Page 1

2017 Quarter 3 Vol. 3, No. 3

Curing Technology Brings Beauty and Strength to Glass Energy-Curable Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersions Market Outlook for Energy Cure Inkjet Cure Chemistry Analysis with FTIR

ANNUAL BUYERS GUIDE EDITION

Official Publication of RadTech International North America


We create chemistry that makes packaging love energy-cure inks.

LaromerÂŽ PR 9119 is a polyester acrylate alternative to oligomers containing Bisphenol A (BPA) used in UV/EB ink and overprint varnish. Compared to epoxy acrylate, Laromer PR 9119 provides improved adhesion with similar chemical resistance, reactivity and surface hardness. At BASF, we create chemistry. www.basf.us/dpsolutions

Laromer is a registered trademark of BASF Group.


FEATURES 12

Advances in Energy Cure Inkjet Inkjet printing using energy-cure (EC) inks is expanding rapidly through the graphic arts and industry printing markets. A discussion of market sector activity and printing technology follows. By Dene Taylor, PhD, and Vince Cahill, SPF-Inc.

18

Utilizing Fourier Transform Infrared for Development and Quality Assurance of Cure Chemistries Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) can be used to assist product development on the lab bench and maintain quality of components and final product. By Nasreen Khan, Technical Service Project Leader, and Shakher Puntambeker, Principal Chemist, Dunmore Corporation

ON THE COVER

Cover photo: A 3D sculpture created by glass artist Sidney Hutter utilizes UV curing technology to ensure adhesion of the layers. Photo courtesy of Chris Peaden. The cover was finished by Royle Printing Company, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, using a multi-step UV-curing process called Rough Reticulated Strike-Through. First, the 4-color process was laid down and a UV varnish was applied as a spot application in the areas that did not receive the gloss UV treatment (photograph and copy). The UV varnish was cured with UV lights, and then an LED curing system was used to cure the 4-color process inks. A flood gloss UV was applied over the entire cover, which “reacted” to the UV varnish and created the matte varnish – staying glossy in the areas that were knocked out to receive the gloss UV. The final step was a pass under another UV curing system to cure the coating. This process was performed in one pass on press.

27 38

President’s Message ............................................ 4 Association News ................................................ 6 Technology Showcase ....................................... 45 Industry News .................................................... 56 Regulatory News ............................................... 62 Calendar ............................................................. 64 Advertisers’ Index .............................................. 64

2 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

Design of a Blue LED Array for Curing FiberglassReinforced Composite Intensity and uniformity of LED irradiance in an array for curing fiberglass-reinforced panels are investigated to evaluate their effectiveness in inducing photopolymerization. By Mark S. Driscoll, Department of Chemistry, SUNY-ESF; Yunyun Bi, Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, SUNYESF; Robert W. Meyer, Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, SUNY-ESF; Jennifer Smith, Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, SUNY-ESF; L. Scott Larsen, NYSERDA

46

DEPARTMENTS

UV+EB Technology Annual Buyers Guide

FSEA Gold Leaf Awards Celebrate Best Work in UV Coatings An annual print finishing competition honored work featuring UVcured coatings, including the Best of Show. By Dianna Brodine, Managing Editor, UV+EB Technology

48

Redesign of Energy-Curable Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersions for Inkjet Applications Increasing regulatory pressure on acrylate monomers has led to the investigation and redesign of energy-curable waterborne resins and PUDs for applicability in the inkjet market. By Jo Ann Arceneaux, Ph.D., allnex USA, Inc.; Michel Tielemans, allnex Belgium; Kevin Poelmans, allnex Belgium; Laurence Boutreau, allnex Belgium

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


CHAMPIONS THIS ISSUE

TECHNOLOGY 2017 Quarter 3 Vol. 3, No. 3

54

RadTech International North America’s Editorial Board facilitates the technical articles featured in UV+EB Technology. Smaller teams of Issue Champions review and approve articles and provide overall content management for each issue, as needed. If you are a member of RadTech and are interested in serving on the Editorial Board, contact Gary Cohen at gary@radtech.org.

Regulatory Point of View: UV/EB Inks and Coatings UV- and EB-cured inks and coatings used in product with potential food contact have seen increased interest from regulatory and advocacy groups. By Eric F. Greenberg, Eric F. Greenberg P.C.

57

Glass Artist Employs UV Technology to Create Stunning Designs Artist Sid Hutter uses UV curing technology to solve adhesion and color fading issues in his unique glass artwork. By Nancy Cates, Contributing Writer, UV+EB Technology

EVENTS 8

UV+EB Packaging Conference 2017

17

RadTech Sponsors UV LED Symposium in China

Susan Bailey

Editorial Board Co-Chair Technical Development Manager, Acrylates IGM Resins

Brian Cavitt

Associate Professor Lipscomb University

COLUMN 10

UV Curing Technology Question & Answer How does temperature affect UV curing? How is it controlled, and how is it measured? By R.W. Stowe, UV Applications Engineering Consultant, Heraeus Noblelight America LLC

Syed T. Hasan

Editorial Board Co-Chair Key Account Manager, Security Inks BASF Corporation

Molly Hladik

Technical Project Leader, Print & Packaging Technology Michelman, Inc.

UV+EB TECHNOLOGY EDITORIAL BOARD Susan Bailey, IGM Resins Co-Chair/Editor-in-Chief Syed Hasan, BASF Corporation Co-Chair/Editor-in-Chief Brian Cavitt, Lipscomb University Byron Christmas, Professor of Chemistry, Retired Charlie He, Glidewell Laboratories Mike Higgins, Phoseon Technology Molly Hladik, Michelman, Inc.

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Mike J. Idacavage, Colorado Photopolymer Solutions Jin Lu, Sartomer Sudhakar Madhusoodhanan, Applied Materials Gary Sigel, Armstrong Flooring Maria Muro-Small, Spectra Group Limited, Inc. R.W. Stowe, Heraeus Noblelight America LLC Huanyu Wei, ITW Sports Branding Division Jinping Wu, PolyOne Corporation Sheng “Sunny” Ye, 3M

Sudhakar Madhusoodhanan

Technical Project/Program Management Applied Materials

Huanyu Wei

Senior Innovation Project Manager ITW Sports Branding Division

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 3


President’s Message TECHNOLOGY

A Time for Renewal and Disruptive Technology

An official publication of: RADTECH INTERNATIONAL NORTH AMERICA 6935 Wisconsin Ave, Suite 207 Chevy Chase, MD 20815 240-497-1242 radtech.org

W

ork activities tend to slow in the summer as many RadTech members enjoy vacation and time off. It’s a good chance to hit the “reset” button and recharge our passion for the industry. For RadTech, it also is the time for “renewal” as we prepare for our new membership year, beginning September 1. Lisa Fine

Often cited as the opposite of renewal – or the cause of it – is disruption. Mid-year is a good time to reflect on changes in the market that we need to be prepared to respond to. As we witness disruption in so many ways – Lyft, Amazon, Airbnb, Makers, Politicians, 3D printing – the time seems ripe for disruptive technology in the form of UV+EB. RadTech continues to develop new activities to support these changes and extend our reach. These include: • Expanding our magazine and eblast readership to more than 14,000 in partnership with Peterson Publications • Developing a new student-led RadTech committee and Facebook page to support and encourage UV+EB at universities • Promoting a “Proper Handling of 3D Printing Resins” poster to support the safe use and handling of photopolymer resins in 3D printing / additive manufacturing. • Launching RadLaunch to support and encourage start-ups, students and new developments in our technology • Participating in educational sessions with outside groups, such as SAE’s WCX17 in Detroit featuring UV+EB automotive technology, SGIA, AIMCAL, the Waterborne Symposium, AWFS, the Eastern and Western Coatings Shows, Detroit Focus and more

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Gary M. Cohen gary@radtech.org SENIOR DIRECTOR Mickey Fortune

BOARD OF DIRECTORS President Lisa Fine – Joules Angstrom UV Printing Inks President-elect Eileen Weber – Red Spot Secretary Jennifer Heathcote – Phoseon Technology Treasurer Paul Elias – Miwon North America Immediate Past-President Peter Weissman – Quaker Chemical Corporation Board of Directors Jo Ann Arceneaux – Allnex USA Inc. Susan Bailey – IGM Resins Mark Gordon – INX International Ink Company David Biro – Sun Chemical Michael Gould – Rahn USA George McGill – Coatings and Adhesives Alexander Polykarpov – AkzoNobel Beth Rundlett – Katecho, Inc. Chris Seubert – Ford Motor Company Xiasong Wu – DSM Functional Materials Hui Yang – Procter and Gamble

• Managing the International Ultraviolet Association to develop synergies with their group • Developing email-based courses with more than 900 participants

Published by:

• Launching the well-received UV+EB Resource Guide for Printers, working on a resource guide for the wood industry and creating a microsite on Automotive • Creating a new membership category for Applications Support • Engaging more than 5,000 participants in ongoing RadTech / SUNY-ESF educational efforts and webinar series. • Receiving our first RadTech Foundation donation, with thanks to 3M. None of these activities would be possible without the generous, enthusiastic support of volunteer RadTech members. RadTech participation is a great way to not only advance the technology, but make new contacts, gain new experiences and advance careers. We hope to work with you as we continually strive to renew our efforts to support our technology and community – in the best disruptive way possible. Lisa Fine President, RadTech Board of Directors Joules Angstom UV Printing Inks

4 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

2150 SW Westport Drive, Suite 101 Topeka, Kansas 66614 785-271-5801 petersonpublications.com Publisher Jeff Peterson

National Sales Director Janet Dunnichay janet@petersonpublications.com

Art Director Becky Arensdorf

Managing Editor Dianna Brodine dianna@petersonpublications.com

Contributing Editors Lara Copeland Nancy Cates

Circulation Manager Brenda Schell brenda@petersonpublications.com

ENews & Website Developer Jen Clark

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


We unlock the potential of UV/LED light and transform its power You have a unique curing need, the prK@Q?POLA?Eò?=PEKJO=re extremely precise, and the manufacturing process runs 24/7. You need a UV/LED curing specialist who understands your growing needs and will help you meet the demands of your ever-changing marketplace. For over two decades Honle UV America has been raising the bar in the development of new UV/LED curing technology that has made the printing, coating, and adhesive assembly industries worldSE@AIKNALNKòP=>HA,QNATLANPEOAHEAOEJQJHKcking the potential of UV/LED light and transforming its power into a variety KB?QOPKIAJCEJAANA@?QNEJCOKHQPEKJOPD=PSEHHI=TEIEVAyour productiREPU=J@LNKòP=>EHEPy ,QNATLANPAJCEJAANO=NAKJD=J@BKNKJOEPAAvaluations, they’ll make recommendations on UV/LED equipment, and support you and yKQNOP=BBPDNKQCDKQPPDAHEBAKBKQNLNK@Q?PO Bluepoint LED

LED Cube 100

JETCURE LED

LED AC 820

LED AC 410

KIAATLHKNAPDAPransformation for yourself and see what makes our UV/LED curing tecDJKHKCU=LNKòP=>HA solution for your groSEJC>QOEJAOO

261 Cedar Hill Street, Marlboro, MA 01752 508.229.7774 • www.honleuv.com


Association News UV+EB Packaging Conference & Fall Member Meeting RadTech is proud to announce the UV+EB Packaging Conference, an exciting, one-day conference in Philadelphia set for Tuesday, October 24, 2017. At the conference, RadTech will host presentations on Packaging Conference 2017 migration, regulatory issues and the latest developments in UV- and EB-curable inks, coatings and adhesives for food and consumer goods packaging. Also, RadTech has announced that the Fall Member Meeting will be the day after the UV+EB Packaging Conference. For additional details and to register, visit www.RadTech.org.

Call for Papers for RadTech 2018: Deadline is September 8 RadTech is pleased to invite the submission of abstracts for RadTech UV+EB Technology Expo and Conference 2018, scheduled for May 7 through 9, 2018, at the Hyatt Regency O’Hare in Rosemont, Illinois. Individuals interested in presenting a technical conference paper are advised that the presentation should be no longer than 25 minutes, with five additional minutes for Q&A. To request an opportunity to present, fill out the online Abstract Submission Form before September 8, 2017. Details are available at www.RadTech2018.com.

RadTech Returns to Redondo Beach for uv.eb WEST 2019 Following a successful – but cold – uv.eb WEST 2017 in San Francisco, RadTech has decided to return to Southern California for uv.eb WEST 2019, set to take place March 19 and 20, 2019, 6 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

at the Crowne Plaza in Redondo Beach, California. The RadTech Annual Winter Meeting is scheduled for March 20 and 21, 2019, at the same hotel. Expect announcements on the program and tabletop exhibition by fall of 2018. Boyd Joins UV+EB Technology Editorial Board Darryl A. Boyd, research chemist in the Optical Sciences Division at the US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, has joined the editorial board of UV+EB Technology. Boyd, who earned a doctorate in inorganic chemistry at Purdue University, currently works to develop chalcogenide-based polymers for use in high-performance optical applications and to chemically modify nanostructured, IR-transmitting substrates to impart such properties as superhydrophobicity. He is principal investigator on a FY2017-2018 grant from the High Energy Laser Joint Technology Office and is included on two patent applications related to his current research. Call for Papers for 2018 SAE World Congress Individuals interested in making a technical presentation at the 2018 SAE World Congress, April 10 through 12, 2018, in Detroit, Michigan, are invited to submit abstracts. Mary Ellen Rosenberger of BaySpring Solutions, and Chris Seubert, Ford Motor Company, will again co-chair the session, which is being sponsored by RadTech. Technical papers are being added to submission requests this time, providing additional value for session attendees. Abstracts are due September 1, 2017, and manuscript deadline is October 17, 2017. For more information about submission requirements, see http://wcx18.org/call-forpapers/.

In Memorium: Rick Sanders Richard Sanders, Energy Sciences, Inc. (ESI), passed away unexpectedly on June 5, 2017. Ed Maguire, president of ESI, wrote the following: “Rick has been a cornerstone of good nature and professionalism at ESI for almost 20 years. He touched so many in such a positive manner. He brought a smile, a charm and a level of comfort to all the worlds he traveled, whether it was in business or playing Santa for youngsters and adults alike or spinning a wood lathe, which he loved, to create art that oozed personal affection. He was special. Rick Sanders was not just a consummate professional but also one of the kindest, most considerate souls I have had the blessing to know.” 

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


gewuv.com

ArcLED

ÂŽ

hybrid... ...UV systems driven by RHINO power electronics ...the only future-proof UV technology with true arc lamp and LED compatibility, supported by the security of a 5-year warranty.

TWO UV Curing Technologies ONE RHINO Power Supply

For further information please contact us on: sales@gewuv.com UK +44 1737 824 500 USA +1 440 237 4439

Germany +49 7022 303 9769 India +91 22 2528 5442


OCTOBER 24, 2017

Packaging Conference 2017

RadTech is proud to announce the UV+EB Packaging Conference, an exciting, one-day conference in Philadelphia. At the conference, we will host presentations on migration, regulatory issues and the latest developments in UV+EB curable inks, coatings, and adhesives for food and consumer goods packaging. SCHEDULE OF EVENTS Registration .................................................................... 7:00 AM - NOON Breakfast ..................................................................... 7:00 AM - 8:00 AM Opening Statements .................................................... 8:00 AM - 8:30 AM Conference Sessions ................................................ 8:30 AM - 10:00 AM Break + Exhibits ...................................................... 10:00 AM - 10:30 AM Conference Sessions ................................................... 10:30 AM - NOON Group Lunch + Exhibits .................................................. NOON - 1:00 PM Conference Sessions .................................................. 1:00 PM - 2:30 PM Break + Exhibits .......................................................... 2:30 PM - 3:00 PM Conference Sessions .................................................. 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM Reception + Exhibits.................................................... 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM

PHILADELPHIA, PA

EXHIBITORS Allnex Eckart America Heraeus Noblelight America LLC Honle UV America, Inc. Hybrid Plastics Inc. Kao Collins Kopp Glass Miwon North America Phoseon Technology Prime UV-IR Siltech Corporation


CONFERENCE PROGRAM UV LED Low Migration Laminating Adhesives for Flexible Packaging Catherine Heckman, Ashland; Jake Staples, Ashland; Jennifer Heathcote, Phoseon 8:00 AM - 8:30 AM EB Inks for Flexible Food Packaging Im Rangwalla, ESI 8:30 AM - 9:00 AM Water-based Energy Curable Compositions for Graphics Applications, Including Food Packaging and Inkjet Inks Jo Ann Arceneaux, Allnex USA, Inc. 9:00 AM - 9:30 AM Breaks + Table-top Exhibits 9:30 AM - 10:00 AM Safety and Compliance of Food Contact Materials at Nestlé Amaury Patin, Nestlé Research Center 10:00 AM - 10:30 AM New Regulatory Reforms: From Broad Strokes to Small Details Eric F. Greenberg, Eric F. Greenberg, P.C. 10:30 AM - 11:00 AM Regulatory Panel Discussion Amaury Patin, Nestle; Eric F. Greenberg; Dr. Greg Pace, Sun Chemical; George Fuchs, NAPIM 11:00 AM - NOON

SPECIAL FSEA SESSION Cold Foil Technology – UV Cured Adhesives and Foils Mike King, Eagle Systems, Inc. 1:00 PM - 1:30 PM Analysis of Specialty UV Coatings for Packaging and Printing Helen Rallis, Sun Chemical Corporation 1:30 PM - 2:00 PM

Group Lunch + Table-Top Exhibits NOON - 1:00 PM UV Inkjet Inks for Packaging Tom Molamphy, AGFA 1:00 PM - 1:30 PM EB Inkjet Case Study Karl Swanson, ebeam Technologies 1:30 PM - 2:00 PM Are You Being Told the Truth About Food Packaging Compliant Ink? Julie Cross, Domino Printing 2:00 PM - 2:30 PM Breaks + Table-top Exhibits 2:30 PM - 3:00 PM Low Migration Panel Discussion Julie Cross, Domino; Jim Bishop, Sun Chemical; Eric F. Greenberg; Steve Katz, Label & Narrow Web 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM Reception + Table-top Exhibits 4:00 PM - 5:00 PM * Program details are subject to change. Check www.radtech.org for the latest details

UV LED Technology and Its Interesting Use in Specialty Curing Applications Jennifer Heathcote, Phoseon Technology 2:00 PM - 2:30 PM Impact of High Visibility Enhancements On Shelf Presence (Foils and Coatings) Jeff Peterson, Foil & Specialty Effects Association )6($

2:30 PM - 3:00 PM

REGISTRATION Advanced Pricing by October 9 RadTech Member: $195.00 Nonmember: $245.00 Printer, Converter, or CPG/Brand Owner: $95.00 Standard Pricing after October 9 RadTech Member: $245.00 Nonmember: $295.00 Printer, Converter, or CPG/Brand Owner: $95.00

Conference Location: DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Airport 4509 Island Avenue Philadelphia, PA 19153 Phone: 1-215-365-4150 Book Room for $164/night by Monday, October 9, 2017

Visit RadTech.org/uveb2017 for registration and more details.


UV CURING TECHNOLOGY QUESTION & ANSWER

Q. How does temperature affect

UV Curing? How is it controlled, and how is it measured?

A.

We have often said that temperature is one of the four key variables1 of UV curing. By this, we mean the temperature of the ink, coating, paint or adhesive. The temperature of the substrate also is important.

All radiant energy arriving at a surface generates heat in the film. The resulting temperature depends on the absorptivity of the surface and substrate. The film (ink, coating, etc.) and substrate have unique characteristics of spectral absorbance, specific heat, thermal conductivity and diffusivity. Temperature can decrease the viscosity of the curable film and have an effect on flow-out, leveling, wetting and molecular mobility. It also is true that the reaction rate is increased – primarily a result of the mobility of relatively large molecules in a viscous (even thixotropic) medium containing nonreactive particles. Medium-pressure UV lamps typically operate at a quartz tube surface temperature of approximately 900°C. The infrared delivered to a surface is primarily a function of the surface area of the bulb and follows the StefanBoltzmann Law. Some bulbs generate three times the IR energy of others, primarily a function of their diameter. Although the radiant energy delivered by LEDs does not include any significant IR or visible radiation, we should remember that “a watt is a watt” in terms of the thermal effect of energy arriving at the surface.

FIGURE 1. Illustration of the temperature benefits of (a) dichroic reflectors in MP systems and (b) speed 4.

The temperature rise of the film can have potentially beneficial (+) or detrimental (-) effects. Beneficial effects are: + increased rate of reaction; + improved leveling and gloss; or + improved wetting of the substrate, improving adhesion.

5.

But, negative effects of excessive heat can include: - reduced viscosity, causing ripples or runs; - volatilization of low molecular weight molecules from the PR polymer, causing damage to its properties; - increased effect of oxygen inhibition; or - softening, deterioration, or damage to the substrate.

7.

The practical answer depends entirely how the film and substrate respond to heat. This is why surface temperature should always be part of the specification of UV exposure. It will obviously be different for coatings or inks and different for substrates such as paper, glass, metal, plastic or wood. The following (in order of preference and roughly, cost) can reduce surface temperatures. 1. Optimize the UV-curable system’s exposure/response efficiency2 and move faster (although some types of machine cannot increase speed). 2. Select smaller diameter MP bulbs; they emit less IR. 3. Use air to cool the surface. Use lamp air if the airflow is positive. 10 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

6.

8.

If the coating doesn’t require high peak irradiance, use one of the methods of defocusing the lamp. The diffusivity of the substrate may reduce the temperature rise. Use dichroic primary reflectors (as illustrated in Figure 1). Add a “hot mirror.” Otherwise avoid quartz windows when possible, as they reduce UV and block very important cooling air flow in MP systems. Use LED UV sources. This will usually require a change in formulation and photoinitiators. Add a chill roller or cold plate under the web. (effective for clear film substrates).

Temperature measurement under UV lamps This has been a troublesome subject. As it relates to UV curing, the typical purpose of temperature measurement is to determine the instantaneous or peak temperature of a temperature-sensitive substrate or of an ink or coating as it passes under UV lamps. Surface temperature rise is affected by (a) radiant energy arriving at the surface, (b) spectral absorptivity of the ink or coating and (c) thermal conductivity or diffusivity of the substrate. uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


FIGURE 2. Potential sources of temperature error from (a) transparency and/or (b) reflection Several methods of measurement can be used, and all have deficiencies. We must understand the errors in each method, or we will not understand the data. As we know from radiometry, when a measurement is used as a specification, and the methods of making the measurement are not defined, they can be of little value and certainly misleading. This is even more of a problem with thermometry. 1. Temperature tabs Devices are available that, by a nonreversible reaction, indicate the maximum temperature to which the tab was exposed. They do not function properly when exposed to infrared radiation, because they directly absorb radiant heat differently from the coating. Worse, they block the substrate from the radiation that would otherwise heat it, distorting the result. 2. Thermocouples Except for thick samples where the only interest is in the bulk average temperature (such as circuit boards or the insides of components), thermocouples are difficult to use reliably. A thermocouple reports only the temperature of its little metal bead – and it must be in nearly complete thermal contact with what it is measuring. If it is subjected to radiant heating, it will show a temperature that has little to do with the temperature of the surface or space – usually much higher. Attempts to measure surface temperature of a radiated part often include various schemes of adhesives to improve conductive contact and overtaping to reduce the effects of radiation. All of this can interfere with an accurate measurement. 3. Noncontacting thermometers Also called infrared thermometers, these noncontact electro-optical devices measure the infrared emittance of a warm or hot surface. They respond to surface temperature because the infrared emission from a surface is a function of the temperature and the emissivity of the surface. uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

To make measurements, the hand-held instrument is located at a convenient distance from the surface. Measurements can be taken in seconds. (Note that the purpose of the LED beam is to locate the target and is not part of the measurement.) Measurements also can be made continuously by connection of the instrument’s signal output to a chart recorder. While an optical thermometer is calibrated for emissivity, organic and many nonmetallic materials have an emissivity of approximately 95% (compared to a “blackbody,” or perfect emitter, having 100%). This allows readings of almost any material with good accuracy without recalibration by using a constant of 0.95. One disadvantage of noncontact thermometers used with UV lamps is the difficulty of measuring the surface when it is directly under the lamp. This can be easily solved: Two measurements made in sequence at known times after exposure allow a backward extrapolation of the peak surface temperature. Most of the time, a quick measurement made as soon after exposure as possible is sufficient. A non-contacting IR thermometer is an accurate and reliable method of measuring surface temperature, although it is often limited to measuring immediately after exposure to the UV lamps. Measuring the temperature of plastic films IR thermometers respond to specific wavelengths in the IR region of the spectrum, typically over a wide range, of 4 to 14 micron (4,000 to 14,000 nm). This is where the difficulty of measuring the temperature of clear plastic films arises. A typical film may be somewhat transparent over most of the spectrum, so if measuring with a broad band detector we may not be measuring the temperature of the film, but the temperature of the floor or any other object behind it! Most clear plastic films exhibit molecular resonant absorption (opacity) at either or both 3.4 micron and 7.9 micron, so accurate measurement of temperature will require more precise instruments operating at only these wavelengths.3 Figure 2 illustrates the potential sources of measurement error when measuring the temperature of clear plastic films. In UV curing, heat may be beneficial and can increase the effectiveness of the process, but only to a point. Excessive heat can be damaging. Methods exist for independently increasing or decreasing temperature. Temperature should be included as one of the process design variables, included in process specifications, and included in process control measurements.  1.

2. 3.

Four principal independent parameters are UV wavelength (λ1-λ2), irradiance profile (It), speed and temperature. Exposure (J/cm²), while fundamental to the curing process, is a secondary combination of two primary variables (irradiance profile and speed). UV+EB Technology, Vol 1, issue 3, 2015; “Cure Ladders” for Optimizing a UV Curing System “Plastic Film Measurement;” publication AN108, by Ircon, Inc.

R.W. Stowe UV Applications Engineering Consultant Heraeus Noblelight America LLC d.stowe@heraeus.com UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 11


INKJET MARKETS By Dene Taylor, PhD, and Vince Cahill, SPF-Inc.

Advances in Energy Cure Inkjet I

nkjet printing using energy-cure (EC) inks is expanding rapidly through the graphic arts and industrial printing markets. Printers in use number in the 10,000s, built by more than 40 graphic arts printer OEMs and at least 100 integrators for other industries. More than 40 companies manufacture UV-cure inkjet ink – about half in North America – and several are nurturing EB as well. Ink distribution is worldwide. Annual ink consumption is measured in thousands of tons, with many more than a thousand devices using ink supplied in gallon bottles or 5-gallon pails. Growth is double-digit and is projected to stay at that rate for some years. Discussion Markets for UV ink include:  graphic arts and commercial printing for billboards, banners, displays, advertising and more;  labels for retail, industrial and commercial products;  3D or additive manufacturing for models and prototypes;  industrial printing, such as flooring, laminate, furniture, wall coverings, decoration, equipment instructions and road signs;  packaging, especially corrugated cardboard, folding carton and some flexible packaging; and  marking and coding, which includes barcodes and serial numbers, etc., on packages and products. Drivers for digital printing The advantages of digital print are the same for new markets as they have been for the mature. They include:  minimal cost and time to change products;  ability to print on demand and slash inventories;  ability to print the exact number needed, not an excess;  economical short runs; and  support for regional selling. EC inkjet also is durable, immediately dry, has bright colors and – of great value for industrial applications – is noncontact. Of equal importance to the owner is that equipment cost is modest for the margin delivered, so loans can be paid off well ahead of schedule. And, the typical machine small footprint often avoids facility expansion. Printing technology The core elements of the inkjet technology are well proven, reliable and becoming more cost-effective. It has maturity, but it is not stagnant – continuous incremental improvement is being made to the printheads, which increases reliability, reduces ink consumption and allows steadily faster operating speeds. It has been the ability to assemble printheads in long arrays spanning the product that has been instrumental in opening the industrial printing market. That is the result of improvements in many areas – design, materials selection, manufacturing methodology, fluid handling and ink quality. But, getting the experience has required markets, the first of which were with aqueous and solvent inks for commercial and ceramic printing. Having a stationary print head with substrate moving continuously made possible the replacement of analog inline printers. And, the growth of the components business – printheads, ink handling, printer management hardware and software – has enabled the traditional OEMs in many industries to assemble or integrate their own inkjet systems. This addresses major weaknesses of the traditional digital printing OEMs – inexperience with materials handling and expertise with the applications. Their developments integrate seamlessly into major production lines, taking the substrate from the preceding process and passing it on in a fit state for the next and all subsequent unit operations.

12 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Growth rates in graphic arts remain in double digits. Competition from third parties is increasing so, although volume is going up, margins are getting tighter, and prices are coming down. Nevertheless, the OEMs have retained a substantial market share. The major change in ink has been to allow LED cure, preferably without inerting. We are watching emulsion UV-cure inks. They promise greater economy but need drying to remove the water. And, they necessarily contain surfactants, so are not yet much outside this sector.

Curing Mercury UV lamps dominate the installed base and are still popular when equipment is being replicated. However, UV LED is now very popular and is preferred (unless it does not perform) because of its long life, consistent output and lower energy use. Obviously, LED also enables UV printing on temperaturesensitive substrates. It is exciting that EB cure for inkjet is a reality. It will be first adopted by the same people who use EB now – say, for offset printing – and for the same reasons. Installation announcements are anticipated around the time of publication of this article, but there are other applications in which it should be superior, and we look forward to enabling them. Market sector activity Inks for graphic arts. This market has a limited design base, as there are only a few machine configurations, a modest number of substrates – most with surfaces inherently suitable for or modified for the ink – and the various end-use requirements are well known. Although numbers of OEMs are increasing, many cover the full market for UV inks, and all ship machines that are readyto-print and install quickly. In the early days of UV, few inks were compatible, so a change required emptying and flushing the complete system. This was laborious, time-consuming and wasteful. Additionally, the OEMs did not want to carry any more inks than necessary: Many had shelf lives of less than a year. So, instead of producing a separate variant when an ink did not perform well – the practice with screen and flexography, for example – the capability of a formulation was expanded. This has been so successful that only about three variants are needed for the majority of graphic arts production. Formulating knowledge has spread, so producing good ink now is comparatively straightforward and less of an art.

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Inks for labels. This market sector is seeing continued strong growth, with most label printing companies now offering digital print and – for the larger companies – UV cure. The ink channel is dominated by the OEMs and OEM ink manufacturers, with only a few third-party manufacturers being sufficiently trusted. Hence, pressure on prices is modest. The ink design base is again quite small: a limited number of substrates, a small number of printhead sources, a narrow range of applications and fewer than a dozen OEMs in control. UV inks easily meet the durability requirements, except for the most demanding long-term exposures. The primary driver for formulation change is demand for low-migration inks for food packaging. Cure solely by electron beam is the ideal antimigration approach, as photoinitiators are the primary source of mobile species, directly or from incomplete monomer trapping. (A combination of UV sufficient to raise ink viscosity – called pinning in the digital world – to avoid bleed at the next colors, ending with purely EB clearcoat has been a vision we have not just for labels, but for part decorating.) EB curing for labels (and folding cartons) has been demonstrated (e.g., DRUPA 2016). Inks for industrial applications. This sector is distinctly different from most others where digital printing has taken hold. There are dozens, if not hundreds, of applications: furniture, flooring, paneling, dashboards, gauges, equipment, logos, component decoration, instructions, plastics decorating, elastic materials and more. A great deal of print is for parts rather than panels or roll stock, so material handling is core. Substrates are of any and all plastics, wood and wood composites, papers, textiles, metals, alloys, leather and so on. They can be exposed in every environment, at all seasons, everywhere around the world. Industrial printers are usually in a manufacturing line: a series of process steps. The printer must take the material from the preceding step, print it and pass it to the next process without delay or impediment. It should not be the rate-determining step. As mentioned above, the availability of inkjet technology components or complete print engines has enabled the production page 14  UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 13


INKJET MARKETS  page 13

“Electron beam cure will ensure penetration of the near food markets packaging and counteract the migration perception of UV, with the opportunity for large inroads into flexible packaging. ” line vendors to have their own assemblies that they will integrate into the total production system. The combinations of application, substrate and process mean nearly every job is distinct. An additional challenge for the formulator is that, unlike graphics and label printing, there are no other variables: Parts are predetermined, the substrate is chosen, the speed is set and there is no latitude with the performance. However, the cost or risk of changing ink supply is high, so business – once earned by the ink vendor – is usually retained. The prognosis for electron beam in this sector is mixed. But, we are seeing applications where cure-through variable thickness (to a millimeter or more) is necessary and, when residues from photoinitiators prevent requirements being met, electron beam is the only viable cure method. Being high-volume industrial, the capital cost that is usually seen as prohibitive is easily amortized. Inks for packaging. Digital printing has entered packaging for applications where the traditional digital OEM machines, whether toner or inkjet, have been functional. These are where there are limited substrate ranges, limited ink options and limited end-use environments. So, large UV inkjet flatbed presses are used for cardboard boxes, while label and commercial roll-to-roll printers have application with folding cartons. What would appear to be an excellent opportunity is flexible packaging (plastic bags and pouches). However, food packaging is the leading sector, and the others follow. And, as food packaging is highly regulated – with a very high penalty from demonstrated or perceived contamination from unbound ink component migration – only a small volume of UV ink is being used. Progress is being made from the determined efforts of committed chemical vendors and ink companies able to afford the development and testing effort. As with label printing, EB inkjet will be well poised here, as there are decades of successful compliance with offset printing and over-coating in the food packaging market by the leading ink vendors with inkjet.

are many opportunities away from food. The range of substrates is extensive: a few metals, most plastics and paper, whether cellulosic or synthetic. Durability demands are modest or low. Cans and bottles have exterior exposure, outdoor and all seasons. Paper-based packaging, of course, is less demanding, but most have freezer-to-oven expectations. As much of the market is retail, print image appearance has high value. 3D and additive manufacturing. This is a relatively small volume but very high value market and good business for those in it. It has required distinctly different formulating, as the inks must substitute for solid polymers produced by extrusion molding, for example. OEMs control the ink channel and have limited the opportunities for entry by third-party formulators. Third parties have traditionally been the most innovative, so access to printers is critical for the expansion of the technology after this first easy boom. The installed base now is aging sufficiently for there to be machines available. It is to be hoped that the OEMs are not so short-sighted that they totally lock out the innovators for the next generation. Opportunities Energy cure ink for inkjet is a high-growth market: Rising tides lift all boats. Electron beam cure will ensure penetration of the near food markets packaging and counteract the migration perception of UV, with the opportunity for large inroads into flexible packaging. The industrial market also has large potential. In many instances, new installations will be based on digital inkjet printers and not analog, as the technology is sufficiently mature to be highly reliable. Similarly, there are applications where not only will EB be the best cure mechanism, but it can be easily afforded. Nevertheless, industrial inks are at least semi-custom – if not unique. Application know-how is particularly valued, but providing the balance for the complete production system while meeting or bettering end-use expectations is, as always, best.  Shortly after World War II, Dene Taylor was found under a cabbage on a dairy farm in New Zealand. He continued his affinity for dirt through his education, gaining a PhD in clay chemistry at the University of Waikato in 1977, and a postdoctoral fellowship on sewage-soil chemistry with Albany Medical College and NYS Dept. Health. In his industrial career, he led development of specialty papers and films for analog and digital printing, using EB cure first in 1988, and UV cure from 1989. He joined RadTech shortly thereafter. In 2000, he formed the technical consultancy Specialty Papers & Films (SPF-Inc), working not just on substrate but on all components and processes from raw materials to product disposal for printed and coated applications. Energy cure applications have ranged from decorative fingernails, cabinet doors, spacecraft and rubber bands to bathroom floor tiles. For more information, email dene@spf-inc.com.

Packaging offers dozens of applications for cartons, boxes, bags, cans, bottles and pouches. Surfaces are flat or curved, and there 14 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


REVIEW

RadTech Sponsors UV LED Symposium in China O

n June 2, UV LED Symposium, hosted by both RadTech China and RadTech International North America, was successfully held in Guangzhou, China. As an emerging environmentally friendlier technology, UV LED is gaining momentum in China, thanks to the government’s initiative of addressing pollution issues with “green manufacturing.” Sponsored by Guangdong Industrial University, DSM Functional Materials and Foshan Yangguang Yicai Coatings Inc., the UV LED Symposium attracted nearly 240 attendees from 129 companies (114 domestic and 15 foreign). Twelve talks were given during the oneday event, covering a wide range of UV LED-related topics. These included market analysis; light source and equipment; photoinitiator development; raw materials, such as UV LED resins; and UV LED-curable coatings and inks. A panel Q & A session was held after the talks, and the invited experts shared their thoughts about UV LED’s outlook, chip selection, energy conversion efficiency and photoinitiator selection, among other topics. It’s worth noting that UV LED technology is expanding well beyond radiation cure. For example, the use of UV LED UVC for water treatment is of great interest, and the panel discussion focused on the potential cost reduction of UV LED UVC chips, which would make such technology commercially feasible.

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Representing RadTech International North America was current board member Dr. Xiaosong Wu, giving both opening remarks and a talk on UV LED-curable coating development. RadTech China is grateful for the collaboration from RadTech International North America, which made this international Symposium a reality. Five of the 12 symposium talks were from either US companies or their subsidiaries in China. Both RadTech organizations expressed strong interest and intention to continue such collaboration in the future. 

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 17


FTIR By Nasreen Khan, Technical Service Project Leader, and Shakher Puntambeker, Principal Chemist, Dunmore Corporation

Utilizing Fourier Transform Infrared for Development and Quality Assurance of Cure Chemistries P

roduct development and quality assurance are paramount in the manufacture of quality engineered films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is an analytical technique that assists development on the lab bench and assures quality during manufacturing. During the development process, it can be used to select optimal components. After the development phase, when chemistry and manufacturing processes are established, FTIR can help maintain quality of components and final product. This article will give a brief background on FTIR and describe how the author’s company utilizes this tool to provide high-quality engineered films. FTIR background and testing chemistries Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is an analytical technique that employs the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to probe certain material properties. Typically, the mid-IR range of the spectrum (2,500 to 25,000 nm) is used to identify materials whose molecules or functional groups vibrate as a response to IR energy. As the functional groups vibrate within their structure, a unique spectra or fingerprint of the material is generated. Samples can be any solid, liquid or gas that responds appropriately to IR energy. For plastics-related industries, including coaters and laminators, polymeric-based materials are frequently analyzed to determine a number of properties. From unknown identification to reaction monitoring, FTIR is an invaluable analysis tool in both the research and development and quality assurance realms in the manufacture of coatings, films and laminations. Multipart chemistries have a variety of applications for coatings and laminations. From scratch resistance to adhesives in laminates, the FTIR is used to monitor chemical reactions and crosslinking systems, such as those in epoxies, polyurethanes and polyesters. The reactions are monitored over time or with the addition of heat or UV energy, and distinctive peaks are analyzed for change in peak height or even wavenumber shifts. This article explores the cure progression of an isocyanate in adhesives. As adhesives cure, the multifunctional isocyanate groups form bonds with the free hydroxyl groups, amines or free moisture in the system. As the groups react and bond, the peak diminishes, and the peak height in the y-axis decreases. This peak occurs at approximately 2250 wavenumbers (cm-1).

Surface or bulk measurements can be taken with different FTIR setups. Laminates with a polyurethane or polyester adhesive can be measured in bulk with a transmission setup. In this mode, the IR beam will penetrate the entirety of the sample. When measuring in bulk, however, all of the layers and components present in the sample appear and overlap in the resulting spectra. Depending on the cross-linking chemistry and locations of the peaks in question, the spectra may need to be de-convoluted through subtraction methods with some of the individual layers or films. Fortunately, few (if any) other functional groups overlap with isocyanate at 2250 cm-1, and their curing is easier to analyze. All spectra have to be baseline-corrected so that the peak heights can be compared. Development and cure monitoring In development, after choosing an appropriate adhesive chemistry for the required laminate properties and page 20  18 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


SARTOMER PA R T N E R S LET’S FORMULATE

T O G E T H E R.

SM

You’re passionate about your formulations. We are, too. Our tech support team contributes ingenious chemistry to advance performance in a wide host of applications. Think electronics, soft-touch coatings and automotive adhesives, just to name a few. Formulators come to us for our unique expertise in acrylate and methacrylate chemistry. We lead the world with the broadest product portfolio for UV/EB/dual cure technology. But, it’s our interactive chemist-to-chemist support program that distinguishes us from the rest. Our technologists understand your needs and create customized and innovative solutions to reach your specific formulation, processing and performance goals.

© Arkema Inc. 2017

Follow us on:

sartomer.com

Visit us at the CAMX 2017 Exhibit September 12-14, Booth M52 Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, FL


FTIR ď ´ page 18 film type, optimizing the formulation is the next step. The vendorsuggested proportions of components can be adjusted and iterated to achieve desired properties. When selecting an isocyanate crosslinking system, the isocyanate can be chosen based on

properties, such UV stability, aliphatic or aromatic functionality, cure time and relative bond strength for laminates. The choice of chemistry also depends on the bonding substrates in the laminate. FTIR analysis plays a role during development to understand cure time, formulation and processing relationships to the desired properties. Depending on the requirements of the product, using too much cross-linker can result in a loss of certain properties, such as adhesion in a laminate, as it reacts to itself or to excess moisture in the environment. Not having enough of the isocyanate also may not achieve the desired properties. Therefore, selecting the appropriate formulation and processing for the product is imperative.

FIGURE 1. Chemistry 1 (black with higher % NCO) vs. Chemistry 2 (blue with lower % NCO) measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7 days

FIGURE 2. Chemistry 1 (red) vs. Chemistry 3 (blue, higher proportion of NCO component) measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 days 20 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

To demonstrate this principle, two isocyanates with different percent isocyanate content (% NCO) but similar functionality were mixed in the same proportion and with the same resin. After drawing down and creating the laminate at room temperature in the lab, the laminates were tested in the FTIR in transmission for up to seven days. The samples were tested at initial, one, two, three, six and seven days. As can be seen in Figure 1, the isocyanate with the slightly higher % NCO content (Chemistry 1 in black) takes longer to cure, as compared to that of Chemistry 2 in blue with lower % NCO content. This is expected because the isocyanate in Chemistry 1 started at a larger initial peak (at ~30% transmission) compared to Isocyanate 2 (at ~60% transmission) and remained higher at each time point. This also is consistent with the information provided by the vendor about cure speeds. To better serve the requirements of a different laminate, the uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


same chemistry as in Chemistry 1 (same % NCO content) was used — but in a higher proportion of the isocyanate to the resin. Doubling the proportion of the isocyanate Chemistry 3 (Figure 2, blue) compared to the original Chemistry 1 (red) proved again that having a greater proportion of isocyanate in the chemistry increased the time needed to cure. Chemistry 3 started with the peak at ~20% T, while Chemistry 1 started at ~40% T. The black line represents the film used in the laminate. After seven days of cure, Chemistry 1 is close to fully cured, while Chemistry 3 is not. However, increasing the proportion of the isocyanate component in the mixture allows for slightly different bulk properties, as needed for the page 22 

FIGURE 3. Chemistry 1 (red – Sample 1) vs. Chemistry 2 (green – Sample 2) measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 days

EIT® LEDCure™ L395

x x x x

Optics designed specifically for UV LEDs Profiling & Non-Profiling Versions 40 Watt/cm2 Dynamic Range L395 shipping, other bands released soon

x x x

New L395 Band (above) with Total Measured Optics Response Provides Accurate, Repeatable & Absolute Values USB Download, Works with Updated PowerView II Software

New Address: 309 Kelly’s Ford Plaza SE Leesburg, VA 20175 Email: uv@eit.com

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Phone: 703--478--0700

Web: eit.com

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 21


FTIR  page 21 requirements of the product. Ultimately there is a balance between formulation, processing and final product for two-part chemistries, which can be monitored using FTIR.

Quality assurance and feedback using FTIR Once a formula and processing steps are established, analyzing the isocyanate peak in a laminate during production provides another level of feedback to control the process. As seen in Figure 3, two laminates were made from the same batch of chemistry (Chemistry 1) in the lab; however, one drawdown (Chemistry 1 – Sample 2 in green) was made incorrectly. The isocyanate peak height was higher initially, even though the batch of chemistry was the same. Visually, the quality of the laminate was poor, there were bubbles, and the laydown was not smooth. Given the initially high isocyanate peak height, as expected, the sample was not cured in seven days. This highlights the importance of controlling the processing of two-part chemistries. If processing is different, even with the same chemical mixture and proportions, the curing time and quality can be affected. FIGURE 4. Historic FTIR data of laminates stored for 24 hours in a refrigerator, 24 Measuring and identifying the hours in the lab/warehouse, 24 hours in 100˚F oven and a laminate aged for two approximate range of isocyanate months peak height and associating it with acceptable product performance provides another test method to assure quality during production.

FIGURE 5. As the coating cures, the amount of acrylate and intensity of the 810 cm-1. decreases 22 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

The spectra depicted thus far represent samples made in the lab; however, the same principles apply to production samples of two-part chemistries in laminates. Figure 4 shows historical FTIR data taken of samples of a laminate right off the production line. Pieces of the sample were placed in various conditions and aged to understand the effects of storage conditions and temperature on the cure time. The isocyanate peaks at 2250 cm-1 from bottom to top represent storage for 24 hours in a refrigerator, 24 hours in the lab/warehouse, 24 hours in 100˚F oven and a page 24  uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


FTIR  page 22

In the process of iterating formulations of two-part chemistries – such as isocyanate-based adhesives – monitoring the cure reaction based on the isocyanate peak can help choose and identify appropriate proportions for a desired product. laminate aged for two months. This implies that, as more heat or time is added to the laminate, the cure rate is increased and the time needed for a full cure is decreased. This provides an idea of post-production processing and storage conditions with respect to curing. As needed, changing the processing conditions — including additional storage time before successive manufacturing steps — can help deliver quality products. UV curing FTIR can be used to determine the degree of cure of UV curing materials. The determination of the extent of cure is important for quality control and also can be used for optimizing the manufacturing process. For experimental purposes, a hard-coat formulation that cures by radical polymerization due to UV exposure was coated on a PET film. For curing purposes, laboratory UV curing equipment from American Ultraviolet with a mercury lamp was used. The curing was performed at 125 WPI and 90 FPM with multiple passes to illustrate degree of cure. A Bruker Alpha FTIR spectrometer with a diamond ATR accessory was used for collecting spectra after each pass. The ATR technique measures IR reflectance from the surface of the coating and minimizes the contribution of the base film to the IR spectrum. The spectrum was taken by pressing the coated side of the film on the diamond crystal. For each experiment, 32 scans were taken.

Conclusion In developing, formulating and ensuring quality engineered films, coatings and laminates, the FTIR is a powerful and dynamic tool. Particularly in the process of iterating formulations of two-part chemistries — such as isocyanate-based adhesives — monitoring the cure reaction based on the isocyanate peak can help choose and identify appropriate proportions for a desired product. It also can provide a check during production and help determine appropriate processing and storage after production. In addition to chemistries that cure over time, chemistries that involve UV curing also can be studied and their processing perfected with the help of the FTIR. Depending on surface or bulk measurements, multiple setups can be used to glean the information needed for different sample types. Beyond the scope of this article, the FTIR can help identify contamination and be utilized for incoming inspection and bulk unknown chemical identification. Ultimately, the FTIR is a powerful analytic tool to ensure a great quality product.  Acknowledgements The author would like to acknowledge Robin Kobren for providing historical data included in the article as well as experimental guidance. References 1. Radice, S. and Bradley. M. (2007) Time-Based FT-IR Analysis of Curing of Polyurethanes (Application Note# 51255). Retrieved from Thermo Fischer Scientific website: https://tools.thermofisher.com/ content/sfs/brochures/D10290~.pdf. 2. Bruker Optics Inc. (2010). Determination of the degree of cure of a varnish (Application Note AN# 103). Retrieved from Bruker Optics Inc website: https://www.bruker.com/fileadmin/user_upload/8PDF-Docs/OpticalSpectrospcopy/FT-IR/ALPHA/AN/AN103_ Determination_CuringTime_EN.pdf 3. Tracton, A. (2005). Coatings Technology Handbook, Third Edition. CRC Press.

Reprinted with permission from Converting Quarterly. Nasreen Khan is a Technical Service Project Leader at Dunmore Corporation. She holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in materials science and engineering from Drexel University. Shakher G. Puntambeker, Ph.D., is principal chemist with Dunmore Corporation. For more information, visit www. dunmore.com.

For evaluating cure of the hard-coat, the peak at 810 cm-1 related to the acrylic moiety was used. As the coating cures, the amount of the acrylate decreases and so the intensity of the 810 cm-1. decreases. This can be seen in Figure 5. By referencing another peak that does not change during curing, a method can be developed to correlate the intensity of the 810 cm-1 to the degree of cure. 24 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


THE SOLUTION IN ENERGY CURING

Miwon Specialty Chemical Co., Ltd. is a world-class producer of specialty acrylate and methacrylate monomers and oligomers. Miwon maintains a global presence – in Asia, North America and Europe – with full-scale production facilities, regional technical support laboratories, regional customer sales/supply VXSSRUWRIÀFHVDQGORFDOZDUHKRXVHV We are a key raw materials supplier to the inks, coatings, adhesives and electronics industries. As manufacturing raw materials for UV and EB curing is our core business, we offer one of the broadest product lines for formulators utilizing this advanced and environmentally friendly technology. Products are engineered to support changing market needs: • Cross contamination free • Toluene free (HAP free) • Consistency in quality • BPA-free systems • High purity • Low residuals • Low extractables • High refractive index • Tin-free oligomers • Captive EO/PO capability As a member of the American Chemistry Council, we are committed to the principles of Responsible Care. Miwon Specialty Chemical Co., Ltd. Miwon North America 696 W. Lincoln Highway Exton, PA 19341

Phone: 484-872-8711 Fax: 484-872-8717 orders@miwonus.com www.Miramer.com


ANNUAL BUYERS GUIDE Products/Services .................................................................................................................... 28 UV/EB Equipment ........................................................................................................... 28 Formulated Products....................................................................................................... 28 Raw Materials ................................................................................................................. 29 Services .......................................................................................................................... 30 Manufacturers Directory .......................................................................................................... 31

PRODUCTS/SERVICES OFFERED INDEX # 3D Printing/Photopolymers ......... 28

G Glass Optics ............................... 29

A Additives ..................................... 29 Adhesives & Sealants................. 28

H Hybrid Polymers ......................... 29

C Coatings ..................................... 28 Consulting................................... 30 Cure/Dose Measurement ........... 28 Curing Lamps ............................. 28 Custom ....................................... 29 E Electron Beam ............................ 28 Emulsions/Dispersions ............... 29

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

I Inks ............................................. 29

P Photoinitiators/Sensitizers .......... 30 Pigments/Dispersions ................. 30 Pilot Lines ................................... 30 R Reactive Silicones ...................... 30 Reflectors ................................... 28 Resins......................................... 30

L LED............................................. 28 Light Stabilizers .......................... 29

S Surface Preparation.................... 28

M Monomers................................... 29

T Toll Services ............................... 30

O Oligomers ................................... 29 Overspray Collection .................. 28

U Ultraviolet.................................... 28

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 27


PRODUCTS/SERVICES UV/EB EQUIPMENT Cure/Dose Measurement Carestream Contract Manufacturing DOCTORUV.com ebeam Technologies EIT Instrument Markets IST America Gigahertz-Optik, Inc. Miltec UV

Honle UV America 261 Cedar Hill St. Bldg. C Marlboro, MA 01752 Phone: 508-229-7774 Fax: 508-229-8530 Website: HonleUV.com

Dymax Oligomers & Coatings Excelitas Technologies GEW Inc. Heraeus Noblelight America LLC Honle UV America, Inc. Innovations in Optics, Inc. Integration Technology IST America Phoseon Technology RAHN USA Corporation Sunlite Science & Technology, Inc. Three Royal Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. Ushio America, Inc. XDS Holdings, Inc.

Overspray Collection Herding Filtration LLC

Reflectors

EIT Instrument Markets

Porex Corporation

.HOO\V)RUG3OD]D6( /HHVEXUJ, VA 201 Phone: 703-478-0700 Email: uv@eit.com Website: eit.com

Curing Lamps American Ultraviolet AMS Spectral UV – a Baldwin Technology Company A.W.T. World Trade, Inc. Clearstone Technologies Inc. DOCTORUV.com Dymax Oligomers & Coatings ebeam Technologies Excelitas Technologies GEW Inc. Hanovia Specialty Lighting LLC

UV III Systems, Inc.

Surface Preparation

59 Cedarvale Estates Alburgh, VT 05440

Carestream Contract Manufacturing DOCTORUV.com Honle UV America, Inc. Nordson Corporation Ushio America, Inc.

Phone: 508-883-4881 Toll Free: 866-388-7880 Website: uv3.com

Heraeus Noblelight America LLC Honle UV America, Inc. IST America Miltec UV Nordson Corporation Phoseon Technology Primarc UV Curing Lamps, a Baldwin Technology brand Ushio America, Inc. UV III Systems, Inc.

Ultraviolet American Ultraviolet A.W.T World Trade Inc. Baldwin Technology Boston Electronics Carestream Contract Manufacturing Clearstone Technologies Inc. DOCTORUV.com Dymax Oligomers & Coatings

Electron Beam ebeam Technologies Energy Sciences Inc.

LED

A.W.T. World Trade, Inc. 4321 N. Knox Avenue Chicago, IL 60641 Phone: 773-777-7100 Fax: 773-777-0909 Website: awt-gpi.com

Heraeus Noblelight America LLC 910 Clopper Road Gaithersburg, MD 20878 Phone: 301-527-2660 Fax: 301-527-2661 Website: heraeus-noblelight.com

American Ultraviolet AMS Spectral UV – a Baldwin Technology Company A.W.T. World Trade, Inc. Baldwin Technology Boston Electronics Clearstone Technologies Inc. DOCTORUV.com

Excelitas Technologies OmniCure® UV Curing Solutions

Nedap N.V. Parallelweg 2 7141 DC Groenlo The Netherlands Phone: +31 544 471860 Website: www.nedap-uv.com

Excelitas Technologies Flint Group GEW Inc. Gigahertz-Optik, Inc. Hanovia Specialty Lighting LLC Heraeus Noblelight America LLC Herding Filtration LLC Honle UV America, Inc. Integration Technology IRTronix Inc. IST America JB Machinery Inc. Miltec UV Nedap N.V. Nordson Corporation Primarc UV Curing Lamps, a Baldwin Technology brand RND Arastima Gelistirme Ltd Sti Three Royal Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. Ushio America, Inc. UV III Systems, Inc. XDS Holdings, Inc.

FORMULATED PRODUCTS 3D Printing/Photopolymers Colorado Photopolymer Solutions (CPS) Dymax Oligomers & Coatings Molecule Corp. Spectra Group Limited, Inc.

Adhesives & Sealants ACTEGA North America, Inc. Applied Molecules LLC Ashland Performance Materials BASF Corporation, Dispersions & Resins Colorado Photopolymer Solutions (CPS) Cyngient DKSH North America, Inc. DOCTORUV.com Dyna-Tech Adhesives Electronic Materials Inc. (EMIUV) Energy Sciences Inc. FSP Research, Inc. Hampford Research Inc. IGM Resins USA Inc. ITW Evercoat Joules Angstrom UV Printing Inks Corp. Lubrizol Advanced Materials Miltec UV Novagard Solutions Rapid Cure Technologies, Inc. Royal Adhesives and Sealants LLC Spectra Group Limited Inc. Strathmore Products, Inc. Sun Chemical Corporation Toyo Ink America, LLC Watson Standard Company

UV III Systems, Inc.

Coatings

2260 Argentia Rd. Mississauga, Ontario L5N 6H7

59 Cedarvale Estates Alburgh, VT 05440

Phone: 905-821-2600 Fax: 905-821-2055 Website: excelitas.com/omnicure

Phone: 508-883-4881 Toll Free: 866-388-7880 Website: uv3.com

ACTEGA North America, Inc. Akzo Nobel Coatings, Inc. Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. Applied Molecules LLC BASF Corporation, Dispersions & Resins

28 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


PRODUCTS/SERVICES Inks

Sartomer Americas 502 Thomas Jones Way Exton, PA 19341 Phone: 610-363-4100 Website: sartomer.com

Carestream Contract Manufacturing Chitec Technology Corp. Coatings & Adhesives Corporation Colorado Photopolymer Solutions (CPS) Cyngient DOCTORUV.com DKSH North America, Inc. DSM DVUV LLC Dymax Oligomers & Coatings Dyna-Tech Adhesives Electronic Materials Inc. (EMIUV) Energy Sciences Inc. Estron Chemical, Inc. Eternal Materials Company LTD Flint Group FSP Research, Inc. Hampford Research Inc. IGM Resins USA Inc. INX International Ink Co. ITW Evercoat Joules Angstrom UV Printing Inks Corp. Keyland Polymer Material Sciences, LLC Keystone Research & Pharmaceutical Kolorcure Corporation Light Curable Coatings Lubrizol Advanced Materials Miltec UV Nova Pressroom Products Novagard Solutions Penn Color, Inc. PL Industries, a division of Esstech, Inc. PPG Coatings Innovation Center Prime Coatings Quaker Chemical Corporation R&D Coatings, Inc. Rapid Cure Technologies, Inc. Red Spot Paint & Varnish Co., Inc. Royal Adhesives and Sealants LLC Siegwerk USA Spectra Group Limited Inc. Strathmore Products, Inc. Sun Chemical Corporation UV Specialties Van Technologies. Inc. Watson Standard Company Wikoff Color Corporation

ACTEGA North America, Inc. Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. Applied Molecules LLC BASF Corporation, Dispersions & Resins Collins Inkjet Colorado Photopolymer Solutions (CPS) Cyngient DKSH North America, Inc. DSM ECKART America Corp. Energy Sciences Inc. Estron Chemical, Inc. Eternal Materials Company LTD Flint Group Ink Systems Inc INX International Ink Co. Joules Angstrom UV Printing Inks Corp. Kao Collins, Inc. Kolorcure Corporation Molecule Corp. Penn Color, Inc. Rapid Cure Technologies, Inc. Siegwerk USA Strathmore Products, Inc. Sun Chemical Corporation Three Royal Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. Toyo Ink America, LLC Watson Standard Company Wikoff Color Corporation

RAW MATERIALS Additives Allnex Ashland Performance Materials BASF Corporation, Dispersions & Resins BCH Brühl Chitec Technology Corp. DKSH North America, Inc. Dymax Oligomers & Coatings Estron Chemical, Inc. Flint Group IGM Resins USA Inc. Kromachem, Inc. Lambson Ltd. (US) Lintech International Lubrizol Advanced Materials Miwon North America Nagase America Penn Color, Inc. PL Industries, a division of Esstech, Inc.

Kowa American Corporation Lambson Ltd. (US) Lintech International Melrob US Inc. Miwon North America Nagase America Penn Color, Inc. PL Industries, a division of Esstech, Inc. rad-solutions llc RAHN USA Corporation Sartomer Americas Synasia, Inc. Xamchem, LLC

rad-solutions llc RAHN USA Corporation Sartomer Americas Siltech Corporation Spectra Group Limited Inc. UV Specialties Xamchem, LLC

Custom IGM Resins USA Inc.

Emulsions/Dispersions Alberdingk Boley, Inc.

Oligomers

Glass Optics Kopp Glass

Hybrid Polymers Allnex

Light Stabilizers BASF Corporation, Dispersions & Resins

Monomers Aal Chem Allnex BASF Corporation, Dispersions & Resins BCH Brühl DKSH North America, Inc. DSM-AGI Corporation Eternal Materials Company LTD Hampford Research Inc. IGM Resins USA Inc. Keystone Research & Pharmaceutical

Aal Chem Allnex BASF Corporation, Dispersions & Resins Campbell & Co. DKSH North America, Inc. DSM-AGI Corporation Dymax Oligomers & Coatings Eternal Materials Company LTD IGM Resins USA Inc. Lintech International Melrob US Inc. Miwon North America Nagase America rad-solutions llc RAHN USA Corporation Sartomer Americas Siltech Corporation Xamchem, LLC

Aal Chem 2240 29th Street SE Grand Rapids, MI 49508 Phone: 616-247-9851 Website: aalchem.com

Aal Chem 2240 29th Street SE Grand Rapids, MI 49508 Phone: 616-247-9851 Website: aalchem.com

RAHN USA Corporation 1005 N. Commons Drive Aurora, IL 60504

Custom

Siltech

Colorado Photopolymer Solutions (CPS) IGM Resins USA Inc.

225 Wicksteed Ave. Toronto, ON Canada M4H 1G5 Phone: 416-424-4567 Fax: 416-424-3158 Website: siltech.com

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Phone: 630-851-4220 Fax: 630-851-4863 Website: rahn-group.com

Nagase America 546 Fifth Avenue 16F New York, NY 10036 Phone: 212-703-1373 Website: nagaseamerica.com

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 29


PRODUCTS/SERVICES Photoinitiators/Sensitizers Aal Chem Allnex BASF Corporation, Dispersions & Resins BCH Brühl Campbell & Co. Chitec Technology Corp. Colorado Photopolymer Solutions (CPS) DKSH North America, Inc. Hampford Research Inc. IGM Resins USA Inc. Kowa American Corporation Lambson Ltd. (US) Lintech International Miwon North America Nagase America PL Industries, a division of Esstech, Inc. RAHN USA Corporation Spectra Group Limited Inc. Synasia, Inc. UV Specialties

SERVICES Consulting American Ultraviolet Applied Molecules LLC BCH Brühl Colorado Photopolymer Solutions (CPS) DOCTORUV.com Dymax Oligomers & Coatings IST America Keyland Polymer Material Services, LLC KJCJ Consulting Molecule Corp. Paul Mills Consulting Pincus Associates, Inc. rad-solutions llc Rapid Cure Technologies, Inc. Primarc UV Curing Lamps, a Baldwin Technology brand Spectra Group Limited Inc. UV III Systems, Inc. UV Specialties Van Technologies, Inc. Xamchem, LLC

Pilot Lines

Aal Chem 2240 29th Street SE Grand Rapids, MI 49508

Carestream Contract Manufacturing DOCTORUV.com ebeam Technologies Energy Sciences Inc. UV III Systems, Inc. Xamchem, LLC

Phone: 616-247-9851 Website: aalchem.com

Pigments/Dispersions Allnex Collins Inkjet DKSH North America, Inc. ECKART America Corp. Flint Group INX International Ink Co. Kromachem, Inc. Lintech International Lubrizol Advanced Materials Nagase America Penn Color, Inc. PL Industries, a division of Esstech, Inc. Spectra Group Limited Inc. Toyo Ink America, LLC Xamchem, LLC

Reactive Silicones Siltech Corporation

Resins IGM Resins USA Inc. Keyland Polymer Material Sciences, Inc.

UV III Systems, Inc. 59 Cedarvale Estates Alburgh, VT 05440 Phone: 508-883-4881 Toll Free: 866-388-7880 Website: uv3.com

Toll Services BCH Brühl Carestream Contract Manufacturing Colorado Photopolymer Solutions (CPS) Dymax Oligomers & Coatings Dyna-Tech Adhesives Energy Sciences Inc. Estron Chemical, Inc. IGM Resins USA Inc. Molecule Corp. PL Industries, a division of Esstech, Inc. rad-solutions llc Rapid Cure Technologies, Inc. Synasia Inc. UV III Systems, Inc. UV Specialties Xamchem, LLC

30 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY Baldwin Technology

Aal Chem

2240 29th Street SE Grand Rapids, MI 49508 616-247-9851 aalchem.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Biomedical/Medical; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

ACTEGA North America, Inc. 950 S. Chester Avenue, Suite B2 Delran, NJ 08075 800-255-0021 actega.com

Akzo Nobel Coatings Inc. 1567 Prospect Street High Point, NC 27260 336-841-5111 akzonobel.com

Alberdingk Boley, Inc.

6008 West Gate City Boulevard Greensboro, NC 27407 336-454-5000 alberdingkusa.com Industries Served: Concrete; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Allied PhotoChemical, Inc. 48 N. Airport Road Kimball, MI 48074 810-364-6910 alliedphotochemical.com

allnex 9005 Westside Parkway Alpharetta, GA 30009 770-280-8300 | 800-433-2873 allnex.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Biomedical/Medical; Collision Repair/ Refinishing; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

American Ultraviolet

212 S. Mount Zion Road Lebanon, IN 46052 800-288-9288 americanultraviolet.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing; Collision Repair & Refinishing

AMS Spectral UV – a Baldwin Technology Company 674 Highland Drive River Falls, WI 54022 715-425-5600 amsspectraluv.com Industries Served: Electronics; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

14600 West 106th Street Lenexa, KS 66215 913-888-9800 baldwintech.com Industries Served: Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging

BASF Corporation, Dispersions & Resins

24710 W. Eleven Mile Road Southfield, MI 48034 800-231-7868 basf.us/dpsolutions Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Collision Repair & Refinishing; Electronics; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Applied Molecules, LLC 11042 Hi Tech Drive Whitmore Lake, MI 48189 810-355-1475 appliedmolecules.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Automotive/ Transportation; Electronics; Glass; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging

Armstrong Flooring 2500 Columbia Avenue Lancaster, PA 17602 800-233-3823 armstrongflooring.com Industries Served: Residential & Commercial Flooring

Ashland Performance Materials 5200 Blazer Parkway Dublin, OH 43017 614-790-3394 ashland.com

A.W.T. World Trade, Inc.

4321 N. Knox Avenue Chicago, IL 60641 773-777-7100 awt-gpi.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging

BCH Brühl – Chemikalien Handel GmbH

Immendorfer Str. 8 50321 Brühl, Deutschland +49-2232-93307-0 bch-bruehl.de Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Collision Repair & Refinishing; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Boston Electronics 91 Boylston Street Brookline, MA 02445 617-566-3821 boselec.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Biomedical/Medical; Electronics

Campbell & Co. 198 Main Street Charlemont, MA 01339 413-339-8333 campbell-uv.com

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 31


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY Carestream Contract Manufacturing

DKSH North America, Inc.

Dyna-Tech Adhesives

8124 Pacific Avenue White City, OR 97503 541-831-7133 tollcoating.com Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Biomedical/Medical; Printing & Packaging; Glass

100 Stierli Court, Suite 102 Mt. Arlington, NJ 07856 908-810-5511 dksh.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Automotive/ Transportation; Collision Repair/Refinishing; Electronics; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging

2071 Country Club Road Grafton, WV 26354 304-265-5200 dyna-techadhesives.com Industries Served: Printing & Packaging

Chitec Technology Corp. 20F, No. 57, Sec. 2, Dunhua S Road Taipei City, 106 Taiwan +886 2-2700-6678 chitec.com/english/

Clearstone Technologies Inc. 625 St. Louis Street, Suite 35 Hopkins, MN 55343 612-824-4846 clearstonetech.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Collision Repair/Refinishing; Electronics; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Coatings & Adhesives Corporation 1901 Popular Street NE Leland, NC 28451 910-371-3184 cacoatings.com

Collins Inkjet 1201 Edison Drive Cincinnati, OH 45216 513-948-9000 collinsinkjet.com

Colorado Photopolymer Solutions (CPS) 1880 S. Flatiron Court Boulder, CO 80301 303-551-3213 cpspolymers.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Biomedical/Medical; Collision Repair/ Refinishing; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics/Composites; Printing/ Packaging; Wood Finishing

Cyngient 41 Plymouth Street Fairfield, NJ 07004 973-882-4600 cyngient.com Industries Served: Printing & Packaging

Digital Light Lab 10820 Murdock Drive Knoxville, TN 37932 865-694-7862

32 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

DOCTORUV.com

PO Box 4254 Redondo Beach, CA 90277 310-698-0288 doctoruv.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Biomedical/Medical; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics/Composites; Printing/ Packaging; Wood Finishing

ebeam Technologies COMET Technologies USA, Inc. 8700 Hillandale Road Davenport, IA 52806 563-285-7411 ebeamtechnologies.com Industries Served: Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

ECKART America Corp. 830 E. Eric Street Painesville, OH 44077 440-954-7600 eckart.com Industries Served: Printing & Packaging

DSM 1122 St. Charles Street Elgin, IL 60120 800-222-7189 dsm.com

DSM-AGI Corporation 730 Main Street Wilmington, MA 01887 978-821-6340 dsm-agi.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Automotive/ Transportation; Collision Repair/Refinishing; Electronics; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

DVUV LLC 4641 Hinckley Industrial Parkway Cleveland, OH 44109 216-741-5511 dvuv.com

EIT Instrument Markets

309 Kellys Ford Plaza SE Leesburg, VA 20175 703-478-0700 eit.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Biomedical/Medical; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites

Electronic Materials Inc. (EMIUV) 1814 Airport Road Breckenridge, CO 80424 970-547-0807 emiuv.com Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Biomedical/ Medical; Electronics

Enercon Industries Corporation

Dymax Oligomers & Coatings

318 Industrial Lane Torrington, CT 06790 860-626-7006 dymax-oc.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Collision Repair/Refinishing; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

W140 N9572 Fountain Boulevard Menomonee Falls, WI 53051 262-255-6070

Energy Sciences Inc. 42 Industrial Way Wilmington, MA 01887 978-694-9000 ebeam.com

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY Estron Chemical, Inc.

Hampford Research Inc.

807 N. Main Street, PO Box 127 Calvert City, KY 42029 800-662-3642 estron.com

54 Veterans Boulevard Stratford, CT 06615 203-375-1137 hampfordresearch.com

Eternal Materials Company LTD

Hanovia Specialty Lighting LLC

578 Chien-Kung Road Kaohsiung 807 Taiwan, China +886-7696-3331 x500 eternal-group.com

6 Evans Street Fairfield, NJ 07004 973-651-5510 hanovia-uv.com

Excelitas Technologies

Heraeus Noblelight America LLC

2260 Argentia Road Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L5N 6H7 905-821-2600 excelitas.com/omnicure Industries Served: 3D Printing; Glass; Electronics; Biomedical/Medical; Printing & Packaging; Plastics & Composites; Wood Finishing

910 Clopper Road Gaithersburg, MD 20878 301-527-2660 heraeus-noblelight.com/fusionuv Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Glass; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Flint Group

Herding Filtration, LLC

1130 James L. Hart Parkway Ypsilanti, MI 48197 734-879-5000 flintgrp.com

5479 Perry Drive, Suite D Waterford, MI 48329 248-673-4514 herding.us Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Biomedical/Medical; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics/Composites; Printing/Packaging; Wood Finishing; Ceramics

FSP Research, Inc. PO Box 28 Milford, CT 06460 203-874-3417 fspresearch.com

IGM Resins USA Inc.

3300 Westinghouse Boulevard Charlotte, NC 28273 704-945-8775 igmresins.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Collision Repair/Refinishing; Electronics; Glass; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Ink Systems Inc. 2311 S. Eastern Avenue Commerce, CA 90040 323-720-4000 inksystemsinc.com

Innovations in Optics, Inc. 82 Cummings Park Woburn, MA 01801 781-933-4477 innovationsinoptics.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Electronics; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Integration Technology 590 Territorial Drive, Suite A Bolingbrook, IL 60440 630-410-2189 uvintegration.com

INX International Ink Co. 150 North Martingale Road, Suite 700 Schaumburg, IL 60173 630-382-1800 inxinternational.com

IRTronix Inc.

Honle UV America, Inc. GEW Inc.

11941 Abbey Road, Unit X North Royalton, OH 44133 440-237-4439 gewuv.com Industries Served: Metal Finishing; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

261 Cedar Hill Street, Building C Marlboro, MA 01752 508-229-7774 honleuv.com Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation; Electronics; Glass; Biomedical/Medical; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging

635 Hawaii Avenue Torrance, CA 90710 310-787-1100 itronix.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Biomedical/Medical; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Gigahertz-Optik, Inc. 110 Haverhill Road, Bldg. B – Suite 205 Amesbury, MA 01913 978-462-1818 gigahertz-optik.com Industries Served: Biomedical/Medical

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 33


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY

IST America

121-123 Capista Drive Shorewood, IL 60404 815-733-5345 ist-uv.com Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Plastics/Composites; Printing/ Packaging; Wood Finishing

ITW Evercoat 6600 Cornell Road Cincinnati, OH 45242 513-489-7600 evercoat.com

Keystone Research & Pharmaceutical

Lintech International

480 South Democrat Road Gibbstown, NJ 08027 856-663-4700 37232 Wild Rose Lane Murrieta, CA 92562 951-445-3151 mwvkdv.wix.com/kjcj-consulting

7705 NE Industrial Boulevard Macon, GA 31216 877-546-8324 lintechinternational.com Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense; Collision Repair/Refinishing; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Kolorcure Corporation

Lubrizol Advanced Materials

KJCJ Consulting

1180 Lyon Road Batavia, IL 60510 630-879-9050 kolorcure.com

Kopp Glass

9 Sasqua Trail Weston, CT 06883 203-544-0101 jbmachinery.com

2108 Palmer Street Pittsburgh, PA 15218 412-271-0190 koppglass.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Collision Repair/Refinishing; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Joules Angstrom UV Printing Inks Corp.

Kowa American Corporation

JB Machinery Inc.

104 Heritage Drive Pataaskala, OH 43062 740-964-9113 joulesangstrom.com Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging

55 E. 59th Street, 19th Floor New York, NY 10020 262-554-6729 chemical.kowa.com

Kao Collins, Inc.

Lambson Ltd. (US)

1201 Edison Drive Cincinnati, OH 45216 513-948-9000 kaocollins.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Collision Repair/Refinishing; Electronics; Glass; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Keyland Polymer Material Sciences, LLC 4641 Hinckley Industrial Parkway Cleveland, OH 44109 216-741-7191 keylandpolymer.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

34 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

Kromachem Inc. 30 Southard Avenue Farmingdale, NJ 07727 732-751-0980 kromachem.com 301 Route 17 North, 8th Floor Rutherford, NJ 07070 201-842-7640 lambson.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Electronics; Biomedical/Medical; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing; Metal Finishing

9911 Brecksville Road Cleveland, OH 44094 216-447-5000 lubrizol.com/coatings Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation; Biomedical/Medical; Electronics; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Melrob US Inc.

6900 Philips Highway, Suite 32 Jacksonville, FL 32216 904-997-1800 melrob.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive; Electronics; Glass; Medical Devices; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Miltec UV 146 Log Canoe Circle Stevensville, MD 21666 410-604-2900 miltec.com

LED Specialists, Inc. 4250 Veterans Memorial Highway Suite 2060 West Holbrook, NY 11741 631-269-4235

Light Curable Coatings 140 Sheldon Road Berea, OH 44017 216-642-0626 lccoat.com

Miwon North America 696 W. Lincoln Highway Exton, PA 19341 484-872-8711 miwonus.com

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY

Molecule Corp.

5110 Port Chicago Hwy. Concord, CA 94520 866-400-9066 molecule.ink.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Biomedical/Medical; Inkjet; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging

Novagard Solutions

Poly6 Technologies

5109 Hamilton Avenue Cleveland, OH 44114 216-881-8111 novagard.com

21 Drydock Ave, 610E Boston, MA 02210 617-575-9291

Novus Inc.

500 Bohannon Road Fairburn, GA 30213 800-241-0195 porex.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Glass; Biomedical/Medical; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

650 Pelham Boulevard, Suite 100 St Paul, MN 55378 952-944-8000

Opsytec Dr. Grรถbel GmbH Goethestr. 17 Ettlingen 76275 Germany +4972439478350

Nagase America

546 Fifth Avenue, Suite 16F New York, NY 10036 212-703-1373 nagaseamerica.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Biomedical/Medical; Collision Repair/ Refinishing; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Paul Mills Consulting 1477 Troon Avenue Brunswick, OH 44212 440-570-5228

Penn Color, Inc. 400 Old Dublin Pike Doylestown, PA 18901 866-617-7366 penncolor.com

NAZDAR Ink Technologies 8501 Hedge Lane Terrace Shawnee, KS 66227 913-422-1888

Phoseon Technology

Nedap N.V.

Parallelweg 2 7141 DC Groenlo The Netherlands +1-0031-544-471-111 nedap-uv.com Industries Served: Electronics; 3D Printing; Aerospace/Defense; Automotive/ Transportation; Biomedical/Medical; Collision Repair/Refinishing; Glass; Metal Finishing; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Nordson Corporation 28601 Clemens Road Westlake, OH 44145 440-892-1580 nordson.com

Nova Pressroom Products 1663 N. McDuff Avenue Jacksonville, FL 32254 904-292-2554 novapressroom.com Industries Served: Printing & Packaging

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

7425 NE Evergreen Parkway Hillsboro, OR 97124 503-439-6446 phoseon.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Biomedical/Medical; Electronics; Glass; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Pincus Associates, Inc. 9 Willard Circle Andover, MA 01810 978-475-9197 pincusassociates.webs.com

PL Industries, a division of Esstech, Inc. 48 Powhattan Avenue Essington, PA 19029 601-521-3800 esstechinc.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Biomedical/ Medical; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Porex Corporation

PPG Coatings Innovation Center 4325 Rosanna Drive Allison Park, PA 15101 412-492-5200 ppgac.com

Primarc UV Curing Lamps, a Baldwin Technology brand 2 Danforth Drive Easton, PA 18045 610-829-4240 primarc.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Automotive/ Transportation; Electronics; Glass; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Prime Coatings 1002 Hickory Street Pewaukee, WI 53072 262-691-1930 primecoatings.net

Prochema Handels GmBH Wienerbergstrasse 3 Vienna, Austria 1100 Austria +0043 1605 60 12

Quaker Chemical Corporation One Quaker Park, 901 E. Hector Street Conshohocken, PA 19428 610-832-4000 quakerchem.com

R&D Coatings, Inc. 1320 Island Avenue, PO Box 418 McKees Rocks, PA 15136 877-378-9860 rdcoatings.com

UV+EB Technology โ€ข Issue 3, 2017 | 35


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY rad-solutions llc

Synasia, Inc.

2221 Justin Road, Suite 119-142 Flower Mound, TX 75028 972-517-5112 rad-solutions.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

240 Amboy Avenue Metuchen, NJ 08840 732-205-9880 synasia.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

RAHN USA Corporation

1005 N. Commons Drive Aurora, IL 60504 630-851-4220 rahn-group.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Collision Repair/Refinishing; Electronics; Glass; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Sartomer Americas

502 Thomas Jones Way Exton, PA 19341 610-363-4100 sartomer.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Aerospace/ Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Electronics; Glass; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Siegwerk USA 3535 SW 56th Street Des Moines, IA 50321 515-471-2100 siegwerk.com

5F, No. 27, Lane 42, Yetsen Rd. Taipei, Taiwan 886-2-2720-1505 threeroyal.com Industries Served: Electronics; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging

Rapid Cure Technologies, Inc. 7030 Fly Road East Syracuse, NY 13057 888-847-3610 rapidcuretechnologies.com Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense; Automotive; Electronics; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging

Red Spot Paint & Varnish Co., Inc. 1001 E. Louisiana Street, PO Box 418 Evansville, IN 47703 812-428-9100 redspot.com

Royal Adhesives and Sealants, LLC 863 SE Main Street Simpsonville, NC 29681 877-344-1483 craigadhesives.com Industries Served: Printing & Packaging

RND Arastima Gelistirme Ltd Sti 10016 Sokak No. 30, A.O.S.B Cigli 35620, Izmir Turkey +90-232-328-3060 rnduv.com

Sappi North America 89 Cumberland Street PO Box 5000 Westbrook, ME 04092 207-856-3542

36 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

Three Royal Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.

Siltech Corporation

225 Wicksteed Avenue Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4H 1G5 416-424-4567 siltech.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Automotive; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

Toyo Ink America, LLC 1225 N. Michael Drive Wood Dale, IL 60191 866-969-8696 toyoink.com

Toyoda Gosei

Spectra Group Limited Inc.

1400 Stephenson Highway Troy, MI 48083 248-280-7436

27800 Lemoyne Road, Suite J Millbury, OH 43447 419-837-9783 sglinc.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Plastics & Composites

Ushio America, Inc.

Strathmore Products, Inc. 1970 W. Fayette Street Syracuse, NY 13204 315-488-5401 strathmoreproducts.com

Sun Chemical Corporation

5440 Cerritos Avenue Cypress, CA 90630 800-838-7446 ushio.com Industries Served: 3D Printing; Biomedical/ Medical; Printing & Packaging; Wood Finishing

35 Waterview Boulevard Parsippany, NJ 07054 973-404-6000 sunchemical.com

Sunlite Science & Technology, Inc. 4811 Quail Crest Place Lawrence, KS 66049 785-856-0219 sunlitest.com

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


MANUFACTURERS DIRECTORY Xamchem, LLC

UV III Systems, Inc.

59 Cedarvale Estates Alburgh, VT 05440 866-300-7880 uv3.com Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense; Automotive/Transportation; Collision Repair/ Refinishing; Glass; Biomedical/Medical; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Wood Finishing; Electronics

Van Technologies

5791 Bergquist Road Duluth, MN 55804 218-525-9424 greenlightcoatings.com Industries Served: Aerospace/Defense; Glass; Metal Finishing; Plastics & Composites; Wood Finishing

64 E. Uwchlan Avenue, Suite 226 Exton, PA 19343 610-655-5232 xamchem.com Industries Served: Additives; Monomers; Oligomers; Pigments/Dispersions; Consulting; Pilot Lines; Toll Services

XDS Holdings, Inc. 2461 Progress Court Neenah, WI 54956 920-722-8123 teamxds.com

Watson Standard Company 616 Hite Road Harwick, PA 15049 724-275-1000 watsonstandard.com

UV Specialties 3705 Stern Avenue St. Charles, IL 60174 630-587-0610 uvspecialties.com Industries Served: Automotive/ Transportation; Plastics & Composites; Printing & Packaging

Wikoff Color Corporation 1886 Merritt Road Fort Mill, SC 29715 803-548-2210 wikoff.com

Print + Digital

2017 Quarter 2 Vol. 3, No. 2

Don’t miss this chance to stay up-to-date on new technologies and learn about the latest developments in the industry.

le Exploring UV-Curab ions Composite Formulat UV LED for Floor Coatings The Challenges of Measuring UV Photoinitiators for s LED-Cured Coating

Official Publication

ional North America

of RadTech Internat

Subscribe or manage your subscription at www.uvebtech.com uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 37


LED ARRAY By Mark S. Driscoll, Department of Chemistry, SUNYESF; Yunyun Bi, Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, SUNYESF; Robert W. Meyer, Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, SUNY-ESF; Jennifer Smith, Department of Paper and Bioprocess Engineering, SUNY-ESF; L. Scott Larsen, NYSERDA

Design of a Blue LED Array for Curing FiberglassReinforced Composite Abstract he development and continued evolution of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) represent a significant advance in the lighting industry. In addition to the conventional illumination applications, LEDs have shown to be promising in many new applications, such as the radiation curing industry. In this study, an LED array for curing fiberglass-reinforced panels is designed, as well as an efficient cooling system to maintain constant operation. To evaluate the effectiveness in inducing photopolymerization, intensity and uniformity of the LED irradiance are investigated. Furthermore, this paper demonstrated the optical effect of Plexiglas on the irradiance distribution.

T

Introduction Radiation-induced polymerization has contributed to advancements in sustainable materials and the manufacturing field around the world. Ultraviolet (UV) has been widely used in industrial applications such as inks, coatings, adhesives and sealants. Electron beam (EB) and X-ray processing have been the subject of extensive research in advanced composite, such as automobile and aerospace manufacturing. The primary application of visible light curing process is seen in dental composite restoratives. Visible light curing of dental materials was introduced in the 1970s1. Since then, a variety of curing units were developed. Quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) lamps were first put into clinical practice. QTH has a remarkably low efficiency and a limited lifespan with consecutive degradation of the lamp because of the heat being produced during operation. The argon-ion laser requires less time to achieve equal physical properties as compared to QTH units; meanwhile, the polymerization shrinkage was considered problematic2. It became outdated in a short time due to various reasons, such as the high expense of a typical unit, the inability to replace the source by office personnel and the increased temperature from operation1. Plasma arc lights are pulsed and performed based on multiple 3-s exposures. These units have to be highly filtered, since they generate tremendous amounts of infrared light and ultraviolet1, which may cause biological damage. The invention of blue LED in the early 1990s represents a significant and practical advance in dentistry, since blue LED has emission matching well with the absorption by camphorquinone, which in combination with an amine, forms the conventional photoinitiator system in dental restorative resins. LEDs are more energyefficient, lightweight, narrow-banded requiring no filter and have a lifespan of several thousands of hours without a significant intensity loss3. These advantages allow its extensive use in dentistry for the last decade. However, its application in industry has been minimal. This study proposes an innovative industrial application using visible light (blue LEDs) to photocure fiberglass-reinforced impact-resistant panels (FRIRPs). In this study, an 8 1/8" x 10 3/8" blue LED array curing device with an efficient cooling system was designed and fabricated. Photopolymerization is initiated by blue LEDs emitting light at 470 nm. To achieve adequate polymerization, light-cured composites rely on sufficient energy. Previous studies4,5 have shown that the degree of polymerization of the resin composite is significantly influenced by the energy density of the light-curing unit. Energy density can be approximated if the irradiance and the time of exposure are known. It should be noted that the amount of energy required to totally cure differs for various resin systems, photoinitiating systems and light sources. In addition, in order to manufacture FRIRPs in large sizes, a uniform irradiance distribution

38 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


is desired. Thus, this study also investigated the uniformity and distribution of the irradiance of the LED array to evaluate the effectiveness in inducing photopolymerization.

Experimental Fabrication of LED array The LED assemblies were purchased from Luxeon Star LEDs (Brantford, Canada). Each assembly includes seven blue (470 nm) LED chips soldered onto a 40 mm round Coolbase. The specifications are shown in Table 1. Lumens @700 mA

490 lm

Typical Wavelength @ 350 mA

470 nm

Wavelength Range

460 to 485 nm

Recommended Operation Current

700 mA

Maximum Forward Voltage

24.57 Vf

Dimensions L x W x H

40 x 40 x 5 mm

TABLE 1. Specifications of LED assembly

Twenty-eight LED assemblies were connected in parallel, mounted to an aluminum heat sink (8 1/8" x 10 3/8") with thermal adhesive tapes. The assemblies were oriented such that the distribution of LED chips was the most uniform (Figure 1). A 1/8"-thick piece of Plexiglas protecting the LED panel was supported by four rubber spacers on each corner of the panel (Figure 2). The LED array was driven by two DC power supplies (9.8A, 23.1V; HY3010E-3, MASTECH). Cooling system The LED array, especially on long exposure at high power, generates a significant amount of heat, which could potentially damage the LEDs. To ensure a longer LED lifetime and better color stability, an efficient heat dissipation system is needed. A closed-loop water cooling system consists of a refrigerated bath and an aluminum heat sink thermally attached to the LEDs with thermal adhesive tapes. The refrigerated bath and heat sink are connected using plastic hoses. Cooled water is circulated through passages drilled through the heat sink to maintain LED junction temperature below 90°F. Irradiance uniformity and distribution measurement UV-V Radiometer Dosimeter (Loctite, Rocky Hill, CT) was used for measurement of light intensity. Readings were recorded at 10 mm intervals in the X and Y direction (Figure 1), in mW/cm2, representing the optical power received across the X-Y plane. The readings then were plotted as an intensity distribution map. page 40 

FIGURE 1. Layout of LED units on an aluminum heat sink

FIGURE 2. Schematic representation of the custom-made LED array curing panel uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

FIGURE 3. Irradiance measurements taken at three positions UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 39


LED ARRAY  page 39

FIGURE 4 (a,b). Irradiation distribution in 3D display at position 1, measured on top of LED array

FIGURE 5 (a,b). Irradiance distribution at position 2, measured from 1 1/8”(28.6 mm) away from LED array To observe and compare the irradiance uniformity across the LED array, the radiometer was placed at three positions: (1) right above the array, (2) 1 1/8" away from the array and (3) right above 1 1/8"-thick Plexiglas (Figure 3). The temperature of the radiometer increases due to the radiated light from the LEDs, causing a slight decrease in the reading. To eliminate measurement error, a 10-minute waiting period was adopted after each five minutes of operation, as well as the addition of a cooling fan. Results Irradiance distribution of the LED array measured at three positions are displayed in Figure 4a, 5a and 6a. As can be seen in Figure 4a, a number of intensity peaks across the array represent the areas where individual LED assemblies are located, thus 40 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

showing greater irradiance than the areas between the assemblies. Figure 5a and Figure 6a show much more uniformed irradiance distributions, compared to Figure 4a. This can be attributed to light divergence and scattering. When measured above 1 1/8"-thick Plexiglas, a larger high-intensity area (800-1000 mW/ cm2, Figure 5-b) was observed, but only a small area of 8001,000 mW/cm2 was observed 1 1/8" away from the array without Plexiglas in between (Figure 6b). Statistical analysis of the irradiance distribution is shown in Table 2. The highest average irradiance (880.3 mW/cm2) was detected at the shortest distance from the array. The average irradiance was 707.5 mW/cm2 when measured 1 1/8" away from the LED array without Plexiglas (position 2) and 759.9 mW/cm2 with Plexiglas, representing an increase of 7%. page 42  uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


   

            

    

      

    

     

     V B


LED ARRAY  page 40

FIGURE 6 (a, b). Irradiance distribution at position 3, measured on top of 1 1/8” (28.6mm) thick Plexiglas

Discussion Cooling system Heat dissipation is an integral part to assure required operation stability and a long lifetime of LEDs. Heat is produced within LED itself when current flows across the junction and becomes

42 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

considerable when a number of LEDs are packed together. The key factor to optimize heat transfer is the thermal path from the LED junction to ambient temperature. In this design, water cooling efficiently brings down the junction temperature to enable constant operation. page 44 

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


LoMiCure 450 Next Generation Photoinitiator with Acrylic Functionality

Radical

LoMiCure 450 is especially designed for low migration printing inks and varnishes. This photoinitiator contains an acrylic group that integrates itself into [OL JOLTPJHS Z[Y\J[\YL VM [OL JVH[PUN ÄST K\YPUN [OL J\YPUN WYVJLZZ ZPNUPÄJHU[S` YLK\JPUN [OL potential of migration. Therefore the use of LoMiCure 450 increases the quality and safety of sensitive food packaging.

9 Low Migration: < 10 ppb 9 Low Viscosity (enables Inkjet) 9 Low Odour 9 Low Yellowing

Polymeric

PI

Photoinitiator Monomers

Acrylic BCH Brühl

info@bch-bruehl.de

+49 (0) 2232 93307 - 0  www.bch-bruehl.de

TDS LoMiCure 450


LED ARRAY  page 42 prediction. Table 2 shows the Plexiglas enhanced the overall irradiation, especially the central high-intensity area. One possible explanation is that when light travels through Plexiglas, part of it reflected on the four side surfaces. Compared to air as the media, more light is trapped into the Plexiglas, subsequently comes out absorbed by the radiometer. Another explanation is with a higher refractive index of 1.49 than air (1.00), Plexiglas performed as refractive lens, focusing light to the center of the array, resulting in a higher concentration of irradiance. Conclusions This study demonstrated the procedure for designing an LED array and its FIGURE 7. Radiometer reading changes over time at (110,110) heat dissipation system. Water cooling is essential for constant operation of multiple LEDs. Additional fan cooling is required for measuring Max (mW/ Median Average Position Min (mW/ irradiance to minimize error, because the radiometer is affected by cm2) (mW/cm2) (mW/cm2) cm2) the heat buildup from light. 1

602

1150

886

880.3

2

600

810

712

707.5

3

600

892

774

759.9

TABLE 2. Statistical analysis of the irradiance from 600 to 1000 mW/cm2 at three positions In addition to the heat generated by LED itself, heat is given off when light is absorbed by the radiometer. The heat accumulates over time, causing the radiometer reading to drop slightly (Figure 7). A cooling fan was placed at one side of the array, providing a forced convection of air flow to accelerate heat transfer. To maintain a no more than 1% error, the array was turned on for only five minutes after each 10-minute cooling-down period. Irradiance Uniformity In radiometry, intensity is the amount of radiant power per solid angle, while irradiance is the amount of radiant power per unit area. In this study, intensity and irradiance are used interchangeably, representing the amount of visible light arriving at a surface per square centimeter (cm2). Irradiance of the light source and time of exposure determine energy density. Since energy density is important for the total cure of the resin material6, it is important to know the distribution of irradiance of the light source. It is believed that the perceived irradiance homogeneity largely depends on the distance of the cure surface from the array unless lenses are used. The closer it is, the stronger and less uniform the irradiance is. Figure 4a, Figure 5a and Figure 6a agreed with the 44 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

The distribution of irradiance is more uniform as the distance increases from the array. Plexiglas placed on the top of the array further uniforms the distribution and enhanced the irradiance. The results are desirable, since Plexiglas will be a part of the mold fixture in future curing process.  Acknowledgement This work was supported by New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). References 1. Rueggeberg, F. A. (2011). State-of-the-art: dental photocuring—a review. Dental Materials, 27(1), 39-52. 2. Fleming, M. G., & Maillet, W. A. (1999). Photopolymerization of composite resin using the argon laser. Journal-Canadian Dental Association, 65, 447-452. 3. Kraemer, N., Lohbauer, U., García-Godoy, F., & Frankenberger, R. (2008). Light curing of resin-based composites in the LED era. Am J Dent, 21(3), 135-142. 4. Mills, R. W., Uhl, A., & Jandt, K. D. (2002). Optical power outputs, spectra and dental composite depths of cure, obtained with blue light emitting diode (LED) and halogen light curing units (LCUs). British Dental Journal, 193(8), 459-463. 5. Yoon, T. H., Lee, Y. K., Lim, B. S., & Kim, C. W. (2002). Degree of polymerization of resin composites by different light sources. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 29(12), 1165-1173. 6. Mills, P., & Raymont, J. (2009). Ultraviolet (UV) Measurement for Formulators: Part I. RadTech Report, 23(2), 34.

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Technology Showcase

Sun Chemical Reveals UV Flexo Inks Sun Chemical, Parsippany, New Jersey, introduced two highperformance UV flexo inks: SolarFlex Integra and SolarFlex FSP. The inks boast consistent flow and viscosity properties across the color range; superb printability and ink transfer; and extremely low foaming characteristics for the most reliable press performance. The new SolarFlex Integra inks have been designed for label, sleeve and packaging markets that have no requirement for migration-compliant food packaging and replace the SolarFlex Nova SL range. Primarily for surface printing on flexible films and labels where migration-compliant food packaging is required, the new SolarFlex FSP offers a significant upgrade on previous migration-compliant, UV flexo product ranges. Additionally, Sun Chemical’s SunCure® Flexo UV offers a new product range that provides UV light-curing inks and coatings for packaging printers that efficiently meet changing job requirements on a wide variety of paper and board. For more information, visit www. sunchemical.com. Dymax Introduces Needle Bonding Adhesive Dymax Corporation, Torrington, Connecticut, has introduced 1406-M, a next-generation needle bonding adhesive for manufacturers looking to switch to LED curing in small gauge needle applications. It provides superior bonding performance on the reduced surface area of smaller cannulas, even after aging and sterilization, to reduce the possibility of cannula substrate failure. Optimized for 385nm LED curing, 1406-M allows for tighter standard deviations and enables small gauge needle manufacturers to enjoy the benefits of LED curing without sacrificing speed or cured mechanical properties. For more information, visit www.dymax.com. ACTEGA Unveils UV Laminating Adhesive Line and UV Shrink Inks ACTEGA North America, Delran, New Jersey, added a UV laminating adhesive line to its product portfolio for the labels market. The system has been designed to laminate BOPP to BOPP and BOPP to paper. These products offer superior adhesion with lower coat weights, providing destruct bond and cost savings for the printer. The company also launched a line of UV shrink inks to enhance its ACTExact™ system, providing the stability and wider operating windows that the newer print stations demand. The company expanded its line of ACTExact™ UV Shrink Inks to include a full color palette, as well as an opaque white in response to high consumer demand for inks that uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

provide increased press efficiencies. This ink system may be used for both shrink and pressure-sensitive labels applications, enhancing its appeal for printers seeking operational versatility and convenience. For more information, visit www.actega.com. Systematic Automation Develops Bottle Treater Systematic Automation Inc., Farmington, Connecticut, has developed a low-cost, high-production UV curing and pretreatment system for any cylindrical product. The Bottle Treater (patents applied) is revolutionary in its method of delivering UV and flame/Pyrosil treatment to products. Only requiring one 2" UV system for the Bottle Treater, it will UV cure products up to 10" in height. This not only reduces the initial investment of larger, more expensive UV equipment but also drastically lowers energy consumption and cost of consumables. Both UV and pretreatment systems can be integrated into the Bottle Treater. UV inks may need flame or Pyrosil pretreatment for better adhesion. The throughput of the Bottle Treater is approximately 1,800pph, which remains the same regardless of the part diameter. For more information, visit www.systauto.com. DOWA Electronics Develops Ultraviolet LED Chip A subsidiary of DOWA Holdings Co., Ltd., DOWA Electronics Materials Co., Ltd., headquartered in Tokyo, Japan, has developed a deep ultraviolet LED chip featuring the industry’s highest output power, with a peak wavelength of 280nm, output of 75mW and dimensions of 1x1mm. The company is prepared for a mass production for the new product, with capacity equivalent to one million LED chips per month. Since deep ultraviolet lights with a wavelength of 280nm have a high efficiency of disinfestation, replacing the conventional mercury lamps with these LEDs enables facilities to be smaller and mercury-free. For more information, visit www.dowa-electronics.co.jp/en/. Sartomer Europe Launches New Adhesion-Promoting Oligomer Sartomer Europe, Colombes, France, launched PRO22019, a new polyester acrylate specifically developed to provide enhanced adhesion to a wide variety of plastic substrates. The composition of PRO22019 allows the customer to formulate UV-curable inks and coatings that meet current regulatory standards for the food packaging sector. It also offers superior cure response with both UV and LED systems. For more information, visit emea.sartomer. com. 

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 45


AWARDS By Dianna Brodine, managing editor, UV+EB Technology

FSEA Gold Leaf Awards Celebrate Best Work in UV Coatings P

rint finishing effects can raise the level of quality, added value, shelf presence, brand recognition and security for a product â&#x20AC;&#x201C; whether a greeting card, presentation folder, book jacket or folding carton. These are some of the unique and eye-catching printed pieces the Foil & Specialty Effects Association (FSEA) showcases during its annual Gold Leaf Awards competition.

The 24th annual Gold Leaf Award winners were honored in May. More than 300 entries were received from around the world, including pieces from the US, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. Judging was based on design, execution and level of difficulty, with two categories specifically targeted at UV coatings. The Best of Show award-winning piece (an overall winner selected from all category winners) also featured UV coating as a decorative enhancement.

Best of Show: 2017 A Symphony of Color

Best Selection Guide (Foil or Coatings) Gold: Sun Chemical Innovative Solutions Book Submitted by: Sun Chemical

Submitted by: J.S. McCarthy Co., Inc.

Best Use of Specialty Coating with Foil/Embossing Silver: Constellation Brands JacksonTriggs Grand Reserve Submitted by: Hub Folding Box Company, Inc.

Gold: Rise. Make Your Mark. Submitted by: MCD, Inc.

46 | UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Issue 3, 2017

Bronze: Uncork a Better Package Submitted by: Rohrer Corporation uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Best Use of Specialty UV Coatings Bronze: Diamond Packaging 2017 Calendar Submitted by: Diamond Packaging

Gold: Right Behind You Jacket Submitted by: Bertlesmann Printing Group USA/Dynamic Graphic Finishing

Silver: TCU Football Season Ticket Folder Submitted by: The Fontana Group

(Excerpted from the article “A Symphony in Color,” PostPress magazine, May/June 2017)

musical picture for the specified month. In a sidebar on the left of each calendar grid, the design team decided to include a brief description of that page’s production, as well as a small-scale version of the previous and next months’ calendar.

J.S. McCarthy, a sheet-fed printing operation headquartered in Augusta, Maine, has taken the experience of a classic symphony and transformed it into the 2017 J.S. McCarthy Printers calendar – A Symphony in Color – showcasing a compilation of the talents of its craftspeople and highlighting its printing capabilities and most-requested finishing techniques.

“We tried to find processes that are popular with our clients and show different ways to do those, and if we have a new process – maybe a new coating – we tried to incorporate it into the calendar,” Tardiff said.

UV Coatings Add to Best of Show Winner’s Appeal

Each year, J.S. McCarthy creates a marketing piece to showcase its capabilities for its customers. Michael Tardiff, director of communications at the company, partners with his mother, Patty Tardiff, special projects, and Sue Bourdon of Bourdon and Company, a designer who has worked with J.S. McCarthy for many years, to create the design for the annual promotional project. “We are doing work with designers from a multitude of industries – health care companies and colleges to name a couple – so we try to find something that has appeal to a large range of people while also highlighting our capabilities,” Tardiff explained. This year, they wanted to emphasize coatings and different inks, foil and diecutting, while also providing a sensory experience. From the diecut, scored, folded and glued by hand (due to the musical insert) cover to the 12-page calendar, J.S. McCarthy endeavored to replicate the symphonic-themed experience, using not only visual representations but also sound. The entire capacity folder that holds the calendar is intended to resemble the red curtains that adorn theaters and separate the audience from the back stage. Opening the inside panel activates a sound chip that plays Beethoven’s 5th symphony. The capacity folder that holds the calendar was printed on a 14pt Carolina White stock and coated inline. UV-curable inks were used for the cover in a 7 over 6 HUV process with a double hit of black on one side. The main attraction, a 12-page calendar with wire-O binding and a hanger, features one month per page. Each page depicts different processes in an appropriately themed uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

As an example, the month of May features both gloss and matte UV coatings. The first pass included seven stations on the Komori where the piano and brick background were printed in 4-color, and then a gloss UV coating was used to highlight the piano, with the surrounding brick and flooring being coated with a dull UV. The curtains on the outside of the image were spot-coated with an aqueous softtouch. The next pass included a peacock-blue metallic flat stamp on the wording “May,” the days of the week, and highlighted specific dates – the 14th for Mother’s Day and the 29th for Memorial Day. “The foil in a contrasting color added a subtle touch of elegance to the ‘grand’ setting,” Patty noted. The last pass was an embossing/debossing of the background brick and windows that the design team included to add dimension to the architecture. Tardiff shared that this has been one of J.S. McCarthy’s best received years. “We always get calls the first few weeks when people are looking at our calendar, so that’s not unusual,” he continued. “But this year it seems like every month when a calendar page turns, I’m getting emails forwarded from sales representatives saying, ‘I just changed my calendar, and this month is my favorite.’”  UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 47


ENERGY-CURABLE PUDs By Jo Ann Arceneaux, Ph.D., allnex USA, Inc.; Michel Tielemans, allnex Belgium; Kevin Poelmans, allnex Belgium; Laurence Boutreau, allnex Belgium

Redesign of EnergyCurable Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersions for Inkjet Applications E

nergy-curable polyurethane dispersions (PUDs) are a fairly recent development. Their inherently low viscosity and combination of hardness and flexibility make them especially suitable for sprayable wood coatings. Other industrial applications, such as plastic and metal coatings, also have seen utility. Their use in graphics applications was more limited, however. With the increasing regulatory pressure on acrylate monomers, the energy-curable graphics market, and especially the inkjet market, has started to investigate the use of energy-curable waterborne resins and PUDs. Initial evaluations showed that modifications of the PUDs were necessary for use in graphics applications. The redesign of the energy-curable waterborne polyurethane dispersions for applicability in the inkjet market will be presented. Initial Design of Energy-Curable PUDs Energy-curable (EC) PUDs are prepared through several steps. The first step is the formation of a polyurethane prepolymer through the reaction of a diol, diisocyanate and diol acid in solvent. In a second step, the polyurethane prepolymer is capped with hydroxyalkyl acrylate. Neutralization and dispersion in water is step three. Finally, the solvent is removed in step four (Figure 1). The structure of the EC PUD can be varied through choice of isocyanate, which builds the hard segment of the polyurethane. The isocyanates can be aliphatic or aromatic, and di- or higher in functionality. The hard segments of the polyurethane align through hydrogen bonding and provide hardness to the cured ink or coating. The diols can be polyethers, polyesters, Step 1. Formation of a polyurethane prepolymer by reaction of a diol, acrylics, hydrocarbons or diisocyante, and diol acid in solvent silicones. These are usually di-functional and build the soft segment of the EC PUD, which provides flexibility. The diol acid, which is usually dimethylol propionic acid, provides colloidal stability, increases adhesion and decreases Step 2. Capping with hydroxyalkyl acrylate flexibility through hydrogen Step 3. Neutralization and dispersion in water bonding. The hydroxyalkyl Step 4. Stripping off solvent acrylate is the source of acrylate functionality and can be mono- or higher in functionality. The combination of hard segments and soft segments in a polyurethane, and their alignment through hydrogen FIGURE 1. Preparation of EC PUDs in 4 steps page 50 ď ľ

48 | UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s largest product portfolio of high-performance UV lamp & UV LED solutions Whatever your application we have the cure! IST AMERICA U.S. OPERATIONS 121-123 Capista Drive Shorewood, IL 60404-8851 USA Tel. +1 815 733 5345 info@usa.ist-uv.com, www.ist-uv.com

VISIT US AT:

September 10-14, 2017 McCormick Place

| Chicago, IL USA

Print2017.com

BOOTH 652

HALL 5 D21


ENERGY-CURABLE PUDs  page 48 bonding, provide the toughness that is typical of this type of material. The typical solids content of an EC PUD is 35 to 40%, and its viscosity is less than 200 cP at room temperature. Compared to a 100% solids urethane acrylate formulation, the EC PUD has lower crosslink density or higher molecular weight between

crosslinks. It also has more urethane hard segments. The combination of these two properties provides a cured ink or coating that is both hard and flexible, a property that is difficult to achieve with a 100% solids urethane acrylate (Figure 2). Wood coatings are typically spray applied. Because 100% solids urethane acrylates are typically high in viscosity, they require acrylate monomer dilution to obtain the necessary spray application viscosity. This can lead to a loss or decrease of the urethane acrylate properties, less adhesion due to increased shrinkage and increased odor from the lower molecular weight monomers. Also, the 100% solids urethane acrylate formulations are not easily matted because of the viscosity increase upon addition of matting agents. Waterbased (WB) wood coatings allow ease of matting but lack scratch and chemical resistance and have poor gloss.

FIGURE 2. Crosslink density comparison

FIGURE 3. Stability test results for IRR 929

IRR 928

IRR 929

FIGURE 4. Resolubility tests of IRR 928 and IRR 929 50 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

EC PUDs combine the good properties of both the 100% solids and WB formulations to provide wood coatings with no odor, no diluting monomers, good matting properties, less shrinkage, improved adhesion, and good chemical and scratch resistance. They also are easy to spray and stable in curtain coatings. Thus, the EC PUD-based wood coatings provide UV performance with WB processability, a synergistic value proposition. EC Inkjet Requirements Two major inkjet application techniques are continuous and drop-on-demand. Drop-on-demand is further divided into piezo and thermal (bubble jet) technologies. The 100% solids EC inkjet inks are typically applied through piezo technology. Because of viscosity constraints, the 100% solids inkjet ink is generally heated to 40°C to 60°C before jetting. EC waterborne inkjet inks could be jetted by either piezo or thermal technologies. There are many requirements of an EC water-based inkjet ink, and some of these are discussed below. The inkjet ink must be stable, both during application and during storage. An elevated temperature stability test over a set period of time is the norm (45°C to 60°C over various time periods). Viscosity, pH, particle size and coagulum are monitored during this test. The inkjet ink must be efficiently filterable to remove particles that may block or damage the inkjet head. The inkjet ink must be jettable using whichever inkjet head is specified. Jettability is typically a function of surface tension and rheology. The inkjet ink must be resoluble before cure to avoid clogging the inkjet nozzles. Finally, the inkjet ink must be reactive or curable under the lamp and speed conditions of the specified press, and the cured ink must provide the adhesion and resistance properties required by the end application. Figure 3 shows the results of a stability test of an EC PUD (IRR 929) held for nine to 10 days at 60°C. The IRR 929 was uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


FIGURE 5. Regulatory aspects of EC PUDs FIGURE 7. Properties of commercial EC PUDs Inkjet inks based on EC PUDs separate the drying step from the curing step and are resoluble, so these inks do not block nozzles. These inkjet inks do not contain acrylate monomers, emulsifiers or coalescents; thus, they have low odor, low VOCs and ease regulatory and environmental concerns. The inkjetprinted product has lower dry film thickness, providing a better hand/feel. This product also is durable and has better adhesion to plastics due to lower shrinkage. Less crosslink density also results in a more elastic/flexible product. Thus, the value proposition for EC water-based inkjet inks is 100% solids EC performance with improved processability when compared to WB inks and improved safety as compared with 100% solids EC inks. FIGURE 6. Properties of EC PUDs diluted to 10% solids for this test. The particle size of the EC PUD decreased only slightly over nine days (80 nm to 75 nm). Over a 10-day period, there was a decrease in pH from 7.9 to 7.1, and in viscosity from 1.9 to 1.5 cP at 25°C. All of these results indicate a stable system. Two EC PUDs were tested for resolubility after they were dried. Figure 4 shows that both IRR 928 and IRR 929 are resoluble, with IRR 928 having better resolubility. Similar to wood coatings, 100% solids EC inkjet inks must contain acrylate monomers to reduce viscosity. However, in inkjet inks, higher levels of acrylate monomer are used, and more of the monomer is mono-functional due to the very low viscosity requirements. This monomer use results in odor and safety concerns, and recent REACH regulations may exclude some of the commonly used mono-functional monomers. The inkjet-printed product also has high dry film thickness and high shrinkage. Water-based inkjet inks may dry in the inkjet nozzles, causing blockage, and have poor durability and adhesion to plastics. These water-based inks also contain emulsifiers and coalescents, leading to VOCs. uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

This value proposition also opens the door to food packaging applications. Food packaging applications require global regulatory compliance (EuPIA, Nestle List, Swiss List, German Ordinance, FDA, REACH, Prop 65, …); no use of chemicals of concern; no/low residuals, extractables or migrating species; no/ low odor; and no/low VOCs. The EC PUDs can be designed to meet these requirements. Redesign of EC PUDs for Inkjet The basic EC PUD structure for an inkjet ink is the same as that of an EC PUD for a wood coating. However, some additional design considerations exist for EC PUDs for inkjet inks. Water-based materials allow for low viscosity without the use of monomers or solvent. The molecular weight of the PUD can be quite high, resulting in low migration potential. The EC functionality provides dense crosslinking, resulting in high performance. The stability, resolubility, adhesion and other performance properties can be varied by controlling the composition of the EC PUD. There are four steps of design strategy for low migration (LM) inkjet inks: eliminating chemicals of concern (tin, BPA, emulsifier, solvent, etc.); maximizing acrylates with higher molecular weight and functionality (> 500 Daltons and >/= 6); meeting basic inkjet properties such as stability and resolubility; page 52  UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 51


ENERGY-CURABLE PUDs  page 51

Solids (%)

IRR 928

IRR 929

3

35

Viscosity (cP)

10

30

pH

6.7

7.5

Particle size (nm)

60

80

<5,000

>10,000

MFFT (°C)

<0

<10

Grits 50μ (mg/L)

<10

<10

Stability 60°C (days)

>10

>10

Mw (Daltons)

potential (Figure 8). IRR 928 and IRR 929 were developed based on differentiated models, with the IRR 928 having a lower molecular weight polymer, which also is tacky before cure. Both have a very low viscosity, at 35% solids, and present a low mean particle size associated with good colloidal stability and low grit content. Importantly, the two products also are water resoluble before cure, which makes them very good candidates as inkjet binders for food contact applications (Table 1).

TABLE 1. Liquid properties of IRR 928 and IRR 929 and validating low migration and indirect food contact compliance. Several EC PUDs for inkjet inks have been designed. Regulatory aspects, such as tin-free, BPA-free, APEO-free and labelfree, have been addressed and are shown in Figure 5. Figure 6 compares resolubility, migration, reactivity and flexibility. A spider graph in Figure 7 shows the properties of three commercial EC PUDs. Pigment wetting, hardness, adhesion, blocking, resolubility and tack before cure are compared. A variety of properties are available from the three commercial products.

IRR 928 and IRR 929 have excellent UV reactivity (20 m/min) under a conventional Hg lamp at 80W/cm using 1.5% BCPK as the photoinitiator. The UV reactivity is actually increased to 25 m/ min using a UV LED 365 nm lamp at 8W/cm² using 1.5% TPO-L as the photoinitiator. All of the tests were made with 15μ thick (wet) films on Leneta® charts with four-minute drying at 60°C before UV cure. The products also can be cured under electron beam, with the advantage of not requiring a photoinitiator. The cured film and adhesion properties of IRR 928 and IRR 929 are shown in Table 2 and in the spider graph in Figure 9. The adhesion was tested one hour after cure. A score of 5 equals perfect adhesion. The polyethylene and polypropylene plastics were corona-treated before coating. A starting point formulation for an inkjet ink based on an EC PUD is shown in Table 3. An overview of the properties of the EC PUDs is shown in Table 4.

Two experimental products, IRR 928 and IRR 929, were designed for low-migration inkjet inks. Both of these products contain very low levels of products with molecular weights less than 500 and functionality less than 6, which should result in very low migration IRR 928 Tg (°C) Young’s modulus (psi) Tensile strength (psi) Elongation (%) Acetone double rubs

109 245,100 7,063 5.1 >100

Scratch resistance (N)

15

Mar resistance (N)

<20

Gloss 60°

88.9

Adhesion (0-5; 5 = perfect adhesion) Polycarbonate tape

5

cross-cut

5

Polyethylene tape

5

cross-cut

0

Extraction Tests of LM EC PUDs For food packaging applications, migration tests and identification of extractables are required. These tests were performed on REFERENCE #1 (same as PRODUCT 1), REFERENCE #3 (same as PRODUCT IRR 929 3), REFERENCE #4, IRR 928 and IRR 929. 61 and 222 (REFERENCE #4 is an EC PUD but not one 279,900 designed for inkjet inks.) A direct food contact 928 protocol was used to address the most stringent extraction conditions. The polymer dispersions 0.4 were formulated with a wetting agent (0 – 0.75%) >100 and applied as a 30μ wet coating on an unwashed 3 aluminum sheet. They were dried for four minutes 18 at 60°C and then cured with an electron beam (250 89.8 keV - 5 MRad) with a conveyer speed of 10 m/min. The coated samples were immersed in 95% ethanol for 24 hours at 60°C in a closed glass flask. There was a contact area of 100 ml of solvent per dm2 5 of coated substrate. The extraction conditions are 5 related to FDA § 176.170 – conditions of use H, for paper and paperboard in contact with aqueous and 5 fatty foods. 5

Polypropylene tape

0

5

cross-cut

0

5

TABLE 2. Cured properties of IRR 928 and IRR 929 52 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

The alcoholic solution was submitted to GC-MS and LC-MS after collecting reference data from the pure polymer dispersions. Extractable components were identified and detected at suspected ppb levels uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Step 1 : Prepare pigment dispersion Water

13.85

Pigment wetting agent

2.00

Defoamer

0.10

Biocide

0.05

Pigment

4.00

Step 2 : Add the following letdown to the pigment dispersion EC PUD

24.00

Water

32.90

Propylene glycol

19.00

Substrate wetting agent

0.10

Surface tension modifier

1.00

Photoinitiator

3.00

FIGURE 8. Compositions of IRR 928 and IRR 929

TABLE 3. Inkjet ink starting point formulation based on EC PUD COMMERCIAL RANGE PRODUCT #1

Versatile binder with good reactivity and resolubility

PRODUCT #2

Versatile binder especially designed for application onto PVC

PRODUCT #3

Versatile binder with excellent pigment wetting properties

EXPERIMENTAL RANGE (LOW MIGRATION) IRR 928

Binder especially designed to combine low migration with flexibility

IRR 929

Very reactive binder especially designed for low migration and adhesion onto plastics

FIGURE 9. Properties of IRR 928 and IRR 929

TABLE 4. Descriptions of EC PUDs for inkjet inks by single ion monitoring (SIM). The MS response was recorded as peak areas for a comparative analysis without considering that the MS response factors are different for each type of product. The extraction data from the two analytical techniques were merged and normalized so that they could be categorized per product type. As shown in Figure 10, IRR 928 and IRR 929 show very favorable migration data, as does REFERENCE #4. Based on these data, these three products should be acceptable for indirect food packaging applications. Conclusions EC PUDs can be redesigned to meet the requirements of inkjet ink applications, including jettability, stability and resolubility. Additionally, these EC PUDs can be modified for low-migration, indirect food packaging applications. Further enhancements can be made to provide for reactivity, pigment wetting, flexibility and/ or adhesion to plastics. ď ľ uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

FIGURE 10. Normalized extraction test results for EC PUDs

UV+EB Technology â&#x20AC;˘ Issue 3, 2017 | 53


REGULATIONS

Regulatory Point of View: UV/EB Inks and Coatings By Eric F. Greenberg, Eric. F. Greenberg P.C.

F

or ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) inks and coatings that potentially contact food, the regulatory scene has been unusually active of late. There have been some welcome developments, as well as some that could become serious concerns. To begin, ideological opponents of federal regulatory power – who in the past have mostly traded their ideas in academic and theoretical discussions – have found new prominence in the Trump administration and in Congress. It already appears likely that, in coming years, we will see changes in law or in government practices that result in generally reduced burdens or complexity on industry. However, one result of such actions could be to inspire states or nongovernment groups to add new or different burdens. Already, some examples are visible. First, advocacy groups are raising questions about the safety of food-contact materials and have asked legislators in California to require food labels to name the “chemicals” in the food packaging. Second, other groups have brought to federal court their objections to the current regulatory program, which allows companies to reach independent conclusions that their uses of substances are Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). Requesting label disclosure for packaging chemicals Clean Water Action (CWA), a California environmental group, asked state legislators last fall to require disclosure of food packaging chemicals on the label. The group’s August 2016 report, “What’s In The Package? Unveiling the Toxic Secrets of Food and Beverage Packaging,” explains that substances migrate from packaging and other food contact surfaces into food. The report then alleges the chemicals aren’t assured to be safe in all cases and that the federal system of clearing materials and having individual companies assure their safety is inadequate. Therefore, according to CWA, the presence of the materials needs to be revealed as part of the information displayed on food labels. The report asserts trade secrets about chemical ingredients should be prohibited, saying, “Disclosure should be based on the presence of a chemical, not an estimate of exposure,” since models relying “on risk estimates are inadequate.” The group has concerns about synergistic effects and the effects of mixtures of chemicals.

An FDA regulation exists that specifically exempts substances migrating to food from packaging and other contact surfaces from having to be listed as ingredients on food labels. This proposal would undo that. CWA is appealing to state legislators because the 54 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

group believes FDA and other feds have fallen down on the job of preventing unsafe exposures. CWA also wants California officials to “review all indirect food additives currently in use in packaged food products sold in California” and determine whether they have been shown to be safe via sound scientific research. If not, “the state must require that the research be conducted within a narrow time frame....” Where to begin? These proposals would represent an extraordinary revolution in the regulatory approach to food contact materials that is not justified by the facts. The very concept would morph the regulation of food contact materials from a national legal matter to a state law matter, which can’t help but be burdensome on interstate commerce. (Such an action might ultimately be struck down in court for that reason.) Moreover, the result, and perhaps the intent, of listing packaging materials on food labels would be to cause consumers widespread fear, discomfort and distrust – all for no good reason. GRAS system challenged in court Meanwhile, after years of advocating their position less formally, opponents of the GRAS system have gone to court. The Center for Food Safety and Earthjustice recently filed a federal lawsuit in New York against FDA; its parent, Department of Health and Human Services; and its commissioner, Dr. Scott Gottlieb. The groups claim that FDA’s recently finalized regulations allowing companies to make their own independent conclusions that substances they put into food are GRAS is an unlawful delegation of FDA’s authority to private parties because it “sub-delegated to private, self-interested parties the authority given to it by Congress to ‘protect the public health by ensuring that…foods are safe.’” They call the current system the “secret GRAS system,” and say it violates FDA’s main enabling law – the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act – because it doesn’t allow manufacturers or FDA to account for cumulative dietary exposure to the substance. As a result, the opponents say, the analysis leading to the GRAS conclusion is flawed. The new GRAS rule’s criteria violate that law, according to the group, because the criteria permit experts whose opinions form the basis of GRAS conclusions to have conflicts of interest and allow consideration of unpublished studies. These studies don’t meet the law’s standard that GRAS status must be found by qualified experts to be safe, they allege, and that that fact must be generally recognized as such. The Center for Food Safety and Earthjustice also asserts that FDA’s actions are “arbitrary and uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


capricious,” which would be a violation of a federal law called the Administrative Procedure Act.

BPA is an example of the current system working effectively, rather than the opposite.

If these plaintiffs’ complaints are within the structure of the legal framework itself, the solution is to get Congress to change the law. In the meantime, to argue that the way the FDA implements the GRAS concept fails to meet the broad aspirational goals of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act seems like a tenuous, albeit creative, argument.

Second, the objectors seem to ignore or bury a key fact that scientists commonly recognize as a basic principle: The levels of exposure to chemicals are crucial to determining whether they are unsafe. It simply is poor logic to call a chemical unsafe, but not to account for whether exposure to it is at a level that scientists tell us is of concern.

Two logical fallacies weaken these objectors’ arguments. One is the suggestion that examples such as bisphenol A (BPA) are representative of a widespread phenomenon; namely, that chemicals permitted to be in contact with food are unsafe but permitted to be used nevertheless. Leaving aside the legitimate questions about whether BPA is unsafe, particularly to adults, in the levels at which its use results in exposure to people, it’s simply illogical to point to that chemical as the poster child of a broadbased problem requiring a complete overhaul of the regulatory scheme.

Situations in which regulators may not have a complete handle on the levels of exposure do raise an important potential concern, but when the context is food contact materials at, near or below 0.5 ppb in the diet, FDA has emphasized, more than once, that the likelihood is remote that even cumulative exposures to chemicals (noncarcinogens) is of safety concern.

Remember, too, that the current regulatory scheme has not prevented questions from being raised and some restrictions on BPA use from being imposed at the state level. (Some federal clearances were found to have been abandoned, and the related regulatory clearances were then removed.) One could argue that

Eric Greenberg is a Chicago-based attorney serving clients worldwide, with a practice concentrated in Food and Drug Law with particular emphasis on food contact regulatory compliance issues. For more information, visit www.ericfgreenbergpc.com or email greenberg@efg-law.com.

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

The next few years promise to be unusual ones for US regulation of food-contact UV and EB substances: unusually active, unusually promising and unusually concerning, all at once. 

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 55


Industry News

IST METZ Celebrates Anniversary IST METZ GmbH, Nürtingen, Germany, celebrated its 40th anniversary. Founded in 1977, IST METZ developed early UV systems for curing varnishes on furniture. Currently, the company manufactures presses and coatings for UV and UV curing. IST METZ management recently invited employees, customers, exhibitors and partners to celebrate the milestone during its UV DAYS event, the world’s largest in-house exhibition for UV and LED technology. For more information, visit www.ist-uv.com/en/.

GEW Releases Ultra-Wide UV Video GEW, headquartered in Crawley, UK, released a new video to illustrate how wide-web converters can benefit from its fully aircooled NUVA2 UV systems. The video features Likora GmbH in Germany, which upgraded the final varnishing station on one of its gravure printing lines by integrating three GEW-made 240cmwide NUVA2 UV lampheads with RHINO power supply. The lampheads are positioned vertically, one after the other, to achieve the maximum UV-curing effect. The UV system is mounted in an aluminum frame that integrates a retractable cooling panel and water-cooled quartz window to prevent the heat transfer onto the substrate. The configuration now can print and varnish substrates up to 2350mm wide with speeds up to 120m/min. For more information, visit www.gewuv.com.

Sun Chemical Collaborates with HP Indigo Sun Chemical, Parsippany, New Jersey, has entered a collaboration agreement with HP Indigo to develop cost-effective digital coatings to enable the adoption of digital printing in the packaging industry. Sun Chemical’s work with HP Indigo will lead to the development of a comprehensive range of digital coatings to support brand owners, converters and printers, including overprint varnishes and adhesives tailored to complement digital solutions. For more information, visit www.sunchemical.com.

Clariant Invests in Additives Facility Clariant, Muttenz, Switzerland, underscored its commitment to Asia with a multimillion Swiss franc investment to ensure local manufacturing in China of customized, high-end solutions for the plastics, coatings and inks industries. With this investment, Business Unit (BU) Additives adds its first two fully-owned production facilities to the company’s long-standing regional network of commercial and technical support, enabling Clariant to shorten supply lead times and deliver customized hightech solutions more rapidly in this region. For more information, visit www.clariant.com.

3D

• • • • •

Unit powers up quickly, saving time Quiet operation Multiple UV distribution points make curing more even and cooler Full lamp curing up to 1000” wide Optional Inteli-GuardTM control allows system to power down while not in use A .W.T. World Trade Inc.

Phoseon Announces New Channel Partner for Spain and Portugal Phoseon Technology, Hillsboro, Oregon, announced an agreement with E. Vila Projects & Supplies S.L. to distribute Phoseon products and LED solutions in Spain and Portugal. E. Vila Projects will bundle value-added services to meet various UV curing requirements using Phoseon LED technology. The company also will offer UV system analysis, design and fabrication of power distribution, controls and mechanical interfaces tailored to clients’ application requirements. For more information, visit www.phoseon.com or www.evilaprojects.com. IGM Resins Welcomes New Global Finance Director IGM Resins, Waalwijk, the Netherlands, welcomed Bart Oude Vrielink to its team. As global finance director, he will report to IGM Resins’ acting CFO Dr. Carsten Koblin and will directly manage the regional controllers in EMEA, North America, Asia and South America. For more information, visit www.igmresins.com. 

Phone: 773.777.7100 • Fax: 773.777.0909 sales@awt-gpi.com • www.awt-gpi.com

56 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


APPLICATION By Nancy Cates, contributing writer, UV+EB Technology

Glass artist employs UV technology to create stunning designs A

rtist? Scientist? Glass artist Sidney Hutter, of Auburndale, Massachusetts, considers himself to be both.

“I use science to make my art,” he said. “The pieces are sculpture, 3D, and a continually changing sculpture depending on the viewer’s angle is what I wanted. One of the things people who collect my work say is that, depending on the angle, you can look right through the piece and not see any of the color or adhesive. Change the angle of view by 20 or 30 degrees and you see something different. It depends on the angle perspective from where the viewer is standing.” Hutter, who has been working with glass since 1974, blends art with the science related to glass properties, use of dyes and pigments, coatings and UV cure. As a graduate student, he was forced to change the way he approached glass art after a fire in the studio eliminated his ability to blow glass, so he began gluing glass pieces together. “I started using UV-cured adhesives in the early ’80s and, prior to that, used anaerobic adhesive,” he explained. “The technology has continually evolved over the years.” Art evolves as UV technology does Hutter began curing adhesive under a fluorescent black light, but the low UV output resulted in a long cure time. In addition, it would only cure a single layer. He developed a pre- and post-cure system that allowed for the spot cure of multiple layers with a low-intensity UV lamp, then cleaning the piece and full curing with a higher intensity UV. “I began researching LED use as the technology developed,” he continued. “The change in the last several years is amazing. There’s no heat, so it makes the working environment much more comfortable, and the bulbs last much longer. The disadvantage is that it is spectrumspecific, and I don’t have a spectrometer to figure out the cure. “I’ve been a member of RadTech for over 20 years,” he continued, “but I’m only as technical as I need to be to get the work done. I have to have an understanding of the technology I’m using. Some industry professionals find it intriguing that I use the technology in that way. Now I’ve been at it so long that people ask me technical questions related to my art. It’s a critical part of what I do.

Photos courtesy of Chris Peadon uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

“Everybody at RadTech has been amazing,” Hutter said. “People who know more about the material than I do have helped me. When I talked last year in Chicago (RadTech 2016), several people offered help and suggested I try their material to see if it would work. I used the presentation as a vehicle to show them what I do, and they take me seriously because page 59  UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 57


September 10-14, 2017 McCormick Place | Chicago, IL USA

PRINT2017.com

Grow YOUR Business PRINT 17 convenes the entire printing and imaging community—come connect, collaborate, and discover YOURQH[WSUR¿WRSSRUWXQLWLHV • Discover YOUR new sales streams • Innovate YOUR business with the newest trends and technologies • Determine YOUR new growth strategies and next business opportunities • Manage YOUR costs and improve YOURḢFLHQFLHV

Get the guidance and best practices to grow YOUR business at PRINT 17.

Learn how at:

PRINT2017.com


APPLICATION  page 57 they know I am always striving to make the best art that I can, using the most up-to-date materials and technology available.” In a paper based on Hutter’s conference presentation, Fine Art Applications Using Pigmented UV Adhesive,* he wrote: “As a glass sculptor, my interest is in the effects of light reflecting and refracting off and through glass. By laminating layers of glass, I am able to emphasize and manipulate the effects of light using color, shape and surface treatments. “In those early years there was limited information about the uses of UV technology for adhering glass to glass, and few materials were available to me, especially on a small studio scale. As advancements in color technology grew, so did my designs. From that point on, my pieces began to incorporate an array of available, vibrant colors.”

FIGURE 1. Example of colored commercial glass and clear adhesive (left), clear adhesive with clear glass (center) and dyed adhesive with clear glass (right).

As technology developed in the early ’90s, more options for glass were available, along with the ability to color the adhesives. “Until that point,” Hutter wrote, “the only color in my work came from the limited colored commercial plate glass available, which I laminated with clear adhesive, or opaque antique architectural glass, which would not transmit light. The ability to add color into the adhesive between the layers of glass opened up many possibilities. FIGURE 2. Polished laminated vertical vases: Comparison of nonfluorescent “This advancement led to new series (left) and fluorescent (right). of work. The interior of the pieces was Testing the materials involves more than just ensuring that the becoming as compelling as the exterior, and I began cutting and adhesive cures. “I glue a piece of glass together, and it sticks,” polishing ‘windows’ into my vessels allowing a look inside.” Hutter explained. “Now I want to saw it, grind it, polish it. There is intense altering of the material after it’s adhered. The material UV technology adds stability, enhances color has to hold up to those secondary techniques. “Adding dye created an almost unlimited palette for me to work with,” Hutter’s article continues. “Later, at a RadTech conference, “As an example, we just cut a piece and one of the joints failed. I was made aware of fluorescent dyes, which added yet another Something caused it to fail and ruin the piece – it could be a dimension to my palette. Fluorescent dyes are more vibrant and number of different things. There are multiple levels of testing the are slightly opaque. This effect puts more emphasis on the dye in materials before the piece is finished.” the piece rather than the play on clear glass and transparent dye. Because each fluorescent dye can be combined in small quantities with a regular color dye or dye mixture and with adjustable ratios, Hutter said that most artists use epoxy, which generally required 24 hours to cure, but he prefers the quicker cure of UV adhesives the combinations are unlimited. The self-illuminating properties page 61  made the pieces pop!” uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 59


“The SGIA Expo is a mustattend for anyone who wants to survive, thrive and succeed in this fast-changing industry.”

GET JAZZED. The next chapter of your company’s success in printing and imaging starts at the 2017 SGIA Expo. Join us for three days to explore the imaging technologies used by manufacturers worldwide — presented >U the industry’s leading suppliers. Connect with industry thought leaders and discover new ways to make your business better.

500 exhibitors

30+

education sessions The SGIA Expo is the largest imaging event in North America, with 500 exhibitors and a complement of top-notch education opportunities led by experts in industrial printing, printed electronics, packaging, signs, graphic decoration and embellishment, and unique, high-production imaging solutions. If you image anything, then imagine yourself at the SGIA Expo.

Get the details at

SGIAExpo.org

3

days of opportunity

COUNTLESS possibilities


APPLICATION  page 59 in Tacoma, Washington, and then plans to move on to a lighting show in West Palm Beach, Florida. “In the lighting show,” he said, “I will not only be using UV LED for cure but also to enhance the materials. I will include a series of illuminated sculptures that can be considered lights — or art objects that use light. It will be a new element of my business profile.

(a)

“I prefer to make a piece on spec rather than on commission,” Hutter concluded. “I can’t guarantee that whatever is in the buyer’s mind is exactly what I will make.” Hutter paused a moment, then continued. “What I make is magic. I don’t always know at the beginning exactly how it will look. I might not know until it’s all put together.” 

(b) FIGURE 3. Adhesive with Red Dye and UV Stabilizer exposed to UV in two-minute intervals (a) and adhesive with red dye without UV stabilizer exposed to UV in twominute intervals (b). so he can move from one part to another. “Our biggest challenge is cleaning the material after the adhesive has been applied and cured. Part of the art form is removing the excess material without chipping or scratching the glass. You have to figure the amount of adhesive needed. With the colorants, the challenge is being able to cure through multiple layers. The easier it is to cure, the more layers I can do at once.”

*Fine Art Applications Using Pigmented UV Adhesive, Hutter, Sidney. RadTech 2016 Proceedings. Downloaded 6/27/17. http:// radtech.org/2016proceedings/papers/technical-conference/ Adhesives/Fine%20Art%20Applications%20Using%20 Pigmented%20UV%20Adhesive.pdf

Getting Nowhere? Siltech Specialty Silicones Can Help. Servicing the Energy Cured Coatings and 3D Printing Industries with unique silicone building blocks

Your Technology Our Chemistry

Adding more color to his compositions added more beauty to Hutter’s art, but also added complications. When he noticed that the dyes used to color the adhesive were beginning to fade, Hutter worked with an industrial colleague to resolve the problem of light-fastness by using a UV stabilizer. After several tests, it was determined that one percent UV stabilizer partially controlled the fading of colors post-cure. That change, while helpful, lengthened cure time, and the longer cure can result in cracks or separation of the adhesive. Hutter addressed that issue with enhanced photoinitiators, which also helped solve later issues with pigment dispersion and dispersing agents. The photoinitiators decrease cure time and increase cure through denser colors, with a lowhalogen lamp pre-cure process used to set the adhesive before the UV curing process. Hutter’s exhibit, “Sidney Hutter Through the Years: Glass, Light and Color,” is on display at the Sandwich (Massachusetts) Glass Museum through October 29, 2017. When the exhibit closes, Hutter will be working with glass blowers at the Museum of Glass uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

Optimum Performance Excellent Customer Service Innovative and Customized Products Siltech Corporation 225 Wicksteed Avenue; Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4H 1G5 Tel: (416) 424-4567; Fax: (416) 424-3158

www.siltech.com

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 61


Regulatory News

Doreen M. Monteleone, Ph.D., director of sustainability & EHS initiatives, RadTech International North America doreen@ radtech.org

OSHA Proposes Delay in Compliance for Electronically Submitted Injury, Illness Reports The US Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has proposed a delay in the electronic reporting compliance date of the rule “Improve Tracking of Workplace Injuries and Illnesses” from July 1, 2017, to December 1, 2017. The final rule was published May 12, 2016. The administration has determined that a further delay of the compliance date is appropriate to allow for additional review into questions of law and policy. The delay also will allow OSHA to provide employers the same four-month window for submitting data that the original rule would have provided. Comments Sought to Strengthen VPP OSHA is seeking input on the future direction of its Voluntary Protection Programs (VPP). This summer, stakeholders are participating in discussions on potential avenues for action. OSHA wants to reshape VPP so that it continues to represent safety and health excellence, leverages partner resources, further recognizes the successes of long-term participants and supports smart program growth. A docket has been opened through September 15, 2017, to receive comments. Visit https://www.regulations.gov/docket?D=OSHA-2017-0009 to learn more. New Publication Guides Small Business on Process Safety Management OSHA has released a guidance document for small businesses to help them comply with the agency’s Process Safety Management (PSM) standard. PSM is critically important to facilities that store highly hazardous chemicals. Implementing the required safety programs helps prevent fires, explosions, large chemical spills, toxic gas releases, runaway chemical reactions and other major incidents. Access the document at https:// www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3908.pdf. US Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Analysis The US Manufacturing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory traces energy from supply (fuel, electricity and steam) to major end-use applications in American manufacturing. Listing “chemicals” as the largest energy consumer, the report examines energy use, energy losses and energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Learn more at https://www.energy.gov/eere/amo/ downloads/us-manufacturing-energy-use-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-analysis. Become More Energy Independent The US Environmental Protection Agency’s SmartWay program helps companies advance supply chain sustainability by measuring and benchmarking freight transportation efficiency. The goal is to save fuel and money while helping the nation move toward energy independence. Learn about greener, more efficient trucking through EPA SmartWay at https://www.epa.gov/smartway/participate-smartway. RadTech is a SmartWay Affiliate Partner. RadTech Members: Stay Up to Date on EHSS RadTech members receive monthly updates on timely environmental, health, safety and sustainability issues impacting their businesses. The EHSS Updates e-newsletter includes topics on a national level, as well as the California activities, which often set precedents for the rest of the country. RadTech members not receiving EHSS Updates should contact Doreen Monteleone at doreen@radtech.org. Not a RadTech member? Contact RadTech at uveb@radtech.org.

News From the West Coast RadTech Obtains Exemptions for UV/EB/LED RadTech has petitioned the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) for permit exemptions for UV/EB/LED operations. RadTech believes companies that have gone above and beyond district requirements should be recognized rather than subjected to overly prescriptive regulations which, in this case, do not impose any further emission reduction requirements. While SCAQMD board members seemed receptive to RadTech’s proposal, it was met with resistance from staff who insisted end users could potentially use noncompliant materials, which the agency would not be able to track without permits. The board recently adopted amendments to Rule 219 (permit exemptions). More than a dozen RadTech member companies submitted written comments in support of the RadTech proposal. 62 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Regulatory News Rita Loof, director of environmental affairs, made public comments on behalf of the Association and testified at various committee hearings as well as the final adoption hearing. The request for the industry not to be segmented into three categories (100% solids, waterborne and solvent) was not granted. While the waterborne and solvent-borne materials may be exempt under the section in the rule for any and all materials less than 50 grams per liter, only 100% solids materials are exempt under the portion that does not specify VOC content but only had a 6-gallon-per-day limitation. Rita Loof, director of regional environmental affairs, RadTech International North America rita@radtech.org

RadTech was successful in obtaining the following:  Increase exemption threshold from 25 g/l to 50 g/l.  Exempt processes up to 1 ton/year, but a form is required.  Restoration of exemption for materials >50 g/l if usage is less than 6 gallons/day (100% solids only).  Fee will not be required.  Form is to be submitted one time, not annually, and there will be no registration fee. The Printing Industry Association Southern California (PIASC) did not express strong opposition to the staff proposal. Instead, they thanked the staff and asked for an advisory to the industry. RadTech has requested a presentation by staff on the status of the rule advisory requested by PIA. Adhesives Regulation RadTech has submitted written comments on proposed changes (see Table 1) to the South Coast Air Quality Management District’s (SCAQMD) Rule 1168 (Adhesives). The rule applies to any “person who sells, stores, supplies, offers for sale or manufactures for sale” any adhesives, adhesive bonding primers, adhesive primers, caulks, sealants or sealant primers. The rule defines an adhesive as “any substance that is used to bond one surface to another surface by attachment.” The proposal includes extensive new labeling and record-keeping requirements for products manufactured after January 1, 2019.

Category

Proposed VOC Limit (grams/liter)

Wood Flooring Adhesive

20

Other, Outdoor Floor Covering

50

Grout

65

Reinforced Plastic Composite

200

Contact Adhesive

80

Edge Glue

250

Rubber Vulcanization

250

Other, Roof Adhesive

200

Foam Sealants

50

TABLE 1. Proposed rule changes

RadTech expressed concern regarding the overly prescriptive record-keeping requirements and requested an exemption for UV/EB/LED materials. Also troubling is the agency’s proposal to allow the RadTech-endorsed test method (ASTM D7767-11) for permitting and labeling but not for enforcement. The agency plans to use its own Method 313 for enforcement – a Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectroscopy approach, which has not been endorsed by either RadTech or ASTM for energy-curable materials. District staff plans to bring the rule for board adoption at the October board meeting. Districts Oppose California Greenhouse Gas Legislation Several air districts in California have filed opposition to the proposal to reauthorize the state’s “cap and trade” program, which deals with greenhouse gases. The program, administered by the California Air Resources Board, is currently authorized through 2020. The agencies oppose new mandates being proposed under Assembly Bills AB 398 and AB 617. SCAQMD reports having seen language between various bodies that would give the California Air Resources Control Board (CARB), in consultation with interested parties, authority to specify “high priority” areas throughout the state for the deployment of advance monitoring systems for communities with the highest emissions burdens for toxics and criteria air pollutants. In addition, CARB also would be required to prepare a statewide strategy to reduce criteria and toxic pollution. According SCAQMD’s Executive Officer, this would amount to a “mini AQMP” (Air Quality Management Plan), which the district prepares every three years and was recently adopted by its board. Sources under the cap and trade program also would be subjected to Best Available Retrofit Control Retrofit Technology (BARCT), and updates would be required every three years. Districts are asking for “significant and sustained” funding for any mandates imposed on air districts in connection with reauthorization. Discussions are underway as to whether districts can regulate carbon dioxide (CO2). Some SCAQMD board members expressed concern that the proposal significantly increases CARB’s role for criteria pollutants and toxics from stationary sources, currently under the jurisdiction of air districts.  uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org

UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017 | 63


Calendar SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

10-14: PRINT 17, McCormick Place South, Chicago, Illinois. For more information, visit www.print2017.com.

10-12: SGIA, Ernest N Morial Convention Center, New Orleans, Louisiana. For more information, visit www.sgia.org.

17-20: Photopolymerization Fundamentals, St. Julien Hotel & Spa, Boulder, Colorado. For more information, visit www.radtechintl.org/Photopolymer2017.

17-19: RadTech Europe Conference and Exhibition, Clarion Congress Hotel, Prague, Czech Republic. For more information, visit www.radtech2017.com.

25-27: PACK EXPO Las Vegas, Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada. For more information, visit www.packexpolasvegas.com.

24-25 UV+EB Packaging Conference and RadTech Fall Meeting, DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Airport, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. For more information, visit www.radtech.org.

25-28: Label Expo Europe 2017, Brussels Expo, Brussels, Belgium. For more information, visit www.labelexpo-europe. com.

MAY 2018 7-9: RadTech 2018: UV+EB Technology and Expo, Hyatt Regency O’Hare, Rosemont, Illinois. For more information, visit www.radtech.org.

Advertisers Index Alberdingk Boley ...................................................................... alberdingkusa.com ............................................................................................... 55 American Ultraviolet ................................................................. americanultraviolet.com ...................................................................................... 15 A.W.T. World Trade Inc. ............................................................ awt-gpi.com .......................................................................................................... 56 BASF .......................................................................................... basf.us/dpsolutions ...................................................................Inside Front Cover BCH Brühl .................................................................................. bch-bruehl.de ....................................................................................................... 43 EIT Instrument Markets ............................................................ eit.com .................................................................................................................. 21 Excelitas Technologies ............................................................. excelitas.com .........................................................................................Back Cover GEW........................................................................................... gewuv.com .............................................................................................................. 7 Heraeus ..................................................................................... heraeus-noblelight.com....................................................................................... 23 Honle UV America Inc. ............................................................. honleuv.com ........................................................................................................... 5 IGM Resins ................................................................................ igmresins.com/contact ..............................................................Inside Back Cover IST America ............................................................................... ist-uv.com .............................................................................................................. 49 Kao Collins ................................................................................ kaocollins.com ...................................................................................................... 42 Miwon Specialty Chemical Co., Ltd. ....................................... miramer.com ......................................................................................................... 26 Phoseon Technology ................................................................ phoseon.com/uv-eb............................................................................................. 41 PRINT 17 .................................................................................... print2017.com ....................................................................................................... 58 RAHN ......................................................................................... rahn-group.com...................................................................................................... 1 Sartomer Arkema Group .......................................................... sartomer.com ........................................................................................................ 19 Siltech Corporation .................................................................. siltech.com ............................................................................................................ 61 SGIA Expo ................................................................................. sgiaexpo.org ......................................................................................................... 60 Three Royal Chemicals ............................................................. threeroyal.com...................................................................................................... 16 Ushio .......................................................................................... ushio.com.............................................................................................................. 25 UV+EB Technology ................................................................... uvebtech.com ....................................................................................................... 37

64 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 3, 2017

uvebtechnology.com + radtech.org


Outperform All Others in Your UV Curing Process

High-Performance UV LED Curing Solutions Improve product yields with low temperature curing Enhance process control and reliability Achieve consistent curing of adhesives, coatings and inks

Visit us at:

The Assembly Show

MD&M Minneapolis

October 24 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 26, 2017 Donald E. Stephens Convention Center Rosemont, IL Booth #1738

November 8 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 9, 2017 Minneapolis Convention Center Minneapolis, MN Booth #1729

www.excelitas.com omnicure@excelitas.com 2260 Argentia Road, Mississauga, Ontario, L5N 6H7 CANADA

Profile for petersonpublications

UV+ED Technology Issue 3 2017  

UV+ED Technology Issue 3 2017  

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded