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In many prehistoric cultures, women assumed a particular cultural role.   Would you like to change this?  PeopleNology for Middle Class Working Girls  In hunter‐gatherer societies, women were generally the gatherers of plant foods, small  animal  foods,  fish,  and  learned  to  use  dairy  products,  while  men  hunted  meat  from  large animals.  That means you go to the grocery store and he lights the grill.   

Fighting Mad and Living Large  Easy Earth Enterprises for Women  Middle Class White Trash Revolution ‐ Taking over the World (Revolution) 

Susie Homemaker 

Working Women Taking Control and Getting Their Life Back  


Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling  while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   

Before you get married,  Before you take your clothes off,  Before you get into the back seat,  Before you quit your job,  Before you say don’t worry,  Before you quit school,    Join

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Are these really the rules and rituals   That you have to live with, day in and day out?                                       


Have dinner ready.  Plan  ahead,  even  the  night  before,  to  have  a  delicious  meal  ready,  on  time  for  his  return.  This  is  a  way  of  letting  him  know  that you have been thinking about him and are concerned about his needs. Most  men  are  hungry  when  they  come  home  and  the  prospect  of  a  good  meal  (especially  his  favorite  dish)  is  part  of  the  warm  welcome  needed.      When  you  get home from work, picking up the kids from school, reviewing advanced match  just make sure you don’t burn the roast. (food) 


Prepare  yourself.  Take  15  minutes  to  rest  so  you'll  be  refreshed  when he arrives. Touch up your make‐up, put a ribbon in your hair and be fresh‐ looking. He has just been with a lot of work‐weary people. You want to look good  and  smell  better  than  dinner.    Show a little cleavage, spray a little toilet water  and kind of fluff up your hair in case he wants you for desert. (sex)  


Be a little gay and a little more interesting for him. His boring day may  need  a  lift  and  one  of  your  duties  is  to  provide  it.    Take  the  low  road  and  do  whatever it takes to make him smile.  Give him a rub down, do the shoe thing  and a gentle little kiss. (sex) 

                Maybe wash the motorcycle,                  Put the right shoes on for riding it.                   Don’t forget the low cut biking shirt.                                       

Clear away the clutter. Make one last trip through the main part  of the house just before your husband arrives. You don’t want to have a lot of  your stuff laying around the house.  Put up and hide away your iphone because  he might not see the American express bill if you’re quick enough with the mail. 

                Its o.k. to have your copy of pirate bay out because they have girls.                   Don’t forget to fix that flat fire on your car before he arrives.                   He loves cars but won’t want to work on yours.                                         

Gather up schoolbooks.  toys,  paper,  etc.  and  then  run  a  dust  cloth  over  the  tables.    Your  husband  does  not  want  to  be  reminded  over  and  over again that you had sex over and over again.  Hide the children or send them  off  for  a  few  hours.    Making  them  eat  before  he  gets  home  is  great.    Making  them do homework is better.  Better grades mean a better job and they won’t  get stuck at McDonalds lunch hour for a career path.  

                Don’t forget to dust the banister before he gets home.                                            

Changing the Water Bottle is not considered a job career path.  Try your best to let the boys play and carry water.  You can flirt your way to the top.   

Over the cooler months of the year you should 

prepare and light a 

fire  for him to unwind by. Your husband will feel he has reached a haven of  rest and order, and it will give you a lift too. After all, catering for his comfort will  provide you with immense personal satisfaction.                     You’ll find fire wood out by the garage.                  Find a male neighbor to chop it for you,                Wear the red dress.                                                               

Prepare the children. Take a few minutes to wash the children's hands and faces  (if they are small), comb their hair and, if necessary, change their clothes. They  are little treasures and he would like to see them playing the part. Minimize all  noise.  At  the  time  of  his  arrival  eliminate  all  noise  of  the  washer,  dryer  or  vacuum. Try to encourage the children to be quiet.  

Be happy to see him.  

Greet him with a warm smile and show sincerity in your desire to please him.  

Listen  to  him.  You  may  have  a  dozen  important  things  to  tell  him,  but  the  moment of his arrival is not the time. Let him talk first ‐ remember, his topics of 


conversation are more important than yours.       •

Make  the  evening  his.  Never  complain  if  he  comes  home  late  or  goes  out  to  dinner, or other places of entertainment without you. Instead, try to understand  his world of strain and pressure and his very real need to be at home and relax.  




Your goal: Try to make sure your home is a place of peace, order, and tranquility  where your husband can renew himself in body and spirit.  

Don't greet him with complaints or problems.  

      Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   


Don't  complain  if  he's  late  home  for  dinner  or  even  if  he  stays  out  all  night.  Count this as minor compared to what he might have gone through that day.  

Make him comfortable. Have him lean back in a comfortable chair or have him  lie down in the bedroom. Have a cool or warm drink ready for him.  



Arrange his pillow and offer to take off his shoes. Speak in a low, soothing and  pleasant voice.  

Don't ask him questions about his actions or question his judgment or integrity.  Remember, he is the master of the house and as such will always exercise his will  with fairness and truthfulness. You have no right to question him.  

A good wife always knows her place.  





      Middle  Class  White  Trash  Breaking  Through  the  Glass  Ceiling  by  taking  care  of  a  few  social  problems;  excessive  consumption  of  alcohol,  perceived  laziness  and  inability  to  save money while being "shiftless and thriftless" and getting naked and having sex with  every Tom, Dick and Harry under different names.      

In more recent history, the gender roles of women have changed greatly. Traditionally,  middle‐class  women  were  typically  involved  in  domestic  tasks  emphasizing  child  care,  and  did  not  enter  paid  employment.  For  poorer  women,  especially  working  class  women,  this  often  remained  an  ideal,  as  economic  necessity  compelled  them  to  seek  employment outside the home.     The occupations that were available to them were, however, lower in prestige and pay  than those available to men. It seems you’re at the bottom of the pile.  We’re going to  give you free knowledge that will change everything.    Get Control of your life with Gregory Bodenhamer.  It’s FREE so don’t Delay.     Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   


As  changes  in  the  labor  market  for  women  came  about,  availability  of  employment  changed from only "dirty", long hour factory jobs to "cleaner", more respectable office  jobs  where  more  education  was  demanded,  women's  participation  in  the  labor  force  rose from 6% in 1900 to 23% in 1923.     Now these respectable jobs are not paying you enough money but, the boss had to get  rid  of  his  interviewing  couch  in  his  office.    You  don’t  have  to  pull  your  panties  down  during the interview process.    These  shifts  in  the  labor  force  led  to  changes  in  the  attitudes  of  women  at  work,  allowing for the "quiet" revolution which resulted in women becoming more career and  education oriented.  PeopleNology leads the way today.  This quiet revolution is about 

respect, individual rights concerning body, brain and soul.    It’s been called the White Trash Revolution,    The Lot Lizards Revenge,    The Secretary’s Night Off   

    Among many things but, one thing for sure, thousands of women, just like you write us  and study PeopleNology.     Women's  movements  advocate  equality  of  opportunity  with  men,  and  equal  rights  irrespective of gender. Through a combination of economic changes and the efforts of  the feminist movement, in recent decades women in most societies now have access to  careers beyond the traditional homemaker.    Many  observers,  including  feminist  groups,  maintain  that  women  in  industry  and  commerce face glass ceilings.    These  changes  and  struggles  are  among  the  foci  of  the  academic  field  of  women's  studies.  

Because, by definition, there are no written records from prehistoric times, (or at least  there are none known to still exist down to this day) the information we know about the  time  period  is  informed  by  the  fields  of  paleontology,  biology,  paleontology,  geology,  archaeoastronomy, anthropology, archaeology and other natural and social sciences. In  societies where the introduction of writing is relatively recent, oral histories, knowledge  of  the  past  handed  down  from  generation  to  generation,  contain  records  of  "prehistoric" times.    The  middle  class,  in  colloquial  usage,  consists  of  those  who  have  some  economic  independence  but  not  a  great  deal  of  social  influence  or  power.  The  term  often  encompasses merchants and professionals, academics, bureaucrats, and some farmers  and skilled workers.  Social hierarchies and their definitions vary. There are many factors that can define the  middle class in a society, such as money, behavior and heredity. In many countries, it is  predominantly  the  amount  of  money  that  determines  an  individual's  position  in  the 

social  hierarchy.  In  other  countries,  social  factors  may  have  as  strong  an  influence.  These factors include education, professional or employment status, home ownership,  or culture.    Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   

    White‐collar  worker  refers  to  a  salaried  professional  or  an  educated  worker  whose  performs  semi‐professional  office,  administrative,  and  sales  coordination  tasks,  as  opposed to a blue‐collar worker, whose job requires manual labor and little education.  "White‐collar work" is an informal term, defined in opposition to "blue‐collar work".    A blue‐collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and  earns  an  hourly  wage.  Blue‐collar  workers  are  distinguished  from  those  in  the  service  sector and from white‐collar workers, whose jobs are not considered manual labor.  Blue‐collar  work  may  be  skilled  or  unskilled,  and  may  involve  manufacturing,  mining,  building  and  construction  trades,  law  enforcement,  mechanical  work,  maintenance,  repair  and  operations  maintenance  or  technical  installations.  The  white‐collar  worker,  by  contrast,  performs  non‐manual  labor  often  in  an  office;  and  the  service  industry  worker performs labor involving customer interaction, entertainment, retail and outside  sales, and the like.    Equal opportunity is a term which has differing definitions and there is no consensus as  to the precise meaning.      Some use it as a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social  environment  in  which  people  are  not  excluded  from  the  activities  of  society,  such  as  education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits.    Equal opportunity practices include measures taken by organizations to ensure fairness  in the employment process.    Human rights refers to the "basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled."    Examples  of  rights  and  freedoms  which  are  often  thought  of  as  human  rights  include  civil and political rights, such as the right to life and liberty, freedom of expression, and  equality before the law; and social, cultural and economic rights, including the right to  participate in culture, the right to food, the right to work, and the right to education.   

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with  reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.      Reproductive  rights  are  a  subset  of  human  rights  relating  to  sexual  reproduction  and  reproductive  health,  often  held  to  include  the  right  to  control  one's  reproductive  functions,  such  as  the  right  to  reproduce  (as  in  opposition  to  compulsory  sterilization  and forced contraception), as well as the right to not reproduce (including support for  access  to  birth  control),  the  rights  to  privacy,  medical  coverage,  contraception,  family  planning and protection from discrimination, harassment and gender‐oriented harm.    Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   

    Civil  rights  can  refer  to  protection  against  public  (government)  and  or  private  sector  discrimination.  In  the  United  States,  the  Fourteenth  Amendment  to  the  United  States  Constitution  protects  citizens  against  many  forms  of  State  discrimination,  with  its  due  process  and  equal  protection  requirements.  Civil  rights  can  also  refer  to  protection  against  private  actors  or  entities.  The  U.S.  Congress  subsequently  addressed  the  issue  through  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964  Sec.  201.  which  states:  (a)  All  persons  shall  be  entitled  to  the  full  and  equal  enjoyment  of  the  goods,  services,  facilities,  privileges,  advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in  this section, without discrimination or segregation on the ground of race, color, religion,  or national origin or sex. This legislation and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990  are constitutional under the Commerce Clause, as the Supreme Court has ruled that the  Fourteenth  Amendment  only  applies  to  the  State.  States  generally  have  the  power  to  enact similar legislation, provided that they meet the federal minimum standard, under  the doctrine of police powers.  The  terms  civil  rights  and  civil  liberties  are  often  used  interchangeably  in  the  United  States. Thomas Jefferson wrote, "a free people [claim] their rights waived from the laws  of nature, and not as the gift of their chief magistrate."  The  United  States  Constitution  recognizes  different  civil  rights  than  do  most  other  national constitutions. Two examples of civil rights found in the US but rarely (if ever)  elsewhere  are  the  right  to  bear  arms  (Second  Amendment  to  the  United  States  Constitution)  and  the  right  to  a  jury  trial  (Sixth  Amendment  to  the  United  States  Constitution).  Few  nations,  not  even  including  a  world  organization  body  such  as  the  United Nations, have recognized either of these civil rights. Many nations recognize an  individual's  civil  right  to  not  be  executed  for  murdering  another,  a  civil  right  not  recognized within the US. 

Teenage Girls need a lot of education  So you need to help them along the right patch.    Before your little girls turn into women  Give them the gift of knowledge from Gregory Bodenhamer for Women.   

    The  term  women's  rights  refers  to  the  freedoms  inherently  possessed  by  women  and  girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized, ignored or suppressed by law, custom,  and  behavior  in  a  particular  society.  These  liberties  are  grouped  together  and  differentiated from broader notions of human rights because they often differ from the  freedoms  inherently  possessed  by  or  recognized  for  men  and  boys,  and  because  activists  for  this  issue  claim  an  inherent  historical  and  traditional  bias  against  the  exercise of rights by women and girls.    Issues  commonly  associated  with  notions  of  women's  rights  include,  though  are  not  limited  to,  the  right:  to  bodily  integrity  and  autonomy;  to  vote  (universal  suffrage);  to  hold public office; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to own property; to education; to  serve in the military or be conscripted; to enter into legal contracts; and to have marital,  parental and religious rights.     Women  and  their  supporters  have  campaigned  and  in  some  places  continue  to  campaigned for the same rights as modern men. 

On  January  12,  1915,  a  suffrage  bill  was  brought  before  the House of Representatives  but  was  lost  by  a  vote  of  174  to  204.  Again  a  bill  was  brought  before  the  House,  on  January  10,  1918.  On  the  evening  before  President  Wilson  made  a  strong  and  widely  published appeal to the House to pass the bill. It was passed with one more vote than  was needed to make the necessary two‐thirds majority. The vote was then carried into  the  Senate.  Again  President  Wilson  made  an  appeal,  and  on  September  30,  1918,  the  question  was  put  to  the  vote,  but  two  votes  were  lacking  to  make  the  two‐thirds  majority. On February 10, 1919, it was again voted upon, and then it was lost by only  one vote.      There  was  considerable  anxiety  among  politicians  of  both  parties  to  have  the  amendment  passed  and  made  effective  before  the  general  elections  of  1920,  so  the  President  called  a  special  session  of  Congress,  and  a  bill,  introducing  the  amendment,  was  brought  before  the  House  again.  On  May  21,  1919,  it  was  passed,  42  votes  more  than necessary being obtained. On June 4, 1919, it was brought before the Senate, and  after a long discussion it was passed, with 56 ayes and 25 nays. It only remained that the  necessary  number  of  states  should  ratify  the  action  of  Congress.  Within  a  few  days  Illinois,  Wisconsin  and  Michigan,  their  legislatures  being  then  in  session,  passed  the  ratifications. Other states then followed their examples, and Tennessee was the last of  the  needed  36  states  to  ratify,  in  the  summer  of  1920.  The  19th  Amendment  to  the  Constitution was an accomplished fact, and the Presidential election of November 1920,  was therefore the first occasion on which women in all states were allowed to exercise  their right of suffrage.    The concept of political freedom is very closely allied with the concepts of civil liberties  and  individual  rights.  Most  democratic  societies  are  professedly  characterized  by  various  freedoms  which  are  afforded  the  legal  protection  of  the  state.  Some  of  these  freedoms may include (in alphabetical order):  • Anarchism   • Freedom of assembly   • Freedom of association   • Freedom to bear arms   • Freedom of education   • Freedom of movement   • Freedom of the press   • Freedom of religion   • Freedom of speech   • Freedom of thought   • Intellectual freedom   • Sexual freedom   • Stochastic  

• Suffrage     Economic freedom is freedom to produce, trade and consume any goods and services  acquired without the use of force, fraud or theft. Economic freedom is embodied in the  rule of law, property rights and freedom of contract, and characterized by external and  internal  openness  of  the  markets,  the  protection  of  property  rights  and  freedom  of  economic initiative.   



   In the present the concept, as it is most used, is usually associated with a free market  system. Indices of economic freedom try to measure economic freedom, and empirical 

studies  based  on  some  these  rankings  have  found  it  to  be  correlated  with  economic  growth and poverty reduction.    Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   


    Homemaker is a mainly American term which may refer either to: 


the person within a family who is primarily concerned with the management of  the household, whether or not he or she works outside the home   • a person whose prime occupation is to care for their family and/or home   The term homemaker is preferred by some to housewife or househusband because it is  inclusive,  defines  the  role  in  terms  of  activities,  rather  than  relation  to  another  or  gender, and is independent of marital status. The terms stay‐at‐home mom and stay‐at‐ home dad are also used, particularly if the person views his or her central role as caring  for  children.  The  euphemistic  term  "domestic  engineer"  has  gone  out  of  favor,  being  seen  by  some  as  satirical,  as  if  to  give  a  sense  of  mock  dignity  to  a  role  held  in  low  esteem by the speaker. Likewise, the term "housekeeper" has come to describe hired  cleaning  help,  and  is  no  longer  used—other  than  in  a  derogatory  way—to  describe  homemaking.  Traditionally the role of "homemaker" has been filled predominantly by women. Even to  this day, homemaking is perceived by many societies as the natural role for women. In  recent  years  there  has  been  some  political  and  societal  backlash  against  feminist  criticism regarding traditional roles for women. This backlash may be attributed to the  recent decades' progress of the feminist movement and its implications on society, and  may  be  compared  to  the  backlash  that  took  place  in  postwar  America.  The  backlash  could  be  seen,  at  least  in  part,  in  both  the  increasing  prominence  of  "professional"  homemakers such as Martha Stewart, and a rise in Evangelical Christianity which views  traditional roles as being conducive to the stability of the traditional family unit and the  people  therein.  However,  homemaking  is  not  always  a  lifetime  commitment:  many  homemakers, for economic or personal reasons, return to the workplace.    Some modern women are embracing the role of full‐time parent.     Most of these women have left the paid workforce so that they can raise their children,  particularly through their early years before entering kindergarten.     There is considerable variability within the "stay‐at‐home" mom population with regard  to their intent to return to the paid workforce.     Some work from their homes, some do part‐time work, some intend to return to part or  full  time  work  when  their  children  are  in  school,  and  others  may  never  return  to  the  paid  workplace.  Similarly,  there  is  considerable  variation  in  the  "stay‐at‐home"  mom's  attitude towards domestic work not related to caring for children.    Some  may  embrace  a  traditional  role  of  "housewife,"  where  the  woman  cooks  and  cleans in addition to caring for children.     But many modern homemakers see their primary role as that of child‐care providers ‐‐  supporting their children's physical, intellectual, and emotional development.     These  homemakers  can  be  found  in  cooperative  preschools  and  volunteering  in 

numerous  community  organizations.  Other  aspects  of  home  care  (shopping,  cooking,  cleaning, yard work, home repairs, money managing, etc) are shared equally with their  husbands or partners.    You  can  earn  a  “Certificate  of  PeopleNology  Suffrage”  and  it  won’t  cost  you  a  single  penny because it’s all prepaid to you by Nollijy University, our international sponsor.    Simply send us an email and in the subject field  ask for; 

Free Starter Kit to Break the Glass Ceiling at Work and Home      Gender roles in parenting and marriage  Gender  roles  develop  through  internalization  and  identification  during  childhood.  Sigmund  Freud  suggested  that  biology  (based  around  the  penis)  determines  gender  identity  through  identification  with  either  the  mother  or  father.  While  some  people  agree  with  Freud,  others  argue  that  the  development  of  the  gendered  self  is  not  completely  determined  by  biology  based  around  one's  relationship  to  the  penis,  but  rather the interactions that one has with the primary caregiver(s).     From  birth,  parents  interact  differently  with  children  depending  on  their  sex,  and  through this interaction parents can instill different values or traits in their children on  the  basis  of  what  is  normative  for  their  sex.  This  internalization  of  gender  norms  includes the choice of toys (“feminine” toys often reinforce interaction, nurturing, and  closeness, “masculine” toys often reinforce independence and competitiveness) that a  parents give to their children.     Education also plays an integral role in the creation of gender norms.    Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   

      Gender  roles  that  are  created  in  childhood  permeate  throughout  life  and  help  to  structure  parenting  and  marriage,  especially  in  relation  to  work  in  and  outside  the  home.  Despite  the  increase  in  women  in  the  labor  force  since  the  mid‐1900s,  women  are still responsible for the majority of the domestic chores and childcare. While women  are  splitting  their  time  between  work  and  care  of  the  home,  men  are  pressured  into  being the primary economic supporter of the home. 

Despite  the  fact  that  different  households  may  divide  chores  more  evenly,  there  is  evidence  that  supports  that  women  have  retained  the  primary  caregiver  role  within  familial life despite contributions economically. This evidence suggest that women who  work outside the home often put an extra 18 hours a week doing household or childcare  related chores as opposed to men who average 12 minutes a day in childcare activities.     In addition to a lack of interest in the home on the part of some men, some women may  bar men from equal participation in the home which may contribute to this disparity.        Women are more emotionally expressive.     Women are more emotionally responsive.     Women are more empathetic.     Women are more sensitive to others' feelings.     Women are more obsessed with having children.     Women express their feelings without constraint, except for the emotion of anger.     Women pay more attention to body language.     Women better judge emotions from nonverbal communication.     Women express more love, fear, and sadness.     Women laugh, gaze, and smile more.     Women anticipate negative consequences for expressing anger and aggression.     Females are more inclined to face each other and make eye contact when talking, while  males are more likely to look away from each other. Girls and women tend to jump from  topic to topic, but boys and men tend to talk at length about one topic. When listening,  women make more noises such as “mm‐hmm” and “uh‐huh”, while men are more likely  to listen silently. Women are inclined to express agreement and support, while men are  more inclined to debate.     52.9% of American women are in the labor force versus 73.3% of men. 70.7% of women  with children under 18 are in the workforce (up from 47% in 1975), compared with 94%  of men with children under 18.  

Approximately 26 percent of employed women usually work part time, compared with  about 11 percent of employed men. 5.6% of employed women and 8% of men are self‐ employed. Women in nonagricultural industries work 35.9 hours per week versus 41.6  hours for men.     Women account for more than half of all workers in the following industries: financial  activities,  education  services,  healthcare,  leisure  and  hospitality,  and  office  and  administrative support.     Women  are  far  more  likely  than  men  to  be  social  workers,  paralegals  and  legal  assistants,  teachers,  nurses,  speech  pathologists,  dental  hygienists,  maids  and  housekeeping cleaners, and childcare workers.     More  men  than  women  work  in  the  following  industries:  mining,  construction,  transportation  and  utilities,  farming,  computer  and  mathematical  occupations,  engineering, and architecture.     Men are more likely than women to be chief executives, firefighters, police and patrol  officers, electricians, dentists, and surgeons.     In  Western  societies,  skirts  and  dresses  and  high‐heeled  shoes  are  usually  seen  as  women's clothing, while neckties are generally worn by men. Trousers were once seen  as  exclusively  male  clothing,  but  are  nowadays  worn  by  both  sexes.  Male  clothes  are  often more practical (that is, they can function well under a wide variety of situations),  but a wider range of clothing styles is available for females. Males are typically allowed  to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places.     It  is  generally  acceptable,  to  some  degree,  for  a  woman  to  wear  traditionally  male  clothing, but not the other way around. In some cultures, sumptuary laws regulate what  men  and  women  are  required  to  wear.  Islam  requires  both  sexes  to  wear  hijab,  or  modest  clothing.  What  qualifies  as  "modest"  varies  in  different  Muslim  societies;  however,  women  are  usually  required  to  cover  more  of  their  bodies  than  men  are.  Articles  of  clothing  worn  by  Muslim  women  for  purposes  of  modesty  range  from  the  headscarf to the burqa. Scottish men may choose to wear kilts on ceremonial occasions.  Kilts were previously worn as normal clothing by men. Men not of Scottish descent are  increasingly wearing kilts today. Compared to men's clothing, women's clothing tends to  address being looked at.     In  the  modern  West,  women  are  more  likely  to  wear  makeup,  jewelry,  and  colorful  clothing,  while  in  very  traditional  cultures  women  are  protected  from  men's  gazes  by  modest dress.      

Femininity  (also  called  womanliness)  refers  to  qualities  and  behaviors  judged  by  a  particular culture to be ideally associated with or especially appropriate to women and  girls.  Distinct  from  femaleness,  which  is  a  biological  and  physiological  classification  concerned with the reproductive system, femininity principally refers to secondary sex  characteristics  and  other  behaviors  and  features  generally  regarded  as  being  more  prevalent  and  better  suited  to  women,  whether  inborn  or  socialized.  In  traditional  Western  culture,  such  features  include  gentleness,  patience,  vanity,  superficiality  and  kindness.    Feminine attributes  The feminine is most often associated with nurturing, life‐giving qualities, creativity and  an openness to those around.  The modern social stereotype of a woman is the complete opposite of a man.     A  feminine  woman  has  physical  attributes  which  vary  from  that  of  a  masculine  male.  Furthermore, the psychological and behavioral differences that are considered feminine  are the opposite to those considered masculine.    These  attributes  result  from  the  relationship  between  an  individual's  biology  and  the  socialization she receives as a result of that biology.    Feminine physical attributes  Some  research  has  indicated  that  a  number  of  heterosexual  men  may  be  aroused  by  child‐like  smooth  skin,  big  eyes,  small  noses  and  chins,  though  there  are  cultural  differences in those preferences.    Some research has also indicated that a 0.7 waist‐hip ratio arouses some heterosexual  men.  These  studies  have  led  the  media  to  speculate  that  these  are  evolutionary  indicators  of  feminine  fertility,  although  such  speculation  has  yet  to  be  proven.  Long  eyelashes or high‐pitched voices may also be considered feminine by some heterosexual  men in the West.  Women throughout history have sometimes gone to extremes to meet exacting cultural  standards of what is considered attractive.    Cleavage  Larger breast size, a trait considered feminine, is suggested by visual clues, such as the  cleavage between the breasts. Many women in western culture will emphasize cleavage  to enhance femininity. They may do so by means of the cut of the outer wear, and by  brassieres (bras) that push the breasts upwards and together. Special pads and inserts in  the bra can also be used to aid in the positioning of the breasts higher.    Foot Binding  For  centuries  in  China,  foot  binding  produced  unnaturally  small  and  deformed  feet,  where  toes  often  rotted  due  to  lack  of  circulation.  Small  feet  are  still  considered 

attractive culturally however.    Corsets  In  the  early  twentieth‐century  United  States  and  Europe,  women  wore  corsets  that  restricted their movement and caused a variety of health problems, including shortness  of breath, malformed organs, atrophied back muscles and difficulty in labor.    High Heels  Modern  women  often  wear  high‐heeled  shoes.  The  discomfort  commonly  associated  with high‐heeled shoes is endured for the visual effect of elongated legs.    Eating Disorders  Many  women  in  the  West  also  restrict  their  food  intake  in  an  effort  to  achieve  what  they  consider  an  attractively  thin  body,  which  in  extreme  cases  can  lead  to  eating  disorders.  Many  people  criticize  the  fashion  and  entertainment  industries  for  promoting  underweight , unrealistic, and arguably unhealthy ideals of feminine beauty.    Neck Rings  In parts of Africa and Asia, neck rings still signify femininity, in rare cases leaving their  wearers crippled and dependent on their husbands.    Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   


10 Golden Rules of Girl Power  Be positive   Be strong   Don't let anyone put you down.   Be in control of your own life and your destiny.   Support your girl friends,   and let them support you, too.   Say what's on your mind.   Approach life with attitude.   Don't let anyone tell you that you can never do something because you're a girl.   Have fun!     Womanhood is the period in a female's life after she has transitioned from girlhood, at  least physically, having passed the age of menarche. Many cultures have rites of passage  to  symbolize  a  woman's  coming  of  age,  such  as  confirmation  in  some  branches  of  Christianity, bat mitzvah in Judaism, or even just the custom of a special celebration for  a certain birthday (generally between 12 and 21).  Currently in the English language there is no commonly‐used word for a woman who has  passed  menopause,  although  historically  a  woman  in  the  third  part  of  her  life  was  known as a crone, which was originally not a pejorative term. The three ages of woman  were historically known as "maiden, matron, and crone" and are sometimes quoted as  "maiden,  mother  and  crone".  This  could  perhaps  be  rendered  in  modern  English  as  "little girl", "woman of reproductive age" and "older lady".  The word woman can be used generally, to mean any female human, or specifically, to  mean  an  adult  female  human  as  contrasted  with  girl.  The  word  girl  originally  meant  "young  person  of  either  sex"  in  English;  it  was  only  around  the  beginning  of  the  16th  century  that  it  came  to  mean  specifically  a  female  child.  Nowadays  girl  sometimes  is  used  colloquially  to  refer  to  a  young  or  unmarried  woman.  During  the  early  1970s  feminists challenged such use, and use of the word to refer to a fully grown woman may  cause offence. In particular, previously common terms such as office girl are no longer  used.    Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   

  Conversely,  in  certain  cultures  which  link  family  honor  with  female  virginity,  the  word  girl is still used to refer to a never‐married woman; in this sense it is used in a fashion  roughly  analogous  to  the  obsolete  English  maid  or  maiden.  Referring  to  an  unmarried  female as a woman may, in such a culture, imply that she is sexually experienced, which 

would be an insult to her family.  In some settings, the use of girl to refer to an adult female is a vestigial practice (such as  girls' night out), even among some elderly women. In this sense, girl may be considered  to be the analogue to the British word bloke for a man, although it again fails to meet  the parallel status as an adult. Gal aside, some feminists cite this lack of an informal yet  respectful  term  for  women  as  misogynistic;  they  regard  non‐parallel  usages,  such  as  men and girls, as sexist.  There  are  various  words  used  to  refer  to  the  quality  of  being  a  woman.  The  term  "womanhood" merely means the state of being a woman, having passed the menarche;  "femininity"  is  used  to  refer  to  a  set  of  supposedly  typical  female  qualities  associated  with a certain attitude to gender roles; "womanliness" is like "femininity", but is usually  associated with a different view of gender roles; "femaleness" is a general term, but is  often  used  as  shorthand  for  "human  femaleness";  "distaff"  is  an  archaic  adjective  derived  from  women's  conventional  role  as  a  spinner,  now  used  only  as  a  deliberate  archaism;  "muliebrity"  is  a  "neologism"  (derived  from  the  Latin)  meant  to  provide  a  female  counterpart  of  "virility",  but  used  very  loosely,  sometimes  to  mean  merely  "womanhood",  sometimes  "femininity",  and  sometimes  even  as  a  collective  term  for  women.        Adolescent psychology is associated with notable changes in mood sometimes known as  mood  swings.  Cognitive,  emotional  and  attitudinal  changes  which  are  characteristic  of  adolescence, often take place during this period, and this can be a cause of conflict on  one hand and positive personality development on the other.      Because the adolescents are experiencing various strong cognitive and physical changes,  for the first time in their lives they may start to view their friends, their peer group, as  more important and influential than their parents/guardians. Because of peer pressure,  they may sometimes indulge in activities not deemed socially acceptable, although this  may  be  more  of  a  social  phenomenon  than  a  psychological  one.[6]  This  overlap  is  addressed within the study of psychosociology.    Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   

      The  home  is  an  important  aspect  of  adolescent  psychology:  home  environment  and 

family  have  a  substantial  impact  on  the  developing  minds  of  teenagers,  and  these  developments  may  reach  a  climax  during  adolescence.  For  example,  abusive  parents  may lead a child to "poke fun" at other classmates when he/she is seven years old or so,  but during adolescence, it may become progressively worse, for example, the child may  now  be  using  drugs  or  becoming  intolerably  violent  among  other  classmates.  If  the  concepts and theory behind of right or wrong were not established early on in a child's  life,  the  lack  of  this  knowledge  may  impair  a  teenager's  ability  to  make  beneficial  decisions as well as allowing his/her impulses to control his/her decisions.      In  the  search  for  a  unique  social  identity  for  themselves,  adolescents  are  frequently  confused about what is 'right' and what is 'wrong.' G. Stanley Hall denoted this period as  one of "Storm and Stress" and, according to him, conflict at this developmental stage is  normal and not unusual. Margaret Mead, on the other hand, attributed the behavior of  adolescents to their culture and upbringing.     However, Piaget, attributed this stage in development with greatly increased cognitive  abilities;  at  this  stage  of  life  the  individual's  thoughts  start  taking  more  of  an  abstract  form  and  the  egocentric  thoughts  decrease,  hence  the  individual  is  able  to  think  and  reason in a wider perspective.      Positive psychology is sometimes brought up when addressing adolescent psychology as  well.  This  approach  towards  adolescents  refers  to  providing  them  with  motivation  to  become  socially  acceptable  and  notable  individuals,  since  many  adolescents  find  themselves bored, indecisive and/or unmotivated.      Adolescents  may  be  subject  to  peer  pressure  within  their  adolescent  time  span,  consisting of the need to have sex, consume alcoholic beverages, use drugs, defy their  parental figures, or commit any activity in which the person who is subjected to may not  deem appropriate, among other things. Peer pressure is a common experience between  adolescents and may result briefly or on a larger scale.      It should also be noted that adolescence is the stage of a psychological breakthrough in  a  person's  life  when  the  cognitive  development  is  rapid  and  the  thoughts,  ideas  and  concepts  developed  at  this  period  of  life  greatly  influence  the  individual's  future  life,  playing a major role in character and personality formation.      Struggles  with  adolescent  identity  and  depression  usually  set  in  when  an  adolescent  experiences  a  loss.  The  most  important  loss  in  their  lives  is  the  changing  relationship  between  the  adolescent  and  their  parents.  Adolescents  may  also  experience  strife  in 

their relationships with friends. This may be because of things their friends do, such as  smoking, that they feel if they don't do, they'll lose their friendship. Teen depression can  be extremely intense at times because of physical and hormonal changes but emotional  instability is part of being a teenager. Their changing mind, body and relationships often  present  themselves  as  stressful  and  that  change,  they  assume,  is  something  to  be  feared.      Views  of  family  relationships  during  adolescence  are  changing.  The  old  view  of  family  relationships  during  adolescence  put  an  emphasis  on  conflict  and  disengagement  and  thought storm and stress was normal and even inevitable. However, the new view puts  emphasis on transformation or relationships and maintenance of connectedness.    On average, men are taller than women.    On  average,  men  have  a  greater  capacity  for  cardiovascular  endurance.  This  is  due  to  the  enlargement  of  the  lungs  of  boys  during  puberty,  characterized  by  a  more  prominent chest.     On  average,  men  are  stronger  than  women.  This  is  due  to  a  greater  capacity  for  muscular hypertrophy as a result of men's higher levels of testosterone.     Men  usually  have  more  body  hair  than  women.  Men’s  skin  is  thicker  (more  collagen)  and oilier (more sebum) than women’s skin.    Women generally have a smaller waist in comparison to their hips (see waist‐hip ratio).     In  men,  the  second  digit  (index  finger)  tends  to  be  shorter  than  the  fourth  digit  (ring  finger), while in females the second tends to be longer than the fourth.    On average women tend to have skin that is 3‐4% lighter than men    Scientists  believe  this  is  an  adaptation  required  for  increased  production  of  Vitamin  D  during pregnancy. Vitamin D is necessary to help the body absorb calcium and deposit it  in  the  bones  of  fast  growing  embryos.  By  having  lighter  skin  more  of  the  sun's  UV  radiation can penetrate the skin to and increase their ability to produce vitamin D.    Women  tend  to  have  a  lower  center  of  gravity  (shorter  legs,  longer  torso,  relative  to  height) and a larger hip section than men.     Men  have  a  more  pronounced  'Adam's  Apple'  or  thyroid  cartilage  due  to  larger  vocal  cords in men.     Determinants of female physical attractiveness 

English model Jasmine Sinclair is considered attractive    Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   

    Physique  Features  such  as  a  symmetrical  face,  full  lips,  and  low  waist‐hip  ratio,  are  commonly  considered  physically  attractive  when  part  of  a  female,  because  they  are  thought  to  indicate  physical  health  and  high  fertility  to  a  potential  mate.  The  determinants  of  female physical attractiveness include those aspects that display health and fitness for  reproduction and sustenance.     These include correlates of fertility such as youth,     waist‐hip  ratio,    mid  upper  arm  circumference,  body  mass  proportion  and  facial  symmetry.    Signals of youth  Because  female  fecundity  typically  declines  after  the  late  twenties,  youth  is  an  important aspect of physical attractiveness    One  study  across  37  cultures  showed  men  desire,  on  average,  a  woman  2.5  years  younger than themselves for a wife, with men in Nigeria and Zambia at the far extreme,  desiring their wives to be 6.5 to 7.5 years younger. As men age, they also desire a larger  age gap from their mates.    The reasons for this preference are currently debated.      This  preference  for  youth  has  also  led  to  a  preference  of  neotenic  and  youthful‐ appearing  features.  Full  lips,  clear,  smooth  skin,  clear  eyes,  lustrous  hair,  and  good  muscle tone are all viewed as attractive in women.     Large breasts have also been shown to be attractive to men in Western societies, with  the explanation that larger breasts will more explicitly show the aging process, hence an  "honest" indicator of fertility.    Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and 

brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   

  Proportion of body mass to body structure  The  Body  Mass  Index  (BMI)  is  another  important  universal  determinant  to  the  perception of beauty.    The BMI refers to the proportion of the body mass to the body structure. However, the  optimal body proportion is interpreted differently in various cultures. The Western ideal  considers a slim and slender body mass as optimal while many historic cultures consider  an embonpoint or plump body‐mass as appealing.     Men  don't  seem  to  have  evolved  to  hold  a  particular  build  as  more  attractive,  but  rather to be drawn to whichever build associates with social status.      However,  it  should  be  noted  that,  in  the  United  States,  women  overestimate  men's  preferences  for  thinness  in  a  mate.  In  one  study,  American  women  were  asked  to  choose  what  their  ideal  build  was  and  what  they  thought  the  build  most  attractive  to  men was.     Women  chose  slimmer  than  average  figures  for  both  choices,  though  when  American  men  were  independently  asked  to  choose  the  female  build  most  attractive  to  them,  they (the men) chose figures of average build, indicating that women may be misled as  to how thin men prefer women to be.    The attraction for a proportionate body also influences an appeal for erect posture.    Waist‐hip ratio    Notwithstanding  wide  cultural  differences  in  preferences  for  female  build,  scientists  have discovered that the waist‐hip ratio (WHR) of any build is very strongly correlated to  attractiveness across all cultures.    Women with a 0.7 WHR (waist circumference that is 70% of the hip circumference) are  usually  rated  as  more  attractive  by  men  from  European  cultures.  Such  diverse  beauty  icons  as  Marilyn  Monroe,  Sophia  Loren,  and  the  Venus  de  Milo  all  have  ratios  around  0.7.    In other cultures, preferences vary, ranging from 0.6 in China, to 0.8 or 0.9 in parts of  South  America  and  Africa,  and  divergent  preferences  based  on  ethnicity,  rather  than 

nationality, have also been noted.    Height  Most  males  exhibit  a  preference  for  females  of  shorter  physical  stature  than  themselves,  and  studies  indicate  that  women  of  below  average  height  have  greater  reproductive success.    An  advantage  to  smaller  size  may  be  that  it  is  seen  as  more  youthful,  and  males  find  pedomorphic characteristics in females attractive.    Another  possible  (but unproven) explanation is that shorter females may reach sexual  maturity earlier than their taller counterparts.    It  can  also  be  argued  that  a  shorter,  and  often  generally  smaller,  female  is  more  attractive to males by bringing out the traditional instincts of protection, which women  of smaller stature may more easily bring out.      Besides biology and culture, there are other factors determining physical attractiveness.  The  more  common  features  a  face  bears,  the  more  highly  it  is  usually  judged  to  be  attractive.     This  may  be  a  result  of  the  familiarity  of  common  facial  features,  an  example  of  the  mere exposure effect. When many faces are combined into a composite image (through  computer  morphing),  people  usually  view  the  resulting  image  as  more  familiar,  attractive, and beautiful than the faces that were combined to make the composite.     One interpretation is that this shows an inherent human preference for prototypically.  That is, the resultant face emerges with the salient features shared by most faces, and  hence becomes the prototype.     The  prototypical  face  and  features  is  therefore  perceived  as  symmetrical  and  familiar.  This may reveal an "underlying preference for the familiar and safe over the unfamiliar  and potentially dangerous.    However, critics of this interpretation point out that compositing computer images also  has  the  effect  of  removing  skin  blemishes  such  as  scars,  and  generally  softens  sharp  facial features.  Classical conceptions of beauty are essentially a celebration of this "prototypically."     This  may  show  the  importance  of  prototypically  in  the  judgment  of  beauty,  and  also  explain  the  emergence  of  similarity  of  the  perception  of  attractiveness  within  a  community or society, which shares a gene pool.   

Skin tone  Another  feature  is  skin  color  on  the  spectrum  of  dark  to  light.  As  with  many  determinants  of  attractiveness,  there  are  cultural  differences:  lighter  tones  are  preferred by some cultures, while in others, tanned or darker skin is preferred.    For some time after the Victorian era, lighter skin was preferred, as it was considered a  marker of a more "cultured" individual or "gentlewoman" who did not have to engage in  outdoor labor.    In  the  20th  and  21st centuries Western world, tanned skin has often been considered  highly  attractive  for  both  men  and  women.  Here,  the  tan  has  come  to  carry  with  it  connotations of having an active outdoor lifestyle or frequent vacations in the sun, thus  better (implied) physical health or wealth.      In eastern parts of Asia, including Southeast Asia, this preference for lighter skin remains  prevalent. In East Asia in particular, fair skin is associated with youth, since skin darkens  with exposure to the sun and aging. This conflation of youth and beauty is not exclusive  to  East  Asia,  and  can  be  linked  to  the  phenomenon  of  neoteny.  Thus,  sales  of  skin  whitening cosmetic products are popular in East Asia. A preference for fair skin however  is not a recent development, and in China, for example, can be traced back to ancient  drawings depicting women and goddesses with fair skin tones.    Social effects of attractiveness      A low waist‐hip ratio is cross‐culturally considered physically attractive when part of a  female, because it is thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential  mate.     When a person is seen as attractive or unattractive, assumptions are brought into play.  Across cultures, what is beautiful is assumed to be good. Attractive people are assumed  to  be  more  extroverted,  popular,  and  happy,  and  attractive  people  do  tend  to  have  these  characteristics.  However,  this  is  probably  due  to  self‐fulfilling  prophecy;  from  a  young  age,  attractive  people  receive  more  attention  that  helps  them  develop  these  characteristics.    Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   


Physical  attractiveness  can  have  real  effects.  A  survey  conducted  by  London  Guildhall  University of 11,000 people showed that those who subjectively describe themselves as  physically attractive earn more income than others who would describe themselves as  less attractive.    People who described themselves as less attractive earned, on average, 13% less than  those  who  described  themselves  as  more  attractive,  while  the  penalty  for  being  overweight was around 5%. Another study indicated that physical attractiveness in men  plays an even larger role for salary than it does for women, contributing as much as 40%  to earnings.     It  is  thought  that  these  figures  are  similar  around  most  of  Europe,  including  France,  Germany and Spain.     It  is  important  to  note  that  other  factors  such  as  self‐confidence  may  explain  or  influence these findings as they are based on self‐reported attractiveness as opposed to  any  sort  of  objective  criteria;  however,  as  one's  self‐confidence  and  self‐esteem  are  largely  learned  from  how  one  is  regarded  by  their  peers  while  maturing,  even  these  considerations would suggest a significant role for physical appearance.      Some have proposed that discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on  their  appearance  should  be  referred  to  as  Lookism.    Believe  us  when  we  tell  you  that  Lookism  is  alive  and  well  and  you’re  the  target.    Evolution  is  powerful.    You  are  the  target of mating not just dating.  First things first.    Evolution;    Can I eat it.  Will it eat me.  Can I have sex with it.  Can it have sex with me.    All day, all night, true forever.     Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and  brushing off their knees.  Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls  Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development  Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055  Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women   


Many have asserted that certain advantages tend to come to those that are perceived  as  being  more  attractive,  including  the  ability  to  get  better  jobs  and  promotions,  receiving better treatment from authorities and the legal system, having more choices  in  romantic  partners  and,  therefore,  more  power  in  relationships,  and  marrying  into  families with more money. In other words if you show your breasts during an interview,  while  having  dinner  or  simply  picking  up  a  piece  of  paper  you’re  going  to  get  a  lot  of  attention.      Both men and women use physical attractiveness as a measure of how 'good' another  person is. However, in terms of sexual behavior, some studies suggest little difference  between men and women.     Symmetrical  men  and  women  have  a  tendency  to  begin  to  have  sexual  intercourse  earlier, to have more sexual partners, to engage in a wider variety of sexual activities,  and to have more one‐night stands. They are also prone to infidelity and are more likely  to have open relationships.    Symmetrical  men  and  women  are  also  best  suited  for  their  environment,  and  their  physical characteristics are most likely to be inherited by future generations             

If this in any way describes your life, 

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Strategy Survival Sex Stability Significance for Women The Life of Susie HomeMaker Easy Earth Enterprises for Women Slide 1: 2008 PeopleNology for Women Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa PeopleNology for Women - The Diary of Evolutionary Secrets Copyrighted 2008 All Rights Reserved 092008 Human Resources HR Managment Process Controls Compliance Profit Service Revenue Growth Marriage Bedroom Boardroom Income Children Investment Divorce Slide 2: The word girl first appeared during the Middle Ages between 1250 and 1300 CE and came from the Anglo-Saxon words gerle (also spelled girle or gurle), likely cognate with the Old Low German word gรถr (sometimes given as kerl).[2] The Anglo-Saxon word gerela meaning dress or clothing item also seems to have been used as a metonym in some sense. Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Seduction Selection Success Solutions Social Science PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D Adult Female Male Sexual Education Nollijy Franklin University Research Institute Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development According to Erikson, the young adult stage involves the personal need for intimacy and sex. Failure to achieve this need results in

isolation, which is Slide 3: avoided, and as a result the young adult strives for love and compassion. The young adult learns that love and compassion may get him or her what he or she wants. In modern societies, young adults in their late teens and early 20s en- counter a number of issues as they finish school and begin to hold full-time jobs and take on other responsibilities of adulthood. In the late teens and early 20s, young adults become individuals and will set themselves apart. Self becomes the main reliance. Young adults will strive to become independent from parents, take respon- sibility for themselves and make their own decisions. During the young adult stage, mainly the majority think in a more mature manner and take issues more seriously. They focus on the construction of a better future. Adolescents are generally regarded as na誰ve and inexperienced, but are expected to grow into mature adults in their 20s. Young adults in this stage of human development learn value in both tangible and intangible objects. Their relationships with their parents and older adults change. However, in many cases, young adults and adolescents have enormous talent that can, in cases, outstrip some adults' talents. In many cases, problems such as lack of time (schooling and other commitments) and lack of money can arrest the adolescent's development in terms of intellectual and talent growth Womanhood is the period in a female's life after she has transitioned from girlhood, at least physically, having passed the age of menarche. Many cultures have rites of passage to symbolize a woman's coming of age, such as confirmation in some branches of Christianity, bat mitzvah in Judaism, or even just the custom of a special celebration for a certain birthday (generally between 12 and 21). The word woman can be used generally, to mean any female human, or specifically, to mean an adult female human as contrasted with girl. The word girl originally meant "young person of either sex" in English; it was only around the beginning of the 16th century that it came to mean specifically a female child. Nowadays girl sometimes is used colloquially to refer to a young or unmarried woman. During the early 1970s feminists challenged such use, and use of the word to refer to a fully grown woman Slide 4: PeopleNology for Women Slide 5: ay cause offence. In particular previously common terms such as office girl are no longer used. Conversely, in certain cultures which link family honor with female virginity, the word girl is still used to refer to a never-married woman; in this sense it is used in a fashion roughly analogous to the obsolete English maid or maiden. Referring to an unmarried female as a woman may, in such a culture, imply that she is sexually experienced, which would be an insult to her family. In some settings, the use of girl to refer to an adult female is a vestigial practice (such as girls' night out), even among some elderly women. In this sense, girl may be considered to be the analogue to the British word bloke for a man, although it again fails to meet the parallel status as an adult. Gal aside, some feminists cite this lack of an informal yet respectful term for women as

misogynistic; they regard non-parallel usages, such as men and girls, as sexist. There are various words used to refer to the quality of being a woman. The term "womanhood" merely means the state of being a woman, having passed the menarche; "femininity" is used to refer to a set of supposedly Slide 6: typical female qualities associated with a certain attitude to gender roles; "womanliness" is like "femininity", but is usually associated with a different view of gender roles; "femaleness" is a general term, but is often used as shorthand for "human femaleness"; "distaff" is an archaic adjective derived from women's conventional role as a spinner, now used only as a deliber- ate archaism; "muliebrity" is a "neologism" (derived from the Latin) meant to provide a female counterpart of "virility", but used very loosely, some- times to mean merely "womanhood", sometimes "femininity", and some- times even as a collective term for women. Gregory Bodenhamer PeopleNology for Women Career Marriage Divorce Children BedRock BedRoom BoardRoom Slide 8: The term adult has three distinct meanings: mature person.

Grown man or woman;

Plant or animal that has reached full growth.

legally of age. Opposed to minor.

One who is

Adulthood can be defined in terms of biology,

psychological adult develop- ment, law, personal character, or social status. These different aspects of adulthood are often inconsistent and contradictory. A person may be biologically an adult, and have adult behavioral characteristics but still be treated as a child if they are under the legal age of majority. Conversely one may legally be an adult but possess none of the maturity and responsibility that define adult character. Coming of age is the event; passing a series of tests to demonstrate the child is prepared for adulthood; or reaching a specified age, sometimes in conjunction with demonstrating preparation. Most modern societies deter- mine legal adulthood based on reaching a legally-specified age without requiring a demonstration of physical maturity or preparation for adulthood. Although adult education simply means education for adults, not particu- larly sex education, "adult" also means "not considered suitable for chil- dren," in particular as a euphemism for being related to sexual behaviour. Some propose that moving into adulthood involves an emotional structur- ing of denial. This process becomes necessary to cope with one's own behaviour, especially in uncomfortable situations, and also the behaviour of others Girl has meant any young unmarried woman since about 1530. Its first noted meaning for sweetheart is 1648. The earliest known appearance of girl-friend is in 1892 and girl next door, meant as a teenaged female or young woman with a kind of wholesome appeal, dates only to Slide 9: 1961Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. European fairy tales have preserved memorable stories about girls. Among these are Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Rapunzel, Hans Christian Andersen's The Little Match Girl, The Little Mermaid, The Princess and the Pea and the Brothers

Grimm's Little Red Riding Hood. Children's books about girls include Little House on the Prairie, Alice in Wonderland, Pippi Longstocking, Dragonsong and A Wrinkle in Time. Books which have both boy and girl protagonists have tended to focus more on the boys but important girl characters appear in Knight's Castle, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, The Book of Three and the Harry Potter series. There have been many American comic booksProtected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. and comic strips featuring a girl as the main character such as Little Lulu, Little Orphan Annie, Girl Genius and Amelia Rules. In superhero comic books an early girl character was Etta Candy, one of Wonder Woman's sidekicks. In the Peanuts series (by Charles Schulz) girl characters include Peppermint Patty, Lucy van Pelt and Sally Brown. In Japanese animated cartoons and comic books girls are often protago- nists. Most of Hayao Miyazaki's animated films feature a young girl heroine, as in Majo no takky没bin (Kiki's Delivery Service). There are many other girl protagonists in the Sh么jo style of manga, which is targeted to girls as an audience. Among these are The Wallflower, Ceres, Celestial Leg- end, Tokyo Mew Mew and Full Moon o Sagashite. Meanwhile, some genres of Japanese cartoons may feature sexualized and objectified portrayals of girls. Sexualization of young girls in art and entertainment has been a common theme across all eras and mediums. This has been more or less explicitly visible in modern cinema and television. Some famous examples include Taxi Driver, Diva, Lolita The Blue Lagoon, L茅on: The Professional and Pretty Baby, all of which deal with young girls in adult situations, typically under extraordinary circumstances. Slide 10: Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise human" or "knowing hu- man"[2]) in the family Hominidae (the great apes).[3][4] DNA evidence indicates that modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago.[5] Compared to other species, humans have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, and emotional suffering. This mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the forelimbs (arms) for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other species. Humans now inhabit every continent on Earth, except Antarctica (although several governments maintain permanent research stations there, inhabited for short periods by scientists and other researchers). Humans also now have a continuous presence in low Earth orbit, occupying the International Space Station. The human population on Earth now amounts to over 6.6 billion, as of May 2008. Like most primates, humans are social by nature. However, they are particularly adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression, exchanging of ideas, and organization. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families to nations. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of traditions, rituals, ethics, values, social norms, and laws, which together form the basis of human society. Humans have a marked appreciation for beauty and aesthetics, which, combined with the

desire for self-expression, has led to cultural innovations such as art, literature and music. Humans are noted (by themselves) for their desire to understand and influence the world around them, seeking to explain and manipulate natural phenomena through science, philosophy, mythology and religion. This natural curiosity has led to the development of advanced tools and skills; humans are the only extant species known to build fires, cook their food, clothe themselves, and manipulate and develop numerous other technolo- gies. Humans pass down their skills and knowledge to the next generations through education. The scientific study of human evolution encompasses the development of the genus Homo, but usually involves studying other hominids and ho- minines as well, such as Australopithecus. "Modern humans" are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the only extant subspecies - our Slide 11: own - was formerly known as Homo sapiens sapiens (now simply known as Homo sapiens). Homo sapiens idaltu (roughly translated as "elder wise human"), the other known subspecies, is now extinct. Anatomically modern humans first appear in the fossil record in Africa about 200,000 years ago.[8][9]Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copy- right PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. The closest living relatives of Homo sapiens are the two chimpanzee species: the Common Chimpanzee and the Bonobo. Full genome se- quencing has resulted in the conclusion that "after 6.5 [million] years of separate evolution, the differences between chimpanzee and human are just 10 times greater than those between two unrelated people and 10 times less than those between rats and mice". In fact, 98.4% of the human DNA sequence is identical to that of chimpanzees. It has been estimated that the human lineage diverged from that of chimpanzees about five million years ago, and from that of gorillas about eight million years ago. However, a hominid skull discovered in Chad in 2001, classified as Sahelanthropus tchadensis, is approximately seven million years old, which may indicate an earlier divergence. The Recent African Origin (RAO), or "out-ofAfrica", hypothesis proposes that modern humans evolved in Africa before later migrating outwards to replace hominids in other parts of the world. Evidence from archaeogenet- ics accumulating since the 1990s has lent strong support to RAO, and has marginalized the competing multiregional hypothesis, which proposed that modern humans evolved, at least in part, from independent hominid populations.[15] Geneticists Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending of the University of Utah propose that the variation in human DNA is minute compared to that of other species. They also propose that during the Late Pleistocene, the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs – no more than 10,000, and possibly as few as 1,000 –resulting in a very small residual gene pool. Various reasons for this hypothetical bottleneck have been postulated, one being the Toba catas- trophe theory.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Slide 12: Wisdom for Women of all ages, of all generations, around the world,

PeopleNology for Women Slide 13: Human evolution is characterized by a number of important morphological, developmental, physiological and behavioural changes, which have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. The first major morphological change was the evolution of a bipedal locomotor adaptation from an arboreal or semi-arboreal one,[16] with all its attendant adaptations, such as a valgus knee, low intermembral index (long legs relative to the arms), and reduced upper-body strength. Later, ancestral humans developed a much larger brain – typically 1,400 cm³ in modern humans, over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or gorilla. The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans. Physical anthropolo- gists argue that the differences between the structure of human brains and those of other apes are even more significant than their differences in size. Slide 14: Other significant morphological changes included: the evolution of a power and precision grip;[17] a reduced masticatory system; a reduction of the canine tooth; and the descent of the larynx and hyoid bone, making speech possible. An important physiological change in humans was the evolution of hidden oestrus, or concealed ovulation, which may have coincided with the evolution of important behavioural changes, such as pair bonding. Another significant behavioural change was the development of material culture, with human-made objects becoming increasingly common and diversified over time. The relationship between all these changes is the subject of ongoing debate.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. The most widely accepted view among current anthropologists is that Homo sapiens originated in the African savanna around 200,000 BP (Before Present), descending from Homo erectus, had inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 BP, and finally inhabited the Americas approxi- mately 14,500 years ago. They displaced Homo neanderthalensis and other species descended from Homo erectus (which had inhabited Eurasia as early as 2 million years ago) through more successful reproduction and competition for resources. Until c. 10,000 years ago, most humans lived as hunter-gatherers. They generally lived in small nomadic groups known as band societies. The advent of agriculture prompted the Neolithic Revolution, when access to food surplus led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of animals and the use of metal tools. Agriculture encour- aged trade and cooperation, and led to complex society. Because of the significance of this date for human society, it is the epoch of the Holocene calendar or Human Era. About 6,000 years ago, the first proto-states developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. Military forces were formed for protection, and government bureaucracies for administration. States cooperated and com- peted for resources, in some cases waging wars. Around 2,000–3,000 years ago, some states, such as Persia, India, China and Rome,

devel- oped through conquest into the first expansive empires. Influential religions, such as Judaism, originating in the Middle East, and Hinduism, a Slide 15: religious tradition that originated in South Asia, also rose to prominence at this time. The late Middle Ages saw the rise of revolutionary ideas and technologies. In China, an advanced and urbanized economy promoted innovations such as printing and the compass, while the Islamic Golden Age saw major scientific advancements in Muslim empires. In Europe, the rediscovery of classical learning and inventions such as the printing press led to the Renaissance in the 14th century. Over the next 500 years, exploration and imperialistic conquest brought much of the Americas, Asia, and Africa under European control, leading to later struggles for independence. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century and the Industrial Revolution in the 18th – Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. 19th centuries promoted major innovations in transport, such as the railway and automobile; energy development, such as coal and electricity; and government, such as representative democracy and Communism. As a result of such changes, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalized and interconnected. Although this has encouraged the growth of science, art, and technology, it has also led to culture clashes, the development and use of weapons of mass destruction, and increased environmental destruction and pollution. Early human settlements were dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources, such as fertile land for growing crops and grazing livestock, or seasonally by hunting populations of prey. However, humans have a great capacity for altering their habitats by various methods, such as through irrigation, urban planning, construc- tion, transport, and manufacturing goods. With the advent of large-scale trade and transport infrastructure, proximity to these resources has be- come unnecessary, and in many places these factors are no longer a driving force behind the growth and decline of a population. Nonetheless, the manner in which a habitat is altered is often a major determinant in population change. Technology has allowed humans to colonize all of the continents and adapt to all climates. Within the last few decades, humans have explored Antarctica, the ocean depths, and space, although long-term habitation of Slide 17: hese environments is not yet possible. With a population of over six billion, humans are among the most numerous of the large mammals. Most humans (61%) live in Asia. The vast majority of the remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (14%) and Europe (11%), with 0.5% in Oceania.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environ- ments, such as Antarctica and outer space, is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Life in space has been very sporadic, with no more than thirteen humans in space at any given time.

Between 1969 and 1972, two humans at a time spent brief intervals on the Moon. As of early 2008, no other celestial body has been visited by human beings, although there has been a continuous human presence in space since the launch of the initial crew to inhabit the International Space Station on October 31, 2000. Other celestial bodies have, however, been visited by human-made objects. Since 1800, the human population increased from one billion to over six billion. In 2004, some 2.5 billion out of 6.3 billion people (39.7%) lived in urban areas, and this percentage is expected to rise throughout the 21st century. Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime, especially in inner city and suburban slums. Benefits of urban living include increased literacy, access to the global canon of human knowledge and decreased susceptibility to rural famines.Protected Property Intellec- tual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. It has been hypothesized that human predation has contributed to the extinction of numerous species. As humans stand at the top of the food chain and are not generally preyed upon, they have been described as superpredators. Currently, through land development and pollution, humans are thought to Slide 18: be the main contributor to global climate change. This is believed to be a major contributor to the ongoing Holocene extinction event, a mass extinction which, if it continues at its current rate, is predicted to wipe out half of all species over the next century Human body types vary substantially. Although body size is largely deter- mined by genes, it is also significantly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and exercise. The average height of an adult human is about 1.5 to 1.8 m (5 to 6 feet) tall, although this varies significantly from place to place. Unlike most other primates, humans are capable of fully bipedal locomo- tion, thus leaving their arms available for manipulating objects using their hands, aided especially by opposable thumbs.Protected Property Intellec- tual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Although humans appear relatively hairless compared to other primates, with notable hair growth occurring chiefly on the top of the head, under- arms and pubic area, the average human has more hair follicles on his or her body than the average chimpanzee. The main distinction is that human hairs are shorter, finer, and less heavily pigmented than the average chimpanzee's, thus making them harder to see. The hue of human hair and skin is determined by the presence of pigments called melanins. Human skin hues can range from very dark brown to very pale pink, while human hair ranges from blond to brown to red to, most commonly, black, depending on the amount of melanin (an effective sun blocking pigment) in the skin. Most researchers believe that skin darkening was an adaptation that evolved as a protection against ultraviolet solar radiation. More recently, however, it has been argued that particular skin colors are an adaptation to balance folate, which is destroyed by ultraviolet radiation, and vitamin D, which requires sunlight to form. The Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. skin pigmentation of contemporary

humans is geographically stratified, and in general correlates with the level of ultraviolet radiation. Human skin Slide 19: also has a capacity to darken (sun tanning) in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Humans tend to be physically weaker than other similairly sized primates, with young, conditioned male humans having been shown to be unable to match the strength of female orangutans which are at least three times stronger. Humans have proportionately shorter palates and much smaller teeth than other primates. They are the only primates to have short 'flush' canine teeth. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young specimens. Humans are gradually losing their wisdom teeth, with some individuals having them congenitally absent. The average sleep requirement is between seven and eight hours a day for an adult and nine to ten hours for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Experiencing less sleep than this is common in modern societies; this sleep deprivation can lead to negative effects. A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort. Humans are an eukaryotic species. Each diploid cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes, each set received from one parent. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. By present estimates, humans have approximately 20,000 – 25,000 genes. Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system, so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY. The X chromosome is larger and carries many genes not on the Y chromosome, which means that recessive diseases associated with Xlinked genes, such as hemophilia, affect men more often than women. The human life cycle is similar to that of other placental mammals. The fertilized egg divides inside the female's uterus to become an embryo, which over a period of thirty-eight weeks (9 months) of gestation becomes a human fetus. After this span of time, the fully-grown fetus is birthed from the woman's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person Slide 20: entitled to the full protection of the law, though some jurisdictions extend personhood earlier to human fetuses while they remain in the uterus. Compared with other species, human childbirth is dangerous. Painful labors lasting twenty-four hours or more are not uncommon and often leads to the death of the mother, or the child.[36] Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. This is because of both the relatively large fetal head circumference (for housing the brain) and the mother's relatively narrow pelvis (a trait required for successful bipedalism, by way of natural selection).The chances of a successful labor increased significantly during the 20th century in wealthier countries with the advent of new medical technologies. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain relatively hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates

Slide 21: approximately 100 times more common than in developed countries. Two young American girls photographed at an Inter-racial Christmas Seals Camp in August 1943 In developed countries, infants are typically 3 – 4 kg (6 – 9 pounds) in weight and 50 – 60 cm (20 – 24 inches) in height at birth.[41] However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions. Helpless at birth, humans continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at 12 to 15 years of age. Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 18, whereas male development continues until around age 21. The human life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age. The lengths of these stages, however, have varied across cultures and time periods. Compared to other primates, humans experience an unusually rapid growth spurt during adolescence, where the body grows 25% in size. Chimpanzees, for example, grow only 14%.[43]Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. There are significant differences in life expectancy around the world. The developed world generally aging, with the median age around 40 years (highest in Monaco at 45.1 years). In the developing world the median age is between 15 and 20 years. Life expectancy at birth in Hong Kong, China is 84.8 years for a female and 78.9 for a male, while in Swaziland, primarily because of AIDS, it is 31.3 years for both sexes.While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older. The number of centenarians (humans of age 100 years or older) in the world was estimated by the United Nations at 210,000 in 2002.At least one person, Jeanne Calment, is known to have reached the age of 122 years; higher ages have been claimed but they are not well substantiated. Worldwide, there are 81 men aged 60 or older for every 100 women of that age group, and among the oldest, there are 53 men for every 100 women. Humans are unique in the widespread onset of female menopause during the latter stage of life. Menopause is believed to have arisen due to the Grandmother hypothesis, in which it is in the mother's reproductive interest Slide 22: to forgo the risks of death from childbirth at older ages in exchange for investing in the viability of her already living offspring. The philosophical questions of when human personhood begins and whether it persists after death are the subject of considerable debate. The prospect of death causes unease or fear for most humans, distinct from the immediate awareness of a threat. Burial ceremonies are characteristic of human societies, often accompanied by beliefs in an afterlife or immortality. Early Homo sapiens employed a hunter-gatherer method as their primary means of food collection, involving combining stationary plant and fungal food sources (such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms) with wild game, which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed. It is believed that humans have used fire to prepare and cook food prior to eating since the time of their divergence from Homo erectus. Humans are omnivorous, capable of consuming both plant and animal products. A view of humans as

omnivores is supported by the evidence that both a pure animal and a pure vegetable diet can lead to deficiency diseases in humans. A pure animal diet can, for instance, lead to scurvy, a vitamin C deficiency, while a pure plant diet may lead to vitamin B12 deficiency. The biggest problem posed by a vitamin B12 deficiency is that it severely limits the body's ability to synthesize folic acid, a main source of B group carriage. In order to counter the constant folic acid deficiency, one must regularly consume large amounts of folic acid, as may be found in green, leafy vegetables. Properly planned vegetarian and vegan diets, however, have been found to completely satisfy nutritional needs in every stage of life,[49]and significantly reduce risks of major diseases. The human diet is prominently reflected in human culture, and has led to the development of food science. In general, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on stored body fat. Survival without water is usually limited to three or four days. Lack of food remains a serious problem, with about 300,000 people starving to death every year. Childhood malnutrition is also common and contributes to the global burden of disease. Slide 23: PeopleNology for Women Slide 25: However global food distribution is not even, and obesity among some human populations has increased to almost epidemic proportions, leading to health complications and increased mortality in some developed, and a few developing countries. The United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) state that 32% of American adults over the age of 20 are obese, while 66.5% are obese or overweight. Obesity is caused by consuming more calories than are expended, with many attributing excessive weight gain to a combination of overeating and insufficient exercise. At least ten thousand years ago, humans developed agriculture, which has substantially altered the kind of food people eat. This has led to increased populations, the development of cities, and because of increased popula- tion density, the wider spread of infectious diseases. The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, has varied widely by time, location, and culture The human brain is the center of the central nervous system in humans, and acts as the primary control center for the peripheral nervous system. The brain controls "lower", or involuntary, autonomic activities such as the respiration, and Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. digestion. The brain also controls "higher" order, conscious activities, such as thought, reasoning, and abstraction. These cognitive processes constitute the mind, and, along with their behavioral consequences, are studied in the field of psychology. Generally regarded as more capable of these higher order activities, the human brain is believed to be more "intelligent" in general than that of any other known species. While many animals are capable of creating struc- tures and using simple tools — mostly through instinct and mimicry — human technology is vastly more complex, and is constantly evolving and improving through time. Even the most ancient human tools and structures are far more advanced than any structure or tool created by

any other animal. Modern anthropology has tended to bear out Darwin's proposition that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kindProtected Property Intellectual Slide 26: Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. The human ability to think abstractly may be unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Humans are one of only six species to pass the mirror test —which tests whether an animal recognizes its reflection as an image of itself —along with chimpanzees, orangutans, dolphins, and pigeons. In October 2006, three elephants at the Bronx Zoo also passed this test. Most human children will pass the mirror test at 18 months old. However, the usefulness of this test as a true test of consciousness has been disputed (see mirror test), and this may be a matter of degree rather than a sharp divide. Monkeys have been trained to apply abstract rules in tasks. The human brain perceives the external world through the senses, and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought. These are said to possess qualities such as selfawareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environ- ment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above. The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example, argues that there is no such thing as a narrative centre called the "mind", but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: different kinds of "software" running in parallel. Psychologist B.F. Skinner has argued that the mind is an explanatory fiction that diverts attention from environmental causes of behavior, and Slide 27: that what are commonly seen as mental processes may be better conceived of as forms of covert verbal behavior. Humans study the more physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system, in the field of neurology, the more behavioral in the field of psychology, and a sometimes loosely-defined area between in the field of psychiatry, which treats mental illness and behav- ioral disorders. Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information process- ing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well-researched areas as well. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose

adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology. Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the pro- cessing of the things in experience. Slide 29: Phenomenal consciousness is the state of being conscious, such as when they say "I am conscious." Access consciousness is being conscious of something in relation to abstract concepts, such as when one says "I am conscious of these words." Various forms of access consciousness include awareness, self-awareness, conscience, stream of consciousness, Husserl's phenomenology, and intentionality. The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some, is closely related to the concept of qualia. Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition, ethology, evolutionary psychology, and comparative psychology as well. Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright 2008 PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of human beings. Motivation is based on emotion — specifically, on the search for satisfaction (positive emotional experiences), and the avoidance of conflict. Positive and negative is defined by the individual brain state, which may be influenced by social norms: a person may be driven to self-injury or violence because their brain is conditioned to create a positive response to these actions. Motivation is important because it is involved in the perfor- mance of all learned responses. Within psychology, conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics motivation is often seen to be based on financial incentives, moral incentives, or coercive incentives. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences. Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people Slide 30: might define it as the best condition which a human can have — a condition of mental and physical health. Others define it as freedom from want and distress; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society. Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright

PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked. Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant, such as love, admiration, or joy, contrast with those perceived as unpleasant, like hate, envy, or sorrow. There is often a distinction made between refined emotions which are socially learned and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate. Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state. In some cultural medical theories emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist. The Stoics believed excessive emotion was harmful, while some Sufi teachers (in particular, the poet and astronomer Omar Khayyรกm) felt certain extreme emotions could yield a conceptual perfection, what is often translated as ecstasy. In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered to be a complex neural trait innate in a variety of domesticated and on- domesticated mammals. These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mecha- nisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed. However, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime. Human sexuality, besides ensuring biological reproduction, has important Slide 31: social functions: it creates physical intimacy, bonds, and hierarchies among individuals; may be directed to spiritual transcendence (according to some traditions); and in a hedonistic sense to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. Sexual desire, or libido, is experienced as a bodily urge, often accompa- nied by strong emotions such as love, ecstasy and jealousy. The extreme importance of sexuality in the human species can be seen in a number of physical features, among them hidden ovulation, strong sexual dimorphism when compared to the chimpanzees, permanent secondary sexual characteristics, the forming of pair bonds based on sexual attraction as a common social structure and sexual ability in females outside of ovulation. These adaptations indicate that the importance of sexuality in humans is on par with that found in the Bonobo, and that the complex human sexual behaviour has a long evolutionary history.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. As with other human self-descriptions, humans propose that it is high intelligence and complex societies of humans that have produced the most complex sexual behaviors of any animal, including a great many behaviors that are not directly connected with reproduction. Human sexual choices are usually made in reference to cultural norms, which vary widely. Restrictions are sometimes determined by religious beliefs or social customs. The pioneering researcher Sigmund Freud believed that humans are born polymorphously

perverse, which means that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. According to Freud, humans then pass through five stages of psychosex- ual development (and can fixate on any stage because of various traumas during the process). For Alfred Kinsey, another influential sex researcher, people can fall anywhere along a continuous scale of sexual orientation (with only small minorities fully heterosexual or homosexual). Recent studies of neurology and genetics suggest people may be born with one Slide 32: sexual orientation or another, so there is not currently a clear consensus among sex research Culture is defined here as a set of distinctive material, intellectual, emo- tional, and spiritual features of a social group, including art, literature, lifestyles, value systems, traditions, rituals, and beliefs. The link between human biology and human behavior and culture is often very close, making it difficult to clearly divide topics into one area or the other; as such, the placement of some subjects may be based primarily on convention. Culture consists of values, social norms, and artifacts. A culture's values define what it holds to be important or ethical. Closely linked are norms, expecta- tions of how people ought to behave, bound by tradition. Artifacts, or material culture, are objects derived from the culture's values, norms, and understanding of the world. The mainstream anthropological view of culSlide 33: ture implies that most experience a strong resistance when reminded that there is an animal as well as a spiritual aspect to human nature The capacity humans have to transfer concepts, ideas and notions through speech and writing is unrivaled in known species. Unlike the call systems of other primates which are closed, human language is far more open, and gains variety in different situations. The human language has the quality of displacement, using words to represent things and happenings that are not presently or locally occurring, but elsewhere or at a different time. Technology has even advanced so as to allow the communication of mass data upon request and over great distance through data-nets and pro- grams such as Wikipedia. In this way data networks are important to the continuing development of language; changing it as just as Gutenberg did with the printing press. The faculty of speech is a defining feature of humanity, possibly predating phylogenetic separation of the modern population. Language is central to the communication between humans, as well as being central to the sense of identity that unites nations, cultures and ethnic groups. The invention of writing systems at least 5,000 years ago allowed the preservation of language on material objects, and was a major step in cultural evolution. Language is closely tied to ritual and religion (cf. mantra, sacred text). The science of linguistics describes the structure of language and the relationship between languages. There are approximately 6,000 different languages currently in use, including sign languages, and many thousands more that are considered extinct.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Religion—sometimes used interchangeably with "faith"—is generally defined as a belief system concerning the supernatural, sacred or divine, and moral

codes, practices, values, institutions and rituals associated with such belief. In the course of its development, religion has taken on many forms Slide 34: that vary by culture and individual perspective. Some of the chief questions and issues religions are concerned with include life after death (commonly involving belief in an afterlife), the origin of life (the source of a variety of creation myths), the nature of the universe (religious cosmology) and its ultimate fate (eschatology), and what is moral or immoral. A common source in religions for answers to these questions are transcendent divine beings such as deities or a singular God, although not all religions are theistic — many are nontheistic or ambiguous on the topic, particularly among the Eastern religions. Spirituality, belief or involvement in matters of the soul or spirit, is one of the many different approaches humans take in trying to answer fundamental questions about humankind's place in the universe, the meaning of life, and the ideal way to live one's life. Though these topics have also been addressed by philosophy, and to some extent by science, spirituality is unique in that it focuses on mystical or supernatu- ral concepts such as karma and God. Although a majority of humans profess some variety of religious or spiritual belief, some are irreligious, that is lacking or rejecting belief in the super- natural or spiritual. Additionally, although most religions and spiritual beliefs are clearly distinct from science on both a philosophical and methodological level, the two are not generally considered to be mutually exclusive; a majority of humans hold a mix of both scientific and religious views. The distinction between philosophy and religion, on the other hand, is at times less clear, and the two are linked in such fields as the philosophy of religion and theology. Other humans have no religious beliefs and are atheists Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. It is the discipline searching for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative means. The core philosophical disciplines are logic, ontology or metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology, which includes the branches of ethics and aesthetics. Philosophy covers a very wide range of approaches, and is also Slide 35: PeopleNology for Women Slide 36: used to refer to a worldview, to a perspective on an issue, or to the positions argued for by a particular philosopher or school of philosophy. Plato and Aristotle in a detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles, being and existence (ontology). In between the doctrines of religion and science, stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw logical conclusions about the nature of the universe, humanity, god, and/or their connections based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from religion and/or observation. Humans

often consider themselves to be the dominant species on Earth, and the most advanced in intelligence and ability to manage their environ- ment. This belief is especially strong in modern Western culture. Alongside such claims of dominance is often found radical pessimism because of the frailty and brevity of human life. Humanism is a philosophy which defines a socio-political doctrine the bounds of which are not constrained by those of locally developed cultures, but whic h seeks to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings. Because spiritual beliefs of a community often manifests as religious doctrine, the history of which is as factious as it is unitive, secular humanism grew as an answer to the need for a common philosophy that transcended the cultural boundaries of local moral codes and religions. Many humanists are religious, however, and see humanism as simply a mature expression of a common truth present in most religions. Humanists affirm the possibility of an objective truth and accept that human perception of that truth is imperfect. The most basic tenets of humanism are that humans matter and can solve human problems, and that science, freedom of speech, rational thought, democracy, and freedom in the arts are worthy pursuits or goals for all peoples. Humanism depends chiefly on reason and logic without consider- ation for the supernatural Artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind, from early Slide 37: pre-historic art to contemporary art. Art is one of the most unusual aspects of human behavior and a key distinguishing feature of humans from other species, In fact the only species to do so. Art has only been around for the last 35,000 years which could suggest that this was the time when humans started to 'think'. Sculpture by Malvina Hoffman of an Asian human male meditating. As a form of cultural expression by humans, art may be defined by the pursuit of diversity and the usage of narratives of liberation and exploration (i.e. art history, art criticism, and art theory) to mediate its boundaries. This distinction may be applied to objects or performances, current or historical, and its prestige extends to those who made, found, exhibit, or own them. In the modern use of the word, art is commonly understood to be the process or result of making material works which, from concept to creation, adhere to the "creative impulse" of human beings. Art is distinguished from other works by being in large part unprompted by necessity, by biological drive, or by any undisciplined pursuit of recreation. Music is a natural intuitive phenomenon based on the three distinct and interrelated organization structures of rhythm, harmony, and melody. Listening to music is perhaps the most common and universal form of entertainment for humans, while learning and understanding it are popular disciplines. There are a wide variety of music genres and ethnic musics. Literature, the body of written — and possibly oral — works, especially creative ones, includes prose, poetry and drama, both fiction and non- fiction. Literature includes such genres as epic, legend, myth, ballad, and folklore Science is the discovery of knowledge about the world by verifiable means. Technology is the objects humans make to serve their purposes. Human cultures are both characterized and differentiated by the objects that they make and use. Archaeology attempts to tell the story of past or lost cultures in part by close examination of the artifacts they produced.

Early humans left stone tools, pottery and jewelry that are particular to various regions and times. Improvements in technology are passed from one culture to another. For instance, the cultivation of crops arose in several different locations, but Slide 38: quickly spread to be an almost ubiquitous feature of human life. Similarly, advances in weapons, architecture and metallurgy are quickly disseminated. Space science provides a new perspective on human significance Although such techniques can be passed on by oral tradition, the develop- ment of writing, itself a kind of technology, made it possible to pass information from generation to generation and from region to region with greater accuracy. Together, these developments made possible the commencement of civi- lization and urbanization, with their inherently complex social arrange- ments. Eventually this led to the institutionalization of the development of new technology, and the associated understanding of the way the world functions. This science now forms a central part of human culture. In recent times, physics and astrophysics have come to play a central role in shaping what is now known as physical cosmology, that is, the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. This discipline, which focuses on the universe as it exists on the largest scales and at the earliest times, begins by arguing for the big bang, a sort of cosmic expansion from which the universe itself is said to have erupted ~13.7 Âą 0.2 billion (10) years ago. After its violent beginnings and until its very end, scientists then propose that the entire history of the universe has been an orderly progression governed by physical laws Humans often categorize themselves in terms of race or ethnicity, although the validity of human races as true biological categories is questionable. Human racial categories are based on both ancestry and visible traits, especially skin color and facial features. These categories may also carry some information on non-visible biological traits, such as the risk of developing particular diseases such as sickle-cell disease. Currently available genetic and archaeological evidence is generally inter- preted as supportive of a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa.[68] Current genetic studies have demonstrated that humans on the Slide 39: African continent are most genetically diverse. However, compared to many other animals, human gene sequences are remarkably homogeneous. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that the great majority of genetic variation occurs within "racial groups", with only 5 to 15% of total variation occurring between racial groups. However, this remains an area of active debate. Ethnic groups, on the other hand, are more often linked by linguistic, cultural, ancestral, and national or regional ties. Self-identification with an ethnic group is based on kinship and descent. Race and ethnicity can lead to variant treatment and impact social identity, giving rise to racism and the theory of identity politics. Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interac- tion between humans. A state is an organized political community occupy- ing a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. Recognition of the state's claim to independence by other states,

enabling it to enter into international agreements, is often important to the establish- ment of its statehood. The "state" can also be defined in terms of domestic conditions, specifically, as conceptualized by Max Weber, "a state is a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the 'legitimate' use of physical force within a given territory." Government can be defined as the political means of creating and enforc- ing laws; typically via a bureaucratic hierarchy. Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. Many different political systems exist, as do many different ways of understanding them, and many definitions overlap. The most common form of government worldwide is a republic, however other examples include Slide 40: monarchy, social democracy, military dictatorship and theocracy. All of these issues have a direct relationship with economics War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organizations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterized by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. It is estimated that during the 20th century between 167 and 188 million humans died as a result of war. A common perception of war is a series of military campaigns between at least two opposing sides involving a dispute over sovereignty, territory, resources, religion or other issues. A war said to liberate an occupied country is sometimes characterized as a "war of liberation", while a war between internal elements of a state is a civil war. Full scale pitched-battle wars between adversaries of comparable strength appear to have nearly disappeared from human activity, with the last major one in the Congo region winding down in the late 1990s. Nearly all war now is asymmetric warfare, in which campaigns of sabotage, guerrilla warfare and sometimes acts of terrorism disrupt control and supply of better-equipped occupying forces, resulting in long low-intensity wars of attrition. Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. War is one of the main catalysts for human advances in technology. Throughout human history there has been a constant struggle between defense and offence, including the technologies behind armour and weapons designed to penetrate it. Modern examples include the bunker buster bomb and the bunkers which they are designed to destroy. Impor- tant inventions such as medicine, navigation, metallurgy, mass production, nuclear power, rocketry and computers have been completely or partially driven by war. There have been a wide variety of rapidly advancing tactics throughout the history of war, ranging from conventional war to asymmetric warfare to total war and unconventional warfare. Techniques include hand to hand com- bat, the use of ranged weapons, and ethnic cleansing. Military intelligence Slide 41: has often played a key role in determining victory and defeat. Propaganda, which often includes factual information, slanted opinion and disinforma- tion, plays a key role in maintaining unity within a warring group,

and/or sowing discord among opponents. In modern warfare, soldiers and armoured fighting vehicles are used to control the land, warships the sea, and air power the sky. These fields have also overlapped in the forms of marines, paratroopers, naval aircraft carriers, and surface-to-air missiles, among others. Satellites in low Earth orbit have made outer space a factor in warfare as well, although no actual warfare is currently carried out in space Trade is the voluntary exchange of goods, services and a form of eco- nomics. A mechanism that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of ex- change, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Because of specialization and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of manufacturing or service, trading their labour for products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have an absolute or comparative advantage in the production of some tradeable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production. Economics is a social science which studies the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on measurable variables, and is broadly divided into two main branches: microeconomics, which deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, and macroeconomics, which consid- ers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities. Aspects receiving partic- ular attention in economics are resource allocation, production, distribution, trade, and competition. Economic logic is increasingly applied to any problem that involves choice under scarcity or determining economic value. Mainstream economics focuses on how prices reflect supply and demand, and uses equations to Slide 42: PeopleNology for Women Slide 43: PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Research Order Your Own COMPLETE VERSION Write To Ask for your FREE A TO Z BOOK of PeopleNology for Women                    

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