In many prehistoric cultures, women assumed a particular cultural role. Would you like to change this? PeopleNology for Middle Class Working Girls In hunter‐gatherer societies, women were generally the gatherers of plant foods, small animal foods, fish, and learned to use dairy products, while men hunted meat from large animals. That means you go to the grocery store and he lights the grill.
Fighting Mad and Living Large Easy Earth Enterprises for Women Middle Class White Trash Revolution ‐ Taking over the World (Revolution)
Working Women Taking Control and Getting Their Life Back
Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
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Are these really the rules and rituals That you have to live with, day in and day out?
Have dinner ready. Plan ahead, even the night before, to have a delicious meal ready, on time for his return. This is a way of letting him know that you have been thinking about him and are concerned about his needs. Most men are hungry when they come home and the prospect of a good meal (especially his favorite dish) is part of the warm welcome needed. When you get home from work, picking up the kids from school, reviewing advanced match just make sure you don’t burn the roast. (food)
Prepare yourself. Take 15 minutes to rest so you'll be refreshed when he arrives. Touch up your make‐up, put a ribbon in your hair and be fresh‐ looking. He has just been with a lot of work‐weary people. You want to look good and smell better than dinner. Show a little cleavage, spray a little toilet water and kind of fluff up your hair in case he wants you for desert. (sex)
Be a little gay and a little more interesting for him. His boring day may need a lift and one of your duties is to provide it. Take the low road and do whatever it takes to make him smile. Give him a rub down, do the shoe thing and a gentle little kiss. (sex)
Maybe wash the motorcycle, Put the right shoes on for riding it. Don’t forget the low cut biking shirt.
Clear away the clutter. Make one last trip through the main part of the house just before your husband arrives. You don’t want to have a lot of your stuff laying around the house. Put up and hide away your iphone because he might not see the American express bill if you’re quick enough with the mail.
Its o.k. to have your copy of pirate bay out because they have girls. Don’t forget to fix that flat fire on your car before he arrives. He loves cars but won’t want to work on yours.
Gather up schoolbooks. toys, paper, etc. and then run a dust cloth over the tables. Your husband does not want to be reminded over and over again that you had sex over and over again. Hide the children or send them off for a few hours. Making them eat before he gets home is great. Making them do homework is better. Better grades mean a better job and they won’t get stuck at McDonalds lunch hour for a career path.
Don’t forget to dust the banister before he gets home.
Changing the Water Bottle is not considered a job career path. Try your best to let the boys play and carry water. You can flirt your way to the top.
Over the cooler months of the year you should
prepare and light a
fire for him to unwind by. Your husband will feel he has reached a haven of rest and order, and it will give you a lift too. After all, catering for his comfort will provide you with immense personal satisfaction. You’ll find fire wood out by the garage. Find a male neighbor to chop it for you, Wear the red dress.
Prepare the children. Take a few minutes to wash the children's hands and faces (if they are small), comb their hair and, if necessary, change their clothes. They are little treasures and he would like to see them playing the part. Minimize all noise. At the time of his arrival eliminate all noise of the washer, dryer or vacuum. Try to encourage the children to be quiet.
Be happy to see him.
Greet him with a warm smile and show sincerity in your desire to please him.
Listen to him. You may have a dozen important things to tell him, but the moment of his arrival is not the time. Let him talk first ‐ remember, his topics of
conversation are more important than yours. •
Make the evening his. Never complain if he comes home late or goes out to dinner, or other places of entertainment without you. Instead, try to understand his world of strain and pressure and his very real need to be at home and relax.
Your goal: Try to make sure your home is a place of peace, order, and tranquility where your husband can renew himself in body and spirit.
Don't greet him with complaints or problems.
Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
Don't complain if he's late home for dinner or even if he stays out all night. Count this as minor compared to what he might have gone through that day.
Make him comfortable. Have him lean back in a comfortable chair or have him lie down in the bedroom. Have a cool or warm drink ready for him.
Arrange his pillow and offer to take off his shoes. Speak in a low, soothing and pleasant voice.
Don't ask him questions about his actions or question his judgment or integrity. Remember, he is the master of the house and as such will always exercise his will with fairness and truthfulness. You have no right to question him.
A good wife always knows her place.
Middle Class White Trash Breaking Through the Glass Ceiling by taking care of a few social problems; excessive consumption of alcohol, perceived laziness and inability to save money while being "shiftless and thriftless" and getting naked and having sex with every Tom, Dick and Harry under different names.
In more recent history, the gender roles of women have changed greatly. Traditionally, middle‐class women were typically involved in domestic tasks emphasizing child care, and did not enter paid employment. For poorer women, especially working class women, this often remained an ideal, as economic necessity compelled them to seek employment outside the home. The occupations that were available to them were, however, lower in prestige and pay than those available to men. It seems you’re at the bottom of the pile. We’re going to give you free knowledge that will change everything. Get Control of your life with Gregory Bodenhamer. It’s FREE so don’t Delay. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
As changes in the labor market for women came about, availability of employment changed from only "dirty", long hour factory jobs to "cleaner", more respectable office jobs where more education was demanded, women's participation in the labor force rose from 6% in 1900 to 23% in 1923. Now these respectable jobs are not paying you enough money but, the boss had to get rid of his interviewing couch in his office. You don’t have to pull your panties down during the interview process. These shifts in the labor force led to changes in the attitudes of women at work, allowing for the "quiet" revolution which resulted in women becoming more career and education oriented. PeopleNology leads the way today. This quiet revolution is about
respect, individual rights concerning body, brain and soul. It’s been called the White Trash Revolution, The Lot Lizards Revenge, The Secretary’s Night Off
Among many things but, one thing for sure, thousands of women, just like you write us and study PeopleNology. Women's movements advocate equality of opportunity with men, and equal rights irrespective of gender. Through a combination of economic changes and the efforts of the feminist movement, in recent decades women in most societies now have access to careers beyond the traditional homemaker. Many observers, including feminist groups, maintain that women in industry and commerce face glass ceilings. These changes and struggles are among the foci of the academic field of women's studies.
Because, by definition, there are no written records from prehistoric times, (or at least there are none known to still exist down to this day) the information we know about the time period is informed by the fields of paleontology, biology, paleontology, geology, archaeoastronomy, anthropology, archaeology and other natural and social sciences. In societies where the introduction of writing is relatively recent, oral histories, knowledge of the past handed down from generation to generation, contain records of "prehistoric" times. The middle class, in colloquial usage, consists of those who have some economic independence but not a great deal of social influence or power. The term often encompasses merchants and professionals, academics, bureaucrats, and some farmers and skilled workers. Social hierarchies and their definitions vary. There are many factors that can define the middle class in a society, such as money, behavior and heredity. In many countries, it is predominantly the amount of money that determines an individual's position in the
social hierarchy. In other countries, social factors may have as strong an influence. These factors include education, professional or employment status, home ownership, or culture. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
White‐collar worker refers to a salaried professional or an educated worker whose performs semi‐professional office, administrative, and sales coordination tasks, as opposed to a blue‐collar worker, whose job requires manual labor and little education. "White‐collar work" is an informal term, defined in opposition to "blue‐collar work". A blue‐collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. Blue‐collar workers are distinguished from those in the service sector and from white‐collar workers, whose jobs are not considered manual labor. Blue‐collar work may be skilled or unskilled, and may involve manufacturing, mining, building and construction trades, law enforcement, mechanical work, maintenance, repair and operations maintenance or technical installations. The white‐collar worker, by contrast, performs non‐manual labor often in an office; and the service industry worker performs labor involving customer interaction, entertainment, retail and outside sales, and the like. Equal opportunity is a term which has differing definitions and there is no consensus as to the precise meaning. Some use it as a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. Equal opportunity practices include measures taken by organizations to ensure fairness in the employment process. Human rights refers to the "basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled." Examples of rights and freedoms which are often thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and liberty, freedom of expression, and equality before the law; and social, cultural and economic rights, including the right to participate in culture, the right to food, the right to work, and the right to education.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Reproductive rights are a subset of human rights relating to sexual reproduction and reproductive health, often held to include the right to control one's reproductive functions, such as the right to reproduce (as in opposition to compulsory sterilization and forced contraception), as well as the right to not reproduce (including support for access to birth control), the rights to privacy, medical coverage, contraception, family planning and protection from discrimination, harassment and gender‐oriented harm. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
Civil rights can refer to protection against public (government) and or private sector discrimination. In the United States, the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution protects citizens against many forms of State discrimination, with its due process and equal protection requirements. Civil rights can also refer to protection against private actors or entities. The U.S. Congress subsequently addressed the issue through the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Sec. 201. which states: (a) All persons shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the goods, services, facilities, privileges, advantages, and accommodations of any place of public accommodation, as defined in this section, without discrimination or segregation on the ground of race, color, religion, or national origin or sex. This legislation and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 are constitutional under the Commerce Clause, as the Supreme Court has ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment only applies to the State. States generally have the power to enact similar legislation, provided that they meet the federal minimum standard, under the doctrine of police powers. The terms civil rights and civil liberties are often used interchangeably in the United States. Thomas Jefferson wrote, "a free people [claim] their rights waived from the laws of nature, and not as the gift of their chief magistrate." The United States Constitution recognizes different civil rights than do most other national constitutions. Two examples of civil rights found in the US but rarely (if ever) elsewhere are the right to bear arms (Second Amendment to the United States Constitution) and the right to a jury trial (Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution). Few nations, not even including a world organization body such as the United Nations, have recognized either of these civil rights. Many nations recognize an individual's civil right to not be executed for murdering another, a civil right not recognized within the US.
Teenage Girls need a lot of education So you need to help them along the right patch. Before your little girls turn into women Give them the gift of knowledge from Gregory Bodenhamer for Women.
The term women's rights refers to the freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized, ignored or suppressed by law, custom, and behavior in a particular society. These liberties are grouped together and differentiated from broader notions of human rights because they often differ from the freedoms inherently possessed by or recognized for men and boys, and because activists for this issue claim an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls. Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to, the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy; to vote (universal suffrage); to hold public office; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to own property; to education; to serve in the military or be conscripted; to enter into legal contracts; and to have marital, parental and religious rights. Women and their supporters have campaigned and in some places continue to campaigned for the same rights as modern men.
On January 12, 1915, a suffrage bill was brought before the House of Representatives but was lost by a vote of 174 to 204. Again a bill was brought before the House, on January 10, 1918. On the evening before President Wilson made a strong and widely published appeal to the House to pass the bill. It was passed with one more vote than was needed to make the necessary two‐thirds majority. The vote was then carried into the Senate. Again President Wilson made an appeal, and on September 30, 1918, the question was put to the vote, but two votes were lacking to make the two‐thirds majority. On February 10, 1919, it was again voted upon, and then it was lost by only one vote. There was considerable anxiety among politicians of both parties to have the amendment passed and made effective before the general elections of 1920, so the President called a special session of Congress, and a bill, introducing the amendment, was brought before the House again. On May 21, 1919, it was passed, 42 votes more than necessary being obtained. On June 4, 1919, it was brought before the Senate, and after a long discussion it was passed, with 56 ayes and 25 nays. It only remained that the necessary number of states should ratify the action of Congress. Within a few days Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan, their legislatures being then in session, passed the ratifications. Other states then followed their examples, and Tennessee was the last of the needed 36 states to ratify, in the summer of 1920. The 19th Amendment to the Constitution was an accomplished fact, and the Presidential election of November 1920, was therefore the first occasion on which women in all states were allowed to exercise their right of suffrage. The concept of political freedom is very closely allied with the concepts of civil liberties and individual rights. Most democratic societies are professedly characterized by various freedoms which are afforded the legal protection of the state. Some of these freedoms may include (in alphabetical order): • Anarchism • Freedom of assembly • Freedom of association • Freedom to bear arms • Freedom of education • Freedom of movement • Freedom of the press • Freedom of religion • Freedom of speech • Freedom of thought • Intellectual freedom • Sexual freedom • Stochastic
• Suffrage Economic freedom is freedom to produce, trade and consume any goods and services acquired without the use of force, fraud or theft. Economic freedom is embodied in the rule of law, property rights and freedom of contract, and characterized by external and internal openness of the markets, the protection of property rights and freedom of economic initiative.
In the present the concept, as it is most used, is usually associated with a free market system. Indices of economic freedom try to measure economic freedom, and empirical
studies based on some these rankings have found it to be correlated with economic growth and poverty reduction. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
Homemaker is a mainly American term which may refer either to:
the person within a family who is primarily concerned with the management of the household, whether or not he or she works outside the home • a person whose prime occupation is to care for their family and/or home The term homemaker is preferred by some to housewife or househusband because it is inclusive, defines the role in terms of activities, rather than relation to another or gender, and is independent of marital status. The terms stay‐at‐home mom and stay‐at‐ home dad are also used, particularly if the person views his or her central role as caring for children. The euphemistic term "domestic engineer" has gone out of favor, being seen by some as satirical, as if to give a sense of mock dignity to a role held in low esteem by the speaker. Likewise, the term "housekeeper" has come to describe hired cleaning help, and is no longer used—other than in a derogatory way—to describe homemaking. Traditionally the role of "homemaker" has been filled predominantly by women. Even to this day, homemaking is perceived by many societies as the natural role for women. In recent years there has been some political and societal backlash against feminist criticism regarding traditional roles for women. This backlash may be attributed to the recent decades' progress of the feminist movement and its implications on society, and may be compared to the backlash that took place in postwar America. The backlash could be seen, at least in part, in both the increasing prominence of "professional" homemakers such as Martha Stewart, and a rise in Evangelical Christianity which views traditional roles as being conducive to the stability of the traditional family unit and the people therein. However, homemaking is not always a lifetime commitment: many homemakers, for economic or personal reasons, return to the workplace. Some modern women are embracing the role of full‐time parent. Most of these women have left the paid workforce so that they can raise their children, particularly through their early years before entering kindergarten. There is considerable variability within the "stay‐at‐home" mom population with regard to their intent to return to the paid workforce. Some work from their homes, some do part‐time work, some intend to return to part or full time work when their children are in school, and others may never return to the paid workplace. Similarly, there is considerable variation in the "stay‐at‐home" mom's attitude towards domestic work not related to caring for children. Some may embrace a traditional role of "housewife," where the woman cooks and cleans in addition to caring for children. But many modern homemakers see their primary role as that of child‐care providers ‐‐ supporting their children's physical, intellectual, and emotional development. These homemakers can be found in cooperative preschools and volunteering in
numerous community organizations. Other aspects of home care (shopping, cooking, cleaning, yard work, home repairs, money managing, etc) are shared equally with their husbands or partners. You can earn a “Certificate of PeopleNology Suffrage” and it won’t cost you a single penny because it’s all prepaid to you by Nollijy University, our international sponsor. Simply send us an email and in the subject field ask for;
Free Starter Kit to Break the Glass Ceiling at Work and Home Gender roles in parenting and marriage Gender roles develop through internalization and identification during childhood. Sigmund Freud suggested that biology (based around the penis) determines gender identity through identification with either the mother or father. While some people agree with Freud, others argue that the development of the gendered self is not completely determined by biology based around one's relationship to the penis, but rather the interactions that one has with the primary caregiver(s). From birth, parents interact differently with children depending on their sex, and through this interaction parents can instill different values or traits in their children on the basis of what is normative for their sex. This internalization of gender norms includes the choice of toys (“feminine” toys often reinforce interaction, nurturing, and closeness, “masculine” toys often reinforce independence and competitiveness) that a parents give to their children. Education also plays an integral role in the creation of gender norms. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
Gender roles that are created in childhood permeate throughout life and help to structure parenting and marriage, especially in relation to work in and outside the home. Despite the increase in women in the labor force since the mid‐1900s, women are still responsible for the majority of the domestic chores and childcare. While women are splitting their time between work and care of the home, men are pressured into being the primary economic supporter of the home.
Despite the fact that different households may divide chores more evenly, there is evidence that supports that women have retained the primary caregiver role within familial life despite contributions economically. This evidence suggest that women who work outside the home often put an extra 18 hours a week doing household or childcare related chores as opposed to men who average 12 minutes a day in childcare activities. In addition to a lack of interest in the home on the part of some men, some women may bar men from equal participation in the home which may contribute to this disparity. Women are more emotionally expressive. Women are more emotionally responsive. Women are more empathetic. Women are more sensitive to others' feelings. Women are more obsessed with having children. Women express their feelings without constraint, except for the emotion of anger. Women pay more attention to body language. Women better judge emotions from nonverbal communication. Women express more love, fear, and sadness. Women laugh, gaze, and smile more. Women anticipate negative consequences for expressing anger and aggression. Females are more inclined to face each other and make eye contact when talking, while males are more likely to look away from each other. Girls and women tend to jump from topic to topic, but boys and men tend to talk at length about one topic. When listening, women make more noises such as “mm‐hmm” and “uh‐huh”, while men are more likely to listen silently. Women are inclined to express agreement and support, while men are more inclined to debate. 52.9% of American women are in the labor force versus 73.3% of men. 70.7% of women with children under 18 are in the workforce (up from 47% in 1975), compared with 94% of men with children under 18.
Approximately 26 percent of employed women usually work part time, compared with about 11 percent of employed men. 5.6% of employed women and 8% of men are self‐ employed. Women in nonagricultural industries work 35.9 hours per week versus 41.6 hours for men. Women account for more than half of all workers in the following industries: financial activities, education services, healthcare, leisure and hospitality, and office and administrative support. Women are far more likely than men to be social workers, paralegals and legal assistants, teachers, nurses, speech pathologists, dental hygienists, maids and housekeeping cleaners, and childcare workers. More men than women work in the following industries: mining, construction, transportation and utilities, farming, computer and mathematical occupations, engineering, and architecture. Men are more likely than women to be chief executives, firefighters, police and patrol officers, electricians, dentists, and surgeons. In Western societies, skirts and dresses and high‐heeled shoes are usually seen as women's clothing, while neckties are generally worn by men. Trousers were once seen as exclusively male clothing, but are nowadays worn by both sexes. Male clothes are often more practical (that is, they can function well under a wide variety of situations), but a wider range of clothing styles is available for females. Males are typically allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places. It is generally acceptable, to some degree, for a woman to wear traditionally male clothing, but not the other way around. In some cultures, sumptuary laws regulate what men and women are required to wear. Islam requires both sexes to wear hijab, or modest clothing. What qualifies as "modest" varies in different Muslim societies; however, women are usually required to cover more of their bodies than men are. Articles of clothing worn by Muslim women for purposes of modesty range from the headscarf to the burqa. Scottish men may choose to wear kilts on ceremonial occasions. Kilts were previously worn as normal clothing by men. Men not of Scottish descent are increasingly wearing kilts today. Compared to men's clothing, women's clothing tends to address being looked at. In the modern West, women are more likely to wear makeup, jewelry, and colorful clothing, while in very traditional cultures women are protected from men's gazes by modest dress.
Femininity (also called womanliness) refers to qualities and behaviors judged by a particular culture to be ideally associated with or especially appropriate to women and girls. Distinct from femaleness, which is a biological and physiological classification concerned with the reproductive system, femininity principally refers to secondary sex characteristics and other behaviors and features generally regarded as being more prevalent and better suited to women, whether inborn or socialized. In traditional Western culture, such features include gentleness, patience, vanity, superficiality and kindness. Feminine attributes The feminine is most often associated with nurturing, life‐giving qualities, creativity and an openness to those around. The modern social stereotype of a woman is the complete opposite of a man. A feminine woman has physical attributes which vary from that of a masculine male. Furthermore, the psychological and behavioral differences that are considered feminine are the opposite to those considered masculine. These attributes result from the relationship between an individual's biology and the socialization she receives as a result of that biology. Feminine physical attributes Some research has indicated that a number of heterosexual men may be aroused by child‐like smooth skin, big eyes, small noses and chins, though there are cultural differences in those preferences. Some research has also indicated that a 0.7 waist‐hip ratio arouses some heterosexual men. These studies have led the media to speculate that these are evolutionary indicators of feminine fertility, although such speculation has yet to be proven. Long eyelashes or high‐pitched voices may also be considered feminine by some heterosexual men in the West. Women throughout history have sometimes gone to extremes to meet exacting cultural standards of what is considered attractive. Cleavage Larger breast size, a trait considered feminine, is suggested by visual clues, such as the cleavage between the breasts. Many women in western culture will emphasize cleavage to enhance femininity. They may do so by means of the cut of the outer wear, and by brassieres (bras) that push the breasts upwards and together. Special pads and inserts in the bra can also be used to aid in the positioning of the breasts higher. Foot Binding For centuries in China, foot binding produced unnaturally small and deformed feet, where toes often rotted due to lack of circulation. Small feet are still considered
attractive culturally however. Corsets In the early twentieth‐century United States and Europe, women wore corsets that restricted their movement and caused a variety of health problems, including shortness of breath, malformed organs, atrophied back muscles and difficulty in labor. High Heels Modern women often wear high‐heeled shoes. The discomfort commonly associated with high‐heeled shoes is endured for the visual effect of elongated legs. Eating Disorders Many women in the West also restrict their food intake in an effort to achieve what they consider an attractively thin body, which in extreme cases can lead to eating disorders. Many people criticize the fashion and entertainment industries for promoting underweight , unrealistic, and arguably unhealthy ideals of feminine beauty. Neck Rings In parts of Africa and Asia, neck rings still signify femininity, in rare cases leaving their wearers crippled and dependent on their husbands. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
10 Golden Rules of Girl Power Be positive Be strong Don't let anyone put you down. Be in control of your own life and your destiny. Support your girl friends, and let them support you, too. Say what's on your mind. Approach life with attitude. Don't let anyone tell you that you can never do something because you're a girl. Have fun! Womanhood is the period in a female's life after she has transitioned from girlhood, at least physically, having passed the age of menarche. Many cultures have rites of passage to symbolize a woman's coming of age, such as confirmation in some branches of Christianity, bat mitzvah in Judaism, or even just the custom of a special celebration for a certain birthday (generally between 12 and 21). Currently in the English language there is no commonly‐used word for a woman who has passed menopause, although historically a woman in the third part of her life was known as a crone, which was originally not a pejorative term. The three ages of woman were historically known as "maiden, matron, and crone" and are sometimes quoted as "maiden, mother and crone". This could perhaps be rendered in modern English as "little girl", "woman of reproductive age" and "older lady". The word woman can be used generally, to mean any female human, or specifically, to mean an adult female human as contrasted with girl. The word girl originally meant "young person of either sex" in English; it was only around the beginning of the 16th century that it came to mean specifically a female child. Nowadays girl sometimes is used colloquially to refer to a young or unmarried woman. During the early 1970s feminists challenged such use, and use of the word to refer to a fully grown woman may cause offence. In particular, previously common terms such as office girl are no longer used. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
Conversely, in certain cultures which link family honor with female virginity, the word girl is still used to refer to a never‐married woman; in this sense it is used in a fashion roughly analogous to the obsolete English maid or maiden. Referring to an unmarried female as a woman may, in such a culture, imply that she is sexually experienced, which
would be an insult to her family. In some settings, the use of girl to refer to an adult female is a vestigial practice (such as girls' night out), even among some elderly women. In this sense, girl may be considered to be the analogue to the British word bloke for a man, although it again fails to meet the parallel status as an adult. Gal aside, some feminists cite this lack of an informal yet respectful term for women as misogynistic; they regard non‐parallel usages, such as men and girls, as sexist. There are various words used to refer to the quality of being a woman. The term "womanhood" merely means the state of being a woman, having passed the menarche; "femininity" is used to refer to a set of supposedly typical female qualities associated with a certain attitude to gender roles; "womanliness" is like "femininity", but is usually associated with a different view of gender roles; "femaleness" is a general term, but is often used as shorthand for "human femaleness"; "distaff" is an archaic adjective derived from women's conventional role as a spinner, now used only as a deliberate archaism; "muliebrity" is a "neologism" (derived from the Latin) meant to provide a female counterpart of "virility", but used very loosely, sometimes to mean merely "womanhood", sometimes "femininity", and sometimes even as a collective term for women. Adolescent psychology is associated with notable changes in mood sometimes known as mood swings. Cognitive, emotional and attitudinal changes which are characteristic of adolescence, often take place during this period, and this can be a cause of conflict on one hand and positive personality development on the other. Because the adolescents are experiencing various strong cognitive and physical changes, for the first time in their lives they may start to view their friends, their peer group, as more important and influential than their parents/guardians. Because of peer pressure, they may sometimes indulge in activities not deemed socially acceptable, although this may be more of a social phenomenon than a psychological one. This overlap is addressed within the study of psychosociology. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
The home is an important aspect of adolescent psychology: home environment and
family have a substantial impact on the developing minds of teenagers, and these developments may reach a climax during adolescence. For example, abusive parents may lead a child to "poke fun" at other classmates when he/she is seven years old or so, but during adolescence, it may become progressively worse, for example, the child may now be using drugs or becoming intolerably violent among other classmates. If the concepts and theory behind of right or wrong were not established early on in a child's life, the lack of this knowledge may impair a teenager's ability to make beneficial decisions as well as allowing his/her impulses to control his/her decisions. In the search for a unique social identity for themselves, adolescents are frequently confused about what is 'right' and what is 'wrong.' G. Stanley Hall denoted this period as one of "Storm and Stress" and, according to him, conflict at this developmental stage is normal and not unusual. Margaret Mead, on the other hand, attributed the behavior of adolescents to their culture and upbringing. However, Piaget, attributed this stage in development with greatly increased cognitive abilities; at this stage of life the individual's thoughts start taking more of an abstract form and the egocentric thoughts decrease, hence the individual is able to think and reason in a wider perspective. Positive psychology is sometimes brought up when addressing adolescent psychology as well. This approach towards adolescents refers to providing them with motivation to become socially acceptable and notable individuals, since many adolescents find themselves bored, indecisive and/or unmotivated. Adolescents may be subject to peer pressure within their adolescent time span, consisting of the need to have sex, consume alcoholic beverages, use drugs, defy their parental figures, or commit any activity in which the person who is subjected to may not deem appropriate, among other things. Peer pressure is a common experience between adolescents and may result briefly or on a larger scale. It should also be noted that adolescence is the stage of a psychological breakthrough in a person's life when the cognitive development is rapid and the thoughts, ideas and concepts developed at this period of life greatly influence the individual's future life, playing a major role in character and personality formation. Struggles with adolescent identity and depression usually set in when an adolescent experiences a loss. The most important loss in their lives is the changing relationship between the adolescent and their parents. Adolescents may also experience strife in
their relationships with friends. This may be because of things their friends do, such as smoking, that they feel if they don't do, they'll lose their friendship. Teen depression can be extremely intense at times because of physical and hormonal changes but emotional instability is part of being a teenager. Their changing mind, body and relationships often present themselves as stressful and that change, they assume, is something to be feared. Views of family relationships during adolescence are changing. The old view of family relationships during adolescence put an emphasis on conflict and disengagement and thought storm and stress was normal and even inevitable. However, the new view puts emphasis on transformation or relationships and maintenance of connectedness. On average, men are taller than women. On average, men have a greater capacity for cardiovascular endurance. This is due to the enlargement of the lungs of boys during puberty, characterized by a more prominent chest. On average, men are stronger than women. This is due to a greater capacity for muscular hypertrophy as a result of men's higher levels of testosterone. Men usually have more body hair than women. Men’s skin is thicker (more collagen) and oilier (more sebum) than women’s skin. Women generally have a smaller waist in comparison to their hips (see waist‐hip ratio). In men, the second digit (index finger) tends to be shorter than the fourth digit (ring finger), while in females the second tends to be longer than the fourth. On average women tend to have skin that is 3‐4% lighter than men Scientists believe this is an adaptation required for increased production of Vitamin D during pregnancy. Vitamin D is necessary to help the body absorb calcium and deposit it in the bones of fast growing embryos. By having lighter skin more of the sun's UV radiation can penetrate the skin to and increase their ability to produce vitamin D. Women tend to have a lower center of gravity (shorter legs, longer torso, relative to height) and a larger hip section than men. Men have a more pronounced 'Adam's Apple' or thyroid cartilage due to larger vocal cords in men. Determinants of female physical attractiveness
English model Jasmine Sinclair is considered attractive Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
Physique Features such as a symmetrical face, full lips, and low waist‐hip ratio, are commonly considered physically attractive when part of a female, because they are thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. The determinants of female physical attractiveness include those aspects that display health and fitness for reproduction and sustenance. These include correlates of fertility such as youth, waist‐hip ratio, mid upper arm circumference, body mass proportion and facial symmetry. Signals of youth Because female fecundity typically declines after the late twenties, youth is an important aspect of physical attractiveness One study across 37 cultures showed men desire, on average, a woman 2.5 years younger than themselves for a wife, with men in Nigeria and Zambia at the far extreme, desiring their wives to be 6.5 to 7.5 years younger. As men age, they also desire a larger age gap from their mates. The reasons for this preference are currently debated. This preference for youth has also led to a preference of neotenic and youthful‐ appearing features. Full lips, clear, smooth skin, clear eyes, lustrous hair, and good muscle tone are all viewed as attractive in women. Large breasts have also been shown to be attractive to men in Western societies, with the explanation that larger breasts will more explicitly show the aging process, hence an "honest" indicator of fertility. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and
brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
Proportion of body mass to body structure The Body Mass Index (BMI) is another important universal determinant to the perception of beauty. The BMI refers to the proportion of the body mass to the body structure. However, the optimal body proportion is interpreted differently in various cultures. The Western ideal considers a slim and slender body mass as optimal while many historic cultures consider an embonpoint or plump body‐mass as appealing. Men don't seem to have evolved to hold a particular build as more attractive, but rather to be drawn to whichever build associates with social status. However, it should be noted that, in the United States, women overestimate men's preferences for thinness in a mate. In one study, American women were asked to choose what their ideal build was and what they thought the build most attractive to men was. Women chose slimmer than average figures for both choices, though when American men were independently asked to choose the female build most attractive to them, they (the men) chose figures of average build, indicating that women may be misled as to how thin men prefer women to be. The attraction for a proportionate body also influences an appeal for erect posture. Waist‐hip ratio Notwithstanding wide cultural differences in preferences for female build, scientists have discovered that the waist‐hip ratio (WHR) of any build is very strongly correlated to attractiveness across all cultures. Women with a 0.7 WHR (waist circumference that is 70% of the hip circumference) are usually rated as more attractive by men from European cultures. Such diverse beauty icons as Marilyn Monroe, Sophia Loren, and the Venus de Milo all have ratios around 0.7. In other cultures, preferences vary, ranging from 0.6 in China, to 0.8 or 0.9 in parts of South America and Africa, and divergent preferences based on ethnicity, rather than
nationality, have also been noted. Height Most males exhibit a preference for females of shorter physical stature than themselves, and studies indicate that women of below average height have greater reproductive success. An advantage to smaller size may be that it is seen as more youthful, and males find pedomorphic characteristics in females attractive. Another possible (but unproven) explanation is that shorter females may reach sexual maturity earlier than their taller counterparts. It can also be argued that a shorter, and often generally smaller, female is more attractive to males by bringing out the traditional instincts of protection, which women of smaller stature may more easily bring out. Besides biology and culture, there are other factors determining physical attractiveness. The more common features a face bears, the more highly it is usually judged to be attractive. This may be a result of the familiarity of common facial features, an example of the mere exposure effect. When many faces are combined into a composite image (through computer morphing), people usually view the resulting image as more familiar, attractive, and beautiful than the faces that were combined to make the composite. One interpretation is that this shows an inherent human preference for prototypically. That is, the resultant face emerges with the salient features shared by most faces, and hence becomes the prototype. The prototypical face and features is therefore perceived as symmetrical and familiar. This may reveal an "underlying preference for the familiar and safe over the unfamiliar and potentially dangerous. However, critics of this interpretation point out that compositing computer images also has the effect of removing skin blemishes such as scars, and generally softens sharp facial features. Classical conceptions of beauty are essentially a celebration of this "prototypically." This may show the importance of prototypically in the judgment of beauty, and also explain the emergence of similarity of the perception of attractiveness within a community or society, which shares a gene pool.
Skin tone Another feature is skin color on the spectrum of dark to light. As with many determinants of attractiveness, there are cultural differences: lighter tones are preferred by some cultures, while in others, tanned or darker skin is preferred. For some time after the Victorian era, lighter skin was preferred, as it was considered a marker of a more "cultured" individual or "gentlewoman" who did not have to engage in outdoor labor. In the 20th and 21st centuries Western world, tanned skin has often been considered highly attractive for both men and women. Here, the tan has come to carry with it connotations of having an active outdoor lifestyle or frequent vacations in the sun, thus better (implied) physical health or wealth. In eastern parts of Asia, including Southeast Asia, this preference for lighter skin remains prevalent. In East Asia in particular, fair skin is associated with youth, since skin darkens with exposure to the sun and aging. This conflation of youth and beauty is not exclusive to East Asia, and can be linked to the phenomenon of neoteny. Thus, sales of skin whitening cosmetic products are popular in East Asia. A preference for fair skin however is not a recent development, and in China, for example, can be traced back to ancient drawings depicting women and goddesses with fair skin tones. Social effects of attractiveness A low waist‐hip ratio is cross‐culturally considered physically attractive when part of a female, because it is thought to indicate physical health and high fertility to a potential mate. When a person is seen as attractive or unattractive, assumptions are brought into play. Across cultures, what is beautiful is assumed to be good. Attractive people are assumed to be more extroverted, popular, and happy, and attractive people do tend to have these characteristics. However, this is probably due to self‐fulfilling prophecy; from a young age, attractive people receive more attention that helps them develop these characteristics. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
Physical attractiveness can have real effects. A survey conducted by London Guildhall University of 11,000 people showed that those who subjectively describe themselves as physically attractive earn more income than others who would describe themselves as less attractive. People who described themselves as less attractive earned, on average, 13% less than those who described themselves as more attractive, while the penalty for being overweight was around 5%. Another study indicated that physical attractiveness in men plays an even larger role for salary than it does for women, contributing as much as 40% to earnings. It is thought that these figures are similar around most of Europe, including France, Germany and Spain. It is important to note that other factors such as self‐confidence may explain or influence these findings as they are based on self‐reported attractiveness as opposed to any sort of objective criteria; however, as one's self‐confidence and self‐esteem are largely learned from how one is regarded by their peers while maturing, even these considerations would suggest a significant role for physical appearance. Some have proposed that discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance should be referred to as Lookism. Believe us when we tell you that Lookism is alive and well and you’re the target. Evolution is powerful. You are the target of mating not just dating. First things first. Evolution; Can I eat it. Will it eat me. Can I have sex with it. Can it have sex with me. All day, all night, true forever. Middle Class working girls breaking the glass ceiling while keeping their clothes on and brushing off their knees. Nollijy University Research Institute Arts & Sciences ‐ Evolution White Paper Equality Working Girls Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Copyright 092008 Mechanicsburg Pa 17055 Seminars Workbooks Classes Certificates Presentations Clarity Programs for Women
Many have asserted that certain advantages tend to come to those that are perceived as being more attractive, including the ability to get better jobs and promotions, receiving better treatment from authorities and the legal system, having more choices in romantic partners and, therefore, more power in relationships, and marrying into families with more money. In other words if you show your breasts during an interview, while having dinner or simply picking up a piece of paper you’re going to get a lot of attention. Both men and women use physical attractiveness as a measure of how 'good' another person is. However, in terms of sexual behavior, some studies suggest little difference between men and women. Symmetrical men and women have a tendency to begin to have sexual intercourse earlier, to have more sexual partners, to engage in a wider variety of sexual activities, and to have more one‐night stands. They are also prone to infidelity and are more likely to have open relationships. Symmetrical men and women are also best suited for their environment, and their physical characteristics are most likely to be inherited by future generations
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Strategy Survival Sex Stability Significance for Women The Life of Susie HomeMaker Easy Earth Enterprises for Women Slide 1: 2008 PeopleNology for Women Gregory Bodenhamer Mechanicsburg Pa PeopleNology for Women - The Diary of Evolutionary Secrets Copyrighted 2008 All Rights Reserved 092008 Human Resources HR Managment Process Controls Compliance Profit Service Revenue Growth Marriage Bedroom Boardroom Income Children Investment Divorce Slide 2: The word girl first appeared during the Middle Ages between 1250 and 1300 CE and came from the Anglo-Saxon words gerle (also spelled girle or gurle), likely cognate with the Old Low German word gรถr (sometimes given as kerl). The Anglo-Saxon word gerela meaning dress or clothing item also seems to have been used as a metonym in some sense. Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Seduction Selection Success Solutions Social Science PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Adult Female Male Sexual Education Nollijy Franklin University Research Institute Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Powerful Humanistic Development According to Erikson, the young adult stage involves the personal need for intimacy and sex. Failure to achieve this need results in
isolation, which is Slide 3: avoided, and as a result the young adult strives for love and compassion. The young adult learns that love and compassion may get him or her what he or she wants. In modern societies, young adults in their late teens and early 20s en- counter a number of issues as they finish school and begin to hold full-time jobs and take on other responsibilities of adulthood. In the late teens and early 20s, young adults become individuals and will set themselves apart. Self becomes the main reliance. Young adults will strive to become independent from parents, take respon- sibility for themselves and make their own decisions. During the young adult stage, mainly the majority think in a more mature manner and take issues more seriously. They focus on the construction of a better future. Adolescents are generally regarded as na誰ve and inexperienced, but are expected to grow into mature adults in their 20s. Young adults in this stage of human development learn value in both tangible and intangible objects. Their relationships with their parents and older adults change. However, in many cases, young adults and adolescents have enormous talent that can, in cases, outstrip some adults' talents. In many cases, problems such as lack of time (schooling and other commitments) and lack of money can arrest the adolescent's development in terms of intellectual and talent growth Womanhood is the period in a female's life after she has transitioned from girlhood, at least physically, having passed the age of menarche. Many cultures have rites of passage to symbolize a woman's coming of age, such as confirmation in some branches of Christianity, bat mitzvah in Judaism, or even just the custom of a special celebration for a certain birthday (generally between 12 and 21). The word woman can be used generally, to mean any female human, or specifically, to mean an adult female human as contrasted with girl. The word girl originally meant "young person of either sex" in English; it was only around the beginning of the 16th century that it came to mean specifically a female child. Nowadays girl sometimes is used colloquially to refer to a young or unmarried woman. During the early 1970s feminists challenged such use, and use of the word to refer to a fully grown woman Slide 4: PeopleNology for Women Slide 5: ay cause offence. In particular previously common terms such as office girl are no longer used. Conversely, in certain cultures which link family honor with female virginity, the word girl is still used to refer to a never-married woman; in this sense it is used in a fashion roughly analogous to the obsolete English maid or maiden. Referring to an unmarried female as a woman may, in such a culture, imply that she is sexually experienced, which would be an insult to her family. In some settings, the use of girl to refer to an adult female is a vestigial practice (such as girls' night out), even among some elderly women. In this sense, girl may be considered to be the analogue to the British word bloke for a man, although it again fails to meet the parallel status as an adult. Gal aside, some feminists cite this lack of an informal yet respectful term for women as
misogynistic; they regard non-parallel usages, such as men and girls, as sexist. There are various words used to refer to the quality of being a woman. The term "womanhood" merely means the state of being a woman, having passed the menarche; "femininity" is used to refer to a set of supposedly Slide 6: typical female qualities associated with a certain attitude to gender roles; "womanliness" is like "femininity", but is usually associated with a different view of gender roles; "femaleness" is a general term, but is often used as shorthand for "human femaleness"; "distaff" is an archaic adjective derived from women's conventional role as a spinner, now used only as a deliber- ate archaism; "muliebrity" is a "neologism" (derived from the Latin) meant to provide a female counterpart of "virility", but used very loosely, some- times to mean merely "womanhood", sometimes "femininity", and some- times even as a collective term for women. Gregory Bodenhamer PeopleNology for Women Career Marriage Divorce Children BedRock BedRoom BoardRoom Slide 8: The term adult has three distinct meanings: mature person.
Grown man or woman;
Plant or animal that has reached full growth.
legally of age. Opposed to minor.
One who is
Adulthood can be defined in terms of biology,
psychological adult develop- ment, law, personal character, or social status. These different aspects of adulthood are often inconsistent and contradictory. A person may be biologically an adult, and have adult behavioral characteristics but still be treated as a child if they are under the legal age of majority. Conversely one may legally be an adult but possess none of the maturity and responsibility that define adult character. Coming of age is the event; passing a series of tests to demonstrate the child is prepared for adulthood; or reaching a specified age, sometimes in conjunction with demonstrating preparation. Most modern societies deter- mine legal adulthood based on reaching a legally-specified age without requiring a demonstration of physical maturity or preparation for adulthood. Although adult education simply means education for adults, not particu- larly sex education, "adult" also means "not considered suitable for chil- dren," in particular as a euphemism for being related to sexual behaviour. Some propose that moving into adulthood involves an emotional structur- ing of denial. This process becomes necessary to cope with one's own behaviour, especially in uncomfortable situations, and also the behaviour of others Girl has meant any young unmarried woman since about 1530. Its first noted meaning for sweetheart is 1648. The earliest known appearance of girl-friend is in 1892 and girl next door, meant as a teenaged female or young woman with a kind of wholesome appeal, dates only to Slide 9: 1961Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. European fairy tales have preserved memorable stories about girls. Among these are Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Rapunzel, Hans Christian Andersen's The Little Match Girl, The Little Mermaid, The Princess and the Pea and the Brothers
Grimm's Little Red Riding Hood. Children's books about girls include Little House on the Prairie, Alice in Wonderland, Pippi Longstocking, Dragonsong and A Wrinkle in Time. Books which have both boy and girl protagonists have tended to focus more on the boys but important girl characters appear in Knight's Castle, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, The Book of Three and the Harry Potter series. There have been many American comic booksProtected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. and comic strips featuring a girl as the main character such as Little Lulu, Little Orphan Annie, Girl Genius and Amelia Rules. In superhero comic books an early girl character was Etta Candy, one of Wonder Woman's sidekicks. In the Peanuts series (by Charles Schulz) girl characters include Peppermint Patty, Lucy van Pelt and Sally Brown. In Japanese animated cartoons and comic books girls are often protago- nists. Most of Hayao Miyazaki's animated films feature a young girl heroine, as in Majo no takky没bin (Kiki's Delivery Service). There are many other girl protagonists in the Sh么jo style of manga, which is targeted to girls as an audience. Among these are The Wallflower, Ceres, Celestial Leg- end, Tokyo Mew Mew and Full Moon o Sagashite. Meanwhile, some genres of Japanese cartoons may feature sexualized and objectified portrayals of girls. Sexualization of young girls in art and entertainment has been a common theme across all eras and mediums. This has been more or less explicitly visible in modern cinema and television. Some famous examples include Taxi Driver, Diva, Lolita The Blue Lagoon, L茅on: The Professional and Pretty Baby, all of which deal with young girls in adult situations, typically under extraordinary circumstances. Slide 10: Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise human" or "knowing hu- man") in the family Hominidae (the great apes). DNA evidence indicates that modern humans originated in Africa about 200,000 years ago. Compared to other species, humans have a highly developed brain, capable of abstract reasoning, language, introspection, and emotional suffering. This mental capability, combined with an erect body carriage that frees the forelimbs (arms) for manipulating objects, has allowed humans to make far greater use of tools than any other species. Humans now inhabit every continent on Earth, except Antarctica (although several governments maintain permanent research stations there, inhabited for short periods by scientists and other researchers). Humans also now have a continuous presence in low Earth orbit, occupying the International Space Station. The human population on Earth now amounts to over 6.6 billion, as of May 2008. Like most primates, humans are social by nature. However, they are particularly adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression, exchanging of ideas, and organization. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families to nations. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of traditions, rituals, ethics, values, social norms, and laws, which together form the basis of human society. Humans have a marked appreciation for beauty and aesthetics, which, combined with the
desire for self-expression, has led to cultural innovations such as art, literature and music. Humans are noted (by themselves) for their desire to understand and influence the world around them, seeking to explain and manipulate natural phenomena through science, philosophy, mythology and religion. This natural curiosity has led to the development of advanced tools and skills; humans are the only extant species known to build fires, cook their food, clothe themselves, and manipulate and develop numerous other technolo- gies. Humans pass down their skills and knowledge to the next generations through education. The scientific study of human evolution encompasses the development of the genus Homo, but usually involves studying other hominids and ho- minines as well, such as Australopithecus. "Modern humans" are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the only extant subspecies - our Slide 11: own - was formerly known as Homo sapiens sapiens (now simply known as Homo sapiens). Homo sapiens idaltu (roughly translated as "elder wise human"), the other known subspecies, is now extinct. Anatomically modern humans first appear in the fossil record in Africa about 200,000 years ago.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copy- right PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. The closest living relatives of Homo sapiens are the two chimpanzee species: the Common Chimpanzee and the Bonobo. Full genome se- quencing has resulted in the conclusion that "after 6.5 [million] years of separate evolution, the differences between chimpanzee and human are just 10 times greater than those between two unrelated people and 10 times less than those between rats and mice". In fact, 98.4% of the human DNA sequence is identical to that of chimpanzees. It has been estimated that the human lineage diverged from that of chimpanzees about five million years ago, and from that of gorillas about eight million years ago. However, a hominid skull discovered in Chad in 2001, classified as Sahelanthropus tchadensis, is approximately seven million years old, which may indicate an earlier divergence. The Recent African Origin (RAO), or "out-ofAfrica", hypothesis proposes that modern humans evolved in Africa before later migrating outwards to replace hominids in other parts of the world. Evidence from archaeogenet- ics accumulating since the 1990s has lent strong support to RAO, and has marginalized the competing multiregional hypothesis, which proposed that modern humans evolved, at least in part, from independent hominid populations. Geneticists Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending of the University of Utah propose that the variation in human DNA is minute compared to that of other species. They also propose that during the Late Pleistocene, the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs â€“ no more than 10,000, and possibly as few as 1,000 â€“resulting in a very small residual gene pool. Various reasons for this hypothetical bottleneck have been postulated, one being the Toba catas- trophe theory.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Slide 12: Wisdom for Women of all ages, of all generations, around the world,
PeopleNology for Women Slide 13: Human evolution is characterized by a number of important morphological, developmental, physiological and behavioural changes, which have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees. The first major morphological change was the evolution of a bipedal locomotor adaptation from an arboreal or semi-arboreal one, with all its attendant adaptations, such as a valgus knee, low intermembral index (long legs relative to the arms), and reduced upper-body strength. Later, ancestral humans developed a much larger brain â€“ typically 1,400 cmÂł in modern humans, over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or gorilla. The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans. Physical anthropolo- gists argue that the differences between the structure of human brains and those of other apes are even more significant than their differences in size. Slide 14: Other significant morphological changes included: the evolution of a power and precision grip; a reduced masticatory system; a reduction of the canine tooth; and the descent of the larynx and hyoid bone, making speech possible. An important physiological change in humans was the evolution of hidden oestrus, or concealed ovulation, which may have coincided with the evolution of important behavioural changes, such as pair bonding. Another significant behavioural change was the development of material culture, with human-made objects becoming increasingly common and diversified over time. The relationship between all these changes is the subject of ongoing debate.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. The most widely accepted view among current anthropologists is that Homo sapiens originated in the African savanna around 200,000 BP (Before Present), descending from Homo erectus, had inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 BP, and finally inhabited the Americas approxi- mately 14,500 years ago. They displaced Homo neanderthalensis and other species descended from Homo erectus (which had inhabited Eurasia as early as 2 million years ago) through more successful reproduction and competition for resources. Until c. 10,000 years ago, most humans lived as hunter-gatherers. They generally lived in small nomadic groups known as band societies. The advent of agriculture prompted the Neolithic Revolution, when access to food surplus led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of animals and the use of metal tools. Agriculture encour- aged trade and cooperation, and led to complex society. Because of the significance of this date for human society, it is the epoch of the Holocene calendar or Human Era. About 6,000 years ago, the first proto-states developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. Military forces were formed for protection, and government bureaucracies for administration. States cooperated and com- peted for resources, in some cases waging wars. Around 2,000â€“3,000 years ago, some states, such as Persia, India, China and Rome,
devel- oped through conquest into the first expansive empires. Influential religions, such as Judaism, originating in the Middle East, and Hinduism, a Slide 15: religious tradition that originated in South Asia, also rose to prominence at this time. The late Middle Ages saw the rise of revolutionary ideas and technologies. In China, an advanced and urbanized economy promoted innovations such as printing and the compass, while the Islamic Golden Age saw major scientific advancements in Muslim empires. In Europe, the rediscovery of classical learning and inventions such as the printing press led to the Renaissance in the 14th century. Over the next 500 years, exploration and imperialistic conquest brought much of the Americas, Asia, and Africa under European control, leading to later struggles for independence. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century and the Industrial Revolution in the 18th â€“ Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. 19th centuries promoted major innovations in transport, such as the railway and automobile; energy development, such as coal and electricity; and government, such as representative democracy and Communism. As a result of such changes, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalized and interconnected. Although this has encouraged the growth of science, art, and technology, it has also led to culture clashes, the development and use of weapons of mass destruction, and increased environmental destruction and pollution. Early human settlements were dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources, such as fertile land for growing crops and grazing livestock, or seasonally by hunting populations of prey. However, humans have a great capacity for altering their habitats by various methods, such as through irrigation, urban planning, construc- tion, transport, and manufacturing goods. With the advent of large-scale trade and transport infrastructure, proximity to these resources has be- come unnecessary, and in many places these factors are no longer a driving force behind the growth and decline of a population. Nonetheless, the manner in which a habitat is altered is often a major determinant in population change. Technology has allowed humans to colonize all of the continents and adapt to all climates. Within the last few decades, humans have explored Antarctica, the ocean depths, and space, although long-term habitation of Slide 17: hese environments is not yet possible. With a population of over six billion, humans are among the most numerous of the large mammals. Most humans (61%) live in Asia. The vast majority of the remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (14%) and Europe (11%), with 0.5% in Oceania.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environ- ments, such as Antarctica and outer space, is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Life in space has been very sporadic, with no more than thirteen humans in space at any given time.
Between 1969 and 1972, two humans at a time spent brief intervals on the Moon. As of early 2008, no other celestial body has been visited by human beings, although there has been a continuous human presence in space since the launch of the initial crew to inhabit the International Space Station on October 31, 2000. Other celestial bodies have, however, been visited by human-made objects. Since 1800, the human population increased from one billion to over six billion. In 2004, some 2.5 billion out of 6.3 billion people (39.7%) lived in urban areas, and this percentage is expected to rise throughout the 21st century. Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime, especially in inner city and suburban slums. Benefits of urban living include increased literacy, access to the global canon of human knowledge and decreased susceptibility to rural famines.Protected Property Intellec- tual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. It has been hypothesized that human predation has contributed to the extinction of numerous species. As humans stand at the top of the food chain and are not generally preyed upon, they have been described as superpredators. Currently, through land development and pollution, humans are thought to Slide 18: be the main contributor to global climate change. This is believed to be a major contributor to the ongoing Holocene extinction event, a mass extinction which, if it continues at its current rate, is predicted to wipe out half of all species over the next century Human body types vary substantially. Although body size is largely deter- mined by genes, it is also significantly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and exercise. The average height of an adult human is about 1.5 to 1.8 m (5 to 6 feet) tall, although this varies significantly from place to place. Unlike most other primates, humans are capable of fully bipedal locomo- tion, thus leaving their arms available for manipulating objects using their hands, aided especially by opposable thumbs.Protected Property Intellec- tual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Although humans appear relatively hairless compared to other primates, with notable hair growth occurring chiefly on the top of the head, under- arms and pubic area, the average human has more hair follicles on his or her body than the average chimpanzee. The main distinction is that human hairs are shorter, finer, and less heavily pigmented than the average chimpanzee's, thus making them harder to see. The hue of human hair and skin is determined by the presence of pigments called melanins. Human skin hues can range from very dark brown to very pale pink, while human hair ranges from blond to brown to red to, most commonly, black, depending on the amount of melanin (an effective sun blocking pigment) in the skin. Most researchers believe that skin darkening was an adaptation that evolved as a protection against ultraviolet solar radiation. More recently, however, it has been argued that particular skin colors are an adaptation to balance folate, which is destroyed by ultraviolet radiation, and vitamin D, which requires sunlight to form. The Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. skin pigmentation of contemporary
humans is geographically stratified, and in general correlates with the level of ultraviolet radiation. Human skin Slide 19: also has a capacity to darken (sun tanning) in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Humans tend to be physically weaker than other similairly sized primates, with young, conditioned male humans having been shown to be unable to match the strength of female orangutans which are at least three times stronger. Humans have proportionately shorter palates and much smaller teeth than other primates. They are the only primates to have short 'flush' canine teeth. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young specimens. Humans are gradually losing their wisdom teeth, with some individuals having them congenitally absent. The average sleep requirement is between seven and eight hours a day for an adult and nine to ten hours for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Experiencing less sleep than this is common in modern societies; this sleep deprivation can lead to negative effects. A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort. Humans are an eukaryotic species. Each diploid cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes, each set received from one parent. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. By present estimates, humans have approximately 20,000 â€“ 25,000 genes. Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system, so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY. The X chromosome is larger and carries many genes not on the Y chromosome, which means that recessive diseases associated with Xlinked genes, such as hemophilia, affect men more often than women. The human life cycle is similar to that of other placental mammals. The fertilized egg divides inside the female's uterus to become an embryo, which over a period of thirty-eight weeks (9 months) of gestation becomes a human fetus. After this span of time, the fully-grown fetus is birthed from the woman's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person Slide 20: entitled to the full protection of the law, though some jurisdictions extend personhood earlier to human fetuses while they remain in the uterus. Compared with other species, human childbirth is dangerous. Painful labors lasting twenty-four hours or more are not uncommon and often leads to the death of the mother, or the child. Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. This is because of both the relatively large fetal head circumference (for housing the brain) and the mother's relatively narrow pelvis (a trait required for successful bipedalism, by way of natural selection).The chances of a successful labor increased significantly during the 20th century in wealthier countries with the advent of new medical technologies. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain relatively hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates
Slide 21: approximately 100 times more common than in developed countries. Two young American girls photographed at an Inter-racial Christmas Seals Camp in August 1943 In developed countries, infants are typically 3 – 4 kg (6 – 9 pounds) in weight and 50 – 60 cm (20 – 24 inches) in height at birth. However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions. Helpless at birth, humans continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at 12 to 15 years of age. Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 18, whereas male development continues until around age 21. The human life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age. The lengths of these stages, however, have varied across cultures and time periods. Compared to other primates, humans experience an unusually rapid growth spurt during adolescence, where the body grows 25% in size. Chimpanzees, for example, grow only 14%.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. There are significant differences in life expectancy around the world. The developed world generally aging, with the median age around 40 years (highest in Monaco at 45.1 years). In the developing world the median age is between 15 and 20 years. Life expectancy at birth in Hong Kong, China is 84.8 years for a female and 78.9 for a male, while in Swaziland, primarily because of AIDS, it is 31.3 years for both sexes.While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older. The number of centenarians (humans of age 100 years or older) in the world was estimated by the United Nations at 210,000 in 2002.At least one person, Jeanne Calment, is known to have reached the age of 122 years; higher ages have been claimed but they are not well substantiated. Worldwide, there are 81 men aged 60 or older for every 100 women of that age group, and among the oldest, there are 53 men for every 100 women. Humans are unique in the widespread onset of female menopause during the latter stage of life. Menopause is believed to have arisen due to the Grandmother hypothesis, in which it is in the mother's reproductive interest Slide 22: to forgo the risks of death from childbirth at older ages in exchange for investing in the viability of her already living offspring. The philosophical questions of when human personhood begins and whether it persists after death are the subject of considerable debate. The prospect of death causes unease or fear for most humans, distinct from the immediate awareness of a threat. Burial ceremonies are characteristic of human societies, often accompanied by beliefs in an afterlife or immortality. Early Homo sapiens employed a hunter-gatherer method as their primary means of food collection, involving combining stationary plant and fungal food sources (such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms) with wild game, which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed. It is believed that humans have used fire to prepare and cook food prior to eating since the time of their divergence from Homo erectus. Humans are omnivorous, capable of consuming both plant and animal products. A view of humans as
omnivores is supported by the evidence that both a pure animal and a pure vegetable diet can lead to deficiency diseases in humans. A pure animal diet can, for instance, lead to scurvy, a vitamin C deficiency, while a pure plant diet may lead to vitamin B12 deficiency. The biggest problem posed by a vitamin B12 deficiency is that it severely limits the body's ability to synthesize folic acid, a main source of B group carriage. In order to counter the constant folic acid deficiency, one must regularly consume large amounts of folic acid, as may be found in green, leafy vegetables. Properly planned vegetarian and vegan diets, however, have been found to completely satisfy nutritional needs in every stage of life,and significantly reduce risks of major diseases. The human diet is prominently reflected in human culture, and has led to the development of food science. In general, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on stored body fat. Survival without water is usually limited to three or four days. Lack of food remains a serious problem, with about 300,000 people starving to death every year. Childhood malnutrition is also common and contributes to the global burden of disease. Slide 23: PeopleNology for Women Slide 25: However global food distribution is not even, and obesity among some human populations has increased to almost epidemic proportions, leading to health complications and increased mortality in some developed, and a few developing countries. The United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) state that 32% of American adults over the age of 20 are obese, while 66.5% are obese or overweight. Obesity is caused by consuming more calories than are expended, with many attributing excessive weight gain to a combination of overeating and insufficient exercise. At least ten thousand years ago, humans developed agriculture, which has substantially altered the kind of food people eat. This has led to increased populations, the development of cities, and because of increased popula- tion density, the wider spread of infectious diseases. The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, has varied widely by time, location, and culture The human brain is the center of the central nervous system in humans, and acts as the primary control center for the peripheral nervous system. The brain controls "lower", or involuntary, autonomic activities such as the respiration, and Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. digestion. The brain also controls "higher" order, conscious activities, such as thought, reasoning, and abstraction. These cognitive processes constitute the mind, and, along with their behavioral consequences, are studied in the field of psychology. Generally regarded as more capable of these higher order activities, the human brain is believed to be more "intelligent" in general than that of any other known species. While many animals are capable of creating struc- tures and using simple tools â€” mostly through instinct and mimicry â€” human technology is vastly more complex, and is constantly evolving and improving through time. Even the most ancient human tools and structures are far more advanced than any structure or tool created by
any other animal. Modern anthropology has tended to bear out Darwin's proposition that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kindProtected Property Intellectual Slide 26: Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. The human ability to think abstractly may be unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Humans are one of only six species to pass the mirror test â€”which tests whether an animal recognizes its reflection as an image of itself â€”along with chimpanzees, orangutans, dolphins, and pigeons. In October 2006, three elephants at the Bronx Zoo also passed this test. Most human children will pass the mirror test at 18 months old. However, the usefulness of this test as a true test of consciousness has been disputed (see mirror test), and this may be a matter of degree rather than a sharp divide. Monkeys have been trained to apply abstract rules in tasks. The human brain perceives the external world through the senses, and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time. Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought. These are said to possess qualities such as selfawareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environ- ment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above. The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example, argues that there is no such thing as a narrative centre called the "mind", but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: different kinds of "software" running in parallel. Psychologist B.F. Skinner has argued that the mind is an explanatory fiction that diverts attention from environmental causes of behavior, and Slide 27: that what are commonly seen as mental processes may be better conceived of as forms of covert verbal behavior. Humans study the more physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system, in the field of neurology, the more behavioral in the field of psychology, and a sometimes loosely-defined area between in the field of psychiatry, which treats mental illness and behav- ioral disorders. Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information process- ing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience. The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well-researched areas as well. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose
adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology. Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development. Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the pro- cessing of the things in experience. Slide 29: Phenomenal consciousness is the state of being conscious, such as when they say "I am conscious." Access consciousness is being conscious of something in relation to abstract concepts, such as when one says "I am conscious of these words." Various forms of access consciousness include awareness, self-awareness, conscience, stream of consciousness, Husserl's phenomenology, and intentionality. The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some, is closely related to the concept of qualia. Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition, ethology, evolutionary psychology, and comparative psychology as well. Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright 2008 PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of human beings. Motivation is based on emotion â€” specifically, on the search for satisfaction (positive emotional experiences), and the avoidance of conflict. Positive and negative is defined by the individual brain state, which may be influenced by social norms: a person may be driven to self-injury or violence because their brain is conditioned to create a positive response to these actions. Motivation is important because it is involved in the perfor- mance of all learned responses. Within psychology, conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics motivation is often seen to be based on financial incentives, moral incentives, or coercive incentives. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences. Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people Slide 30: might define it as the best condition which a human can have â€” a condition of mental and physical health. Others define it as freedom from want and distress; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society. Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright
PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked. Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant, such as love, admiration, or joy, contrast with those perceived as unpleasant, like hate, envy, or sorrow. There is often a distinction made between refined emotions which are socially learned and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate. Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state. In some cultural medical theories emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist. The Stoics believed excessive emotion was harmful, while some Sufi teachers (in particular, the poet and astronomer Omar Khayyรกm) felt certain extreme emotions could yield a conceptual perfection, what is often translated as ecstasy. In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered to be a complex neural trait innate in a variety of domesticated and on- domesticated mammals. These were commonly developed in reaction to superior survival mecha- nisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed. However, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime. Human sexuality, besides ensuring biological reproduction, has important Slide 31: social functions: it creates physical intimacy, bonds, and hierarchies among individuals; may be directed to spiritual transcendence (according to some traditions); and in a hedonistic sense to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. Sexual desire, or libido, is experienced as a bodily urge, often accompa- nied by strong emotions such as love, ecstasy and jealousy. The extreme importance of sexuality in the human species can be seen in a number of physical features, among them hidden ovulation, strong sexual dimorphism when compared to the chimpanzees, permanent secondary sexual characteristics, the forming of pair bonds based on sexual attraction as a common social structure and sexual ability in females outside of ovulation. These adaptations indicate that the importance of sexuality in humans is on par with that found in the Bonobo, and that the complex human sexual behaviour has a long evolutionary history.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. As with other human self-descriptions, humans propose that it is high intelligence and complex societies of humans that have produced the most complex sexual behaviors of any animal, including a great many behaviors that are not directly connected with reproduction. Human sexual choices are usually made in reference to cultural norms, which vary widely. Restrictions are sometimes determined by religious beliefs or social customs. The pioneering researcher Sigmund Freud believed that humans are born polymorphously
perverse, which means that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. According to Freud, humans then pass through five stages of psychosex- ual development (and can fixate on any stage because of various traumas during the process). For Alfred Kinsey, another influential sex researcher, people can fall anywhere along a continuous scale of sexual orientation (with only small minorities fully heterosexual or homosexual). Recent studies of neurology and genetics suggest people may be born with one Slide 32: sexual orientation or another, so there is not currently a clear consensus among sex research Culture is defined here as a set of distinctive material, intellectual, emo- tional, and spiritual features of a social group, including art, literature, lifestyles, value systems, traditions, rituals, and beliefs. The link between human biology and human behavior and culture is often very close, making it difficult to clearly divide topics into one area or the other; as such, the placement of some subjects may be based primarily on convention. Culture consists of values, social norms, and artifacts. A culture's values define what it holds to be important or ethical. Closely linked are norms, expecta- tions of how people ought to behave, bound by tradition. Artifacts, or material culture, are objects derived from the culture's values, norms, and understanding of the world. The mainstream anthropological view of culSlide 33: ture implies that most experience a strong resistance when reminded that there is an animal as well as a spiritual aspect to human nature The capacity humans have to transfer concepts, ideas and notions through speech and writing is unrivaled in known species. Unlike the call systems of other primates which are closed, human language is far more open, and gains variety in different situations. The human language has the quality of displacement, using words to represent things and happenings that are not presently or locally occurring, but elsewhere or at a different time. Technology has even advanced so as to allow the communication of mass data upon request and over great distance through data-nets and pro- grams such as Wikipedia. In this way data networks are important to the continuing development of language; changing it as just as Gutenberg did with the printing press. The faculty of speech is a defining feature of humanity, possibly predating phylogenetic separation of the modern population. Language is central to the communication between humans, as well as being central to the sense of identity that unites nations, cultures and ethnic groups. The invention of writing systems at least 5,000 years ago allowed the preservation of language on material objects, and was a major step in cultural evolution. Language is closely tied to ritual and religion (cf. mantra, sacred text). The science of linguistics describes the structure of language and the relationship between languages. There are approximately 6,000 different languages currently in use, including sign languages, and many thousands more that are considered extinct.Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Religionâ€”sometimes used interchangeably with "faith"â€”is generally defined as a belief system concerning the supernatural, sacred or divine, and moral
codes, practices, values, institutions and rituals associated with such belief. In the course of its development, religion has taken on many forms Slide 34: that vary by culture and individual perspective. Some of the chief questions and issues religions are concerned with include life after death (commonly involving belief in an afterlife), the origin of life (the source of a variety of creation myths), the nature of the universe (religious cosmology) and its ultimate fate (eschatology), and what is moral or immoral. A common source in religions for answers to these questions are transcendent divine beings such as deities or a singular God, although not all religions are theistic â€” many are nontheistic or ambiguous on the topic, particularly among the Eastern religions. Spirituality, belief or involvement in matters of the soul or spirit, is one of the many different approaches humans take in trying to answer fundamental questions about humankind's place in the universe, the meaning of life, and the ideal way to live one's life. Though these topics have also been addressed by philosophy, and to some extent by science, spirituality is unique in that it focuses on mystical or supernatu- ral concepts such as karma and God. Although a majority of humans profess some variety of religious or spiritual belief, some are irreligious, that is lacking or rejecting belief in the super- natural or spiritual. Additionally, although most religions and spiritual beliefs are clearly distinct from science on both a philosophical and methodological level, the two are not generally considered to be mutually exclusive; a majority of humans hold a mix of both scientific and religious views. The distinction between philosophy and religion, on the other hand, is at times less clear, and the two are linked in such fields as the philosophy of religion and theology. Other humans have no religious beliefs and are atheists Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. It is the discipline searching for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative means. The core philosophical disciplines are logic, ontology or metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology, which includes the branches of ethics and aesthetics. Philosophy covers a very wide range of approaches, and is also Slide 35: PeopleNology for Women Slide 36: used to refer to a worldview, to a perspective on an issue, or to the positions argued for by a particular philosopher or school of philosophy. Plato and Aristotle in a detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles, being and existence (ontology). In between the doctrines of religion and science, stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw logical conclusions about the nature of the universe, humanity, god, and/or their connections based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from religion and/or observation. Humans
often consider themselves to be the dominant species on Earth, and the most advanced in intelligence and ability to manage their environ- ment. This belief is especially strong in modern Western culture. Alongside such claims of dominance is often found radical pessimism because of the frailty and brevity of human life. Humanism is a philosophy which defines a socio-political doctrine the bounds of which are not constrained by those of locally developed cultures, but whic h seeks to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings. Because spiritual beliefs of a community often manifests as religious doctrine, the history of which is as factious as it is unitive, secular humanism grew as an answer to the need for a common philosophy that transcended the cultural boundaries of local moral codes and religions. Many humanists are religious, however, and see humanism as simply a mature expression of a common truth present in most religions. Humanists affirm the possibility of an objective truth and accept that human perception of that truth is imperfect. The most basic tenets of humanism are that humans matter and can solve human problems, and that science, freedom of speech, rational thought, democracy, and freedom in the arts are worthy pursuits or goals for all peoples. Humanism depends chiefly on reason and logic without consider- ation for the supernatural Artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind, from early Slide 37: pre-historic art to contemporary art. Art is one of the most unusual aspects of human behavior and a key distinguishing feature of humans from other species, In fact the only species to do so. Art has only been around for the last 35,000 years which could suggest that this was the time when humans started to 'think'. Sculpture by Malvina Hoffman of an Asian human male meditating. As a form of cultural expression by humans, art may be defined by the pursuit of diversity and the usage of narratives of liberation and exploration (i.e. art history, art criticism, and art theory) to mediate its boundaries. This distinction may be applied to objects or performances, current or historical, and its prestige extends to those who made, found, exhibit, or own them. In the modern use of the word, art is commonly understood to be the process or result of making material works which, from concept to creation, adhere to the "creative impulse" of human beings. Art is distinguished from other works by being in large part unprompted by necessity, by biological drive, or by any undisciplined pursuit of recreation. Music is a natural intuitive phenomenon based on the three distinct and interrelated organization structures of rhythm, harmony, and melody. Listening to music is perhaps the most common and universal form of entertainment for humans, while learning and understanding it are popular disciplines. There are a wide variety of music genres and ethnic musics. Literature, the body of written â€” and possibly oral â€” works, especially creative ones, includes prose, poetry and drama, both fiction and non- fiction. Literature includes such genres as epic, legend, myth, ballad, and folklore Science is the discovery of knowledge about the world by verifiable means. Technology is the objects humans make to serve their purposes. Human cultures are both characterized and differentiated by the objects that they make and use. Archaeology attempts to tell the story of past or lost cultures in part by close examination of the artifacts they produced.
Early humans left stone tools, pottery and jewelry that are particular to various regions and times. Improvements in technology are passed from one culture to another. For instance, the cultivation of crops arose in several different locations, but Slide 38: quickly spread to be an almost ubiquitous feature of human life. Similarly, advances in weapons, architecture and metallurgy are quickly disseminated. Space science provides a new perspective on human significance Although such techniques can be passed on by oral tradition, the develop- ment of writing, itself a kind of technology, made it possible to pass information from generation to generation and from region to region with greater accuracy. Together, these developments made possible the commencement of civi- lization and urbanization, with their inherently complex social arrange- ments. Eventually this led to the institutionalization of the development of new technology, and the associated understanding of the way the world functions. This science now forms a central part of human culture. In recent times, physics and astrophysics have come to play a central role in shaping what is now known as physical cosmology, that is, the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. This discipline, which focuses on the universe as it exists on the largest scales and at the earliest times, begins by arguing for the big bang, a sort of cosmic expansion from which the universe itself is said to have erupted ~13.7 Âą 0.2 billion (10) years ago. After its violent beginnings and until its very end, scientists then propose that the entire history of the universe has been an orderly progression governed by physical laws Humans often categorize themselves in terms of race or ethnicity, although the validity of human races as true biological categories is questionable. Human racial categories are based on both ancestry and visible traits, especially skin color and facial features. These categories may also carry some information on non-visible biological traits, such as the risk of developing particular diseases such as sickle-cell disease. Currently available genetic and archaeological evidence is generally inter- preted as supportive of a recent single origin of modern humans in East Africa. Current genetic studies have demonstrated that humans on the Slide 39: African continent are most genetically diverse. However, compared to many other animals, human gene sequences are remarkably homogeneous. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that the great majority of genetic variation occurs within "racial groups", with only 5 to 15% of total variation occurring between racial groups. However, this remains an area of active debate. Ethnic groups, on the other hand, are more often linked by linguistic, cultural, ancestral, and national or regional ties. Self-identification with an ethnic group is based on kinship and descent. Race and ethnicity can lead to variant treatment and impact social identity, giving rise to racism and the theory of identity politics. Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interac- tion between humans. A state is an organized political community occupy- ing a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. Recognition of the state's claim to independence by other states,
enabling it to enter into international agreements, is often important to the establish- ment of its statehood. The "state" can also be defined in terms of domestic conditions, specifically, as conceptualized by Max Weber, "a state is a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the 'legitimate' use of physical force within a given territory." Government can be defined as the political means of creating and enforc- ing laws; typically via a bureaucratic hierarchy. Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. Many different political systems exist, as do many different ways of understanding them, and many definitions overlap. The most common form of government worldwide is a republic, however other examples include Slide 40: monarchy, social democracy, military dictatorship and theocracy. All of these issues have a direct relationship with economics War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organizations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterized by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. It is estimated that during the 20th century between 167 and 188 million humans died as a result of war. A common perception of war is a series of military campaigns between at least two opposing sides involving a dispute over sovereignty, territory, resources, religion or other issues. A war said to liberate an occupied country is sometimes characterized as a "war of liberation", while a war between internal elements of a state is a civil war. Full scale pitched-battle wars between adversaries of comparable strength appear to have nearly disappeared from human activity, with the last major one in the Congo region winding down in the late 1990s. Nearly all war now is asymmetric warfare, in which campaigns of sabotage, guerrilla warfare and sometimes acts of terrorism disrupt control and supply of better-equipped occupying forces, resulting in long low-intensity wars of attrition. Protected Property Intellectual Rights Copyright PeopleNology Nollijy University Research PeopleNology Gregory Bodenhamer Ph.D. War is one of the main catalysts for human advances in technology. Throughout human history there has been a constant struggle between defense and offence, including the technologies behind armour and weapons designed to penetrate it. Modern examples include the bunker buster bomb and the bunkers which they are designed to destroy. Impor- tant inventions such as medicine, navigation, metallurgy, mass production, nuclear power, rocketry and computers have been completely or partially driven by war. There have been a wide variety of rapidly advancing tactics throughout the history of war, ranging from conventional war to asymmetric warfare to total war and unconventional warfare. Techniques include hand to hand com- bat, the use of ranged weapons, and ethnic cleansing. Military intelligence Slide 41: has often played a key role in determining victory and defeat. Propaganda, which often includes factual information, slanted opinion and disinforma- tion, plays a key role in maintaining unity within a warring group,
and/or sowing discord among opponents. In modern warfare, soldiers and armoured fighting vehicles are used to control the land, warships the sea, and air power the sky. These fields have also overlapped in the forms of marines, paratroopers, naval aircraft carriers, and surface-to-air missiles, among others. Satellites in low Earth orbit have made outer space a factor in warfare as well, although no actual warfare is currently carried out in space Trade is the voluntary exchange of goods, services and a form of eco- nomics. A mechanism that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of ex- change, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Because of specialization and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of manufacturing or service, trading their labour for products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have an absolute or comparative advantage in the production of some tradeable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production. Economics is a social science which studies the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. Economics focuses on measurable variables, and is broadly divided into two main branches: microeconomics, which deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, and macroeconomics, which consid- ers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities. Aspects receiving partic- ular attention in economics are resource allocation, production, distribution, trade, and competition. Economic logic is increasingly applied to any problem that involves choice under scarcity or determining economic value. Mainstream economics focuses on how prices reflect supply and demand, and uses equations to Slide 42: PeopleNology for Women Slide 43: PeopleNology by Gregory Bodenhamer Nollijy University Research Order Your Own COMPLETE VERSION Write To NollijyUniversityPeopleNology@Gmail.com GregoryBodenhamer@Live.com Ask for your FREE A TO Z BOOK of PeopleNology for Women