path analogy has to do with UV LED technology and narrow-web converters? For starters, it illustrates how indecision, lack of confidence and scant testimonials in the marketplace can weigh on unfamiliar users during the early decision-making process. This causes many to discount the viability of UV LED technology when compared to conventional mercury lamps. For narrow web converters interested in UV LED curing but unsure how to proceed, focusing on specific aspects of UV LED technology that are uniquely suited for labels and flexible packaging is a more manageable and effective endeavor for those new to the technology than trying to tackle everything at once. With the technology broken into a few smaller pieces, it then is much easier to analyze and learn how those pieces can directly impact a converter’s bottom line. Applications where UV LED technology can be preferable include the curing of black, white and metallic inks, as well as laminating and cold foil adhesives. The critical element that each of these has in common is the requirement that UV energy travel through dense pigments, additives or films without being redirected or prematurely absorbed before full cure is achieved. UV Depth of Penetration by Bandwidth Regardless of how UV output is generated, longer UVA (315 to 400 nm) and UVV (400 to 445 nm) wavelengths penetrate deep into inks, coatings and adhesives, while shorter UVC (200 to 280 nm) wavelengths are absorbed at the surface. In terms of curing, UVA and UVV produce through-cure, while UVC is responsible for activating the layer of chemistry exposed to atmosphere. A lack of through-cure can leave formulations soft and can contribute to inadequate adhesion at the bottom film or construction, while insufficient UVC can leave page 60 

Figure 1. UV wavelength penetration through inks, coatings and adhesives uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020 | 59


UV LED  page 59 formulations feeling greasy or tacky to the touch. The relationship between wavelength bands and depth of penetration is illustrated in Figure 1. Conventional mercury lamps are broadband sources (UVC, UVB, UVA, UVV, visible and infrared), while UV LEDs are concentrated emitters of longer UVA (385 and 395 nm) and UVV (405 nm) output, with UVC devices currently in development. To compensate for the absence of UVC, today’s LED lamp heads are engineered to provide a greater power output – referred to as irradiance or intensity – than mercury lamps. At these levels, intensity aids in curing the exposed surface of the formulation to reduce or eliminate the greasy or tacky feel. It also helps UV energy penetrate further into inks, coatings and adhesives. Black, White and Metallic Inks Non-soluble pigments and soluble dyes are additives that formulators use to give inks color. Both types have inherent optical properties that negatively affect the ability of ultraviolet energy to travel through chemistry. In the case of dyes, absorption of UV is the main obstacle. For pigments, several factors have the potential to greatly impact and diminish cure, including absorption, scattering, reflection, particle shape and size. In general, absorption causes UV energy traveling through chemistry to be transferred to the interfering molecule. Scattering results in UV deviating into multiple directions, and reflection off a smooth surface forces all wavelengths to be redirected at the same strike angle. All three contribute to a significant reduction of UV intensity and depth of travel. This means there is less energy available for absorption by photoinitiators, particularly those furthest from the source. When photoinitiators are forced to compete with pigments and other additives for a limited amount of incident UV, cure is diminished, quality and yields are sacrificed, and the press line speed often must be slowed in order to increase exposure time. As a result, curing of heavily pigmented and thick printing inks has long been one of the greatest challenges for mercury UV lamps. While each additive in a formulation uniquely reduces the transmission of UV, pigments such as carbon black, metallics and white titanium dioxide (TiO2) have the biggest impact. These pigments are used in different concentrations to create process, line and high-density inks. Since greater concentrations of these pigments impede cure, it is critical that converters follow the recommended anilox BCM and line count recommendations provided by ink suppliers. Carbon black pigments are widely used by formulators since they provide weatherability and superior color strength, even at low concentrations; however, the particles readily absorb energy across the ultraviolet and visible light bands. As a result, formulators must be careful in balancing carbon black’s particle size, concentration and opacity with the ability of UV energy to penetrate. While metallic pigments fully block UV, they also 60 | UV+EB Technology • Quarter 3, 2020

Figure 2. Strength of cure comparison for dense black inks – mercury UV vs. UV LED

serve as tiny mirrors dispersed throughout the formulation. The result is wide scattering. This reduces the total energy that reaches the photoinitiators but also has the positive effect of redirecting some UV energy toward shadowed photoinitiators. Finally, titanium dioxide pigments used for white inks filter all wavelengths below 380 nm while allowing longer wavelengths to pass. Since UV LED curing lamps are predominantly 395 nm, UV LED penetration is not significantly affected by TiO2 pigments. Using LED technology, therefore, enables UV energy to penetrate through white ink with little to no absorption. Due to longer UVA (395 nm) wavelengths, as well as intensities that are four to eight times greater than those of mercury lamps, UV LED technology improves the cure of UV LED-formulated carbon black, metallic and white inks. Using an ink or coating that contains a photoinitiator that absorbs long UVA wavelengths is required – unless the chemistry is formulated to absorb long UVA wavelength, the amount of peak irradiance is moot. The longer UVA LED wavelengths penetrate deeper, and by starting with a higher irradiance – even if intensity diminishes as UV travels through the formulation (due to absorption, scattering and reflection) – more energy still is reaching the substrate. For label and flexible packaging applications where black, white and metallic inks represent process bottlenecks, switching to a UV LED process can result in increased press speed, more opacity, stronger color, greater adhesion, better cure, greater yields and less scrap. Figure 2 illustrates a strength of cure comparison between a 24 W/cm2 Phoseon FL400 UV LED system at 395 nm and a conventional 500 watts per inch (wpi) mercury lamp emitting intensities of around 3 W/cm2 (total amount of UV energy produced across the broadband spectrum). Both lamps were uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


used to cure a dense black ink using anilox BCMs of 2, 3 and 4 at web speeds of 200 fpm. Regardless of ink laydown, the UV LED system generated better surface and through-cure. This was quantified using IPA double rubs where the LED system yielded 34% to 90% more double rubs than the mercury lamp across all three film thicknesses. As ink laydown increased from 2 to 3 to 4 BCM, the UV LED system performed increasingly better when compared to the mercury lamp. This reinforces that mercury lamp output, with its lower intensity and broadband spectrum, is less effective at penetrating densely pigmented inks, particularly those with greater film builds. Conversely, UV LED wavelengths at 395 nm provide increased through-cure, which is particularly beneficial for thicker and denser carbon black inks. Laminating and Cold Foil Adhesives Laminating adhesives are used in flexible packaging and labeling applications to securely bond two or more flexible constructions, such as PET, PE, PP, paper and foil. The adhesive is applied to the substrate with lower absorption properties before being nipped to the second substrate and passed underneath a UV curing lamp for instant cure. In the case of laminating adhesives, the two substrates are permanently bonded; for cold foil, the transfer film is unwound after cure, leaving the decorative foil only in locations where the adhesive was applied. Adhesives rarely contain dyes or pigments that absorb, reflect or scatter UV energy; however, they typically are applied at thicknesses that are greater than those used with inks. As a result, the longer UVA wavelengths and higher intensity emitted by UV LEDs enable an improved depth of cure. In addition, the longer, near-visible output of UV LEDs is advantageous in the case of laminating and cold foil adhesives since the UV energy must first pass through a film or foil construction in order to reach the adhesive. Longer UVA and UVV wavelengths have superior luminous transmittance through materials compared to shorter UVB and UVC wavelengths. The fact that the adhesive is cured between two films also eliminates any need for UVC wavelengths, as none of the adhesive is exposed to oxygen, which can inhibit free radical-based cure.

improved up-time and predictability of cure. By embracing UV LED technology for the ink and adhesive applications described in this paper, converters can confidently proceed down the optimal path.  Mike Higgins has worked in sales with Phoseon Technology since 2013 and currently serves as director of sales, Americas. For converters not entirely convinced that UV LED curing is the right choice for black, white and metallic inks as well as laminating and cold foil adhesives, there are other ways to minimize risk while exploring the technology. First, work with an established UV LED system supplier that offers proven products that can be suitably matched to specific process needs. If not in a position to convert the entire press to UV LED, a few air-cooled LED lamp heads can be integrated and later expanded to more stations. Finally, establishing a strong partnership with a UV LED system supplier, formulator and press OEM will facilitate collaboration and development. To build confidence in the proposed LED solution, samples can typically be run with the desired substrates, constructions and formulations on either a customer demo press or even your production line using loaner lamps. For more information about Phoseon products and services, Higgins can be reached at mike.higgins@phoseon.com.

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In all cases, UV LEDs are more efficient and effective at curing laminating and cold foil adhesives than mercury lamps. In addition, when compared to solventless chemistry, UVcured laminations and cold foils can be processed immediately following exposure, rather than following the one- to three-day curing time required with solventless adhesives. Conclusion For black, white and metallic inks – as well as laminating and cold foil adhesives – the higher irradiance and ability of UV LEDs at 395 nm to penetrate deep into the chemistry makes the technology suited for label and flexible packaging applications. The long life and reliable output of UV LED lamps also provides consistent cure and stability of process. This translates into uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

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REGULATORY NEWS

Doreen M. Monteleone, Ph.D., director of sustainability & EHS initiatives, RadTech International North America doreen@ radtech.org

US EPA to Begin Unilateral New Chemical Restriction The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) is preparing to issue a “unilateral” restriction on new chemicals, an option it has never used before, by issuing the first series of unilateral orders in the upcoming months. Such orders would restrict a new chemical that has never been made in or imported into the US. The agency would do so without any input from the company that wants to make or import the new chemical. EPA commonly issues orders limiting, for example, how much of a new chemical can be released into water. But historically, such orders have been negotiated with a company seeking to make or import the new chemical and then unilateral restrictions are imposed only when a new chemical might injure people or the environment and when a would-be manufacturer has been unresponsive. The goal is to allow the commercialization of products. The “unilateral” restrictions are targeted for pre-manufacture notice (PMN) cases that have been open for an extended period of time. These cases have been “stuck” in the system for multiple potential reasons, but ultimately EPA has identified an unreasonable risk, based on the current submission requiring the PMN submitter to mitigate the risks before the cases can be finished. The agency has been actively working with the PMN submitters to get the cases moving, whereby the submitter is asked to provide additional data to mitigate the identified risks. In some cases, PMN submitters have chosen to withdraw the PMN. In other cases, EPA is issuing consent orders, with, for example, release-to-water triggers, and for the cases whereby the PMN submitter is nonresponsive, the agency will move to issue the “unilateral” restriction. This will not impact any existing chemicals and will only affect a few companies. Most RadTech members should not be impacted by this. Changes to RCRA Ignitability Characteristics The US EPA administrator has signed a final rule to “modernize” the ignitability characteristic under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). It is one of the methods used to determine when solid wastes must be managed as hazardous wastes under federal law (and, with limited variations, the laws of all states). While the proposed rule would have made several substantive changes to the characteristics that could have significantly expanded the scope of the hazardous waste program, EPA backed away from most such changes in the final rule. Instead, it makes mostly technical changes to the characteristic, although the preamble includes guidance that may be more significant. The final rule will take effect, as a matter of federal law, 60 days after it appears in the Federal Register. It will take much longer for the rule to take effect in most states. EPR Bills Frozen; Proponents See Path Forward Before the COVID-19 pandemic took hold, legislation aimed at addressing long-running issues around recycling was gaining more attention than it had in decades. That momentum stalled when state legislatures and Congress reduced operations to stop virus spread. For proponents of extended producer responsibility (EPR) efforts, the pause has sparked concern and disappointment. But, many also are optimistic the pandemic could ultimately make the case for improved systems involving producers, governments and consumers by tackling what they say are deeply rooted supply chain issues. First Chemical Added to HAPs List Since 1990 On June 18, 2020, the US EPA published a Federal Register notice granting petitions to add n-propyl bromide, commonly known as 1-bromopropane (1-BP), to the Clean Air Act’s (CAA) list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Once the agency takes a separate regulatory action to add the chemical to the list of HAPs, the action will represent the first addition to the list since 1990, when it was created. 1-BP is found in degreasers, cleaners, spray adhesives, automotive refrigerant flushes and lubricants. Recycling Industry Launches Initiative to Determine Recyclability of Products The recycling industry announced a new undertaking to help solve the ongoing confusion in the marketplace over what products are or are not truly recyclable. The Institute of Scrap Recycling Industry (ISRI), serving as the voice of the recycling industry, is developing a recyclability protocol and certification system for paperbased packaging products entering into the recycling stream. Once developed, the protocol will be expanded to other products made from recyclable commodities.

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News From the West Coast

Rita Loof, director of regional environmental affairs, RadTech International North America rita@radtech.org

SCAQMD to Urge EPA to Update Guidelines The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires that certain geographic areas ensure that air pollution regulations and emission sources fulfill the Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) requirements and meet “current” science and emission control information. To establish a RACT level across the nation, the CAA requires the EPA to develop Control Techniques Guidelines (CTGs) and Alternative Control Techniques (ACTs) for volatile organic compound (VOC) sources. On June 5, 2020, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) staff presented its RACT demonstration for governing board approval. But, most of the CTGs on which SCAQMD based its review were issued before 1990 – some in 1978 – and most of the ACT documents were issued in the mid-1990s. At that time, UV/EB often was not taken into consideration, and the data used to describe UV/EB now are out of date. It should be noted that technologies that compete with UV/EB, such as waterborne and solvent processes (with add-on control devices), already have been included in the analysis for many of the categories contemplated by the RACT Demonstration. In a presentation, staff indicated: “UV/EB will be evaluated under all feasible measures for the 2022 AQMP.” RadTech members testified at the board meeting and had support from an environmental organization to convey that delaying the evaluation until 2022 is not warranted. Unfortunately, staff made negative statements about the technology, which swayed the board to go along with the staff recommendation. The vote included a commitment for the district to send a letter to the Environmental Protection Agency in support of updating its documents and including UV/EB/LED. RadTech recently received a copy of the letter. The RACT demonstration now moves to the state for approval. The webcast of the meeting (see 3:16 on ribbon) can be found at the following link: http://www.aqmd.gov/home/news-events/webcast/live-webcast?ms=6gIUCvmM_uo California Air Districts Sue Federal Agencies The South Coast Air Quality Management District announced it filed a lawsuit alongside the Bay Area Air Quality Management District and the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, challenging the Trump Administration’s decision on Clean Vehicle Standards. The petition argues that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have allowed “rollbacks” to the Safer Affordable Fuel-Efficient (SAFE) Vehicles Rule. “These actions will set back years of air quality progress and are not supported by the public, local agencies or the automotive industry,” said the Executive Officer of South Coast AQMD. According to the districts, the rollbacks will result in the release of additional air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 2021 through 2026 model passenger vehicles and light-duty trucks and will weaken fuel efficiency standards established in 2012. They believe this does not promote the continued production of electric, hybrid and fuel-cell vehicles by reducing the amount of compliance credit that automobile manufacturers can earn from these vehicles. The lawsuit was filed with the District of Columbia Circuit Court of Appeals. Coatings Containing Chromium The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) proposes to amend its Rule 1469.1-Spraying Operations Using Coatings Containing Chromium. The agency will hold a Working Group Meeting to “provide stakeholders an opportunity to work with South Coast AQMD staff on proposed amended rule provisions and to discuss key issues or concerns early in the rule development process.” The district has released preliminary results of an industry survey during previous meetings. Surveys were sent to 108 facilities to gather information about equipment, operations and general industry practice and approach to housekeeping and waste disposal. The district conducted testing in response to questions from industry on whether or not hexavalent chromium was present in dry coatings. The agency has concluded that the toxic material is present, even after the coating has dried. According to staff, when inhaled, hexavalent chromium present in dried coatings affects the body the same way as when it is present in other materials. The agency pointed to a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which found sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium compounds as encountered in chromate production, chromate pigment production and chromium plating industries. Industry representatives have expressed concern over the added cost of requirements to fully enclose spray booths and additional source testing, the latter of which can range from $10,000 to $30,000 per test. The upcoming meeting will focus on initial recommendations for point source and parameter monitoring requirements. The final proposal is expected to be presented during the first quarter of 2021. 

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CALENDAR Due to COVID-19, event calendars can change rapidly. Please check event websites for up-todate information.

OCTOBER 12-13: TLMI Annual Meeting 2020, Virtual event. For more information, visit www.tlmi.com. 18-21: AIMCAL R2R Conference USA and SPE FlexPackCon 2020, Hilton DoubleTree Hotel at Universal Studios, Orlando, Florida. For more information, visit www.aimcal.org/2020-r2r-usa-conference.html.

NOVEMBER 8-11: PackExpo International, McCormick Place, Chicago, Illinois. For more information, visit www.packexpointernational.com.

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• Enhance cure speeds and efficiencies with a range of optical output & wavelength options • Simplify integration with compact, air-cooled form factors • Achieve greater flexibility, reliability, and scalability • Improve product yields and reduce operational costs • Expand cure capabilities of adhesives, coatings, and inks

www.excelitas.com omnicure@excelitas.com

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UV+EB Technology - 2020 Quarter 3  

Official Publication of RadTech International North America

UV+EB Technology - 2020 Quarter 3  

Official Publication of RadTech International North America

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