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AVII-1 Interview “1” to Fire-Experts: by telephone

INSTITUTION: Name: Address: Country: Telephone:

Bomberos Sevilla- “Fire Brigade of Marbella” Ajimez Nº6 Bajo A Spain City: Sevilla 41008 0034 955 759 902 Email: siemprellegamostarde@hotmail.com

FIRE FIGHTER: Name Age: Charge

Carmelo Surname: Dominguez Martinez 47 Years in service: 32 Inspector of Fire Brigade in Sevilla

How many interventions per year? How many are referred to fire in building?

º 3800 º 1900

Have you seen a rapid flame spread process? Flashover. Backdraft. Smoke explosion.

Yes Yes Yes

Only in training courses Do you often receive training courses? Yes

What are the training courses about? - Backdraft?

Theoretical Yes Practical Yes.

The training courses deal with all kind of fires that can be found in buildings (flashover, backdraft…). Furthermore, other kind of training such as for traffic accidents is also taken.

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BACKDRAFT: Model (Brief description): It is simple numerical model enables to predict the pyrolysis rate taking place in a fire room as a function of the feedback heat from smoke and kind partitions. The pyrolysis mass that has not been burnt and accumulates inside the room is also computed, evaluating at every time if it could become flammable. When an opening is created, and if the unburnt mass is able to be flammable, the model calculates a backdraft deflagration given the pressure and temperature evolution inside the room, the energy delivered inside and outside (fireball) the room, burning speed‌.

What is your opinion about this model?

It is a good model. It is incredible how it is possible to simulate a so much complicate phenomenon with simple method that provides useful information. I am very interested in every thing referred to fire. I would like to have a copy of your thesis and if it is possible also one of the model. I am also instructor for fire-fighters in Sevilla and I can used this model for showing with more detail the influence of several parameter(temperature, pressure, gas species accumulated‌) in backdraft.

How could you use this information Initially, the studies focus on backdraft when facing a possible backdraft? started in order to safe fire ighters lives. However, a model that provides these results has application in more fields. For example, one of them is in architecture (building design); knowing the parameters that lead to backdraft the building can be designed in such a way that the risk of occurrence decreases. Also knowing that in a compartment the risk of backdraft is high for example because there is lot of accumulated fuel one or other criterion of passive measure could be chosen (more sensible smoke and or temperature detectors) . In addition, the model can be used in fire simulation training in such a way that the fire fighter could face.

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What other data will be important to the ----fire-fighter when facing a possible backdraft? Which data is more important for you? 5- Best; 1- Worst Accumulation of mass species. Flammable period. Risk of backdraft. Pressure and energy delivered. Parameters that lead to backdraft.

1 2 5 3 4

Parameters that lead to backdraft are very important. Applying that in compartment It gives us an estimation of the risk.

Signature & date Dominguez Martinez Marbella, 18 March 2006

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AVII-2 Interview “2” to Fire-Experts: by email

“Backdraft: Under-Ventilated Compartment Fires” INSTITUTION: Name: Address: Country: Telephone:

Diputación Foralñ de Bizkaia. Bomberos. Parque de Urioste. 48530. Ortuella. Bizkaia Spain City: Ortuella 0034 94 492 31 16 Email: javier.elorza@bizkaia.net

RESEARCHER: Name: Age: Charge

--

Surname: Years in service:

FIRE FIGHTER: Name: Age: Charge

Javier --44 Subinspector

Surname: Elorza Years in service: 22

How many interventions per year? 100 to 150 How many are referred to fire in building? 20 Have you seen a rapid flame spread Yes, but mainly in training. We have a FO process? container and qualified trainers. Also in video from different sources. During intervention I can only remember a clearly identifiable Backdraft. Some flashover, but always from the exterior. No real smoke explosions. Do you often receive training courses? Yes

Every firefighter has received a 40 hour “Interior fire behaviour “ course in the last 3 years. It will be refreshed every 4 years. I as trainer have receive quite a few in the last years. Both Theoretical and Practical .

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What are the training courses about? - Backdraft?

Fire behaviour: FO and BD. Tactical ventilation. Procedures of fire attack.

BACKDRAFT: Model (Brief description): It is simple numerical model enables to predict the pyrolysis rate taking place in a fire room as a function of the feedback heat from smoke and kind partitions. The pyrolysis mass that has not been burnt and accumulates inside the room is also computed, evaluating at every time if it could become flammable. When an opening is created, and if the unburnt mass is able to be flammable, the model calculates a backdraft deflagration given the pressure and temperature evolution inside the room, the energy delivered inside and outside (fireball) the room, burning speed‌.

What is your opinion about this model?

Interesting but of difficult application in real life. How could you use this information As officer in charge I cannot imagine when facing a possible backdraft? myself putting all the necessary data (generally unknown) into a computer in order to know the probability and severity of a potential BD. I know a little bit about BD and there are so many factors influencing it that I think is almost impossible to make a reliable prediction. Can be interesting for training and prevention purposes. What other data will be important to the Time from ignition. Generally unknown. fire-fighter when facing a possible Possible delay from opening moment. backdraft? Impossible to predict. Need to enter. Generally no need. No lives to save. BD symptoms. Important to recognize then to avoid accidents. How to proceed. Provoke it in safe conditions, or try to cool or upper ventilate to prevent it Which data is more important for you? 5- Best; 1- Worst Accumulation of mass species. 3 .. Time from ignition 2 .. Risk of backdraft. 5.. Pressure and energy delivered. 1.. Parameters that lead to backdraft. 4.. Signature & date Javier Elorza Ortuella, 14 March 2006

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