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2015 Quarter 2 Vol. 1, No. 2

UV/EB leading the way for the future of automotive UV for Surface Protection

Carbon Footprinting & Sustainability

UV/EB & Flexible Electronics

Official Publication of RadTech International North America

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UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 1


Understanding Carbon Footprinting & Making the Case for UV/EB Sustainability Sustainability is transitioning from being a good business practice into being an expectation, which positions UV/EB technology for continued growth. By Dr. Doreen M. Monteleone, director of sustainability & EHS initiatives, RadTech International North America



Headlamp lens in a UV cure oven (Courtesy of Red Spot). The cover was finished by Royle Printing Company, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, using a multi-step UV-curing process called Rough Reticulated StrikeThrough. First, the 4-color process was laid down and a UV varnish was applied as a spot application in the areas that did not receive the gloss UV treatment. UV lights were used to dry the UV varnish, then LED lights were used to dry the 4-color process inks. A flood gloss UV was applied over the entire sheet, which “reacted” to the UV varnish and created the rough texture – only staying smooth and glossy in the areas that were knocked out to receive the gloss UV. The final step was a pass under another set of UV lights to dry the coating. This process was performed in one pass on press.

UV Technology for Surface Protection When compared to conventional coating technology, UV-curable coatings provide improved protection, faster cure and lower material usage, in addition to improved manufacturing efficiency and environmental benefits. By Dr. Ben Curatolo, president, Light Curable Coatings


Flexible Electronics Question & Answer What Role Does UV/EB Play in Bringing Flexible Electronic Products to the Marketplace? By Dr. Mike J. Idacavage, vice president of business development, Colorado Photopolymer Solutions


How a Changing Landscape in Energy Policy is Conducive for UV/EB Cured Products in the Automotive Industry How UV/EB cured products offer solutions to the most challenging automotive-related energy policies in a sustainable way. By Mary Ellen Rosenberger, founder & managing partner, BaySpring Solutions, LLC


Carbon fiber composites substantially reduce the weight and increase the strength of automobiles. Learn more about the program producing multiple structural and nonstructural carbon fiber composites for testing. By Anthony J. Berejka, consultant – radiation processing & polymer technology

DEPARTMENTS President’s Message............................................. 4 Association News................................................. 5 uv.eb WEST Wrap Up......................................... 10 Industry News..................................................... 32 Regulatory News................................................ 53 Technology Showcase........................................ 55 Industry Calendar............................................... 56 Ad Index.............................................................. 56

2 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

New York State Vehicle Composites Program


UV/EB Provides Solutions for Automotive Coating Industry Regulations UV/EB technology’s environmentally friendly solutions provide answers to complex regulatory challenges while helping end users stay in compliance and in business. By Rita Loof, director of regional environmental affairs, RadTech International North America +


RadTech International North America’s Editorial Board Committee facilitates the technical articles featured in UV+EB Technology. Smaller teams of Issue Champions review and approve articles and provide overall content management for each issue, as needed. If you are a member of RadTech and are interested in serving on the Editorial Board Committee, contact Gary Cohen at

Susan Bailey

Technical Development Manager, Acrylates IGM Resins

Brian Cavitt

Associate Professor Abilene Christian University



EB-Curing Technology Question & Answer

How is EB-Curing Technology Being Used in Web Package Printing Applications? By Dr. Stephen C. Lapin, BroadBeam applications specialist, PCT Engineered Systems, division of Ebeam Technologies, Comet Group


UV-Curing Technology Question & Answer The following three questions are explored: Will I Need a Different Radiometer to Experiment with LEDs? How Does “NonReciprocity” in UV Curing Relate to Design or QC of a System? Can I Use Radiachromic Films in my UV System, and What is the Best Way to Use Them? By R.W. Stowe, director of applications engineering, Heraeus Noblelight America LLC

Mike J. Idacavage

Vice President of Business Development Colorado Photopolymer Solutions

Chris W. Miller

Editorial Board Co-Chair Manager, Research & New Technology Estron Chemical

UV+EB TECHNOLOGY EDITORIAL BOARD Chris W. Miller, Estron Chemical Co-Chair/Editor-in-Chief Jim Zawicki, Sartomer Americas Co-Chair/Editor-in-Chief Susan Bailey, IGM Resins Brian Cavitt, Abilene Christian University Byron Christmas, University of Houston - Downtown Syed Hasan, BASF Corporation Mike Higgins, Phoseon Technology Molly Hladik, Brewer Science, Inc. +

Mike J. Idacavage, Colorado Photopolymer Solutions Marc Jackson, Melrob US Inc. Stephen Lapin, PCT Engineered Systems, Comet Group Sudhakar Madhusoodhanan, INX Digital Maria Muro-Small, Spectra Group Limited, Inc. Richard Stowe, Heraeus Noblelight America LLC Huanyu Wei, FiberMark Jinping Wu, Sartomer, Arkema Group Sheng “Sunny” Ye, 3M

Jinping Wu

Scientist Sartomer, Arkema Group

James Zawicki

Editorial Board Co-Chair Marketing Communications Manager Sartomer Americas

UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 3

President’s Message TECHNOLOGY


ollowing the first quarter of 2015, it is clear this will be a challenging year for many of our member companies. In the US, GDP growth was an anemic 0.2% and was impacted by a triad of remarkably fast-acting conditions. The strengthening of the US dollar against most foreign currency is not only hurting the profitability of most US-based multinational corporations from an exchange rate perspective, but is also negatively impacting the export market as their products are more expensive now in the global marketplace. The crash in oil prices – while seemingly advantageous on the surface – has resulted in significant job losses in the US and throughout the global energy sector. Finally, significant winter storms wreaked havoc in January and February.

An official publication of: RADTECH INTERNATIONAL NORTH AMERICA 7720 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 208 Bethesda, Maryland 20814 240-497-1242 EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Gary M. Cohen

Peter Weissman

There has been some good news to go with the turmoil. The cost of raw materials for the coatings industry is down almost universally. Those industries where fuel is a key expense, such as the airline industry, are showing near-record profitability. Gas prices have fallen nearly 40% since November 2014, which means the average person presumably will have additional money to spend. At RadTech International North America, we have launched some new initiatives and reenergized existing efforts. Arguably the most important effort was the revamping of our quarterly magazine into the new UV+EB Technology publication. Thanks to RadTech’s Editorial Board and our new partners at Peterson Publications, Inc., the transition has been seamless. We are reaching far more people than ever before through subscription rates that have quadrupled, an expanded distribution at a number of tradeshows and the monthly eNewsletter companion. RadTech recently hosted a well-attended uv.eb WEST conference and members meeting. A new UV 3D printing committee was launched to address the needs of this not so new but resurgent technology. RadTech’s efforts in the automotive industry also will be enhanced as more disruptive technologies – such as autonomous and all-electric vehicles – and companies, such as Google and Apple, enter this historically stalwart industry. Leading automotive industry professional Mary Ellen Rosenberger has been contracted to provide strategic direction for our efforts. She has 35 years of research and development and automotive plant management experience in coatings at PPG Industries and Ford Motor Company, as well as a track record of commercializing new products and implementing manufacturing solutions. She has begun speaking with members to gain a better understanding of our organization, and you can expect to hear more about these efforts in the coming months. To complement these efforts, this issue of UV+EB Technology features an automotive theme, with articles about the automotive industry’s transformation to lighter weight materials, the technology that may be used to accomplish some of the new requirements, as well as regulatory efforts that are impacting the automotive industry specifically. As the saying goes, “change” is our only constant. With rapid transformations underway in industries such as automotive and 3D printing, RadTech is developing new approaches to demonstrate and refine the contributions that our technology can provide. The true key to success will be in what we do together to advance UV/EB technologies. Contact me to discuss opportunities to work together. Peter Weissman, Quaker Chemical Corporation President, RadTech International North America 4 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015



President Peter Weissman – Quaker Chemical Corporation President-elect Lisa Fine – Joules Angstrom UV Printing Inks Secretary Eileen Weber – Red Spot Treasurer Paul Elias – Miwon North America Immediate Past-President Don Duncan – Wikoff Color Corporation Board of Directors Jo Ann Arceneaux – Allnex USA Inc. Rick Baird – The Boeing Company Mark Gordon – INX International Ink Company Jennifer Heathcote – Phoseon Technology Nikola Juhasz – Sartomer Division, Arkema Group Joshua Lensbouer – Mannington Mills George McGill – Zeller + Gmelin Corporation Alexander Polykarpov – AkzoNobel Beth Rundlett – Katecho, Inc. Aaron Smith – Kimball International Jeremy Teachman – Sun Chemical Corporation Alrick “Al” Warner – Procter and Gamble Xiasong Wu – DSM Functional Materials

Published by:

2150 SW Westport Drive, Suite 101 Topeka, Kansas 66614 785-271-5801 Publisher Jeff Peterson

National Sales Director Janet Dunnichay

Art Director Becky Arensdorf

Managing Editor Melissa DeDonder

Contributing Editor Circulation Manager Kelly Adams Brenda Schell ENews & Website Developer Jen Clark +

Association News Warner Named to RadTech Board of Directors Alrick “Al” Warner, a research fellow with Procter and Gamble, has been named to the RadTech Board of Directors. Warner is a 30-year veteran with P&G, responsible for the upstream ink and printing developments and improvements in a number of baby and feminine care-related products and substrates. He holds numerous patents and is considered Alrick “Al” a key thought leader for both analog and Warner digital printing. “With the rapid emergence of UV and EB in a number of printing, products and packaging applications, we are honored to have Warner’s wide-ranging experience and expertise,” said Peter Weissman of Quaker Chemical and president of RadTech’s Board. “We look forward to his leadership as we continue to develop new, enabling manufacturing methods.” For more information, visit and Sustainability, EHS Webpages Debut on RadTech North America’s Website If you haven’t visited RadTech International North America’s website lately, you need to check out the new pages highlighting the sustainability of UV/EB technology. The pages feature links to numerous articles – written by industry experts – that promote the benefits of UV/EB technology in relation to the three pillars of sustainability – people, planet and profit. Important environmental, health and safety updates are included as well. Doreen Monteleone welcomes your feedback at Advance Your Career This Summer Whether you’re starting a new career or gaining professional expertise, RadTech/ SUNY-ESF’s Radiation Curing Program (RCP) offers online, self-paced courses to learn about the rapidly growing field of energy curable technology in a cost-effective, convenient way. Three in-depth, 500-level 3-credit graduate courses are being offered this summer. Participants taking all three courses for credit are eligible for an Advanced Certificate in Radiation Curing from the State University of New York’s College of Environmental Science and Forestry. Registration is open for the following courses: • Introduction to Polymer Coatings • Radiation Curing of Polymer Technologies • Radiation Curing Equipment, Instrumentation and Safety In addition, two short courses provide a fundamental understanding of radiation curing technology and are available +

Board President Weissman Promoted to Global Aerospace Business Director at Quaker Peter Weissman, RadTech International North America’s board president, has been named global aerospace business director of Quaker Chemical Corporation. In his new position, Weissman will lead Quaker’s Aerospace Coatings Team, and he will be responsible for technical sales support to the global customer base, for new business development, product development and product management. All members of the AC Products Aerospace Team will report to him, and he also will maintain some of his current activities in Quaker’s global tube and pipe coatings business. Weissman has been with Quaker for more than seven years, and he has led its global tube and pipe coatings business development efforts in the areas of formulation development, cost reduction and the building of a global laboratory team for the past five-plus years. For more information, visit

every month: • Basics of UV-Curable 3D Printing • Principles of Energy Curing Technologies RadTech members receive a 10 percent discount off any RCP courses taken on a noncredit basis. Group discounts are available also. Learn more at or RadTech Joins SGP Community The Executive Board of the Sustainable Green Printing Partnership (SGP) unanimously voted RadTech International North America into the SGP Community as a Resource Partner recently. SGP is a nonprofit organization that certifies printing facilities’ sustainability best practices, including and above and beyond regulatory compliance. SGP Resource Partners are a diverse group of organizations, from industry trade associations to educational institutions and NGOs, all striving to provide information and resources to help create a more sustainable print industry. As suppliers to the printing industry, RadTech members are encouraged to work with customers and to promote UV/EB technology as a sustainable alternative. The sustainability benefits of UV/EB, including positive impact on a carbon footprint, are widespread and mesh well with the SGP sustainability metrics that printers are required to report. All types of printers in the United States and Canada are being certified by SGP, so the opportunities are considerable. RadTech members also are encouraged to learn more about SGP and to consider taking a more active role as supporter of the organization by becoming a SGP Patron. To learn more about SGP, visit or contact Doreen Monteleone at page 6 u UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 5

Association News t page 5

Conferences and Continuing Education Opportunities Opportunities abound – in person and virtually – for industry-wide conferences, workshops and continuing education in 2015. A few opportunities have been listed below: Webinar Series – The Future of UV/EB Advanced Manufacturing: Trends, Strategies & Applications RadTech International North America and the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF) have created a free ultraviolet/electron beam curing technologies webinar series – The Future of UV/EB Advanced Manufacturing: Trends, Strategies and Applications. Webinars typically include 60 minutes of real-time presentation and interactive facilitated discussion with participants. Those unable to attend can access the archives online. For more information, including the full series schedule, registration details, archives and more, visit Photopolymerization Fundamentals 2015 The premier scientific conference for the industry will be Sept. 13-16 in Boulder, Colorado. The event will include numerous presentations, a short course featuring four tutorial or review lectures from industry leaders, a poster session and vendor exhibits. Early registration ends June 30. For more information, visit RadTech China 2015 RadTech China’s 2015 annual conference and forum will take place Sept. 21-25 at the Guangzhou Baiyun International Convention Center, in Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. The event will focus on fundamental research and discussion about the advancement, development and application of UV/EB curing technology in various coating, ink, adhesive and equipment industries. It will be co-located with the third annual International Forum on Radiation Curing Industry Development (IFRCID 2015) and the sixth annual China International RadTech Expo (IRTE 2015). For more information, visit RadTech Europe 15 RadTech Europe 15 will be Oct. 13-15 at the Clarion Congress Hotel in Prague, Czech Republic. This biennial event promises cutting-edge presentations covering all aspects of radiation curing technology, technological content ranging from advances in photochemistry and formulations to equipment and dedicated sessions for hot topics such as regulatory developments and 3D printing innovations. For complete details visit

6 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

RadTech Announces New UV LED 2015 Conference RadTech International North America will be hosting a new conference targeting the emergence of UV LEDs and UV LED-curing technology used with advanced materials. In partnership with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, UV LED 2015 will take place Oct. 28-29 in Troy, New York. The conference will include a full day of presentations, an exhibition, a reception and a tour of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center. NYSERDA supports RadTech’s efforts in advancing the innovative and energy-saving UV LED technology and in recognizing the important developments happening in the state. “RadTech’s efforts will help major industries reduce the amount of power needed for manufacturing, which will help in the state’s efforts to create a clean, resilient and affordable electric grid,” said John B. Rhodes, president and CEO, NYSERDA. RadTech also partners with the Ultraviolet Light and Electron Beam Process Curing Systems Technology Center on the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry campus in Syracuse, New York. The RadTech/SUNY partnership provides research, development and industrial testing to help make manufacturing processes in New York more energy efficient, environmentally friendly and economical. For more information about attending or exhibiting at UV LED 2015, visit or email RadTech 2016 The RadTech 2016 Technical Conference will be May 16-18, 2016, in the Chicago suburb of Rosemont, Illinois. Exhibit space is already 50 percent sold out, so don’t miss your opportunity to showcase your company! The official call for papers is open through Sept. 4, and speakers will be notified in October. A limited number of papers will be selected, and all presentations should be no longer than 25 minutes in length, with five minutes for Q&A. Your commitment includes a written paper to be included in the official conference proceedings. Poster sessions are available as an avenue for presenting as well. For more information, visit or email mickey@ n +



Q. How is EB-Curing Technology


Being Used in Web Package Printing Applications?

Electron beam (EB) technology has become well established in several web package printing applications. The type of EB equipment used in these applications is known as low energy system, which the industry defines as systems operating with electron acceleration potentials between 70 and 300 kV. The electrons are generated by an electrically operated filament within a vacuum chamber and then are accelerated though a thin foil window, where they impinge on a substrate at atmospheric pressure. Low energy EB systems are completely self-shielded and are available to handle webs from 400 mm to over 2.7 meters wide. The penetration of electron beams into the substrate is controlled by the accelerating voltage of the beam. At the lower end of the spectrum (70 to 110 kV), energy can be concentrated in the first 5 to 20 microns, which is ideal for curing inks and coatings used in printing processes. EB energy causes a controlled ionization of materials that leads to the generation of free radicals. These radicals initiate the polymerization of acrylate functional monomers and oligomers without the need for added photoinitiators. This polymerization results in the instant drying (curing) of ink and coating layers. The absence of photoinitiators and the consistent cure process make EB attractive for printing on packaging for food, pharmaceutical or personal care products.

EB ink curing is commonly used for web offset package printing. Offset printing is attractive because of the low printing plate costs and lithographic quality images. The paste inks used for web offset printing are well suited for wet trapping of each color followed by curing with a single EB system at the end of the press. The most well established application for EB web offset printing is folding cartons – including milk, juice and ice cream cartons – printed on polyethylene (PE) coated paper board. Press equipment includes inline scoring and diecutting of the cartons so that finished carton blanks are delivered and stacked at the end of the press. The EB ensures consistent high speed curing of the low migration ink and coatings. Other applications for EB web offset package printing include dry food packets, labels and multi-wall bags. EB is a nice fit for shrinksleeve label printing, since the very low heat EB curing process prevents distortion of the heat-sensitive shrink films. Modern variable sleeve web offset press equipment enables a relatively quick change of the print repeat length. This makes EB web offset printing technology potentially attractive in flexible packaging applications; however, this remains a niche with only a few installations. A challenge of web offset printing is the application of opaque white lastdown or first-down ink layers, which often are needed when printing on clear films. In some cases, conventional waterbased or solvent-based white inks are applied after EB curing to provide an opaque backup white layer.

FIGURE 1. Examples of packaging produced using EB-curing technology.

8 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

EB ink systems also have been developed for flexographic printing. Flexo inks are traditionally liquid ink systems that require some degree of drying (dry-trapping) after the application of each ink layer. Interstation EB drying is not practical because of the size and cost of the equipment. The new ink technologies are optimized so that individual colors may be wet-trapped without interstation dryers. WetFlex™ ink technology, developed by Sun Chemical, is reported to contain limited +

The absence of photoinitiators and the consistent cure process make EB attractive for printing on packaging for food, pharmaceutical or personal care products. amounts of water, which provides just enough of a viscosity change to allow wet-trapping. GelFlex® (Technosolutions) has adopted a similar approach using limited amounts of solvent. Both inks utilize central impression (CI) press configurations since they will not be dry enough until after EB to turn up against an idler roll. Both also offer very high print quality due to low dot gain enabled by the high solids content of the inks. Some specialized ink handling – including temperature control – is important with these inks. Uteco is one press manufacturer offering ink handling systems optimized for EB flexo printing.


There are several established packaging applications where EB-cured clear coatings are used to protect conventional printed ink layers. Notable examples include EB release coatings used for cold seal packaging and outdoor resistant EB coatings for films bags used to package lawn and garden products. While these are examples of established EB web printing technologies, new applications for EB are on the horizon, which include digital printing and narrow web systems using compact sealed tube “EB lamps.” n


Have a Question? Would you like to see it addressed here? Submit your idea for consideration to

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BroadBeam Applications Specialist, PCT Engineered Systems, division of Ebeam Technologies, Comet Group




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UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 9


Impressive Attendance, Board Members Honored at uv.eb WEST 2015 R

adTech International North America thanks its members and associates for their role in the impressive number of exhibitors and attendees at uv.eb WEST 2015, which took place in early March in Redondo Beach, California. This year’s conference featured a short course on The Chemistry of UV/EB and two days full of presentations, with sessions categorized under the following topics: 3D Printing; Printing & Packaging; UV Inkjet for Food Packaging; New Products & Processes in UV LEDs; UV/EB Curing Innovations. Attendees reflected the diverse range of industries that UV/EB curing technology impacts – from brand owners and consumer product companies to packaging printers and converters, chemists and materials scientists. “We are particularly excited that a large percentage of our attendees were end users and/or first time RadTech participants,” said Gary Cohen, executive director. During a ceremony at the conference, Don Duncan of Wikoff Color, immediate past president of the Board of Directors, presented Presidential Awards to the co-chairs of the RadTech Editorial Board – Chris Miller of Estron Chemical and Jim Zawicki of Sartomer Americas. The two were honored for their efforts in launching RadTech’s new magazine – UV+EB Technology – which made its official public debut during the show. “Chris and Jim led a seamless transition from the RadTech Report to our new publication,” said Peter Weissman of Quaker Chemical Corporation and current president of the Board. “Their hard work, guidance and leadership made possible our very successful launch with quality articles and a four-fold increase in distribution.” Also honored were several RadTech Board Members who have served their term of service, including Miller; Don Duncan of Wikoff Color, immediate past president of RadTech; Steve Lapin of PCT Engineered Systems’ division of Ebeam Technologies, Comet Group; Mike Sajdak of INX Intl; and Im Rangwalla of Energy Sciences Inc. For more information, visit n

RadTech’s Committees and Focus Groups are charged with expanding and sharing information about UV/EB technology. Many of these groups gathered for official face-to-face meetings during uv.eb WEST. If you are interested in joining a Committee or Focus Group, call 240-497-1242.

10 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 +

The uv.eb WEST 2015 tabletop exhibition was full of industry suppliers showcasing the latest equipment, technology and services.

RadTech Editorial Board Co-Chairs Chris Miller of Estron Chemical (left) and Jim Zawicki of Sartomer Americas (right) were honored with Presidential Awards at uv.eb WEST 2015. They received the awards for their efforts in launching RadTech’s new magazine – UV+EB Technology – which made its official debut during the show.

Jo Ann Arceneaux of Allnex presented “Regulation Friendly UV-Curable Products” during the UV Inkjet for Food Packaging sessions, and “Mitigation of Oxygen Inhibition to Improve the UV LED Cure Process” during the What New Products and Processes Will UV LEDs Enable in 2015 sessions. +

Attendees and exhibitors of uv.eb WEST 2015 were reflective of the diverse range of industries that UV/EB curing technology impacts.

Save the Dates The new UV LED 2015 event will be Oct. 28-29 in Troy, New York. RadTech 2016 will be May 16-18, 2016, in Rosemont, Illinois. UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 11


Q. I Plan to Experiment with LEDs.

Will I Need a Different Radiometer from What I am Using?


Yes. Medium-pressure (MP) mercury lamps emit UV over a very wide region of the UV spectrum. There are few instruments that can capture the emitted energy over the entire UV range. A radiometer uses a detector and filter combination to cover only a comparatively narrow band. These are typically designed to be sensitive within the UVC, UVB or UVA bands. (For UV curing, an additional long-wavelength band, UVV, is often added to the traditional UV bands). An instrument may include more than one detector-filter set in order to better cover the wavelength spread of mediumpressure lamps. Radiometer response in the UVC (red), UVB (green), UVA (purple) and UVV (dark blue) is illustrated below.

“It is important to know the spectral response of the radiometer you use and its relation to LED emitted wavelengths (or to any UV source), and the radiometer should be identified along with reported data.”

Today’s UV LEDs emit in narrow wavelength bands, typically centered at 365 nm, 385 nm, 395 nm or 405 nm. They are nearly monochromatic, having a wavelength spread within about 10 nm of their center wavelength. Comparing these wavelengths (with the exception of 365 nm) to the

traditional radiometer bands, it is apparent that they fall between the traditional sensing bands. In fact, attempting to characterize LEDs with the same radiometer bands used for MP lamps can result in measurements that are TABLE 1. Radiometer response bands, with X representing the nm wavelength and Y very wrong. representing the normalized response. UVC is red, UVB is green, UVA is purple and UVV is dark blue. (Courtesy of EIT Instrument Markets, Sterling, VA)


12 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

Since “UVA” or “UVV” fails to describe the LED range, a designation, “UVA2” or “UVA2,” was invented. Again, different “LED” radiometers may have different upper and lower wavelength sensitivity limits. So, it is important to know the spectral response band of a radiometer and its relation to the emission wavelengths of the LED of interest.

Stowe 1 of 3, page 14 u +

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Š Arkema Inc. 2015


Q. In Your Last Column, You Mentioned “Non-


Reciprocity” in UV Curing. How Does That Relate to Design or QC of a System?

Reciprocity is a term often used in a photographic context. It refers to the inverse relationship between the intensity and duration of light that determines the reaction of light-sensitive material. This “inverse relationship” suggests a result will be the same if the intensity is increased (or decreased) in the same proportion that duration is decreased (or increased). When this principle is explored in UV curing, we quickly find that most UV-curable materials do not behave this way, hence the “nonreciprocity of UV-curable materials.”

TABLE 1. Non-reciprocity when UV curing a typical coating, illustrated here as a heavy wood coating and the exposure required to achieve the same chemical resistance (MEK rubs) cured at different peak irradiance levels. The result is more likely to be a consequence of UVC – although proportional to UVA.

Peak Irradiance, m W/cm2 UVAEIT

Exposure (“dose”) in UV curing is the time-integral of irradiance. Irradiance and time (or speed) are independent variables and exposure is a combination of the two. Exposure, in J/cm² or mJ/cm², is commonly presented as a design specification of a curable material. This implies “reciprocity” or the expectation that higher speed combined with higher power will give the same result as lower speed and lower power. There are several factors that “interfere” with the simple reciprocity assumption:

500 400 300 200 100 0

1. The complex character of the irradiance profile; 2. The spectral opacity and absorbance of the curable film; and 3. The effect of time of exposure on temperature. Clearly something is missing – usually it is either the irradiance required (W/cm² or mW/cm²) or the irradiance profile delivered. Either of these is easily determined and used for design specification and a QC measure. See the illustration of non-reciprocity in UV curing a typical coating. This example of a heavy wood coating shows the exposure required to achieve the same chemical resistance (MEK rubs) cured at different peak irradiance levels. The result is more likely to be a consequence of UVC (although proportional to UVA). Many materials will show a difference in the total energy required to cure when exposed to higher or lower irradiance. The internal photochemical mechanisms 14 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015







Energy Required to Cure, mJ/cm2, UVAEIT

can be complex, but the net result can be very clear. From opaque thick films to clear thin films, the relationship can vary from negative reciprocity to positive. Bench testing can reveal this.

Reciprocity is often referred to as the inverse relationship between the intensity and duration of light that determines the reaction of lightsensitive material. This “inverse relationship” suggests a result will be the same if the intensity is increased (or decreased) in proportion to the duration being decreased (or increased). We quickly find that most UV-curable materials do not behave this way. +

Q. I Can’t Fit a Radiometer through my A.

UV System. Can I use Radiachromic Films, and What’s the Best Way to Use Them?

Yes, there are essentially two types of radiachromic films: • Films or tabs whose surface is coated with a photochromic coating. Most commercial films of this type exhibit a change of hue with exposure, changing their optical density in a specific color range. Many of these have a PSA on the back. • Films whose composition includes a photochromic component. These films are initially nearly transparent and change their transmission color or optical density with exposure. Radiachromic films respond to exposure (J/cm² or mJ/cm²) only. They cannot “report” irradiance or any information on the irradiance profile. Because they can be attached to sheets or webs, they can do something that probes and paddle radiometers can’t – record the actual exposure of the process.

TABLE 1. Correlate the response of the film to the actual exposure of the subject UV system, using any integrating radiometer of choice – illustrated here as transfer radiometry. 4.5 4.0 3.5

E, mJ/cm2 UVAEIT

3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 .05 0.0


1.1 1.3 1.5 O.D. (corrected)

FWT Film, “V” Bulb

One method uses them in a strictly comparative way, to compare the color or density change to that of a film previously passed through the same (or identical) system. Be cautious of preprinted scales or values, because those were most likely produced by exposure to lamps of different spectra, irradiance and speed. Another effective method is to correlate the response of the film to actual exposure of the subject UV system, using any integrating radiometer of choice. Offline exposures of the film and integrating radiometer are made with the same lamp(s), typically on a conveyor at a succession of speeds. The change in color density is read before and after exposure with a reflection color densitometer – or a transmission densitometer for transparent films. A simple chart, illustrated here, provides interpretation of exposure in what we call “transfer radiometry.” n +




FWT Film, “D” Bulb



FWT Film, “H” Bulb

Have a Question? Would you like to see it addressed here? Submit your idea for consideration to

R.W. Stowe

Director of Applications Engineering Heraeus Noblelight America LLC

UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 15

SUSTAINABILITY By Dr. Doreen M. Monteleone, director of sustainability & EHS initiatives, RadTech International North America

Understanding Carbon Footprinting & Making the Case for UV/EB Sustainability W

ith increasing emphasis on sustainable practices, every industry group is undergoing major changes in the way it does business. From the supply chain to the branding process, focus is on meeting the goals of sustainable production and profit. Although sustainable business practices are being driven by companies wanting to be sustainability leaders, often it is the result of customer demands.

Because of sustainability requirements of companies – most notably the world’s largest retailer, Walmart – sustainability has gotten the attention of everyone. Minimizing carbon footprinting has become a requirement to do business with Walmart. For many production lines – from coatings to package printing – the potential impact on a facility’s carbon footprint often positions the use of UV/EB over traditional systems as a more sustainable business practice. Although the amount of solvent in formulations can vary, quite often, facilities using UV/EB systems have a lower carbon footprint than comparable operations using traditional alternatives, such as organic solvent or water-based systems. To determine the extent of the sustainability advantage to UV/EB end users requires an understanding of the elements of a carbon footprint. A carbon footprint is a measure of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to global warming. GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases that are expressed as equivalent (CO2e). Because of their heat trapping abilities, emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulfur TABLE 1. The global warming potential (GWP) of hexafluoride (SF6), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) gases and groups of gases that contribute and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) also are to global warming. The amount of gas is multiplied included when calculating a carbon footprint. by the GWP to calculate the CO2e. According to the By using conversion factors called global Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), warming potentials (GWPs), GHGs are all GWPs typically have an uncertainty of roughly ±35%, measured against the heat trapping ability of though some have greater uncertainty than others. CO2 to calculate the CO2e (Table 1). In total, these compounds comprise a carbon footprint GAS GWP typically expressed in a unit of weight, Carbon dioxide (CO2) 1 such as tons. Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-23 HFC-32 HFC-125 HFC-134a HFC-143a HFC-152a

21 310 23,900 6,500

Although there is no mandatory standard for measuring total GHG emissions, the international voluntary standard – the Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol) – is 11,700 used worldwide. The GHG Protocol divides 650 the types of GHG emission sources into three 2,800 “scopes.” Scope 1 includes GHGs from direct 1,300 emissions of onsite combustion and mobile 3,800 sources. Scope 2 includes indirect emissions 140 from purchased electricity and is, perhaps, the most straightforward scope to calculate. Scope 3 includes emissions from product transport, employee business travel and employee commuting. It is the most challenging to calculate and requires significant documentation of the sources and information used to calculate the carbon emissions. Quite often it is considered an optional calculation. page 18 u 16 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 +

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SUSTAINABILITY t page 16 For a typical manufacturing facility, Scope 1 emissions would include, but are not limited to: • • • •

Emergency generators Gas boilers, process dryers and water heaters Air pollution control devices Company-owned or leased vehicles, power landscape equipment • Propane forklifts and landscaping equipment • Refrigerants (HFCs) • CO2 used in some electron-beam coating lines Scope 2: Emissions from the generation of purchased electricity that is consumed in, owned or controlled equipment or operations. GHG emissions from electricity generation will depend on the fuel sources used by the utility and may include any one or a combination of coal, oil, natural gas, hydropower, nuclear or wind power. The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) publishes the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGrid), which includes conversion factors based on the fuel sources used for electricity generation by utilities nationwide.

Although the GHG Protocol has defined the various scopes, it can be confusing as to what is included in each set of calculations. So, at every step, it is important to keep detailed documentation of emission sources included in the calculation, as well as any conversion factors to ensure consistency when making comparisons over time or with other facilities. Scope 1: Direct emissions from sources owned or controlled. Direct GHG emissions are principally the result of the following types of activities: • Generation of electricity, heat or steam. These emissions result from oxidative combustion (burning) of fuels in stationary sources (e.g., boilers, furnaces, turbines and oxidizers). • Physical or chemical processing. Most of these emissions result from manufacture or processing of chemicals and materials. • Transportation of materials, products, waste and employees. These emissions result from the combustion of fuels in company-owned/controlled mobile combustion sources (e.g., trucks, trains, ships, airplanes, buses and cars). • Fugitive emissions. These emissions result from intentional or unintentional releases (e.g., equipment leaks from joints, seals, packing and gaskets); methane emissions from coal mines and venting; CO2; hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions during the use of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; and methane leakages from gas transport.

Scope 3: Optional emissions include all indirect emissions not covered in Scope 2. It includes upstream and downstream emissions; emissions resulting from the extraction and production of purchased materials and fuels; transport-related activities in vehicles not owned or controlled by the entity; use of sold products and services; outsourced activities; recycling of used products, waste disposal, etc. For a typical manufacturing facility, Scope 3 emissions might include: • • • •

Product materials produced by suppliers Waste disposal Employee commuting Business travel

When calculating a carbon footprint, a company first must determine to what level or scope the calculations will be made and then compile the associated data. Once the boundaries are selected, consistent methodology is paramount to compare changes over time. The three basic steps to determining total carbon emissions from a facility are list, convert and add. 1. List: List each of the gases to be quantified and determine the emissions of each. For example, 1,000 kilograms of CO2 may be emitted along with 100 grams of methane (CH4) and 50 grams of nitrous oxide (N2O). 2. Convert: Convert the non-CO2 emissions to CO2e emissions

18 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 +

TABLE 2. Some key sources of information on reducing GHG emissions and carbon footprint calculations – available online. Topic



Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Greenhouse Gas Protocol

US Environmental Protection Agency


Climate Registry


US EPA – Climate Leaders

Electrical Purchases


US Energy Information Administration

term trends. Progressive businesses are using carbon footprint figures in their decision-making process as they choose future products and services. Getting started can be challenging, but with detailed notes and a step-by-step process, the task certainly is achievable.

Reducing carbon footprint through Transportation US EPA – SmartWay UV/EB technology As sustainability Intergovernmental Panel on Refrigerants encompasses the entire Climate Change supply chain, printers, for Reduction Tips Carbon Fund example, will turn to their US EPA – Green Power Green Power Options ink and coating suppliers Partnership to lower their GHG emissions. Printers will ask about the contribution the particular by multiplying by their GWP (Table 1), which indicates the inks they use make to their carbon footprint. In fact, programs like relationship between CO2 emissions to those of various other the Sustainable Green Printing Partnership (see page 5) require non-CO2 greenhouse gases. printers to calculate their carbon footprints and maintain an open dialog with suppliers to promote continuous improvement. 3. Add: Add the CO2 emissions to the resulting CO2e emissions of the other pollutants. Make sure to convert all emissions Whether the end user is a printer or coater, there are opportunities to either kilograms or metric tons before adding. The final to reduce a carbon footprint in all three scopes. Here are just a few number will represent the total greenhouse gases emitted into examples. the atmosphere on a CO2e basis. Fuel Emissions

Numerous websites provide detailed information to determine emissions of GHGs from various sources and calculate a carbon footprint. A thorough search on the internet will provide up-todate conversions, but a few key sites are listed in Table 2. For a facility calculating a footprint for the first time, a baseline carbon footprint is useful to establish – to analyze future trends and make comparisons to similar facilities. Once the size of a carbon footprint is calculated and understood, strategies can be devised to reduce it by technological developments and/or better process and facility management. For example, purchased electricity represents one of the largest sources of GHG emissions and is the most significant opportunity to reduce these emissions. So, technology that serves to reduce electricity use also will impact a carbon footprint. Facilities often find that even making basic changes in this area not only will reduce their carbon footprint, but also will often yield a return on investment in less than two years. In sustainability practices, carbon footprinting is an important metric that will highlight the greatest areas of concern, where improvements might be achieved and might determine +

Scope 1 – Emissions example UV/EB has the potential to reduce Scope 1 emissions. According to (Ross 2007), UV/EB technology can reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) and GHG emissions in the flooring industry. He also stated that the energy to dry a UV/EB coating is much lower than that of a conventional solvent or waterborne coating. As there is no use of natural gas to cure UV/EB formulations, combustion of natural gas for drying is eliminated from the carbon footprint equation. Natural gas is mainly methane (CH4) and – even though it is cleaner than oil, gasoline or coal – it does convert to CO2 when burned. In the combustion process, almost all of the carbon in the natural gas is converted to CO2. Due to impurities present during the natural gas refining process, traces of sulfur, nitrogen and other hydrocarbons also are emitted when natural gas is burned. But there is a second source of carbon emissions in the oxidation process besides the natural gas combustion (Monteleone 2011). The actual combustion of the solvents that are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), often are overlooked as another source of CO2. VOC combustion can be expressed as follows: VOC + oxygen (O2) in the presence of heat creates water (H2O) and CO2. page 20 u UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 19

SUSTAINABILITY t page 19 By comparison, when UV/EB is used instead of a solvent system, not only is the CO2 from the natural gas combustion eliminated, but the CO2 from oxidation of solvents is eliminated as well. Although there may be VOCs in some UV/EB formulations, it is typically not a high enough concentration to warrant combustion. To calculate the amount of CO2 emitted from natural gas combustion, determine how much was used in 1 CCF (100 cubic feet) of natural gas. Natural gas combustion yields 12.012 lbs of CO2 per CCF. Multiply 12.012 lbs by the number of CCF consumed annually and divide by 2,204.62 to calculate metric tons of CO2. (Source: US Department of Energy 1605(b) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, coefficients.html) Usage (CCF) x (12.012 lbs CO2/CCF) / 2,204.62 lbs/metric ton = CO2 emissions (metric ton) For example, if a dryer uses 12,424 CCF of natural gas. 12,424 CCF x (12.012 lbs CO2/CCF) / 2,204.62 lbs/metric ton = 67.69 metric tons CO2 Then again, natural gas combustion is only part of the Scope 1 emissions as oxidation of the solvents (VOCs) emits CO2 as well. Depending on the type of VOC being used, such as n-propyl alcohol or n-propyl acetate, the amount of CO2 being generated per molecule of VOC would be different. For example, in the case of oxidation of n-propyl alcohol – C3H8O – the oxidation reaction would be 2C3H8O + 9O2 g 6CO2 + 8H2O So, for every two molecules of n-propyl alcohol, six molecules of CO2 are emitted. Emission conversion factors by weight for solvents used by flexographic printers range from 2.0-2.2 (Monteleone 2011). The calculation of a carbon footprint from VOC oxidation would be as follows: Usage (VOC Combusted in US tons) x 2.1 average emission factor x 0.907 metric tons/US ton = CO2 Emissions (metric tons). For example, if a facility oxidizes 10 tons of VOCs: Using an average conversion factor of 2.1, it would generate approximately 21 tons of CO2. To convert US tons to metric tons, the number is multiplied by 0.907 metric tons/US ton, which equals 19.05 metric tons of CO2. 10 US tons of VOC x 2.1 x 0.907 metric tons /US ton = 19.05 metric tons of CO2. By eliminating both the use of natural gas and the oxidation of a solvent, UV/EB can reduce a facility’s Scope 1 carbon footprint. 20 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

Scope 2 – Footprint example Another major area that UV/EB can reduce a carbon footprint is by reducing the use of electricity contributing to Scope 2 emissions. Depending on the fuel source for the local utility, the conversion factor from kilowatt hours (kWh) to carbon footprint varies considerably. Of the most common fossil fuels used, coal combustion results in greater amounts of CO2 emissions per unit of electricity generated, while oil produces less and natural gas produces the least. Emissions of CO2 and CO2e from CH4 and N2O are included in Scope 2, so it is necessary to know how much of each gas is generated from the production of one kilowatt hour of electricity by the local utility. The US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) posts regional conversion factors online for each of the GHGs being emitted by utilities on the Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) webpage. The agency’s most recent eGRID emission factors are from 2010 and are based on the mix of electricity fuel sources used in a particular region of the country. These factors are included in the calculation of total carbon emission in metric tons. Although many companies use eGRID emission factors, they are expressed only regionally. More accurate information may be available from the local utility and is sometimes indicated on a utility bill. To calculate total carbon emissions for Scope 2, all GHGs must be expressed as CO2 (or CO2e) using the emission factors provided by the utility or eGrid for CO2, CH4 and N2O) and the global warming potential (GWP) for each of them as follows: Usage (kWh) × CO2 emission factor (lbs CO2/kWh) / 2204.62 lbs/ metric ton + (Usage (kWh) × CH4 emission factor (lbs CH4/kWh) / 2204.62 lbs/ metric ton) × 21 GWP + (Usage (kWh) × N2O emission factor (lbs CH4/kWh) / 2204.62 lbs/ metric ton) × 310 GWP = CO2e Emissions (metric tons). It has been well documented that UV/EB curing uses less electricity than traditional systems. Following a review of the electricity use studies of several reports on UV/EB, (Golden 2012) noted that thermal-curing energy requirements were found to be five to nine times higher than UV/EB curing in the same process. Similarly, the difference in the carbon emissions would be five to nine times. Scope 3 – Footprint example As carbon emissions from transportation are included in Scope 3 of a carbon footprint, any minimization of the use of combustion of fuel that can be attributed to using UV/EB can be considered. In other words, if a UV/EB supplier can make the case of reduced transportation compared to other ink systems, there would be a parallel carbon footprint reduction for the end user. Whether it is an overall lighter weight, smaller volume or closer distance, the reduced use of fossil fuel to transport the ink or coating to the end user results in a reduced carbon footprint for that aspect. +

Next steps The sustainability benefits for end users positions UV/EB for continued growth in a world where sustainability is not just a good business practice, but is expected. Depending on the formulation, UV/EB formulations have the ability to significantly reduce all three scopes of an end user’s carbon footprint calculation. The magnitude of these reductions will depend on the resins and solvents in the UV/EB formulation. Except for the 100% solid formulation, some UV/EB inks and coatings may contain VOC solvents and water that must be evaporated, but often not requiring an oxidizer for combustion. All of these aspects must be considered when making sustainable business decisions to modify ink or coating systems. Detailed records are a must to demonstrate where UV/EB provides these benefits. The reduction in use of electricity, natural gas or fuel, plus conversion factors to CO2 and CO2e, must be included in any report to validate the sustainability advantages UV/EB has for end users. In that way, UV/EB can make its case as providing a sustainable link in the supply chain. n

References Golden, R. 2012. What’s the Score? A Method for Quantitative Estimation for Energy Use and Emission Reductions for UV/EB Curing. RadTech Report, Issue 3.

Monteleone, D.M. 2011. Calculating Your Facility’s Carbon Footprint. Scope 1 Direct Emissions. FLEXO Magazine, October. pp. 91-94. Ross, J.S. 2007. UV & EB in the Flooring Industry – Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions & HAPs. RadTech Report, July/ August. Dr. Doreen M. Monteleone is director of sustainability and EHS initiatives for RadTech International North America. With more than 25 years of sustainability and regulatory experience, she also serves as principal of D2 Advisory Group, as the sustainability specialist for the Flexographic Technical Association and treasurer on the Board of Directors for the Sustainable Green Printing Partnership. Monteleone established the New York State Small Business Ombudsman program, which assisted small businesses compliance with the Clean Air Act. Career highlights include being awarded the 2012 Publication of the Year and 2004 Partner of the Year by the Printers’ National Environmental Assistance Center, and the 2010 William D. Schaeffer Environmental Award from the Printing Industries of America. Contact Doreen Monteleone at

Worldwide support for your energy curing systems

RAHN AG Zurich, Switzerland

RAHN USA Corp. Aurora, Illinois, USA

RAHN GmbH Frankfurt am Main, Germany

RAHN Trading (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. Shanghai, China +

UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 21

SURFACE PROTECTION By Dr. Ben Curatolo, president, Light Curable Coatings

UV Technology for Surface Protection U

ltraviolet (UV) coating technology is widely used for decoration and protection in many different applications in a wide range of industries. The environmental benefits of UV technology are well documented for the reduction of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs).1,2 Additional advantages of this environmentally friendly technology include faster cure, increased production speed, improved process efficiency, source reduction and sustainability. Fast curing under UV lamps eliminates the need for ovens or extensive manufacturing space for drying coatings, with corresponding savings in energy costs and infrastructure. UV technology can provide a healthier work environment and can decrease risks and lower insurance costs by eliminating flammable solvents from coating processes. Regulatory costs can be significantly reduced with UV technology, which can provide lower applied coating cost and reduced overall cost through improved process efficiency and elimination of pollution. The capabilities of UV coating technology have been extended to the high performance protection of a variety of surfaces. The requirements of UV cure do not prevent this technology from providing surfaces with UV protection and resistance to weathering from sunlight. UV technology also provides toughness, solvent resistance and abrasion resistance for many different substrate materials. For metal surfaces, including steel and high strength aluminum alloys in industrial and aerospace applications, UV coating technology provides this protection along with superior corrosion resistance. When compared to conventional coating technology, high performance solvent-free UV-curable coatings provide improved protection with dramatically faster cure and lower material usage, and UV technology provides this protection in addition to improved manufacturing efficiency and environmental benefits. Protection of surfaces from sunlight High performance UV coating technology can provide improved UV absorbance compared to commercial conservation glass that is designed to protect artwork from sunlight. Whereas the conservation glass provides good protection for the UVA band wavelengths, the clear UV coating provides improved protection through UVA, UVB and UVV bands as shown in Table 1, and can provide this UV protection for a wide variety of surfaces. TABLE 1. UV wavelengths blocked by UV technology and commercial conservation glass

UV-curable protective coatings are suitable for high performance applications that require excellent weatherability. Long-term resistance to weathering from sunlight has been demonstrated for UV coatings through accelerated weathering testing. Table 2 shows results for a clear UV coating that maintained ∆E values less than 1 through approximately 15,000 hours of QUV weatherability testing. For an L*a*b* color 22 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 +

space – where the black and white lightness is represented by L*; red and green colors are represented by a*; and yellow and blue colors are represented by b*– ∆E is defined as the difference between two colors according to the following formula:

minimize the impact of corrosion. The study was conducted by CC Technologies Laboratories Inc. of Dublin, Ohio, with support from NACE International – The Corrosion Society and the US Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). This study titled “Corrosion Cost and Preventive Strategies in the United States” is the most comprehensive reference on the economic impact of corrosion, estimated at the time to be a staggering annual cost of $276 billion. page 24 u

∆E = [(∆L*)2 + (∆a*)2 + (∆b*)2]½ The color change values of ∆E listed in Table 2 are not visually noticeable, as it is generally accepted that a ∆E value of about 2.3 corresponds to a just noticeable difference (JND).3 UV technology is not only applicable in a factory setting, but it is also suitable for field use with handheld UV lamps. One such application is the refurbishment of automobile headlamps, where the performance of the field-applied UV coating can be superior to that of the original material (Figure 1). Protection of surfaces from abrasion and solvents The toughness, solvent resistance and abrasion resistance of UV coatings are ideal for high performance flooring applications, and the efficiency of UV technology can provide a significant reduction in the time required to apply a high performance coating to a floor, to cure the coating and then put that floor back into service (Figure 2). Abrasion resistance for a UV-curable floor coating can be significantly improved over that of typical epoxy floor coatings (Table 3), with a dramatic reduction in cure time with the UV system. Solvent resistance properties for high performance UV-curable floor coatings are excellent and can be tailored to the requirements of the application. Table 4 shows the results of solvent resistance testing using standard chemicals. Protection of surfaces from corrosion Corrosion is a tremendous problem and cost to society. More than a decade ago, as part of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, the United States Congress mandated a comprehensive study to provide cost estimates and national strategies to +

TABLE 2. Long-term QUV weatherability of high performance UV technology QUV Weatherability of Clear UV-Curable Coating Hours QUV Testing


1008 2016 3024 4032 5040 6048 7056 8064 9072 9912 11088 12264 13104 14112 14952

0.35 0.23 0.25 0.60 0.35 0.47 0.38 0.47 0.36 0.40 0.34 0.38 0.48 0.51 0.61

After refurbishing

Before refurbishing

FIGURE 1. Refurbishing of automobile headlamp with high performance UV technology

FIGURE 2. High performance UV technology for fast cure flooring applications

UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 23

SURFACE PROTECTION t page 23 TABLE 3. Abrasion resistance of high performance coatings for flooring applications

TABLE 4. Solvent resistance of high performance UV technology for flooring applications


According to the study, reported to the Office of Infrastructure Research and Development, corrosion and metal wastage arising from oxidation – as caused by exposure to the elements and reactivity between dissimilar materials – costs many segments of the United States economy billions of dollars every year, including aircraft, motor vehicles, bridges, gas and liquid transmission pipelines, water and sewer systems, electrical utilities, ships, railroad cars, petroleum refining, pulp and paper processing, food processing and home appliances.4 The US Government Accounting Office (GAO) now reports that the annual cost of corrosion in the United States has grown to $400 billion. Epoxy and polyurethane paints are the commercial materials that are typically used for high performance corrosion-resistant applications, with epoxy paints used as primers and used in applications where maintaining color and appearance are not as critical, and polyurethane paints generally used as topcoats and used in applications where color and appearance must be maintained. These paints only can be used in a relatively narrow temperature range and can present many disadvantages, including corrosive or toxic components in two-part systems that must be mixed and have a limited pot life, with viscosity continually increasing until full cure. There is commonly an extended period of time before full cure is achieved, especially at low temperatures. Pollution is a significant disadvantage of commercial high performance paints for corrosion resistance, since these materials typically contain solvents, VOCs, HAPs and, in many cases, chemicals on the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). Urethane paints contain isocyanates – a significant health hazard – and many paints for corrosion resistant applications contain chromium compounds, which also represent a significant health hazard. Not only are polluting compounds and health hazards problematic for the use of these commercial paints, but performance of these systems is sometimes lacking with regard to corrosion resistance.

page 26 u 24 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 +

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SURFACE PROTECTION t page 24 When epoxies are used as the complete paint system for corrosion resistance, performance disadvantages can include brittleness and poor weatherability, with yellowing and changes in gloss with exposure to sunlight. When polyurethanes are used as the complete paint system for corrosion resistance, performance disadvantages can include poor adhesion to metal surfaces. To avoid performance disadvantages of the two individual systems, these materials are often used in high performance applications as multilayer systems, with epoxies as the primers containing corrosion inhibitors and providing adhesion to metal substrates, and urethanes as topcoats to provide appearance properties of color and gloss that are more stable to sunlight and weather.

TABLE 5. Superior performance of UV technology for corrosion protection of steel

By formulation with urethane acrylates and chromium-free corrosion inhibitors, high performance corrosion protection has been demonstrated with solvent-free UV coating technology. For example, accelerated corrosion testing on steel has shown that superior corrosion resistance can be obtained with high performance UV coatings, as compared to conventional epoxy and urethane corrosion resistant paints having much higher thicknesses. UV cure is complete within seconds, and improved performance is obtained using 100% solids UV technology with significantly lower material usage and coating weight than conventional coatings (Table 5).

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TABLE 6. Coating systems that include a zinc epoxy primer for corrosion protection of steel

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26 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 +

FIGURE 3. Field application and cure of high performance UV coating technology

“When compared to conventional coating technology, high performance solvent-free UV-curable coatings provide improved protection with dramatically faster cure and lower material usage, improved manufacturing efficiency and environmental benefits.” The corrosion resistance properties of conventional systems also can be improved by adding a UV coating layer as a topcoat (Table 6). With improvements in the technology of portable handheld UV lamps, field application and cure of high performance corrosion resistant UV coatings is possible for even the largest of structures, with a UV lamp passed over the surface slowly in the same Health (HMIS) Rating

Reactivity (HMIS Rating)

Flammability (HMIS Rating)

Carcinogenic (Cal. Prop. 65)






Epoxy chromate primer





Polyurethane topcoat





manner as a surface is painted with a spray gun or roller. Just as any surface can be painted with only a few individuals spraypainting or rolling, a UV coating can be applied and cured on that same surface by only a few individuals applying paint and following with a UV lamp. An efficient process can be performed with one person applying paint and another following with a UV lamp, each with proper protective shielding as shown by the painters in Figure 3. Cure is achieved with a motion that can be described as “painting” the surface with the handheld UV light, passing the light over the surface slowly in the same manner as a surface is painted with a roller or spray gun, with the movement of the lamp taking approximately the same amount of time as applying paint to the surface. For large surfaces, multiple painters and multiple lights can be used. When compared to drying of conventional paints, UV cure is relatively independent of temperature and humidity conditions. Good cure performance has been demonstrated under typical ambient summertime conditions and at temperatures as low as 34ºF.5 With complete final properties obtained in a matter of seconds under a UV lamp, this fast cure presents a tremendous advantage in expanding the conditions in Teratogenic SARA which it is possible to conduct VOC (Cal. Prop. 65) 313 painting operations for fieldapplied coatings. Cure within No Yes None seconds provides many advantages, including time savings and improved efficiency and higher No Yes 334 g/l quality coatings due to the elimination of long cure periods when temperature, humidity or Yes Yes 420 g/l other factors could cause damage to uncured coatings. In addition

FIGURE 4. Health and safety ratings of MUV technology and current aerospace coatings7 +

page 28 u

UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 27

SURFACE PROTECTION t page 27 adhesion, hardness, solvent resistance to methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and SkydrolÂŽ hydraulic fluid, and excellent ASTM B-117 corrosion resistance, with the scribe lines of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy panels remaining shiny after 3,000 hours of salt fog testing (Figure 5). These high performance properties are obtained with immediate cure using a high irradiance UV lamp, and in the complete absence of any solvents, 0 hrs 1,000 hrs 2,000 hrs 3,000 hrs VOCs, HAPs, isocyanates, chromium compounds or any FIGURE 5. Corrosion protection of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy in ASTM B-117 salt fog testing hazardous materials whatsoever. Similar properties are obtained using low irradiance handheld UV lamps. For comparison, an to complete cure at low temperatures that is currently impossible unprotected aluminum alloy corrodes very quickly (Figure 6). with conventional paints, it is also possible to apply and cure UV coatings even when rain is expected shortly. This is especially advantageous at hot summertime locations where conditions are often ideal in the morning and rainy in the afternoon. With UV Corrosion is a tremendous technology, after UV cure the coating has full properties and will be unaffected by rain, unlike conventional materials. problem and cost to society. In addition to improved corrosion protection of steel, results also have demonstrated the suitability of UV coating technology for high performance corrosion protection of high strength aluminum alloys for aerospace applications. For instance, environmentally friendly multifunctional UV-curable pigmented coatings have been developed to replace the strontium chromate epoxy primer and isocyanate-containing polyurethane topcoat for aerospace applications.6 A health and safety assessment of the MUV-curable aircraft protective coating alternative to current aerospace coatings is shown in Figure 4.7

FIGURE 6. 24hour corrosion of unprotected 2024-T3 aluminum alloy in ASTM B-117 salt fog

MUV coatings have demonstrated good compatibility and excellent corrosion protection for aluminum alloys with a number of different surface treatments. High performance MUV-coating technology has satisfied major requirements of aerospace primer specification MIL-PRF-23377 and aerospace topcoat specification MILPRF-85285, including low gloss camouflage appearance, good

28 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

The US Government Accounting Office (GAO) reports that the annual cost of corrosion in the United States has grown to $400 billion. Conclusion In addition to providing manufacturing efficiency and environmental benefits, UV coating technology provides excellent protection for surfaces, including UV protection and resistance to weathering from sunlight. UV technology also provides toughness, solvent resistance and abrasion resistance, along with corrosion protection for metal surfaces, including steel and high strength aluminum aerospace alloys. When compared to conventional technology, high performance solvent-free UV-curable coatings provide improved protection with dramatically faster cure and lower material usage. Clean and green UV technology not only improves efficiency in many manufacturing processes, but also addresses important societal issues, such as sustainability and the need to improve health aspects of high performance coatings, reducing VOCs, HAPs and +

other pollution. UV coating technology provides safer and more efficient alternatives for corrosion resistance in important markets representing major infrastructure of the United States, including vehicles, bridges, storage tanks and piping. n References 1. RadTech Technical Committee, “UV/EB Technology: A Way to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” RadTech Report, pp. 12-13, May/June 2005. 2. Ronald Golden, “Low-Emission Technologies: A Path to Greener Industry,” RadTech Report, pp. 14-18, May/June 2005. 3. Guarav Sharma and Raja Bala, editors, “Digital Color Imaging Handbook,” Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press, p. 31, 2003. 4. “Corrosion Cost and Preventive Strategies in the United States,” Report No. FHWA-RD-01-156, CC Technologies and NACE International, September 30, 2001. 5. Ben Curatolo, “UV Technology For High-Performance Industrial Applications,” RadTech Report, pp. 24-27, Fall 2011. 6. Matthew J. O’Keefe, William G. Fahrenholtz, and Ben S. Curatolo, “Multifunctional UV (MUV) Curable Corrosion Coatings for Aerospace Applications,” Metal Finishing, pp. 28-31, February 2010. 7. Matt O’Keefe, “Corrosion Finishing/Coating Systems For DoD Metallic Substrates Based On Non-Chromate Inhibitors And UV Curable, Zero VOC Materials,” SERDP Project WP-1519 Final Report, August 2010. Biography Dr. Ben Curatolo is president of Light Curable Coatings in Berea, Ohio, specializing in UV technology for high performance industrial and aerospace applications. Curatolo has a chemistry degree from John Carroll University and a Ph.D. in polymer science from The University of Akron. He has authored several chemical and polymer encyclopedia articles, and he has 37 US patents in his name. He is a member of many technical organizations, including the BP America Inventor’s Hall Of Fame. Contact Ben Curatolo at

Many Technologies. One Company. Heraeus. A Solution for every UV Curing Application USA Heraeus Noblelight America LLC 910 Clopper Road Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878-1357, USA Phone + 1 301 527 2660 Fax + 1 301 527 2661 +

UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 29


What Role Does UV/EB Play in Bringing Flexible Electronics Products to the Marketplace? More than 580 registrants converged on Monterey, California, recently to attend 2015FLEX – the Flexible & Printed Electronics Conference and Exhibition, which was hosted by FlexTech Alliance. Keynote presentations and technical sessions focused on the latest market trends and what it takes to bring technology and products to the marketplace, while show floor exhibits featured first-hand demonstrations of end products, new manufacturing tools and materials. Dr. Mike J. Idacavage, vice president of business development for Colorado Photopolymer Solutions, attended the event and shared his thoughts about UV/EB technology’s role in existing and emerging flexible electronics markets.

Q. Despite the role that energy curing plays in flexible electronic technology, the 2015FLEX programming didn’t seem to highlight UV/EB technology. Was this a missed opportunity? A. The plenary speakers focused on how flexible electronics are making an impact in today’s markets – and the overall tone was promising – with solid examples provided in the form of successful applications currently using flexible electronic technology. I believe the fact that UV/EB curing wasn’t highlighted during the conference is a positive indicator that energy curing is now considered to be an essential tool for success. Currently there is no need to highlight UV/EB technology as cutting edge or exceptional in terms of flexible electronics. Several speakers suggested that UV curing was one of the tools used in developing flexible electronics applications, but no specific details were provided – with the exception of an interesting presentation by Dr. Stefano Tominetti, from the SAES Group. Tominetti discussed his work developing a UV-curable flexible barrier sealant for use in flexible barrier films. While many flexible barrier films currently use UV-cured films as planerizing coatings, his group is developing new UV-curable formulations that incorporate “getter” particles to trap the small amount of water that might permeate the adhesive film. I hope that we will be able to share Tominetti’s work in a future issue of UV+EB Technology magazine. 30 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

Q. What are some current trends in flexible electronics? A. Flexible electronic technology has progressed far

enough to allow innovators to focus on end use applications. From a technology-based point of view, there are ongoing efforts to improve the manufacturing processes – to move to roll-to-roll manufacturing lines, which will require advances in many areas, including improved methods for QC testing. In terms of UV-curable chemistry, water and oxygen barrier coatings is another area where work continues to be done. From an applications point of view, considerable efforts are underway to move the latest technological advancements to existing electronic devices. While foldable display screens may be the first application that comes to mind, especially for those outside the flexible electronics market, there are significant opportunities in other less visible areas. The plenary talk by Dr. Anil Duggal of GE Global Research stressed the importance of wearable electronics in the health care market, which can range from in-hospital use and outpatient applications to home health avenues as well. The sports and wellness markets also were emphasized. Another less obvious application for flexible electronics is lighting. With rapidly evolving improvements occurring in flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) for displays and lighting, companies are hungry to launch this technology in consumer and industrial markets. OLED lighting benefits, such as low energy consumption and the ability to be manufactured by a printing type process, are driving the expansion toward a mass producible commodity. Dr. H.K. Chung of Sungkyunkwan University discussed what he believes to be the beginning of the plastic displays era through active matrix OLEDs, and he shared key manufacturing challenges that include cost reduction, maintaining a thin form factor and reliability. Commercializing OLED technology for lighting was addressed by Dr. C.T. Liu of Taiwan’s Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI). Liu also officially announced the formation of OLCA – the OLED Lighting Commercialization Alliance. +

Michael Ciesinski, president & CEO of FlexTech Alliance, presented the 2015 FLEXI R&D Achievement Award to the Vitex Systems team of Robert Jan Visser, Martin Rosenblum, Xi Chu and Lorenza Moro. Together with Gordon Graff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (not pictured), this team created the Barix system, which uses UV-curable coatings to create a solution that has been critical for the development of a new generation of curved and flexible OLED displays.

Q. What does the future of flexible electronics hold in relation to UV/EB technology? A. As demonstrated by the record attendance at

2015FLEX, many companies are looking to make use of flexible electronics. Potential applications currently are divided between evolving rigid electronic devices, the more robust flexible systems and the ability to enable brand new applications. This is good news for the UV/EB curing technology arena, as there will be increasing demand for high performance energy-cured coatings and inks, as well as some opportunity in the areas of high-efficiency water barrier coatings, UV-curable or visible light-curable adhesives that also serve as water barriers and high and low refractive index (RI) materials. One key advantage of UVcurable systems is increased capacity for productivity, which means the increased production demands from flexible electronics manufacturers will align perfectly with one of the UV/EB curing industry’s greatest strengths.

Q. Were there any UV/EB related FLEXI Award winners this year? A. During the 2015FLEX event, the FlexTech Alliance

presented awards for significant accomplishments in the areas of innovation, research and development and leadership in education. The research and development award was presented to a team of people – from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Vitex Systems – that used UV-curable coatings to create a solution that has +

been critical for the development of a new generation of curved and flexible OLED displays. The Barix® system is based on an alternate sandwich of a UVcurable coating (dyad) that serves as a planarization layer and as a sputtered aluminum oxide layer. Barix’s basic principles have been critical in the development of flexible, transparent thin film barriers needed to protect the moisture- and oxygensensitive materials used in mobile electronics and, as a result, curved and flexible OLED displays are emerging on the marketplace. Dr. Gordon Graff of PNNL and Drs. Lorenza Moro, Xi Chu, Martin Rosenblum and Robert Jan Visser of Vitex Systems were recognized for creating the Barix system, which has been commercialized by Samsung Cheil Industries. n

Mike J. Idacavage, Ph.D.

Vice President of Business Development Colorado Photopolymer Solutions UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 31

Industry News

COMET Group Acquires PCT Engineered Systems; Carignano Joins PCT Switzerland-based COMET Group signed a purchase agreement at the end of April with system integrator PCT Engineered Systems LLC, based in Davenport, Iowa. The agreement provides COMET with direct access to the ebeam end user market and allows the group to expand its product portfolio. COMET has been working closely with PCT for the past five years, and the two companies developed an ebeam-equipped system for the functionalization of polymer films and the curing of inks and coatings in 2014. COMET plans to retain all 85 employees from PCT, and Terry Thompson will continue to serve as general manager. In addition, Anthony (Tony) Carignano recently joined PCT’s global sales and marketing team. His role will include promoting the BroadBeam™ line of electron beam (EB) solutions, as well as leading market penetration efforts for COMET EBLab systems, exclusively distributed by PCT in North and South America. For more information, visit and In Memoriam – Professor James Crivello The RadTech community mourned the passing of Professor James Crivello on February 25. Crivello made significant contributions in the fields of additive manufacturing and 3D printing. He invented a new class of photoinitiators – known as “Crivello Salts” – designed for inducing cationic polymerization of epoxy resins, opening the door for the first wave of additive manufacturing systems. Most of the 3D imaging and printing technology in use today utilizes epoxy resin technology and cure chemistry based on work done in his laboratory. Crivello received numerous Professor awards throughout his career, including two James Crivello IR-100 Awards by Research & Development magazine. For the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Polymer Science, the editors selected his paper on the photodecomposition of sulfonium salts as a means for microelectronic patterning and additive manufacturing as one of the 50 most influential papers that had been published since the journal’s inception. In 2014, he was honored with the Tess Award at the annual American Chemical Society meeting for his significant contributions to coatings science technology and engineering. Crivello had been published in more than 330 publications, had 144 patents, contributed to 15 book chapters and wrote three books. He had been working at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute since 1988. For more information, visit ESI, Uteco Opens Demo Center Energy Sciences Inc. (ESI), Wilmington, Massachusetts, has joined forces with Italian-based Uteco Group to create a new demonstration center. The ConverDrome, located in Verona, Italy, is a technology center for the latest developments and innovations in printing, converting and other advanced applications. Visitors will be able to see multiple new electron beam CI-Flexo ink 32 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

ESI, Uteco ConverDrome

technologies in action, including ESI’s new EB CIFlexo press, touted as the future of flexible packaging converters for demanding and ever-changing food applications. For more information, visit

Sartomer Americas Names Edwards Business Manager, Narula Business Development Director Sartomer Americas announced that Stephen Edwards has been named business manager, and Poonam Narula has been named business development director. With 20 years of industry experience, including Stephen Edwards Poonam Narula time spent with Sartomer Europe, Sartomer Asia and Arkema China, Edwards will be responsible for the adhesives and sealants, electronics, personal care and advanced materials markets. Narula has more than 15 years of business management experience in the specialty chemical sector, and she will be responsible for developing new business opportunities and introducing Sartomer’s specialty chemicals to formulators in new markets. With global headquarters in Exton, Pennsylvania, Sartomer is a business unit within the Arkema Group. For more information, visit RCP: First Advanced Certification Awarded The Radiation Curing Program (RCP) announced that John J. Stancampiano is the first student to earn an advanced certificate in radiation curing from the State University of New York (SUNY). This graduate-level online program has been developed by SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF) in partnership with RadTech International North America, John J. the association for UV/EB technology. Learn Stancampiano more about RCP’s advanced and short courses at or UMC Announces President’s Retirement, Successor’s Appointment United Mineral and Chemical Corporation, Lyndhurst, New Jersey, announced the June 30 retirement of longtime president A. Nurhan Becidyan and named Michael Sansonetti Jr. as the new president, effective July 1. “Nurhan has done a superior job of growing the company into what it is today, and I look forward to +

Industry News

the challenge of keeping us at the forefront in the fields that we are known for – color pigments, specialty colorants, ultra-high purity metals and industrial chemicals, as well as moving into some new ones,” Sansonetti said. He joined the company 36 years ago as a salesman. In the mid-1980s, Sansonetti was promoted to his current position as the manager of the company’s pigments and chemicals groups, where he helped grow the division to be the second-largest supplier of fluorescent pigments in North America. For more information, visit Berejka, Galloway Exhibit at SAE World Congress Tony Berejka, radiation processing and polymer technology consultant, and Rick Galloway, vice president of business development for IBA Industrial, Inc., showcased the New York State Vehicle Composites Program with a poster display at the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) World Congress event in Detroit, Michigan, in mid-April. The duo also promoted UV+EB Technology magazine by distributing a special edition pre-print of Berejka’s article about the program, which can be found on page 40 in this issue of the magazine. For more information, contact Berejka at

All current ISO certificates can be downloaded directly so that visitors can find out which of Siegwerk’s more than 70 sites worldwide are certified in what fields. For more information, visit n Have News to Share? Send your industry news for consideration to, and please add us to your press release distribution list.

Miltec UV Celebrates 25 Years Stevensville, Maryland-based Miltec UV is reflecting on 25 years in the UV industry. Founded in December 1989 as a small distributor with four employees, Miltec has grown to be a global UV equipment manufacturer uniquely specializing in microwavepowered and arc lamp systems, with 65 employees currently. In 2012, the company won an IWF Challengers Distinguished Achievement Award® for its innovative HPI Gloss Control UV-Curing System. Currently, the company’s research and development division has a US Department of Energy contract to develop UV technology-based processes in the production of lithium ion batteries to reduce cost in vehicle technology. For more information, visit Siegwerk Launches Redesigned Website Siegburg, Germany-based Siegwerk, a global printing ink business, launched a redesigned website recently. The site features a newly developed product and application finder, as well as a callback function for users who prefer to talk to an expert on the phone. An overview on the website includes offerings on issues like inkroom management and on-site consultancy services. A download center contains documents such as brochures, newsletters and information sheets on product safety. +


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UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 33

AUTOMOTIVE OUTLOOK By Mary Ellen Rosenberger, founder/managing partner, BaySpring Solutions, LLC

How a Changing Landscape in Energy Policy is Conducive for UV/EB Cured Products in the Automotive Industry Setting the stage for industry change: US energy policy Automotive companies are going through one of the most significant change in priorities in history. US energy policy outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) have defined targets that support initiatives to reduce the effects of climate change as outlined by the US DOE’s strategic plan 2014-20181. • Reduction in Greenhouse Gas emissions by 17% by 2020 (2005 baseline) • Reduction in carbon pollution by 3 billion metric tons by 2030 • Halve US oil imports by 2020 utilizing advanced sustainable transportation technologies o Advanced lightweight materials o Improved aerodynamics o Engine and powertrain improved efficiencies for both light-duty vehicles and heavy trucks As a result, the EPA has established a set of standards aimed at reducing the emission levels on an average automotive passenger and light truck vehicle fleet by 163 g of CO2 per mile, which is the equivalent of 54.5 mpg by 2025 Model Year (MY) for cars and light-duty trucks. Achievement of the goal will rely on the use of lightweight materials to reduce vehicle mass to deliver fuel economy savings with measureable environmental benefits. Industry estimates indicate that a 10% reduction in vehicle mass improves fuel economy by 6 to 8%. Automakers likely will rely on a multi-material approach to achieve that goal with the focus on advanced high strength steel (AHSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber composites each reducing vehicle weight by an estimated 20-50% versus current steel vehicle construction. With weight reduction in mind, the use of lightweight materials likely will grow across all transportation sectors with the automotive industry increasing content from 30 to 70% by the year 2030.2 Lightweight material vehicle construction will require the laser focus of automotive development centers with the support of university researchers, industry groups and government agencies to find the technical solutions, while at the same time maintain vehicle performance and occupant safety. Any idea offered in the final analysis needs to deliver a robust manufacturing process, to maintain a competitive total cost structure and to meet the quality requirements that savvy consumers expect. Game-changing goals such as fuel economy targets leave large gaps in applicable technology that the world of material science now must invent. New approaches will be required, from how to incorporate lightweight substrates into standard manufacturing schemes to delivering high quality, first time through (FTT) vehicle production. Likewise, industry material specialists have the challenge of modifying coatings utilized in today’s vehicle construction into products that are compatible with new body and part designs. Nothing is off the table – including new and innovative substrates, treatments, paint materials and assembly processes that deliver a completely restructured fuel efficient vehicle. Radiation curing as a technology has a great opportunity to provide solutions for lightweight vehicles. Lightweighting of vehicles – Where are we today? Lightweighting the vehicle is indeed one of the primary approaches underway to deliver on the reduced mpg targets. One of the most promising approaches that automotive product development teams are employing

34 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 +

phosphate – zinc, nickel, magnesium for steel components and a zirconium oxide treatment for aluminum components, in addition to alternative bonding techniques to replace body welds. Ford’s experience with aluminum intensive vehicles, including those for Land Rover and Jaguar, have replaced traditional welds with boron steel rivets coated with corrosion inhibiting materials plus adhesive bonding for improved structural strength and corrosion protection of multi-substrate joints.4

FIGURE 1: 2015 Model Year Ford F-150 – Aluminum weight savings estimated at 32 lbs. hood/fenders; 114 lbs. cargo box; 118 lbs. doors/tailgate (inner & outer); 92 lbs. control arms/steering knuckles; 190 lbs. cab/passenger compartment with other fuel saving components delivering approximately 700 lbs. and an estimated 20% improvement in fuel economy. is replacing portions of the standard steel structure with a combination of lightweight aluminum, advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and magnesium materials. Lightweight metal schemes are capable of following standard body shop, paint shop and final assembly process flow without significant modifications. Minimizing assembly change is an important advantage to OEMs and Tier 1 suppliers who already have invested millions of dollars in capital equipment, process control methods and employee training to achieve the latest lean manufacturing processes. Additional lightweighting programs involve utilization of AHSS and aluminum with minor amounts of magnesium, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP), other plastics and rubber components to deliver lower weight structural components that also allow utilization of smaller engines, further enhancing fuel economy performance. Current state substrate choices, joining/sealing techniques and materials likely will hamper development without innovative solutions to reduce material cost, manufacturing footprint and cycle time. Radiation curing solutions are an interesting fit to solve some of the outstanding issues of the these projects through revamped composite manufacturing, a pathway to temperature sensitive and precoated substrates, new multi-substrate joining techniques and high speed processing, all while maintaining vehicle product performance. A bold example of a lightweight metallic strategy is Ford’s 2015 MY F-1503 (Figure 1) that has shed 700 pounds primarily because of the use of an all-aluminum body. In this case, assembly flow and current paint products are maintained. Key material alterations to support aluminum intensive vehicle construction is adjustment of the BIW pretreatment chemicals by utilizing a dual chemical treatment that includes trication +

Other developments in the near term include the MMLV (Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle) Project (DE-EE0005574), an endeavor sponsored by the DOE in conjunction with Ford Motor Company and Magna International, which demonstrates the lightweight potential of a 5-passenger sedan, high volume assembly (250,000 vehicles/year) while utilizing currently available materials that maintain vehicle performance and occupant safety. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) results of the MMLV project using the 2013 MY Ford Fusion as its baseline shows a 23.5% vehicle mass reduction achieved through the use of a multi-material substrate strategy. The re-design primarily includes AHSS and aluminum (5000/6000 Series) with minor amounts of magnesium, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP), other plastics and rubber components delivering a calculated 34 mpg versus the current vehicle value of 28 mpg. Furthermore, LCA calculations show that of the mpg savings, 42% are because of reduced mass and 58% are because of the ability to downsize the engine. In this case, a 1.6 liter four-cylinder gasoline turbocharged direct injection engine is replaced with a 1.0 liter three-cylinder gasoline turbocharged direct injection. In the final analysis, Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Total Primary Energy (TPE) are reduced by 16% respectively.5

FIGURE 2: The new BMW i3 structure is redesigned from the frame up utilizing a 90% carbon fiber frame (Life Module) and honeycomb PC/PBT A Pillar and Side deformation components, delivering a lightweight vehicle that meets all safety, quality and fuel economy demands. page 36 u UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 35


FIGURE 3: Areas for UV/EB coating growth include automotive polycarbonate as glass replacement parts and interior/ exterior parts utilizing PVD and IMC methods. Although a remarkable demonstration of the current capability to produce a high volume vehicle in a somewhat standard assembly process with existing industrial products, the MMLV project also outlines areas for improvement. Current state MMLV substrate choices, joining/sealing techniques and materials likely will hamper development without innovative solutions to reduce material cost, manufacturing footprint and cycle time. Again, radiation cure provides solutions for some of the outstanding issues of the MMLV project, through revamped composite manufacturing, a pathway to temperature sensitive and precoated substrates, new multi-substrate joining techniques and high speed processing, all while maintaining vehicle product performance. There are many other examples of the use of lightweight materials in new vehicle designs. Automotive suppliers and other industries are participating in research programs to support the discovery of novel new lightweight products. Will the current substrate solutions alone meet the industry’s energy goals outlined by the DOE’s directive? Likely not, therefore, further work is underway in the nontraditional automotive supply markets to improve upon the energy savings achieved in the first phase of the automotive industry’s lightweight transformation. Lightweighting vehicles: Next steps with plastics and polymer composites Major contributions to vehicle lightweighting are being made by the plastics and polymer composites market. Substrate alternatives are being offered to the automotive industry to replace traditional steel and glass with lightweight multi-substrate options. Recently, the American Chemistry Council published a Technology Roadmap6 that offers a strategic pathway for the use of plastics and polymer composites to provide further vehicle weight reduction. Selection of the optimal plastic or polymeric material is the joint effort of the OEMs and the suppliers. Their goal is to 36 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

define a standard package of material properties that are suited for specific automotive parts application (body panels, engine mounts, instrument panels, cross-car beams etc.) that then are matched to the engineering performance requirements of the targeted vehicle application. BMW’s new i3 is an example of polymeric composites driving innovation with the use of CFRP as a dramatic solution to lightweighting. Carbon fiber delivers 50% in weight reduction over traditional steel materials and 30% in weight reduction over aluminum. The company is working to make this chosen lightweighting path affordable and manufacturing capable. The i3’s vehicle structure is designed from the ground up beginning with the use of CRFP in the frame of the vehicle, dubbed the Life Module. The vehicle A Pillar and Side deformation elements are made from a honeycomb PC/PBT structure7. The newly designed i3 provides all of the attributes of fuel economy, quality and safety characteristics (Figure 2). To accommodate the increased use of plastics and polymer composites for future models, assembly processes must be modified, as is the case for aluminum construction. Among them is the need for new adhesives and sealants to bond multi-substrate body structures, new pretreatment processes that accommodate mixed substrate vehicles and surface treatments for novel new substrates to enhance coating adhesion. Paint shops likely will lower temperature curing processes for such coatings as Electrocoat (200 ˚C/30-40 minutes) to protect multi-substrate body assemblies from the effects of high heat exposure and varied coefficients of linear thermal expansion. DOE’s MMLV project demonstrated an Alternative Corrosion Strategy (ACS) that eliminates the Phosphate/Ecoat process in a standard assembly paint shop by precoating the BIW and CIW materials prior to assembly, giving greater flexibility for substrate choices. Significant reduction in ferrous metal parts calls for a new page 38 u +

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AUTOMOTIVE OUTLOOK t page 36 corrosion strategy. Testing of the MMLV vehicles prepared with the ACS versus the standard paint shop approach of Pretreatment/ Ecoat application demonstrates that both manufacturing schemes deliver capable corrosion protection, paving the way for alternative pretreated metal and plastic strategies.8 An estimated 30% reduction in paint shop footprint can be achieved by eliminating the Phosphate/Ecoat process, delivering capital investment savings and daily expenses associated with labor, material, water and energy. Paint shop facility savings are achieved through reduction in building space, conveyor systems, air-handling equipment, ovens, paint/chemical delivery systems, multi-stage dip tanks, heat exchangers, cooling towers and waste treatment facilities making this approach impossible to ignore. Multi-material lightweight vehicles will rely on new treatment methods, coating materials, joining techniques and supporting equipment to be successfully implemented in production. New products are needed to meet the demands without compromising vehicle durability, safety, appearance or overall quality. Lightweight vehicle designs will drive advanced lean manufacturing concepts as defined by reduced carbon footprint, zero waste, improved energy savings, faster line speeds and multiproduct manufacturing flexibility to achieve a competitive cost structure. Lightweighting: Advantages of a UV/EB cured product approach UV/EB products are in a unique position to lead the next generation of automotive manufacturing by providing coatings, adhesives and processes that change how we think of next generation vehicle design. Low temperature, high speed cure UV/EB products have a place in future automotive products as they provide performance, surface appearance, scratch resistance and strength while supporting the tenets of lean manufacturing with improved cycle time, small manufacturing footprint and reduced energy costs. Material, process and facility developments in the UV/EB area are poised to play a bigger role in the future of lightweight vehicles. R&D resources should be targeted on the key sticking points not yet resolved in the challenge to produce a lightweight vehicle. UV coatings for exterior trim components, such as vehicle forward lighting lenses and reflectors, have cornered 80% of the market through proven solutions that deliver the cost structure, manufacturing cycle time and performance characteristics the industry demands. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) utilizing UV primers, color coats and clear coats will expand on exterior and interior trim parts delivering design and function. As an example, UV-cured topcoats used on the interior trim of the Audi A6 allroad quattro in what the company describes as “No compromises: A UV cured topcoat makes heavily used components in Piano Black extremely scratch resistant” will expand due to design and function.9 Soft Touch UV-cured coatings offer another dimension in the future of interior products for consoles, dashboards and 38 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

FIGURE 4: Thermoplastic 3D Printing – 50th anniversary Shelby Cobra – on display at the 2015 North American International Auto Show. Courtesy of the Department of Energy – Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Cincinnati Inc. other interior components. IMC (in-mold color) for solid durable color and graphics are gaining favor as lightweight trim solutions and are currently commercial in the European automotive market using UV-cured clear coats that add improved scratch and mar to trim components. Adhesive requirements for lightweight vehicles will increase dramatically, in part, to support new substrate body construction, interior/exterior trim applications, vehicle NVH properties and galvanic corrosion protection, as well as protection for electronic components. UV-cured products currently in the market will advance in use and new developments will complement new vehicle design and function for metals, plastics and composites. Vehicle design is changing rapidly with precoated products under study in both the commercial truck and automotive vehicle space. BIW and CIW designs utilizing the Alternative Corrosion Strategy show how precoated substrates can save tremendous assembly investment cost by reducing the current paint shop footprint through the elimination of the standard Phosphate/ Ecoat process. Vehicle exteriors are capable of being fitted with precoated body panels and can all but eliminate the automotive paint shop in existence today. UV/EB cured coil coated products commercially used on aluminum and steel offer superior process and performance characteristics and make sense in a mixed substrate vehicle design. Glazing techniques for lightweight polycarbonate will take center stage as automotive research centers gear up to find technical solutions to replace glass, as it adds significant weight to the vehicle. Glass components used in windshields, rear window, side windows and roof transparencies will be replaced with lightweight alternative substrates (Figure 3). UV-cured glazing techniques have been developed and should be further refined to support this growing market. +

Additive manufacturing – revolutionizing the industry Additive Manufacturing (AM) is penetrating automotive product development to aid in the rapid development of new vehicle designs. Stereolithography (SLA), the most widely used AM technology, converts digital data into a three-dimensional solid object by curing layers of liquid resin with a UV laser. After many years of development, this 3D printing method is now advancing rapidly due to photo-curable composite resins, UV light sources and equipment that deliver speed, part size and cost reduction, further accelerating the industrial feasibility for this process. A sign that Additive Manufacturing is growing by leaps and bounds is evidenced by the partnership between DOE – Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Cincinnati Incorporated that is delivering huge results10. Utilizing a process called Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), this innovative approach is expected to improve 3D process speed by 500 to 1,000 times –compared with today’s industrial additive machines – and increase part dimension to a whopping 20 feet x 8 feet x 6 feet. Using a precision thermoplastic extrusion process, ORNL and Cincinnati Inc. have created a working replica of the Shelby Cobra to celebrate the 50th anniversary of this iconic vehicle. Recently presented at the North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) 2015 (Figure 4), Shelby Cobra’s 1,400-pound weight is made up of 500 pounds of printed thermoplastic composite parts whose makeup is 20% carbon fiber/ABS thermoplastic material that required 24 hours of print time. Future efforts in this arena are expected to focus on improved product characteristics with advanced high performance resin systems. UV/EB products have the potential to further advance BAAM with photo-curable or EB-curable composite resins, as well as radiation-curable coatings, adhesives and other materials that can be used to enable environmentally friendly rapid production of automotive body and interior parts. BAAM will continue to take manufacturing to the next level. What’s next for automotive UV/EB cured products? In summary, UV/EB coatings, resins and adhesives can offer solutions to the automotive industry during these challenging times by delivering multi-material lightweight vehicle performance through low-temperature cure capability, enhanced vehicle durability and unique design capabilities. Manufacturing schemes with UV/EB products have the potential to improve energy consumption, increase line speed and reduce manufacturing physical and environmental footprints. Additive Manufacturing – led by SLA developments and BAAM – will continue to change manufacturing protocol at automotive OEMs. Vehicle development timelines can be reduced greatly due to prototype development in a fraction of the time previously required, resulting in significant cost savings. Future developments in Additive Manufacturing have the possibility of revolutionizing manufacturing through design innovation, manufacturing speed and reduced product time to market. +

Seismic industry changes due to the advancement of strategic energy goals, although challenging, are driving innovation and unparalleled new product introduction. UV/EB products are in a position to offer novel solutions to the transportation industry today and in the future. Automotive research and development centers around the globe are taking notice of what aerospace, electronics, medical and many other industrial centers around the globe already know – radiation-curable products offer solutions to the most challenging problems in a sustainable way. n References: US Department of Energy Strategic Plan 2014-2018 2 McKinsey & Company; Advanced Industries; “Lightweight, heavy impact: How carbon fiber and other lightweight materials will develop across the industries and specifically automotive,” 2012 3 Ramsey, Mike; “Ford’s Trade-In: Truck to Use Aluminum in Place of Steel”; Wall Street Journal; July 26, 2012 4 Truett R.; “A Riveting Tale: How will Ford build the aluminum F150”; Automotive News: April 28, 2014 5 Skszek T., Zaluzec M., Conklin J., Wagner D., “MMLV: Project Overview”; SAE Technical Paper, 2015-01-0407 6 American Chemistry Council – Plastics Division; Plastics and Polymer Composites Technology Roadmap for Automotive Markets, March 2014 7 2015 Plastics in Automotive Conference; Munro & Associates, Inc. “Tomorrow’s Cart Today – BMW i3,” January 2015 8 Smith K. and Zhang, Y., “MMLV: Corrosion Design and Testing.” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0410 9 Source: Audi AG, Fourtitude, In Detail: Audi A6 allroad Quattro, March 26, 2012 10 Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN; Morgan McCorkle; “3D printed Shelby Cobra highlights ORNL R&D at the Detroit Auto Show” 1

As founder and managing partner of BaySpring Solutions, LLC, Mary Ellen Rosenberger focuses on supporting the coatings industry worldwide, specifically in the areas of new product development, coating test protocol and resolution of coating field concerns. Her 35-year career includes 22 years at PPG Industries, Inc., where she worked in the areas of core coating and resin research and development, with management experience in the automotive coating business unit, and 13 years with Ford Motor Company, where she worked toward providing a coating strategy, process and facility choices that would deliver on the promise of sustainable paint shops, while learning about assembly operations experiences, new product launches and what it takes to succeed in a high profile consumer based business. Contact Mary Ellen Rosenberger at

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Aston-Martin carbon fiber car

By Anthony J. Berejka, radiation processing & polymer technology consultant

New York State Vehicle Composites Program Abstract: The New York State Vehicle Composites Program will produce multiple structural and nonstructural carbon fiber composites for vehicles using the facilities at the Composite Prototyping Center (CPC) to assess the time and energy use factors involved in the manufacture of these components, including fast ambient temperature X-ray curing in inexpensive molds at IBA Industrial, Inc. Guidance on component design and molds for these composites is being provided by Nordan Composite Technologies. X-ray curable matrix materials are being supplied by Rapid Cure Technologies (RCT). Laboratory facilities at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF) are being used to perform tests and component analyses. This program is co-funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). Background: General Motors’ Corvette introduced the use of composites for automotive use in 1953 with the production of all-fiberglass bodies. Since then, every Corvette has featured a composite material body. Likewise, military aircraft have been built using composites. This has led to most of the research and development efforts in composites technology being oriented toward aerospace use. New commercial aircraft for passenger transport are being built using carbon fiber composites, such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and the Airbus 350. Carbon fiber composites are preferred because of their excellent strength-to-weight ratios; wherein, the lighter weight translates into greater fuel efficiency. Table I compares the specific strength, the strength-to-weight ratios, for steel – the historic material used in vehicles – with aluminum and carbon fiber composites. When carbon fiber composites are compared to steel, there is a substantial reduction in weight and a more than three-fold gain in specific strength. Indy and Formula 1 racing cars and performance vehicles, such as Aston-Martin, Porsche, Lotus, BMW, Tesla and others, all have carbon fiber models that take advantage of the high specific strength of carbon fiber composites. These vehicles can bear the costs of using composite materials and the changes in methods of

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manufacture. Look for the following videos online: “An Inside Look at BMW’s Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Process” and “From a Single Fiber to a BMWi3 – The Journey of Carbon.” To demonstrate the fuel economy of a carbon fiber composite vehicle, Nordan Composite Technologies took part, in 2010, in a Shell-sponsored Eco-Marathon in collaboration with the engineering department of the Polytechnic Institute of New York University. This team developed a 227-pound carbon fiber full body prototype car, Concept Zero, powered by a 1.1 horsepower engine that achieved greater than 140 miles per gallon in this endurance test. Figure 1 shows this vehicle.

TABLE 1. Comparison of specific strength of materials used for vehicles. Weight-to-strength ratios for vehicle component materials Density g/cm3


Specific Strength kN•m/kg







Carbon fiber composite



In auto racing, carbon fiber composites have demonstrated the ability to absorb impact during crashes, as shown in Figure 2. The impact energy is absorbed by disintegrating and breaking up the composite in order to protect the driver. There is no mass of bent metal coming toward the driver. In addition, crash tests performed by Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) showed the impact resistance of an experimental Ford car with a front end section made with composite materials. The consortium concluded that the vehicle provided as much passenger protection as a typical all-metal car.

FIGURE 1. Nordan - NYU >140 miles/gallon fuel-efficient carbon fiber concept car

In April 2005, Ionicorp+ responded to a New York State Energy Research and Development Authority Program Opportunity Notice (PON-917) by submitting a proposal to study the feasibility of using X-rays to cure carbon fiber composites. This concept goes back into the mid-1970s when Frank Campbell at the Naval Research Laboratory and Walter Brenner of New York University and a consultant to the accelerator manufacturer, Radiation Dynamics, Inc., proposed using radiographic equipment to cure graphite (carbon) composites. Such equipment is far too low in power to be commercially viable, however, Brenner and Campbell pioneered the use of ionizing radiation from electron beams to cure the matrices of composites by using EB-curable coating binders as matrix materials. EB-curable materials are cured with X-rays, but at a lower dose rate. The conversion from accelerated electrons to X-rays is dependent upon the accelerator voltage and its beam current. With the development of high-current, high-voltage accelerators, X-ray conversion has become an industrial reality. Figure 3 shows how the interposition of a tantalum target is used to convert scanned accelerated electrons to X-rays. X-rays effectively penetrate >20 centimeters down from the target, in contrast to only a few centimeters of penetration of electrons from the highest energy, 10 MeV, industrial accelerators. Figure 4 shows the X-ray conversion system at a SteriGenics facility in New Jersey, which has been doing X-ray treatment of parcels for the US Postal Service since 2002. Totes containing materials page 42 u +

FIGURE 2. Impact absorption by carbon fiber composite racing car UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 41

AUTOMOTIVE COMPOSITES t page 41 to be treated by X-ray are positioned so they can traverse in front of two X-ray targets that are each 2 m in length. The accelerated electrons were delivered from a 130 kW, 7.0 MeV Rhodotron™ accelerator and converted to X-rays. The NYSERDA co-funded X-ray feasibility study showed that four-ply carbon fiber twill composites with X-ray cured matrices could withstand heat distortion under a 1.82 MPa load (as per ASTM D-648), showing no deflection up to the maximum temperature of the heating oil, 180°C. The temperature was increased at 2°C per minute with a 13 mm wide test bar supported across a 100 mm gap within the bath, as shown in Figure 5, and a gauge sensitive to 0.01 mm used to determine any deflection of the test specimen. This feasibility study also demonstrated that carbon fiber composites could be cured by X-ray while being constrained

FIGURE 3. Controlled spreading of X-rays

FIGURE 4. Totes ready to be X-ray treated

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against a mold using vacuum bagging de-aeration and pressure. Wide-wheel Honda motorcycle fenders were made using four-ply hand lay-ups of a 2x2 3k carbon fiber twill and an X-ray curable matrix material. Since these high dose X-rays – six orders of magnitude greater in dose than as received in a chest X-ray – can penetrate materials (400 mm), metal pieces were embedded within the plies that then could be used in mechanical fastening. Figure 6 shows metal pieces placed between the carbon fiber plies. Figure 7 shows the vacuum-bagged fender molds under an X-ray target, and Figure 8 shows the metal pieces when cured into the back side of the fender. The results were a Class A finish on the wide wheel motorcycle fender, Figure 9. A sports car fender (Lotus) was also produced, Figure 10. At the conclusion of the “X-ray Curing of Fiber Composites Feasibility Study” (NYSERDA report Contract No. 9079 of 9 November 2007), estimates were made as to the power consumption needed for X-ray curing and in contrast for thermal curing, for which almost no data exists. In spring 2014, Ionicorp+ responded to another NYSERDA Program Opportunity Notice (PON-2858) and proposed a “Comparison of EB and X-ray Curing of Fiber Composites with Thermal Autoclave Processing for Vehicle Applications.” This would be an extension of the X-ray-curing feasibility study, but combining that with the facilities available at the Composite Prototyping Center in Plainview, New York, which opened in September 2014. X-ray curing still would be conducted at IBA Industrial, Inc. (formerly Radiation Dynamics, Inc.) in Edgewood, New York, using its 3.0 MeV, 90 kW electron beam to generate X-rays. Since the launch of the feasibility study, IBA Industrial has installed a 7.0 MeV, 700 kW accelerator at Synergy Health in Daiken, Switzerland, which only operates in X-ray mode and

FIGURE 5. Schematic of the ASTM D-648 heat deflection test apparatus +

is being used to sterilize medical devices. The higher energy and higher power of this accelerator enhances the X-ray conversion efficiency and significantly increases dose rates. The Composite Prototyping Center opened in spring 2014 and has in its 25,000-square-foot facility a full array of state-of-the-art processing equipment. It provides rapid use, full-scale composite prototyping capabilities for use with various components, including those intended for the automotive industry.

FIGURE 6. Embedding metal

FIGURE 7. X-ray curing

FIGURE 8. Metal cured inside plies

The CPC has: A. 3D design and modeling software/hardware with composite Design and Analysis suites (CATIA, NX etc.) B. Advanced Analysis capabilities with FEMAP/NASTRAN & classical analysis suites C. 3D Printing up to 16 x 14 x 16 inch components, with an array of material capabilities, such as ABS, PC-ABS, Polycarbonate, PPSF, ULTEM and other materials D. Automated ply cutting system by Gerber (Figure 11) E. Laser projection system – for facilitating precision laminate lay up – that uses CAD data to guide and control the process F. Automated fiber placement (AFP) machine for winding thermoset and thermoplastic materials – including in-situ laser consolidation/curing – up to 800°F, by Automated Dynamics G. 5 axis composite machining, routing & trimming/drilling unit by Thermwood H. Two Autoclaves a. 8-foot diameter x 20 foot long, 450°F, 165 psi autoclave (Figure 12) b. 5-foot diameter x 8 foot long, 800°F, 300 psi autoclave I. Heated platen presses a. 250 ton, 800°F, with a 48” x 48” platen and a 36” stroke b. 100 ton, 800°F, with an 18” x 18” platen and a 36” stroke J. Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM), portable Faro machine with laser scanning, ideal for reverse engineering and depot repair process development K. Nondestructive Inspection System (NDI) – Ultrasonic systems by Olympus a. Bond Master – Bond line and sandwich structure inspection/evaluation b. Hall affect through thickness measurements c. Digital ultrasonic through thickness measurements d. OMNI Scan Phase Array MX2e. OMNI Scan Phase Array SX f. EPOCH-600 Digital Ultrasonic Flaw Detector (A-Scan) L. Opto-Digital Microscope 69X to 9014X magnification capability, by Olympus, for photo-micrographic evaluations M. Plurality of test equipment for evaluating and validating composite structures, including: a. 56,000-pound capacity universal testing machine with an environmental chamber for hot-wet and cold temperature testing, by INSTRON, testing and validation in tension, compression, shear, bending and bond-lines page 44 u +

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FIGURE 10. X-ray cured sports car fender

Marshall Cleland, scientific advisor to IBA Industrial, Inc., an accelerator developer who more than 50 years ago formed Radiation Dynamics, Inc. (now IBA Industrial, Inc.), which has over 200 accelerators in industrial operation around the world.

Mark Driscoll, director of the UV/EB Tech Center at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry.

Tony Berejka, Ionicorp+, the NYSERDA contractor, a consultant with more than 45 years of experience in specialty polymer development and processing, including interaction with the automotive industry, notably while employed at Exxon Chemical Research.

FIGURE 9. X-ray cured motorcycle fender

b. 300 foot-pound impact testing machine, by INSTRON c. Testing equipment for physical properties of material d. Muffle furnace (up 2000°F) for material validation The program to conduct a “Comparison of EB and X-ray Curing of Fiber Composites with Thermal Autoclave Processing for Vehicle Applications,” the New York State Vehicle Composites Program, was awarded $185,000 in NYSERDA co-funding for its overall budget of $376,200 – $191,200 of which is in-kind contributions by the program participants. This program is expected to run for 22 months. It will determine how each composite fabrication step contributes to the overall time and energy demand needed for vehicle composite component manufacture. Thermoset pre-preg materials have been obtained for use in autoclave curing from commercial sources. Rapid Cure Technologies is providing X-raycurable matrix materials that will be converted into pre-pregs. The program has drawn together a multidisciplined, experienced team to complete its objectives. Carbon fiber components for automotive use will be made using autoclave and X-ray curing. The program team: • Leonard Poveromo, executive director of CPC, a composites expert at the Northrup Grumman Corporation for 44 years. •

Max Gross, director of engineering and technology for CPC, principal of SciMax Technologies, dealing with innovations in composite structures.

Dan Montoney, with Rapid Cure Technologies, a specialty materials formulator and supplier dealing with matrix systems.

Dan Dispenza, president/owner of Nordan Composite Technologies, a specialist in manufacturing carbon fiber components for performance vehicles, including race cars.

Rick Galloway, vice president at IBA Industrial, Inc., experienced in the installation and operation of electron beam accelerators and their use for X-ray conversion.

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This team formed and met in November 2014 to outline its program. Using the CPC and the IBA Industrial, Inc. facilities, multiple units of carbon fiber vehicle components will be made to assess key factors, such as time and energy use in composite manufacture. A vehicle hood will be cured using commercial thermoset carbon fiber pre-pregs and pre-pregs made with X-raycurable matrix materials. The hood from an Aston-Martin will be produced using the CPC autoclaves to thermoset pre-pregs, and the X-ray curing will be completed at IBA Industrial, Inc. An Aston-Martin is pictured on page 40 and Figure 13 is its hood page 46 u made of carbon fiber. n

FIGURE 11. Auto ply cutter +

RadTech China Annual Conference 2015 (RadTech China 2015 ) & The 3rd International Forum on Radiation Curing Industry Development (IFRCID-2015)

The 6th China International RadTech Expo (IRTE 2015)



FIGURE 12. 8 foot diameter x 20-foot long autoclave

References: Berejka, A.J. “Electron Beam Cured Composites: Opportunities and Challenges,” RadTech Report, (March/April 2002) 33-39. Berejka, Anthony J. “X-ray Curing of Fiber Composites Feasibility Study,” NYSERDA final report, Contract No. 9097, November 9, 2007, Albany, NY. Berejka, A.J., Montoney, D., Cleland, M.R. and Loiseau, L. “Radiation Curing: Coatings and Composites,” at Polyray 2009, Universite de Reims, Reims, France, March 2009, and in NUKLEONIKA 2010; 55 (1): 97−106. Berejka, A.J. “Rays of Hope,” Medical Device Developments, March 26, 2014, 65-67. Campbell, F.J., Brenner, W., Johnson L.M., and White, M.E. “Radiation curable resins” (part of a larger report circa 1979) 79-92. Campbell, F.J., Brenner, W., Johnson L.M., and White, M.E. “Radiation Curing” (Task D of a Naval Research Laboratory report circa 1979).

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FIGURE 13. Aston-Martin hood

Cleland, M.R., Galloway, R.A., Montoney, D., Dispenza, D., Berejka, A.J. “Radiation Curing of Composites for Vehicle Components and Vehicle Manufacture,” IAEA/ANS AccApp ’09, Vienna, Austria, 4-8 May 2009 at publications/PDF/P1433_CD/datasets/papers/ap_ia-04.pdf. Herer, A., Galloway, R.A., Cleland, M.R., Berejka, A.J., Montoney, D., Dispenza, D., Driscoll, M. “X-ray-cured carbon-fiber composites for vehicle use,” Radiation Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 78, Issues 7-8, July-August 2009, Pages 531-534. Anthony J. “Tony” Berejka is an industry consultant specializing in radiation processing and polymer technology. He has worked with corporations such as Exxon Chemical, Raychem Corporation, Bristol-Myers Squibb and IBA Industrial, Inc.; with agencies such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the National Academies and its National Research Council; as well as many other firms and industrial start-ups. Berejka is co-founder and past president of RadTech International North America and the Council on Ionizing Radiation Measurements and Standards, both of which have honored him for his lifetime achievements. The Ionizing Radiation and Polymers Symposium has honored him as well. Contact Tony Berejka at +

AUTOMOTIVE REGULATIONS By Rita Loof, director of regional environmental affairs, RadTech International North America

UV/EB Provides Solutions for Automotive Coating Industry Regulations Executive summary The need to reduce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) has caused the automotive coatings industry to turn to environmentally friendly technologies1 such as ultraviolet and electron beam (UV/EB) as alternatives to conventional solvent systems. RadTech International North America has made a successfully persuasive case to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) that the use of UV/EB technology should be encouraged by reducing unnecessary regulatory burdens for end users. The association has negotiated exemptions from permitting, recordkeeping and rule applicability in an effort to remove potential regulatory burdens in the conversion to UV/EB technology, which can be a solution to the myriad of regulations impacting the automotive coating industry. National regulations for automotive coatings Various regions throughout the country have been looking at rules for motor vehicle non-assembly line coating operations. The Ozone Transport Commission (OTC) – a multistate organization created under the Clean Air Act – advises the Environmental Protection Agency on ground-level ozone problems in the Northeast and MidAtlantic regions. OTC members include Connecticut, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont and Virginia. The OTC published a “Model Rule for Motor Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Non-assembly Line Coating Operations.” According to the organization, “The California Air Resources Board (CARB) Suggested Control Measure (SCM) for Automotive Coatings, published October 2005, formed the basis for the revisions in this OTC Model Rule.” Thus far, Delaware and Maryland have adopted regulations, and the District of Columbia and Pennsylvania have proposals under review. Connecticut has no plans to enact regulations citing the potential high cost to its businesses as the reason for its decision. California regulations for automotive coatings In California, CARB’s Suggested Control Measure is being implemented by various air districts in the form of local rules that the state will review. CARB staff points to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District and the South Coast Air Quality Management District as the districts with the most stringent requirements. Agency staff also indicated most of the impacted industry will comply by reformulating to waterborne technology. page 48 u +

(Courtesy of Red Spot)

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AUTOMOTIVE REGULATIONS t page 47 SCAQMD rule for motor vehicle & non-assembly line coating operations Last year, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) amended its Rule 1151 – Motor Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Non-Assembly Line Coating Operations. The rule applies to automotive coating operations performed on motor vehicles, mobile equipment and associated parts or components for motor vehicles and mobile equipment. The California Autobody Association (CAA), reports that there are approximately 7,000 active body shops in California. SCAQMD estimates that there are 3,150 facilities in the Southern California area potentially subject to the rule. The amendments incorporated the transfer efficiency requirements of the state Suggested Control Measure (SCM). The state Suggested Control Measure (SCM) lists brush, dip or roller application methods as the suggested coating application methods. These application methods were included in the rule (subject to certain restrictions). Industry representatives commented that, under the new language, “All currently existing high volume low pressure (HVLP) spray guns used in the collision repair industry would become illegal if the new HVLP definition came into force.” In an earlier version of the rule, the term “HVLP” was only defined by one parameter, namely, dynamic air cap pressure with a maximum of 10 psi. With the new definition of the term “HVLP,” a second parameter – air flow range between 30 to 200 cubic feet per minute – would be added. The industry reported that all current HVLP spray guns are operated at 15 cfm or less. To address these concerns, staff revisited the initially proposed new language and maintained just one compliance parameter based on the dynamic air pressure measured at the center of the air cap and at the air horns. Staff plans to conduct a future technical assessment on the continued use of tertiary butyl acetate (TBAc) in automotive coatings, with the excluded exception of color and clearing coatings. Staff recently received correspondence from the Office of Environmental Health Hazards Assessment (OEHHA) indicating that the office intended to complete a toxicity review for TBAc in early 2015. Staff proposes to incorporate OEHHA findings as part of the technical assessment for Rule 1151, with a revised completion date of Dec. 31, 2016, provided there are automotive coatings that contain TBAc available to conduct the assessment. The heater conundrum South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) Rule 1147 (Nitrogen Oxides Reduction from Miscellaneous Sources) applies to small- and medium-sized combustion equipment using gaseous or liquid fuels that require an AQMD permit. This includes ovens, dryers, dehydrators, heaters, kilns, calciners, furnaces, crematories, incinerators, heated pots, cookers, roasters, fryers, closed and open heated tanks and evaporators, distillation units, afterburners, 48 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

degassing units, vapor incinerators, catalytic or thermal oxidizers, absorption chillers, soil and water remediation units. Rule 1147 does not apply to combustion equipment operated at some of the major source facilities (RECLAIM sources) and to boilers, steam generators, process heaters and water heaters subject to AQMD Rules 1146, 1146.1 or 1146.2. Some of the requirements of the rule took effect July 1, 2012. Units emitting less than one pound per day were given until 2017 to comply. The district reports that a technology assessment is underway, which includes the review of 2,700 permits. Rule 1147 was especially controversial with the collision repair industry. UV technology was first introduced as a solution for head light refinishing operations in 2005.2 According to the association representing auto body shops, their members switched to waterborne products in order to comply with SCAQMD regulations. Waterborne products required the installation of heaters in order to drive off the water. Rule 1147 requires that the NOx emissions from heaters be reduced. Since NOx and CO emissions are inversely proportionate, a decrease in NOx emissions causes an increase in CO emissions, thereby causing the auto body shops to be out of compliance with the CO limits. During the rule’s public hearing, dozens of business owners testified that the rule would have a devastating impact on the auto body industry. One of the commenters stated that the various configurations of equipment (now required by the rule) cost between $75,000 to $180,000, with the median price running around $100,000. Another auto body business, with nine locations and over 200 employees, reported the estimated cost to retrofit their booths would be over half a million dollars and would result in the closure of his business and the loss of jobs. Industry representatives pointed out that, in many cases, the emissions from the equipment were less than one pound per day and that the rule’s recordkeeping requirements placed an additional administrative burden on business to report their emissions. Technological deficiencies with the low NOx burners also were reported. A business representative testified that advances in the technology of paints could make heaters obsolete in the coming years, and the costs to comply with this rule now will be wasted when heaters are no longer needed. UV/EB processes that do not employ heaters would not have an issue and, therefore, may have an advantage. New trends The California Air Resources Board (CARB) has adopted Consumer Products Regulations to limit emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but allowed an exemption for low vapor pressure (LVP) VOCs (Title 17, California Code of Regulations, section 94508 defines an LVP-VOC). LVP VOCs used in consumer products are not counted toward the total product VOC content for compliance purposes. This exemption was designed to exclude compounds that do not readily participate in ozone formation. The SCAQMD proposed the elimination of the exemption. By December 2012, an industry coalition +

successfully mounted opposition to the staff proposal, which resulted in the LVP issue’s withdrawal. The LVP Coalition maintains that “the elimination of this exemption is a considerable change that would result in wideranging changes in product quality, cost and the likely elimination of specific categories of consumer products.” The California Air Resources Board is considering the issue. RadTech spent over two decades on the development of ASTM D7767-11 – a test method for UV/EB thin films. The SCAQMD formally adopted the method in its Graphic Arts rule. This action has set a new precedent that may allow users of UV/EB thin film automotive coatings to use the ASTM method, which is more cost effective than the alternative Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS) method. The South Coast and Bay Area air districts report the use of portable air monitors as an emerging trend. According to the agencies, manufacturers have begun marketing air monitoring sensors to measure air pollution, and local environmental groups and the public are considering them as inexpensive options to independently evaluate local air quality. With this new technology, there is also the potential for differences in emission results between a regulatory agency’s monitoring technology and the personal air quality monitoring systems. It is not clear how environmental groups intend to use the data and how these results would be accepted in an enforcement action against a business. The California Air Resources Board (ARB) is the agency charged with implementing Assembly Bill 32 – the state’s Global Warming law. The agency publishes a Climate Change Scoping Plan that defines ARB’s priorities. A recent update to the Scoping Plan broadened the “energy” sector to include industrial sources. As initially defined, the industry sector (including cement plants, refineries, power plants, glass manufacturers and oil and gas production facilities) was discussed as a separate sector; however, in a recent update it has been included within the energy-sector discussion because the ARB believes the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from the industrial sector – about 20 percent of the state’s total GHG emissions – are primarily due to energy use. Proposed requirements for the energy sector to achieve nearzero GHG emission by 2050 include disclosure of energy use; accounting for the carbon intensity and air quality impacts of various energy resources; generation technologies and associated fuels; reducing emissions of smog-forming pollutants by about 90 percent below 2010 levels by 2032; recordkeeping and reporting mechanisms to monitor and enforce the GHG emission reduction requirements; and including mandatory provisions that reduce GHG emissions in the Green Building Standards Code. The Scoping Plan update highlighted “Short-Lived Climate Pollutants” such as black carbon, methane and hydrofluorocarbons. +

Incentives and recognition for UV/EB SCAQMD has determined that UV/EB materials “generate zero or very low VOC emissions.” RadTech International North America was presented with SCAQMD’s Clean Air Award in the category of “Advancement of Air Pollution Technology” in recognition for “exemplary leadership, innovation and foresight” in 2005. In addition to the SCAQMD award, RadTech also received recognition from the California State Assembly and city of Los Angeles for leadership in advancing UV and EB technology. “I applaud RadTech for their commitment to our environment. Their innovation has resulted in a fast emerging technology that supports our efforts to prevent pollution, reduce waste and offer a safe technology,” said Jan Perry, Los Angeles council member and SCAQMD board member. UV/EB is often classified as a “control measure,” much like a control device. Every three years the SCAQMD submits a plan on how they propose to achieve their air quality goals. In this plan, the district includes ultraviolet (UV) and electron beam (EB) as a means to improve air quality. The SCAQMD’s Air Quality Management Plan highlights UV/EB as a VOC “control measure.” The technology is included in the 1999 amendments and in the 2003 AQMP amendments. The 2007 plan states: page 50 u UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 49

AUTOMOTIVE REGULATIONS t page 49 “Other advantages include the attainment of very high gloss levels, reduction of VOC emissions and solvent odors and reduced energy consumption. UV- and EB-curing products can be used on virtually all substrates, from metal and wood to glass and plastic. Applications of UV- and EB-curing products are numerous and proliferating rapidly.” No need for permits In order to help UV/EB customers reduce their regulatory burden, RadTech requested and obtained an exemption from permitting. The exemption applies to UV/EB operations with a VOC content of 50 grams/liter or less, which use solvents with VOC contents of 50 grams/liter or less. Materials with a higher VOC content are exempt if the usage is less than six gallons per day. On Sept. 11, 1998, the district exempted UV/EB equipment from permit under District Rule 219. Staff classified it as “equipment with negligible emissions” and cited this classification as the reason for the exemption. While this exemption is only applicable in the Southern California area, it could be used to advocate for exemptions in other areas. Less recordkeeping The majority of regulated businesses must keep records on a daily basis, logging information and calculating volatile organic Plasmatreat-UVEB Technology-ad.qxp:Layout 2 2/10/15

compound (VOC) pollutant emissions for each material used at the facility. At one point, daily records were required in the SCAQMD, even for low VOC substances such as UV/EB. The SCAQMD now allows monthly rather than daily recordkeeping for UV/EB materials based on their negligible emissions. Businesses using ultraviolet and electron beam technology now receive a substantial benefit in Southern California, as the SCAQMDBoard exempted UV/EB materials from recordkeeping – less than 50 grams/liter at facilities with less than 4 tons per year emissions. Large coatings and solvent rule The SCAQMD recognized UV/EB as an environmentally friendly alternative in the district’s Rule 1132 to reduce VOCs from large coating and solvent facilities –emitting over 20 tons per year of VOCs. The rule requires that the affected industries reduce their emissions by 65%. In an effort to encourage pollution prevention and, at the same time, offer companies added compliance flexibility; the rule allows reformulation to low VOC processes, such as UV/EB technology. Under this rule, UV/EB materials are considered equivalent to add-on control devices. Furthermore, companies that have converted to UV/EB already would be automatically in compliance with the rule.

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UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 51

AUTOMOTIVE REGULATIONS t page 50 Rule 1132 requires that facilities use one of these options: 1) Emissions control systems with an overall efficiency of at least 65% by weight; 2) VOC-containing materials that have a VOC content at least 65% lower than any applicable rule limit in effect as of Jan. 19, 2001; 3) A combination number 1 and number 2 that reduce the VOC emissions by at least 65% by weight. The rule contains an alternative compliance section [Rule 1132 (d)] that allows manufacturers to propose any VOC reducing measure, such as UV/EB, that can achieve a 65% emission reductions at the facility. Facilities limited by permit conditions to no more than 20 tons per year of VOC’s are exempt from the rule. UV/EB processes can help facilities stay below this threshold, thus, avoiding applicability. UV/EB processes offer potential VOC reductions that can help applicants stay out of rule requirements altogether. The UV/EB industry can have a significant impact in this area. Exemption from Title V UV/EB technology was officially incorporated into the South Coast Air Quality Management District’s (SCAQMD) Title V (Federal Operating Permit) program. SCAQMD adopted Rule 3008, which exempts companies from having to obtain a facility permit under the Title V program. The rule defines UV/EB operations that use less than 19,184 gallons per year of materials (with a VOC content of less than 50 grams/liter) as “de minimis.” According to the SCAQMD rule staff report, the emissions related to the UV/EB operations are considered “too small to be required to file reports.” In addition, UV/EB also appears under the list of “Alternative Operational Limits.” These limits will serve as a guideline for companies that cannot calculate their actual emissions and allow them to be exempt from Title V requirements. Given the added monitoring, recordkeeping and public noticing requirements under the Title V program, the exemption provides current and potential users of UV/EB with a significant regulatory benefit. Verifying emissions of UV/EB materials is easier with SCAQMD 2% emission factor In recognition of the low VOC nature of UV/EB technology, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) modified the emission factor for UV curables. Up until recently, the SCAQMD had used a default emission factor of 5% (by weight) VOC content for UV/EB materials whenever “acceptable test data was not available.” End users approached the RadTech association for assistance, noting that the factor was unfairly allocating fictitious emissions to their facilities. RadTech engaged the district in a dialogue and provided data to challenge the 5% default value. In a memo dated July 17, 2008, the Engineering and Compliance division issued a new policy reducing the 5% to a 2% 52 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015

by weight factor. The agency has posted the policy on its website at Money or tax graphic $200 million tax credits in CA The California governor’s Office of Economic Development has set aside $200 million in each fiscal year – 2015-16 through 201718 – for tax credits under its “California Competes Tax Credit” program. Under the initiative, businesses that want to locate in California or existing California businesses that want to expand their operations can obtain an income tax credit. Any business can apply for the California Competes Tax Credit. The credit is available to all industries statewide. According to the governor’s office, “There are no geographic or sector-specific restrictions. The purpose of the California Competes Tax Credit is to attract and retain high-value employers, in California, in industries with high economic multipliers and that provide their employees good wages and benefits.” There is no fee to apply for the credit. UV/EB: A solution Automotive coating operations are regulated at the federal, state and local level. With a stringent regulatory climate involving various layers of regulations (i.e. SCAQMD Rule 1147), UV/EB technology may offer end users operational flexibility. Environmentally friendly UV/EB materials can be the answer to complex regulatory problems and can help end users stay in compliance and in business. n 1.) M.J. Dvorchak, 1K UV-A Automotive Refinish; Clear Coats and Primers (2014) 2.) M.J. Dvorchak, 1K UV-A Hard Coats for Polycarbonate Head Light Refinishing (2014) Rita Loof is the director of environmental affairs for RadTech International North America. She has collaborated with RadTech to advance UV/EB technology-related public policy for the past 20 years. She also has represented clients such as the United States Postal Service and various manufacturers. Prior to becoming a consultant, Loof spent five years as the air quality engineer for the South Coast Air Quality Management District. She holds a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from the University of California Los Angeles. Contact Rita Loof at +

Regulatory News Nationwide & Sustainability Updates

Doreen M. Monteleone, Ph.D., director of sustainability & EHS initiatives, RadTech International North America doreen@

Final Regulations to Implement GHS in Canada Published On Feb. 11, 2015, Canada published the final Hazardous Products Regulations (HPR), which implement the United Nations’ Globally Harmonized System (GHS), an international system for classifying and labeling chemicals. The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) 2015 is based on the new requirements contained in the HPR and Hazardous Products Act, as amended in 2014. It doesn’t replace the original WHMIS 1988, but updates the laws to align as closely as possible with the US version of GHS – Hazard Communication Standard 2012. Although WHMIS 2015 includes new criteria for hazard classification and new requirements for labels and safety data sheets (SDSs), the basic roles and responsibilities for suppliers, employers and workers haven’t changed. OSHA Proposes Updates to PPE Rules OSHA has proposed what are expected to be noncontroversial changes to its personal protective equipment (PPE) standards for eye and face protection in all covered industry sectors except agriculture. OSHA’s initiative is part of a multiyear agency undertaking to update consensus standards referenced in its rules. In a March 13 Federal Register notice, the agency proposed to update its PPE standards to conform to the American National Standards Institute’s 2010 consensus standard ANSI Z87.1, Occupational and Educational Personal Eye and Face Protection Devices. RadTech Supports US EPA’s SmartWay to Encourage Sustainable Shipping Practices RadTech International North America has become an affiliate of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s SmartWay program. Whether you have your own shipping vehicles or use a hauler, by integrating SmartWay practices in a facility, members can demonstrate to customers, clients and investors that they are taking responsibility for the emissions associated with moving goods. These emissions contribute to air pollution in a variety of ways, such as carbon, volatile organic compound (VOC) and particulate emissions. Members will be learning more about SmartWay in the near future.

News from the West Coast

California Legislature Embraces LED The California State Assembly has put forth a proposal that specifically includes LED lighting. AB 678 (O’Donnell) – Greenhouse Gases: Energy Efficient Ports Program – requires the California Air Resources Board (CARB), in conjunction with the State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, fund energy efficiency upgrades and investments at public ports. The bill specifies that projects eligible for funding include: “Replacement of conventional lighting with light emitting diodes (LED) lighting at the ports.” The bill’s intent is to provide incentives to obtain cobenefit reductions in criteria pollutant and toxic air contaminant emissions in the South Coast region. CARB will be responsible for developing guidelines through the Air Quality Improvement Program.

“Cracking Down” on VOC’s In a recent committee meeting aimed at producing a white paper on volatile organic compound (VOC) controls, a South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) staff person stated the agency’s intent of “cracking down on VOCs.” There were preliminary talks that nitrogen oxide emission reductions would be the only focus and that further VOC reductions may not be needed. However, the agency now estimates VOC emission reductions ranging from 30 to 100 tons per day to be potentially incorporated in its Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP). page 54 u +

UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 53

Regulatory News t page 53

Rita Loof, director of regional environmental affairs, RadTech International North America

The Preliminary Draft VOC Controls white paper assesses the role of VOCs in forming ozone and PM2.5 (particles with diameters less than 2.5 µm) to “inform policymakers of the most efficient and effective strategies to attain the federal standards that are the subject of the upcoming 2016 AQMP.” According to the paper, ozone (O3) is not emitted directly into the atmosphere; it is formed in the atmosphere by the reaction of VOCs with oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the presence of sunlight. Subsequent chemical reactions of VOCs in the atmosphere can form surface level ozone pollution and particulate matter. The South Coast Air Basin does not currently meet federal and state standards for PM2.5. Since both ozone and PM2.5 formation are largely dominated by atmospheric reactions, the agency will consider the potential for a gaseous organic compound to contribute to both ozone and PM2.5 levels. In order to achieve VOC reductions, the SCAQMD plans to: • Promote pollution prevention at the source, which would include waste reduction and leak detection. • Incentivize super-compliant zero- and near-zero VOC materials, such as UV/EB materials. It is the agency’s position that super-compliant zero and near-zero VOC materials eliminate or drastically reduce emissions during the use of these products. The agency also is looking at using the concept of reactivity to target specific VOCs, but does not anticipate going through a formal rulemaking process in order to adopt the concept. New Air Toxics Calculation Triples Risk California’s Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has issued new guidance on calculating the risk from toxic air contaminants. Even with no change in actual toxic emissions or exposure, the revised calculation results in estimates of health risks to residents that can be three times higher, and in some cases, six times higher than previously estimated. The revised OEHHA guidelines incorporate new studies on the sensitivities of infants and children, as well as new data on breathing rates and time spent at home. The SCAQMD has announced amendments to several of its rules in order to implement the revisions. Some source categories may potentially need additional controls to meet permitting thresholds under the revised OEHHA Guidelines. In addition, special interim provisions will temporarily allow spray booths to use OEHHA’s previous risk assessment guidelines until the need for source-specific rules are evaluated and proposed. Some facilities (about 20) will be required to implement additional risk reduction measures. There also may be a requirement for facilities to issue public notices about their operation to their neighbors. Various industry representatives have expressed concern that the new guidelines artificially inflate risk numbers when, in reality, emissions are stagnant. They fear the public will interpret any new public notices to mean an increase in toxic emissions. Ninth Circuit Ruling In February 2013, Natural Resources Defense Council and Communities for a Better Environment filed a lawsuit [Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc., et al. v. US EPA, Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals Case No. 13-70544 (Rule 317)] against the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) challenging its approval of South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 317, Clean Air Act Non-Attainment Fee. Rule 317 is a local fee rule submitted to address section 185 of the Clean Air Act with respect to the 1-hour ozone standard for anti-backsliding purposes. Rule 317 relies on fees imposed on mobile sources under state law. The EPA finalized approval of Rule 317 as an alternative to the program required by section 185 and determined that the district’s alternative fee-equivalent program is not less stringent than the program required by section 185. Plaintiffs argued that the EPA had exceeded its authority and that section 185 of the Clean Air Act clearly required fees be imposed on stationary sources. In the South Coast, the fee was estimated to be $9,000 per ton of pollutant emitted. The Ninth US Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the EPA and, thus, the SCAQMD rule stands. n

54 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 +

Technology Showcase Dymax Maskant Reduces Processing Time Dymax Corporation, Torrington, Connecticut, recently introduced SpeedMask®750-SC, a UV/visible light-curable masking resin featuring both temperature and chemical resistance. The cure-on-demand patented See-Cure technology is purple in its uncured state, then transitions to pink to confirm that it has been fully cured. It is tack free for quicker handling, is easily removed through peeling or incineration and leaves no residue after removal on non-porous surfaces. It is recommended for nickel alloys, titanium alloys and cobalt chrome components. For more information, visit RAHN Launches GENOMER 4379/W in Europe Switzerland-based RAHN-Group recently debuted GENOMER 4379/W in its European markets, with a plan to launch in the US markets later this year. This product is an aliphatic, physically drying polyurethane dispersion for use primarily in industrial and wood coating applications. It features flexibility, has a low odor and it is sandable after drying. It may be cross-linked with UVirradiation using a suitable initiator. For more information, visit Allnex Introduces Resin for UV-Cured Food Packaging Inks, Coatings Allnex, headquartered in Brussels, Belgium, has added EBECRYL® 85 to its portfolio of curable low-migration resins for indirect food contact applications in response to concerns about odor and taste transfer resulting from the migration of resin components. The UV/EB curable resins are carefully selected from raw materials and prepared in production areas in order to prevent cross-contamination. The resin meets ISO 9001 product standards, and in addition to having TSCA and REACH status, is compliant with Nestle’s guidance note and the Swiss Ordinance B-list. It is suited for use in overprint varnishes and flexo, digital and screen printed inks that are cured either with UV or UV LED light. For more information, visit Ashland’s Innovations in LED Coatings, Adhesives Meet Industry Challenges Wilmington, Delaware-based Ashland Specialty Ingredients, a unit of Ashland Inc., has commercialized five innovations to meet growing printing and converting demands, as well as increased global regulations for reduced energy consumption in the flexographic narrow-web market. The new products include gloss overprint varnishes (OPVs), matte OPVs, laminating adhesives, pressure-sensitive adhesives and cold foil adhesives. The products meet reduced energy and lower temperature requirements, +

offer faster line speeds and are designed to cure under LED and traditional mercury-arc lamps. For more information, visit Heraeus Debuts LED Color Series Heraeus Noblelight GmbH, based in Hanau, Germany, has developed an LED 2020 color series that comprises UV-curing shiny, two-component screen printing inks suitable for multicolor inline printing. The color series has been developed especially for being cured by UV LED light sources. Using Heraeus technology, printing speeds up to 100 cycles per minute can be achieved. For final color curing, the company offers intensive UVC medium-pressure lamp systems, as well as high-output UV LED systems. Both are able to fully cure several print layers. For more information, visit Honle Announces Lamp Controller for Water Treatment, Aquatic Facilities UV energy systems increasingly are being used to treat and disinfect water at wastewater treatment plants and aquatic feature facilities because chemicals are not required as part of the UV disinfection process. Engineers at Honle UV America, Inc., in Marlboro, Massachusetts, developed a multi-lamp controller (MLC) with a modular EPS driver that can control up to 30 Amalgam low pressure UVC lamps individually. Advantages include compact design, energy-savings, less maintenance due to plug connectors and fasteners, optimized electronic lamp ignition and valuable remote diagnosis functions. For more information, visit DIC Launches Additives for UV-Curable Coating DIC Corporation, based in Japan, now offers MEGAFACE RS, a series of fluorosurfactant additives designed to be compatible with a variety of resins for UV curing on coating film surfaces. The additives resist oil and water by acting as a stain guard, especially against oily fingerprints. Because the additives have low friction properties, the UV hard coats can prevent scratches. The product can make surfaces smoother and can help coatings last longer. For more information, visit n


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UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 | 55

Calendar JULY

22-25 AWFS 2015, Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada. For more information about this Association of Woodworking and Furnishings Suppliers® (AWFS) event, visit


3 UV+EB Technology Abstract Submissions Due Would you like to be published in UV+EB Technology magazine? Contact for details.


1-3 TLMI Technical Conference 2015, Swissôtel Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. For more information about this Tag and Label Manufacturers Institute event, visit

14 UV+EB Technology Article Submissions Due Would you like to be published in UV+EB Technology magazine? Contact for details. 21-25 RadTech China 2015, Guangzhou Baiyun International Convention Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. The third annual International Forum on Radiation Curing Industry Development will be co-located on Sept. 21-23. The sixth annual China International RadTech Expo will follow on Sept. 23-25. For more information, visit 28-30 PACK EXPO 2015, Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada. Pharma EXPO will be co-located with this event. For more information, visit

13-16 Photopolymerization Fundamentals 2015, St. Julien Hotel, Boulder, Colorado. For more information, visit


13-16 GRAPH EXPO & CPP EXPO 2015, McCormick Place South, Chicago, Illinois. In addition to GRAPH EXPO and CPP EXPO, PROCESS EXPO will be Sept. 15-18 in the North and East Halls. For more information, visit

13-15 RadTech Europe 2015, Clarion Congress Hotel, Prague, Czech Republic. For more information, visit

7-8 The Inkjet Conference, Swissôtel, Neuss/Düsseldorf, Germany. For more information, visit

28-29 UV LED 2015, Hilton Garden Inn, Troy, New York. A new event sponsored by RadTech Interna-tional North America and NYSERDA. For more information, visit

Advertiser’s Index American Ultraviolet........................................................ A.W.T. World Trade Inc.................................................... BASF................................................................................. Inside Front Cover Dymax............................................................................... EIT Instrument Markets................................................... Energy Sciences, Inc. (ESI).............................................. Inside Back Cover Excelitas Technologies.................................................... Back Cover Graph Expo...................................................................... Heraeus Noblelight America LLC.................................. Melrob.............................................................................. Phoseon Technology....................................................... Plasmatreat....................................................................... RadTech China 2015........................................................ RadTech Europe............................................................... RadTech International North America........................... RAHN-Group.................................................................... Sartomer Arkema Group................................................. Siltech Corporation......................................................... 56 | UV+EB Technology • Issue 2, 2015 +

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