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vol. 3, no.

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June 2011

SIX-MONTHLY JOURNAL

REM

Research on Education and Media

Erickson

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REM Research on Education and Media The magazine is published in English twice per year (hardcopy and on-line). Subscriptions to both hardcopy and on-line editions can be bought at the following rates: € 32,00 (single individuals), € 37,00 (for Groups, Schools or Institutions), € 25,00 (students), to be paid to Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson, via del Pioppeto 24 – 38121 Trento, on postal account number 10182384; please specify your name and address. Subscription to the hardcopy or on-line version only, please see the website www.erickson.it, under «riviste»/magazines. Subscription grants the following bonuses: 1. special discounts on all books published by Erickson; 2. reduced rate enrollment fees for conventions, seminars and courses organized by the Centro Studi Erickson. Subscription is considered continued, unless regularly cancelled by posting, within the 31st of december, the module found on the www.erickson.it., under «riviste»/magazines. Returned issues do not count as cancellation. Subscriptions ofice Tel. 0461 950690 Fax 0461 950698 info@erickson.it The Review is registred by the Court of Trento at number 1388, 19/06/2009 ISSN: 2037-0849 Editor in Chief Pier Cesare Rivoltella

Editor in Chief Pier Cesare Rivoltella Scientiic Committee Ignacio Aguaded Gómez (Universidad de Huelva) Andrew Burn (London University) Ulla Carlsson (Göteborg University) Maria D’Alessio (Sapienza Università di Roma) Thierry De Smedt (Université de Louvain) Luciano Galliani (Università di Padova) Walter Geerts (Univerisiteit Antwerpen) Pierpaolo Limone (Università di Foggia) Laura Messina (Università di Padova) Mario Morcellini (Sapienza Università di Roma) Nelson Pretto (Universidade da Bahia) Vitor Reia-Baptista (Universidade do Algarve) Mario Ricciardi (Politecnico di Torino) Pier Cesare Rivoltella (Università Cattolica di Milano) Luisa Santelli Beccegato (Università di Bari) Jeffrey T. Schnapp (Stanford University) Editor Davide Parmigiani

Referral process Each article is anonymously submitted to two anonymous referees. Only articles for which both referees will express a positive judgment will be accepted. The referees evaluations will be communicated to the authors, including guidelines for changes. In this case, the authors are required to change their submissions according to the referees guidelines. Articles not modified in accordance with the referees guidelines will not be accepted. Secretary Alessandra Carenzio, CREMIT, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 1 - 20123 Milano. Tel.: (0039) 02-72343038 Fax: (0039) 02-72343040 E-mail: rem@educazionemediale.it Note to the Authors Submissions are to be sent, as MS Word files, to the email address of the Secretary: rem@educazionemediale.it Further information about submission and writing-up can be found at www. erickson.it/rem Editorial ofice Roberta Tanzi Layout Loretta Oberosler Graphic design Giordano Pacenza Licia Zuppardi Cover Davide Faggiano Print Legoprint – Lavis (TN)

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iNDEX

SpEcial iSSUE:

ICT AND TEACHER EDUCATION icT and teacher education to build new learning environments Davide Parmigiani

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Section one: Methodological and theoretical essays Development group as context for expansive learning? about attempts to integrate icT in teacher education Sirkku Männikkö-Barbutiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

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Media education and healthy nutrition: a training experience with teachers and students Laura Messina and Elena Grassi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Section two: Reports of empirical studies and surveys Enhancing pre-service teachers’ knowledge building discourse with a hybrid learning environment Stéphane Allaire, Thérèse Laferrière and Fernand Gervais . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Developing icT teachers’ training on a situated competence profile Elena Boldrini and Alberto Cattaneo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

The relationship between attitude, thinking and activity of students in an e-learning course Rivka Wadmany, Rikki Rimor and Einat Rozner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Using internet information: Undergraduate teachers’ critical competencies Patrick Giroux, Mathieu Gagnon, Stéphanie Lessard and Josiane Cornut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

integrating technology into instructional practices: a training research-intervention with in-service teachers Laura Messina and Sara Tabone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

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icT and teacher education to build new learning environments Why do teachers have to use ICT in managing learning environments? The question would seem banal and the answer so obvious: technologies are so important for the development of society that teachers are forced to use ICT in the school contexts. In this way, one could think that the integration of ICT at school means using a lot of devices in the classroom to train and prepare pupils for their future work opportunities. This literacy approach was useful at the beginning of ICT’s integration at school, when pupils could not use technologies at home or with their friends during their leisure time. In the 80s and 90s, they had to learn to use the new technologies at school because, otherwise, they would not have had other chances to do so. Writing a text, creating a hypertext or a spreadsheet, surfing the Internet, editing a video, downloading a picture from a camera, scanning a drawing: these were tasks which pupils could not carry out at home, but in equipped computer labs. Nowadays, the issue has become more complex. Tools and web 2.0 allow pupils to create documents, pictures and videos, quickly; they are able to upload them to the Internet in real time and, finally, they can debate with their friends at anytime and anywhere, through the social networks. In addition, young people learn to use digital devices before school and during informal and extracurricular activities. They appropriate technologies for their own use in a personal way but they reveal «scarce critical reflection and passivity» (Ranieri, 2010). In addition, they do not realise that their mobile phones or a social network can be used in educational ways. Edizioni Erickson – Trento

REM – vol. 3, no. 1, June 2011 (5-24)

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When O’Reilly (2005) coined the term “Web 2.0”, he defined it «as a second-generation or more personalized communication form of the World Wide Web that emphasizes active participation, connectivity, collaboration, and the sharing of knowledge and ideas among users. Many people collaborate, create, and share new information on the web through various web 2.0 tools, such as social bookmarking systems, blogs, wikis, and video-sharing platforms during their leisure time» (Lai & Ng, 2011, p. 15). The relationship between leisure time and ICT went beyond the school (Luckin et al., 2008). The new challenge for teachers is to give a new meaning to technologies and create new instructional roads along with pupils. The dialogue with young people has become essential in building a learning environment where teachers and pupils are able to share information critically, create new knowledge and develop key competences through a meaningful and effective use of ICT.

Creativity in designing learning environments Such consideration fully involves the teacher education programmes because new teachers should start their school experience with solid and consistent skills in using ICT during the instructional activities. Obviously, the old approaches based simply on technical literacy are replaced by the new approach called generally “digital literacy” (Gilster, 1997; Rivoltella, 2008; Gillen & Barton, 2009) which includes the development of skills and competences useful to face the challenges of the information society: understand the complexity, manage the different sources of information, assert one’s own rights, be able to study and work collaboratively, etc. «Our approach to digital literacy practices involves careful and sensitive attention to what people do with texts, how they make sense of them and use them to further their own purposes in their own lives. So intrinsic to the notion of “digital literacies” is the idea that we need multiple, rich methods to uncover the complexities of people’s interactions using digital technologies» (Gillen & Barton, 2009). Moon (1997) and Atkinson (1997) already indicated new paradigms for development of teacher education through the use of ICT and they underlined pedagogical considerations «in order to propose an integrated pedagogical model for the delivery of teacher education by means of the new technologies» (Atkinson, 1997, p. 101). This orientation exploded at 6

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icT and teacher education to build new learning environments

the beginning of 2000 when the use of the Internet and broadband spread rapidly in families, schools, workplaces, etc. In addition, web 2.0 and the technological convergence (since around 2005) required (and still requires) a transformation of learning environments. The structure of web 2.0 encourages some learning styles (as shown in Table 1) but teachers have to improve the exploration and collaboration processes in a critical way, because pupils do not change into learners 2.0 naturally. Learning 1.0 Formal and structured learning

Learning 2.0 informal and collaborative learning

instructor led, web-based, virtual and blended Blended, blogs, wikis, Q&a, search command and control; top-down, push

Bottom-up; peer to peer, pull

centralized content creation

Grassroots content creation

Management hierarchy

Mentoring, knowledge networks

Taxonomies

Tags

Scheduled, planned

Real-time, just in time

company-identified experts

community identified experts

Managed formal events

Enabled knowledge exchange

Table 1

Evolution of learning from web 1.0 to 2.0 (Gunawardena et al., 2009, p. 5, adapted from Lambert, 2008).

Students become learners 2.0 when teachers design a learning environment coherent and consistent and use the characteristics of web 2.0 to support the growth of students’ learning strategies. For this reason, they should identify the basic theoretical background to base firmly the creation of new classrooms where learning strategies suggest teaching strategies 2.0, as shown in Table 2. This is a difficult commitment for teachers because they have to manage a structure (the school) that struggles to face the challenges arising from society and web 2.0. New teachers should arrange learning environments where students and teachers can debate new learning approaches and create new knowledge. Besides, tools 2.0 suggests some teaching methodologies based on interaction and collaboration, so teachers have to structure planning methods to support both the interaction and collaboration among learners. 7

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Teaching 1.0

Teaching 2.0

Teacher-centred instruction

Student-centred learning

Single-sense stimulation

Multisensory stimulation

Single-path progression

Multipath progression

Single media

Multimedia

isolated work

collaborative work

information delivery

information exchange

passive learning

active/exploratory/inquiry-based learning

Factual, knowledge-based learning

critical thinking and informed decision-making

Reactive response

proactive/planned action

isolated, artificial context

authentic, real-world context

Table 2

Evolution of teaching strategies (Unesco, 2002, p. 59).

The most useful teaching methods are oriented towards the building of a generative knowledge environment (see CTG Vanderbilt, 1992; 1993; 1995; Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994) where pupils can experience the cognitive apprenticeship (see Collins, Brown & Newman, 1995) posing and solving problems within a community of learning (see Jonassen, 1994; 1995; 2006). For this reason, teachers are required to build networks for sharing time between school and extra-curricular activities, including family, friends, territory and to take educational advantage of the various communicative styles of the pupils. To summarize, the basic features of an innovative learning environment are as follows: – involving all subjects and all classroom teachers; – modifing the structural aspects of school (transmission versus construction of knowledge); – experimenting new ways of representing knowledge and new language (books or digital content); – experimenting new ways of organizing time and space of learning (school/ home, presence/distance); – avoiding the abandonment and scholastic difficulties; – providing a learning environment more “attractive” to students; – promoting students creativity, both in the use of the instruments and in the construction of knowledge. 8

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icT and teacher education to build new learning environments

In order to do so, it is evident that new teachers have to be skilled in creating new learning environments. For this reason, the basic formation for student teachers is found on the ability to design and plan meaningful learning activities. The creativity in designing learning environments becomes the main purpose for the integration of ICT in Teacher Education. When new teachers begin to work, they will find various contexts and different pupils but, anyhow, technologies will constitute the external framework that affects the internal relationships among teachers, pupils, knowledge and competences. In such situations, teachers will have to manage a lot of variables (structural, technical, times, spaces, etc.) and the best way to arrange a multidimensional environment is a lesson and curriculum planning based on goals, conceptual maps, research-action, problem-solving, competency and collaborative interaction. These are the basic words to integrate ICT in everyday educational activities effectively. If the educational design provides that these words form the core curriculum, teachers will use ICT naturally, because the theoretical bases of ICT and web 2.0 are developed in these ways.

Beginning teachers and ICT facing the challenges of knowledge society «The potentialities of digital technologies enable new patterns of authoring, reuse and reception, new opportunities for uses of media, new possibilities for recontextualisation, reproduction and dissemination» (Coiro et al., 2007). Student teachers are, partially, learners 2.0 because they know and use devices 2.0 for their own needs and leisure, but they have to change themselves into teachers 2.0. They have to be able to use tools, borne out of school, integrating them in everyday educational activities. «Practicing teachers are challenged to remain current in ICT pedagogical competences in classroom teaching. The new teachers require professional learning courses to better equip them with the appropriate pedagogies to select and integrate ICT in the curriculum to improve student learning outcomes» (Ng & Lim, 2011, p. 1). For these reasons, to promote the basic purpose of an «effective technology integration, many educators and scholars have considered pre-service 9

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REM – vol. 3, no. 1, June 2011

teacher education to be as important as professional development (Kim & Hannafin, 2008; Lim & Chan, 2007; Russell et al., 2003). However, many beginning teachers are not able to effectively integrate technology into their teaching because they learned about technology itself rather than how to teach with technology during their teacher education programs. Learning about technology integration includes learning about the educational potential of computers and the culture of teaching with technology; it is not limited simply to technology skills. That helps to explain the importance of situated learning for pre-service teacher education. Generally, situated approaches in education encourage learning from practicing teachers’ and pre-service teachers’ teaching experiences (Putnam & Borko, 2000)» (Kim, 2011, p. 10). The impact of pre-service field training sessions for pre-service teachers on the prospective use of ICT at school (Larose et al., 2009) becomes the basic factor in preparing new teachers to face the challenges of knowledge society, because «teaching is becoming one of the most challenging professions in our society where knowledge is expanding rapidly and much of it is available to students as well as teachers at the same time (Perraton, Robinson & Creed, 2001). As new concepts of learning have evolved, teachers are expected to facilitate learning and make it meaningful to individual learners rather than just to provide knowledge and skills. Modern developments of innovative technologies have provided new possibilities to teaching professions, but at the same time have placed more demands on teachers to learn how to use these new technologies in their teaching (Robinson & Latchem, 2003). Then what can be done to help teachers meet these challenges?» (Jung, 2005, p. 94). In order to do so, the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) «has developed accreditation standards for teacher preparation programmes for specialization in ICTs. The technology specialization guidelines have been adopted by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) and are currently used in evaluation of teacher preparation programmes for accreditation» (Unesco, 2002, p. 52). The documents published in 2002 and 2008 show the development of the use of ICT in teacher education programmes. In the former, the performance indicators for teachers were organised as shown in Table 3. 10

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icT and teacher education to build new learning environments

1. Technology Operations and concepts

Teachers demonstrate a sound understanding of technology operations and concepts

2. planning and Designing learning Environments and Experiences

Teachers plan and design effective learning environments and experiences supported by technology

3. Teaching, learning, and the curriculum

Teachers implement curriculum plans that include methods and strategies for applying technology to maximize student learning

4. assessment and Evaluation

Teachers apply technology to facilitate a variety of effective assessment and evaluation strategies

5. productivity and professional practice

Teachers use technology to enhance their productivity and professional practice

6. Social, Ethical, legal, and Human issues

Teachers understand the social, ethical, legal, and human issues surrounding the use of technology in pK–12 schools and apply that understanding to practice

Table 3

ISTE National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) and Performance Indicators for Teachers (Unesco, 2002, pp. 52-53).

In the latter, shown in table 4, ÂŤISTE launched a refresh of the NETS providing a framework for educators to use as they transition schools from Industrial Age to Digital Age places of learningÂť (ISTE, 2008). 1. Facilitate and inspire Student learning and creativity

Teachers use their knowledge of subject matter, teaching and learning, and technology to facilitate experiences that advance student learning, creativity, and innovation in both face-to-face and virtual environments

2. Design and Develop Digital-age learning Experiences and assessments

Teachers design, develop, and evaluate authentic learning experiences and assessment incorporating contemporary tools and resources to maximize content learning in context and to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes

3. Model Digital-age Work and learning

Teachers exhibit knowledge, skills, and work processes representative of an innovative professional in a global and digital society

4. promote and Model Digital citizenship and Responsibility

Teachers understand local and global societal issues and responsibilities in an evolving digital culture and exhibit legal and ethical behavior in their professional practices

5. Engage in professional Growth and leadership

Teachers continuously improve their professional practice, model lifelong learning, and exhibit leadership in their school and professional community by promoting and demonstrating the effective use of digital tools and resources

Table 4

ISTE National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) and Performance Indicators for Teachers (ISTE, 2008).

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Both the first and last documents are focused on the designing of learning experiences, but the sub-indicators included in NETS 2002 (the reader can find them at the website of ISTE: www.iste.org/Libraries/PDFs/NETS_ for_Teachers_2000.sflb.ashx) underlined the use of ICT to develop contents, knowledge and the curriculum in general. Instead, the sub-indicators of NETS 2008 (www.iste.org/standards/nets-for-teachers/nets-for-teachers-2008.aspx) emphasize the challenges of the digital age, for instance, «collaborating with students, peers, parents, and community members using digital tools and resources to support student success and innovation» (ISTE, 2008). The whole perspective of the integration of ICT in the syllabus of teacher education programmes is provided by Unesco through the project “ICT Competency Standards for Teachers” (ICT-CST) that indicates «guidelines for all teachers, specifically for planning teacher education programs and training offerings that will prepare them to play an essential role in producing technology capable students» (Unesco, 2008, p. 1).

policy and vision

technology literacy

knowledge deepening

knowledge creation

curriculum and assessment

basic knowledge

knowledge application

21ST century skills

pedagogy

integrate technology

complex problem solving

self management

ict

basic tools

complex tools

pervasive tools

organization & administration

standard classroom

collaborative groups

learning organizations

teacher professional development

digital literacy

manage and guide

teacher as model learner

Figure 1

ICT competency standards for teachers (Unesco, 2008, p. 5).

Figure 1 crosses the «three approaches to education reform based on human capacity development (technology literacy, knowledge deepening, and knowledge creation) with the six components of the educational system (policy, curriculum, pedagogy, ICT, organization, and teacher training)» (Unesco, 2008, p. 5). As the reader can see, the evolution of ICT starts from 12

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“basic tools” to “pervasive tools”. That means that pre-service teachers will work in classrooms where pupils already are in a digital world and, for them, tools 2.0 belong to their everyday informal learning experiences. For this reason, teachers have to be considered as “model learner” (at the junction of the last line and the last column of the figure). «Teachers are themselves master learners and knowledge producers who are constantly engaged in educational experimentation and innovation to produce new knowledge about learning and teaching practice [...] and they must have the ability and inclination to experiment and continuously learn and use ICT to create professional knowledge communities» (Unesco, 2008, p. 12).

Steps for the integration of ICT in teacher education courses In the previous international documents, I have shown aims, indicators and features which must characterize the integration and the use of ICT in the programs for pre-service teachers. Such aims are high, important and intense, so I must emphasize a basic and progressive structure for the development and integration of ICT in Teacher Education. In fact, I have to design a path for working experiences where pre-service teachers have many opportunities to experiment the use and the integration of ICT in the classrooms progressively. Stages

Teacher’s identity

Descriptions

Entry

Novice

learning the fundamentals of using icT; technical and pedagogical issues dominate

adoption

adopter

Successfully using icT on a basic level in ways consistent with traditional teaching practices; teaching students to use computers

adaptation

Routine user

Use icT to increase productivity. More frequent and purposeful use, but little change in the didactic approach; more instructional software and open tools are being used

appropriation

integrated user

can’t live and work without computers; use icT “effortlessly” as a tool to achieve multiple job goals

invention

Emerging innovator

Use icT as a flexible tool in the classroom. learning is more collaborative, interactive and customized; new teaching and learning practices emerge

Table 5

Stages for integration of ICT in Teacher Education (Chai & Lim, 2011, p. 6, adapted from Sandholtz & Reilly, 2004, p. 491).

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Table 5 indicates the stages through which pre-service teachers can develop their ICT skills from both a technical and a pedagogical point of view. «In the first stage, entry, teachers focus on addressing technical issues and establishing order in radically transformed physical environments. [...] In the second stage, adoption, teachers continue to deal with technology issues, but they begin to show more concern about how technology can be integrated into daily instructional plans. [...] In the third stage, adaptation, teachers integrate technology more thoroughly into traditional classroom practice. [...] Appropriation, the fourth stage, is characterized by teachers’ change in attitude toward technology. Teachers understand technology and use it effortlessly as a classroom tool. In the fifth stage, invention, teachers experiment with new instructional patterns and ways of relating to students and other teachers» (Sandholtz & Reilly, 2004, pp. 490-492). The ICT development entails some design implications for pre-service teacher education programmes, in particular, the path goes from learning ICT applications to learning how to learn and create new knowledge through ICT and tools 2.0.

Approaches and models for ICT in teacher education Four categories On the basis of the previous ideas, now I want to point out some approaches and models for ICT teacher training in Higher education programmes because they can take many forms. «Teachers can be trained to learn how to use ICT or teachers can be trained via ICT. ICT can be used as a core or a complementary means to the teacher training process» (Jung, 2005, p. 95). Figure 2 shows four main categories. The first square in the first quadrant indicates the approaches based on ICT use as main content focus of teacher training. «Most of the early ICT teacher training programs in the 1990’s focused on ICT use as the main training content. This approach has an emphasis on teacher training in how to use ICT in the classroom. It addresses issues such as selecting appropriate ICT tools and supporting students in the use of those tools, using ICT to promote learning activities, developing new methods of facilitating learning and evaluating student performance, and so on» (Jung, 2005, p. 95). The second quadrant shows the ICT use as part of teaching 14

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icT and teacher education to build new learning environments

Core Technology 1

3

ICT as main content focus

ICT as core delivery technology

Learning VIA ICT

Learning how to use ICT ICT as part of contents or methods

ICT as facilitating or networking technology

2

4 Complementary Technology

Figure 2

Categories for ICT in teacher training (Jung, 2005, p. 95).

methods. This approach integrates ICT into teacher training to facilitate some aspects of training and focuses on the ability of pre-service teachers to develop ICT-integrated pedagogies. ICT are adopted as part of effective training methods, so teacher educators use ICT to train student teachers in using ICT in their future classroom activities, showing and discussing descriptions and demonstrations of how technology can be used in the classrooms. The third square underlines ICT as core technology for delivering teacher training. In this approach, «ICT is used as the major way of providing the learning experience of teacher training (mainly thorugh e-learning platforms or internet-based courses). The content of this approach does not necessarily focus on ICT skill itself but rather covers a variety of ICT applications» (Jung, 2005, p. 97). The last square pinpoints the ICT use to facilitate professional development and networking. «Whereas the use of ICT as core technology for delivering teacher training can be found in limited contexts, there are many examples of ICT, particularly Internet and web-based communication technologies, being used to support teachers’ on-going professional development and networking. Many countries have developed websites to provide on-line resources for teachers and facilitate teachers’ networking based on the assumption that professional development should be an integral part of daily practice for all teachers and the use of the 15

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REM – vol. 3, no. 1, June 2011

Internet would enhance continuous professional development activities of teachers, connecting teachers to larger teaching communities and allowing for interaction with expert groups» (Jung, 2005, p. 98). Four groups of ICT competences The second approach is proposed by Unesco and emphasizes four groups of competences (see Figure 3) which should be developed during the preservice teacher courses. «“Pedagogy” is focused on teachers’ instructional practices and knowledge of the curriculum and requires that they develop applications within their disciplines that make effective use of ICT to support and extend teaching and learning. “Collaboration and Networking” acknowledges the communicative potential of ICT to extend learning beyond the classroom walls and the implications for teachers development of new knowledge and skills. Technology brings with it new rights and responsibilities, including equitable access to technology resources, care for individual health, and respect for intellectual property included within the “Social Issues” aspect of ICT competence. Finally, “Technical Issues” is an aspect of the Lifelong Learning theme through which teachers update skills with hardware and software as new generations of technology emerge» (Unesco, 2002, p. 41).

Leadership and Vision

Content and Pedagogy

Planning and Management of Change

Collaboration & Networking

TEACHER EDUCATION

Technical Issues

Social Issues

Context and Culture

Figure 3

Categories for ICT in Teacher Training (Unesco, 2002, p. 41).

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Lifelong Learning


icT and teacher education to build new learning environments

Three axes for three dimensions The technological teacher education is summarized in a model that blends, links and joins technical and educational skills in ICT. Figure 4 shows the basic dimensions for the technological teacher education.

REFLECTION ON TECHNOLOGIES

APPLICATION IN CLASSROOM

Figure 4

TECHNICAL SKILLS

Dimensions for technological teacher education (Parmigiani, 2005a).

The three Cartesian axes show the essential aspects of a well-rounded technological teacher education: the technical dimension connected to skills for using hardware, software and various equipment; the part relative to reflection on technologies and on their repercussions on culture, language, knowledge and cognitive styles; the dimension linked to application of ICT during educational activities and the use in building of learning environment. In teacher education, sometimes, the programs emphasize one aspect more than the other. If the program focuses too much on the technical dimension, the pre-service teachers learn to use some software or equipment but it is likely they are not able to apply these skills in daily educational activities. If the program focuses only on the reflective dimension, the student teachers are able to think over the impact of technologies on the society but they can not design interesting lessons for the pupils. If the program concentrates only on application dimension, the future teachers can plan activities but they are not able to use equipment or tools during instructional activities. A course aimed at technological teacher education should move the centre of interest to face the technical resources (hardware or software) to design an educational plan and create a learning environment where the pupils have many occasions for learning and reasoning over the importance 17

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of the impact of ICT on their own learning and on knowledge society (see Parmigiani, 2005b). This structuring was suitable at the end of the 90s, when web 2.0 did not exist yet. Now, the basic root is still valid, but the Internet and media evolutions that have occurred during the last few years, force us to revise this framework because it is more complex due to some elements surfaced by ICT 2.0. The instructional designers have to consider the new factors shown in Figure 5 originated by the technical changes and, above all, by new communicative and learning styles of the young people which have been revealed through the introduction of technique connected to web 2.0. The technical dimension becomes more complex because it is not sufficient to know some software but it is necessary to build and manage online platform with many opportunities of interaction and communication between pupils and teachers. Therefore, the new technique is composed of a set of tools which allow the creation of contents and a learning digital space for sharing materials, documents, knowledge, persons and groups. The equipment (mobile phones, netbooks, scanner, videoprojector, etc.) and the software (word, image or video processor) become elements of a comprehensive learning context.

Social issues REFLECTION ON TECHNOLOGIES Interaction

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES

Social networks

EDUCATIONAL DESIGN

Building platform e-learning Collaboration Key competences

TECHNICAL SKILLS

APPLICATION IN AND OUT CLASSROOM Mobile learning

Figure 5

Tools 2.0

Learning and metacognitive processes

Creating contents

INSTRUCTIONAL ASSESSMENT

New dimensions for technological teacher education in the age of web 2.0.

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icT and teacher education to build new learning environments

The reflection dimension observes the influence of the web and how it changes the relationship among the students. Not only is the Internet a technical feature, but also an educational, social and cognitive concept. It is not sufficient to be an Internet user to build a knowledge community in the classroom. The pupils should be aware of the communicative and cognitive meaning of the web to visualize and, progessively, create a network among the students to develop meaningful meta-cognitive and learning processes. The application in a classroom dimension identifies the collaboration among students and teachers as the fundamental element for developing the key competences and starting meaningful cognitive and metacognitive processes. So, teacher education has to provide the skills for managing, handling and orienting both on-line and face-to-face activities through applications that connect the activities in and out of the classrooms (mobile learning). As in the previous model, the educational centre of interest moves in these different sectors to analyse them. It is evident that teacher education can focus progressively on each area to allow all pre-service teachers (also not experts) to embrace gradually these educational frameworks.

Papers in this issue Now, I can present the papers included in this special issue dedicated to the theme “ICT and Teacher Education”. The issue is divided into two sections: in the first one, entitled “Methodological and theoretical essays”, the reader can find articles where the authors relate their different experiences in integrating ICT, carried out in various contexts. In fact, the aim of this section is to show that ICT might be integrated in the courses for pre- and in-service teachers, focusing on areas and underlining themes which are not immediately connected with ICT. In particular, Sirkku Männikkö-Barbutiu, from the Stockholm University (Sweden), presents a project aimed at enhancing the digital literacy among teacher educators, underlining the concept of “expansive learning”. Messina and Grassi, from the University of Padua (Italy), present an experience focused on the interaction between Media Education, healthy nutrition and teacher education through a project carried out during the past few years. 19

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The second section includes reports of empirical studies and surveys. Allaire, Laferrière and Gervais, from the University of Québec at Chicoutimi and Laval University, Quebec City (Canada), which investigate the social and digital affordances which emerge during knowledge building discourses, carried out in a hybrid learning environment. Boldrini and Cattaneo, from the Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (Switzerland), describe and deepen a research pattern whose goal was principally the recognition of the ICT-related competence profile, as a part of the whole teacher competence profile. Wadmany, Rimor and Rozner, from Kibbutzim college of Education, Technology & Arts, Tel Aviv (Israel), present a study focused on the relationship between the metacognitive thinking, activity and attitudes of students in an e-learning course. The survey carried out by Giroux and Gagnon, from the University of Québec at Chicoutimi (Canada), is aimed at exploring if undergraduate teachers in a Québec university were able to use the information contained in Internet critically. Messina and Tabone, from the University of Padua (Italy), present a research-intervention based on TPACK model, involving lower secondary school teachers, participating in a project called “Cl@sses 2.0”. All papers follow a structure that can be summarized and shown in Figure 6. In order to study the evolution and the integration of ICT in teacher education, we should consider three levels or situations: I am starting from the 3rd level because I want to use an inductive procedure. The 3rd level concerns the usual situations at school where the teachers

1st level

Teacher educators faculty

2nd level

Student teachers faculty/school

Teachers

3th level

school

Figure 6

Levels for integration of ICT in teacher education.

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have to organize and carry out lessons with ICT in their classrooms. The studies presented in this special issue underline some features of the use of ICT in the classrooms: – relationships between the use of ICT and the development of collaboration among the pupils/students, integrating face-to-face and on-line discussions (Koschmann, 1996; Bluemink & Jarvela, 2004; Helleve, 2007; Lin, 2008) to share meaning in social interaction; – learning processes supported by the use of ICT (metacognitive, reflexive, analytical skills, etc) (Dickey, 2008); – information retrieval, search strategies and critical use of the Internet (Tsai, Tsai & Wang, 2011); – knowledge building and/or inquiry processes; – ICT and tools 2.0 (social software, etc.) (Top, Yukselturk & Inan, 2010; Granberg, 2010; Parmigiani et al., 2010; Lai & Ng, 2011); – teaching methods and teachers’ competences (use of interactive whiteboards, tools or software, etc.) (Rasku-Puttonen et al., 2004 ; McCarney, 2004; Lavonen et al., 2006; Lim & Chan, 2007; Syh-Jong, 2008; Parmigiani, 2010). Highlighting these studies (3rd level), I can underline the characteristics of lesson designing with ICT. Consequently, I can indicate the competences that student teachers (2nd level) have to develop to become skilled teachers in creating and managing lessons with ICT in their future classrooms. In fact, some papers are more related to the 2nd level, because they show experiences carried out between faculty and school, which train the student teachers in the use of ICT in the classroom through workshops in the faculty and/or activities in the classroom during the stage/apprenticeship at school. In this way, also the in-service teachers can develop their own ICT skills. Finally, the 1st level concerns the educational opportunities in faculty when teacher educators and student teachers use and discuss ICT during the lectures. In this way, by focusing on the empirical studies (3rd level), we have indicated the competences for a skilled ICT student teacher (2nd level), and, in the final analysis, we can rethink and indicate the structure of the university programs about Educational technology (1st level) because we are aware of the educational needs of our student teachers. This special issue has been designed with the support of ATEE (Association for Teacher Education in Europe, www.atee1.org) and, in particular the Research and Development Centre (RDC) in Teacher Education and 21

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Information Technology, a community where teacher educators from all over Europe and other countires, can meet, exchange and co-operate. Davide Parmigiani University of Genoa

References Atkinson, T. (1997). Pedagogical Considerations in the Application of New Technologies to Teacher Education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 20 (1), 101-106. Bluemink, J., & Järvelä, S. (2004). Face-to-face encounters as contextual support for Webbased discussions in a teacher education course. Internet and Higher Education 7, 199215. Chai, C.S., & Lim, C.P. (2011). The Internet and teacher education: Traversing between the digitized world and schools. Internet and Higher Education 14, 3-9. Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1992). Technology and the Design of Generative Learning Environments. In T.M. Duffy & D.H. Jonassen (Eds.), Constructivism and the Technology of Instruction, a Conversation (pp. 77-89). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1993). Towards Integrated Curricola: Possibilites From Anchored Instruction. In M. Rabinowitz (Ed.), Cognitive Science Foundations of Instruction (pp. 33-55). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1995). Instructional Design and Development of Learning Communities. Educational Technology 35 (5), 53-63. Coiro, J., Knobel, M., Lankshear, C., & Leu, D. (Eds.) (2007). Handbook of research on new literacies. London: Routledge. Collins, A., Brown, S.J. & Newman, S.E. (1995). L’apprendistato cognitivo, per insegnare a leggere, scrivere e a far di conto. In C. Pontecorvo, A.M. Ajello & C. Zucchermaglio (Eds.), I contesti sociali dell’apprendimento (pp. 181-231). Milano: Ambrosiana. Dickey, M.D. (2008). Integrating cognitive apprenticeship methods in a Web-based educational technology course for P-12 teacher education. Computers & Education, 51, 506-518. Gillen, J., & Barton, D. (2009). Digital Literacies. A discussion document for TLRP-TEL. (Teaching and Learning Research Programme - Technology Enhanced Learning - workshop on digital literacies). Lancaster University 12-13 March 2009. (http://www.tlrp. org/tel/files/2009/02/digital-literacies-gillen-barton-2009.pdf). Gilster, P. (1997). Digital Literacy. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Granberg, C. (2010). E-portfolios in teacher education 2002-2009: The social construction of discourse, design and dissemination. European Journal of Teacher Education, 33 (3), 309-322. Gunawardena, C.N., Hermans, M.B., Sanchez, D., Richmond, C., Bohley, M., & Tuttle, R. (2009). A theoretical framework for building on-line communities of practice with social networking tools. Educational Media International, 46 (1), 3-16.

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Helleve, I. (2007). In an ICT-based teacher-education context: why was our group “the magic group”? European Journal of Teacher Education, 30 (3), 267-284. ISTE (2008). NETS for Teachers. (http://www.iste.org/standards/nets-for-teachers/nets-forteachers-2008.aspx) Jonassen, D.H. (1994). Thinking technology. Toward a Constructivist Design Model. Educational Technology 34 (4), 34-37. Jonassen, D.H. (1995). Supporting Communities of Learners with Technology: A Vision for Integrating Technology with Learning in Schools. Educational Technology, 35 (4), 60-63. Jonassen, D.H. (2006). Modeling with technology: Mindtools forconceptual change. Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice-Hall. Jung, I. (2005). ICT-Pedagogy Integration in Teacher Training: Application Cases Worldwide. Educational Technology & Society, 8 (2), 94-101. Kim, H. (2011). Exploring freshmen preservice teachers’ situated knowledge in reflective reports during case-based activities. Internet and Higher Education, 14, 10-14. Kim, H., & Hannafin, M.J. (2008). Situated case-based knowledge: An emerging framework for prospective teacher learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 (7), 1837-1845. Koschmann, T. (1996). CSCL: Theory and practice of an emerging paradigm. Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum. Lai, Y.C., & Ng, E.M.W. (2011). Using wikis to develop student teachers’ learning, teaching, and assessment capabilities. Internet and Higher Education, 14, 15-26. Lambert, A.G. (2008). Future of learning: Everything you wanted to know about Web 2.0. Chief learning officer. Larose, F., Grenon, V., Morin, M-P., & Hasni, A. (2009). The impact of pre-service field training sessions on the probability of future teachers using ICT in school. European Journal of Teacher Education, 32 (3), 289-303. Lavonen, J., Lattu, M., Juuti, K., & Meisalo, V. (2006). Strategy-based development of teacher educators’ ICT competence through a co-operative staff development project. European Journal of Teacher Education 29 (2), 241-265. Lim, C.P., & Chan, B.C. (2007). Micro lessons in teacher education: Examining pre-service teachers’ pedagogical beliefs. Computers and Education, 48 (3), 474-494. Lin, Q. (2008). Student satisfactions in four mixed courses in elementary teacher education program. Internet and Higher Education, 11, 53-59. Luckin, R., Logan, K., Clark, W., Graber, R., Oliver, M., & Mee, A. (2008). Learners’ use of Web 2.0 technologies in and out of school in Key Stages 3 and 4. Coventry: Becta. McCarney, J. (2004). Effective models of staff development in ICT. European Journal of Teacher Education, 27 (1), 61-72. Moon, B. (1997). Open Learning and New Technologies in Teacher Education: New paradigms for development. European Journal of Teacher Education, 20 (1), 7-31. Ng, E.M.W., & Lim, C.P. (2011). Editorial for special issue: The Internet and teacher education. An Asian experience. Internet and Higher Education, 14, 1-2. O’Reilly, T. (2005). What Is Web 2.0: Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. (http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/ what-is-web-20.html). Parmigiani, D. (2005a). Didattica, tecnologia e ricerca. In R. Cerri & D. Parmigiani (Eds.), Humanitas Techne Media Logos. La tecnologia, l’uomo, la formazione (pp. 147-214). Roma: Edup. 23

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Parmigiani, D. (2005b). L’alfabetizzazione informatica degli insegnanti. Form@re 32. (http:// www.formare.erickson.it/archivio/gennaio_05/5_PARMIGIANI_2.html). Parmigiani, D. (2010). Creating a team teaching at school through web and technologies 2.0. In ATEE Spring Conference Proceedings: Teacher of the 21st Century. Quality Education for Quality Teaching, Riga, Latvia, May 7th-8th, 2010, pp. 391-398. Parmigiani, D., Cerri, R., Lupi, V., & Ghezzi, E. (2010). Cl@ssroom 2.0: How to improve the learning environment through ICT and web 2.0. In ATEE Winter Conference Proceedings: Early Years, Primary Education and ICT – vol. II, Prague, Czech Republic, February 26th-28th, 2010, pp. 100-113. Perraton, H., Robinson, B., & Creed, C. (2001). Teacher education through distance learning: Technology, curriculum, evaluation, cost. Paris: Unesco. Putnam, R.T., & Borko, H. (2000). What do new views of knowledge and thinking have to say about research on teacher learning? Educational Researcher, 29 (1), 4-15. Ranieri, M. (2010). To be or not to be... digital teens? A study on the development of critical thinking skills of adolescents. In A. Parola & M. Ranieri (Eds.), Media Education in action. A research study in six european countries (165-193). Firenze: Firenze University Press. Rasku-Puttonen, H., Eteläpelto, A., Lehtonen, O., Nummila, L., & Häkkinen, P. (2004). Developing teachers’ professional expertise through collaboration in an innovative ICTbased learning environment. European Journal of Teacher Education, 27 (1), 47-60. Rivoltella, P.C. (Ed.) (2008). Digital Literacy. Tools and Methodologies for Information Society. Hershey, PA: Igi Global. Robinson, B., & Latchem, C. (2003). Teacher education: Challenges and change. In B. Robinson & C. Latchem (Eds.), Teacher education through open and distance learning (pp. 1-27). London: RoutledgeFalmer. Russell, M., Bebell, D., O’Dwyer, L., & O’Connor, K. (2003). Examining teacher technology use: Implications for preservice and inservice teacher preparation. Journal of Teacher Education, 54 (4), 297-310. Sandholtz, J.H., & Reilly, B. (2004). Teachers, not technicians: Rethinking technical expectations for teachers. Teachers College Record, 106 (3), 487-512. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1994). Computer Support for Knowledge-Building Communities. The Journal of Learning Sciences, 3 (3), 265-283. Syh-Jong, J. (2008). Innovations in science teacher education: Effects of integrating technology and team-teaching strategies. Computers & Education, 51, 646-659. Top, E., Yukselturk, E., & Inan, F.A. (2010). Reconsidering usage of blogging in preservice teacher education courses. Internet and Higher Education, 13, 214-217. Tsai, P.S., Tsai, C.C., & Hwang, G.J. (2011). The correlates of Taiwan teachers’ epistemological beliefs concerning Internet environments, on-line search strategies, and search outcomes. Internet and Higher Education, 14, 54-63. Unesco (2002). Information and Communication Technologies in Teacher Education. A planning Guide. (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001295/129533e.pdf). Unesco (2008). ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. Competency Standards Modules. (http://cst.unesco-ci.org/sites/projects/cst/The%20Standards/ICT-CST-Competency%20 Standards%20Modules.pdf).

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Section one: Methodological and theoretical essays

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Development group as context for expansive learning? about attempts to integrate icT in teacher education Sirkku Männikkö-Barbutiu

aBSTRacT

Department of Education in Arts and Professions, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden. E-mail: sirkku.mannikko-barbutiu@utep.su.se

Despite numerous and costly development projects ICT still plays only a limited role in the teacher education program which should prepare teachers for future generations of digital natives. This paper describes a two year project with the attempt to take a holistic and integrative approach to ICT in teacher education within a university department. A development group as a core of activities, the whole department is engaged in competence development and course development in an interdisciplinary and collegial manner encouraging individuals to explore novel ways of working in an environment where ICT plays a natural role. Members of the development group give support to each other and the other colleagues in the department and create thus an environment for expansive learning. Keywords: expansive learning; digital literacy; higher education; development group.

Edizioni Erickson – Trento

REM – vol. 3, no. 1, June 2011 (27-43)

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Introduction For years now numerous and costly attempts have been made by governments, organisations, public and private actors to integrate ICT in teaching and learning activities. The staggering realization today is that we are still working on that integration to take place. The visions of ICT as a vitally important tool for 21st century learning have not been materialized in ways that the visionaries hoped for and many of us are wondering why this is the case. This paper presents a two-year ICT development project within a university department in Sweden where the goal was to enhance the ways ICT already was part of the teaching practices and, additionally, to explore possible new ways of applying ICT in teaching practices. The department level project was a part of a wider, inter-institutional ICT implementation project. Now that the project has been finished, we may — in hindsight — try and draw lessons on the project period and ask the following: Did the participants actually learn something during the project period? Did the project enhance the appropriation of novel practices of teaching and educating? Was the development group only an administrative unit or did it become a collective change agent? What was the motivation of joining the development group? Was the participation motivated by interest in educational innovation or a way to promote personal career interests? What was the relation between the central and the local projects? The paper describes and analyses organizational learning processes during the two-year development project. The roles of the individual and the collective are in focus — how these contribute to processes of learning, development and change in the organization, and the relationship between the two. The developments are discussed in the light of the notion of «expansive learning» (Engeström, 1987) which refers to the complex web of relationships between individuals and collective social practices, including organizational rules and policies, division of labor, individual and collective goals, and intellectual and material resources (tools) for action that constitute an activity system (Engestrӧm, 1987, p. 78). 28

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Development group as context for expansive learning?

Background to a development project Implementation of ICT in education has historically been a top-down undertaking. The Government, the Ministry of Education, the school leaders have all introduced ICT as something that should be implemented in the various levels of the educational system. The 1990s was the era when the reasons for the implementation were steered by the enthusiastic conviction of technology utopians who saw ICT as a “miracle” tool helping to solve all the difficult issues in education. In the middle of the 1990s, the Swedish government initiated a nationwide ICT project financed by the Knowledge and Competence Foundation with the aim of implementing ICT in schools. This was soon to be followed by another major investment, ITiS-project (IT at school), again schools being the target group. (Riis, Holmstrand & Jedeskog, 2000). As the IT-bubble burst and the first enthusiasm decreased we came to realize that the top-down steering of development work seldom succeeds. We have also come to realize that —perhaps — ICT is not the Answer, but maybe just another tool for the Homo Habilis — a tool with consequences and implications that we are just about to discover and not foresee. As the schools were in focus of all the major development efforts, it became obvious that teacher education was lagging behind. This was noted in a report that the National Agency for Schools (Skolverket) published in 2009 and where the Agency expressed severe criticism to teacher education for not preparing student teachers sufficiently for the future challenges of the profession in regard of ICT use. ICT in teacher education has thus been a contested issue for some time and despite the governmental efforts to encourage national development projects over the years, it seems that rather little has actually taken place in teacher education programs, which raises the question why the efforts have had such a limited impact. In the following, we are examining one of the ICT development/implementation projects from within in order to shed some light on the dynamics of a development project in effort to understand which are the mechanisms steering the processes of implementation and integration of ICT in teacher education. As an active participant of the project, the author has been able to collect data on all the developments during the two years of activities. The picture drawn here is certainly one from the “inside” and 29

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may thus be partial or subjective in description but, on the other hand, an inside view may reveal insights that would have remained hidden for an outsider.

A development project between several institutions of higher education One of the national development projects that were run during the 00s was LIKA (Learning, Information, Communication and Administration). The project was initiated by four institutions of higher education in the Stockholm region in 2006 with the aim of integrating digital literacy and competence in university programs, courses and modules of teacher education in order to strengthen relevance and quality in teacher education on a long-term basis. ICT should become an integrated and natural part of the teaching profession. Within the LIKA project, identification and integration of digital literacy into all programs and courses within teacher education program, on campus and in the school-based education, should take place. LIKA project applies a holistic approach to digital literacy in the various processes of Learning, Information, Communications and Administration. Thus, the aim is to integrate digital literacy at various levels and from different perspectives, which hopefully creates synergies that promote development. LIKA is a six year project financed by the Swedish Knowledge and Competence Foundation, engaging approx. 600 teachers and 8 000 student teachers at the four institutions of HE, and more than 20.000 teachers in primary and secondary schools. During 2009-2010, the project organization included a process manager at each participating institution and a number of persons who worked at each institution with teacher education as digital literacy promoters (DKA) to develop the organization and the activities according to the objectives of LIKA project. DKA had the task of being in charge of the development work at the department level being a pedagogical developer and inspirer planning and evaluating activities that would contribute to the implementation of ICT in all aspects of teacher education. Another important task was networking with all the other DKAs at the participating institutions in follow-ups, training, and joint development activities. 30

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About digital literacy among teacher educators “Digital literacy” has been introduced as a notion to capture the competences, skills and knowledges connected to ICT and its use. Gillen and Barton (2009) use plural form “literacies” and define them as «…constantly changing practices through which people make traceable meanings using digital technologies…». Gillen and Barton argue further that «…there is no deterministic relationship between technological innovations and people’s practices and hence how digital literacies unfold. Many mistakes — at the design, commercial and indeed theoretical levels — are made through assuming that there is a straightforward relationship between what a new technology can do and how — or even whether — it will then be used…» (Barton, 2009, p. 1). This would suggest that digital literacies are somewhat unpredictable as we cannot foresee how (new) technologies are being adopted and used. Also, digital literacies are in constant change as emergent technologies pave way for new practices. What we can see is an ever growing pluralism and heterogeneity in practices of ICT. In the LIKA project the notion of digital literacy played a central role defining the areas of development work. In order to understand how teacher educators and student teachers define “digital literacy” a survey was conducted by the central LIKA project. The survey would guide the competence development activities and serve as a catalyst for discussions about the notion of “digital literacy” within teacher education. From the survey results, definitions of digital literacy were extracted: these were the three competence areas: didactic competence; theoretical competence and technical competence. Didactic competence Digital didactic competence means to be able to make judgments about when, what, why and how ICT should be used as pedagogical and methodological support for learning. One should be able to choose ways of working and digital tools that (best suit the content and the context. Theoretical competence Digital theoretical competence means to be in possession of knowledge about the ICT-pedagogical theories and methods, about the research on 31

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learning, information and communication, as well as to be able to apply the theories in the teaching profession. Technical competence Digital technical competence means ability to use ICT and to be updated about the technical development in order to be able to command processes within learning, information, communication and administration. This definition of digital literacy was then applied in all LIKA activities.

Department level development – A case study In the following, the department level organization and development activities are examined in more detail. The focus of the study is to scrutinize how integration of ICT in teacher education has been organized and carried out on the departmental level. Environment – Digital Studio The core of department’s work in the LIKA project has been the Digital Studio, which carries the central idea of being a both virtual and physical space for new ideas to grow and be nurtured; it is designed to be a learning and research environment, where students, teacher educators and researchers jointly explore the possibilities of information and communication technology in education. Digital Studio is thus meant to be a natural forum for the exchange of knowledge, experiences, and innovative work within the department. Education and training; research and development work; studies and productions as well as design and communication can be described as the four key fields of activities that together form the Digital Studio. The technical equipment of the Studio consists of computers, keyboards, projectors, and various software (for example, programs for composition, audio and video editing, photo editing). Development Group In order to avoid the vulnerabilities of a narrow project organization a fairly large group of educators representing all the subjects at the department was constituted with the task to lead the project’s work, the project’s 32

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plan and carry out implementation and development activities, monitor the developments and evaluate the work continuously. The group consists of teacher educators representing each of the three sections at the department with a project manager and the DKA as the convener. The group has varying teaching tasks within the teacher education program. They use ICT in varying ways in their teaching and their digital competences differ. However, they share an interest in ICT and are eager to learn more and implement ICT in their own work. The group has as its task to develop the teaching and learning environment at the department, taking part in the activities conducted by the central LIKA project. They have served as valuable links to the sections and made LIKA work known among colleagues. Their task is also to inspire their colleagues and spread out information about new developments concerning ICT in education within their respective section. There has been an increased interest and commitment of teacher educators in the studio and activities there. The development group consisted from the start of six persons and after two years the number has increased to nine contributing to a better integration of the sections and their activities, also bringing in new competences, experiences and insights. Activities For the professional development of teacher educators a number of workshops and seminars have been organized. The content of these have been guided by the interests and needs related to syllabus inventory, which was launched simultaneously with the training activities. Course inventory aimed to both highlight and make visible the existing teaching practices in which ICT is included, and provide input for further development of course content and teaching methods in the areas where ICT can be a relevant educational resource. Syllabus inventory In order to create a baseline description of the teaching and learning that is taking place at the department, a syllabus inventory was initiated by the central project. The aim of the inventory was to commence a discussion about the role of ICT in teacher education, about the meaning of digital literacy in teacher education and provide tools for further development of 33

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Course literature

Examination

Technical competence

Theoretical competence

Didactic competence

Course

Term

the syllabi. The central project invited participating departments to a twoday workshop where the inventory process was started. A matrix model was introduced as a guide and support for the inventory. The matrix was based on the digital literacy survey conducted amongst the teacher educators and students. Through the inventory of the syllabi, it was to be judged how all three competence areas should be taken into account in each course of the teacher education program. Matrix for the syllabus inventory:

A starting point for the inventory was the formulation of the learning outcome in the central steering document for the national teacher education program. The Swedish government defined the goal for ICT in teacher education program by defining a particular examination goal for the teacher education program: «the student must demonstrate ability to use information technology in pedagogical work and recognize the importance of media for this work» (Ordinance for Higher Education, Appendix 2, System of Qualifications, p. 158, 2007/08). The formulation of this goal can be understood as vague and leaves a lot of space for interpretations at all levels of the educational system. This may be positive if the educators are well-informed and well-motivated to work for such a goal. They are then able to develop their teaching practices innovatively and in accordance to their developing competences. On the other hand, if the educators are uncertain about the meaning of such a goal, it will be easily marginalized and even forgotten. The teacher education curriculum is a contested one as different stakeholders wish to 34

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make space for their own interest areas in the curriculum causing “stuff congestion” (in Swedish stoffträngsel) where different subject areas fight for space in the curriculum. Each teacher educator is defending the importance of his/her subject area and because ICT is often understood as an additional subject area instead of a means for working, a conflict of interests becomes obvious. At the department, the goal was to carry out the syllabus inventory at each section independently in order to give the different subject areas a chance to develop their own subject related understandings of digital literacy and to give them opportunity to find their own ways of integrating ICT in their courses. It was the understanding of the departmental DKA that the development work should have been done at the grass root level without much interference from the central project. It was hoped that independency would foster own initiatives and show respect towards the ICT related work that already was being done at sections. It is to be noted that many aspects of ICT had already been integrated in teaching and learning practices but this had been done without conscious and deliberate efforts. This is why one of the central goals of the syllabus inventory was to increase visibility of these already existing ICT related practices in order to bring positive ambiance to the project. Teacher educators have been subjected to harsh criticism over the years about not being enough ICT oriented and they have often responded with indignation as they feel that they are doing their very best under the circumstances and that they are made scapegoats for issues they have no control over. The inventory work that was done by the sections gave different results. Each section made an effort to integrate the ICT inventory to the general syllabus inventories that were scheduled to take place during the term. An example of how the inventory was done is the following chart illustrating the analysis done of one of the specializations within the teacher education program, namely Visual Arts where two of the courses (term 2 and 3) have been examined. Team

2

3

Course

UE2013

UE4015

Didactic competence

Digital photo-processing, computer graphics, interactive multimedia

Use of digital media. Search on the internet. Use of the digital visual culture

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Theoretical competence

Orientation in different methods for picture production and media production

Examine the possibilities of the Net and critical evaluation of the sources on the Net

Technical competence

photo, film and narration with digital media. Exercise to lead technical instructions

Exercises in using digital media

Examination

practicum and individual and group work that are presented and documented with different digital techniques and software

Documentation and presentation with the help of digital techniques

Course literature

picture and Rhetoric in Media

Search of steering documents and local syllabi

A systematic review of all the courses with the help of the matrix gave the teaching staff a good overview of the ICT use. It made visible the existing practices and thus gave the teacher educators a possibility to discover strengths and weaknesses in the program. This was a start for a conscious development process in order to integrate ICT in the teacher education program and in the existing teaching practices. learning in organization Another central activity in the departmental level project was to support the teacher educators in their competence development concerning ICT. Even though various forms of information and communication technology are becoming ever so embedded in practices of everyday lives (mobile phones, e-mail, and the Internet), the so-called pedagogical practices including ICT still seem to be vague and teacher educators are expressing a lot of uncertainty about those practices. There is still a lot of ignorance about the pedagogical use of ICT. A great number of teacher educators do not know how to use ICT in their teaching. There can even be distinguished a particular resistance of the technology in teacher education. Some teacher educators suggest that teaching and learning must take place in a dialogue and this dialogue can be carried out satisfactorily only in a physical presence of the involving parties, the teachers and the learners. This is not to argue that teacher educators are particularly technohostile or technophobic, but simply to draw attention to the fact that many a teacher educator still finds ICT as a strange field which they are hesitant to enter. 36

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On the other hand, it needs to be underlined that there have always been “early adopters” among teacher educators as well. They have been the pioneers and deeply engaged in the number of development projects that have been carried out over the years, but the issue that has remained unresolved is how to make a more profound change in the use of ICT in education that involves the majority and not just the enthusiasts. The three dimensions, technical, didactic and theoretical competences, were integrated into the matrix tool that was applied in the syllabus inventory in order to guarantee that all the aspects of ICT would be taken into consideration. For competence development of teacher educators the definition of “digital literacy” helped to identify the areas where competences were weak and needed development. Teacher educators were offered a series of workshops with different themes. The selection of themes was based on the requests from the teacher educators. Themes like “How to use blogs in education?”, “Storytelling”, “PowerPoint”, “Internet ethics” were chosen and teacher educators were encouraged to book for the workshops. The experiences from the workshops were somewhat discouraging as it turned out that many of those who assigned for a workshop never showed up but cancelled their participation with the explanation that there was no time or that something more urgent had to be done instead. This made us change the strategy and informal, collegial tutoring became a way to respond to the needs of individual teacher educators. More knowledgeable colleagues started to help others when requested and the exchange of ideas and experiences triggered experimenting.

Development group as a change agent The development group that was founded in the beginning of the project came very soon to possess a key role in the development activities. This group lies in the centre of the organization with links to all parts. It was not clear from the beginning how the group members would play their role as a change agent towards the rest of the organization. They acted very much as individuals and from their own interests rather than assuming a conscious role of an active change agent. The activities that the development group was involved in can be divided into four fields: teaching (1) and research (2) which are the core activities 37

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of a university department. The group is through its project task involved in competence development (3) of the personnel at the department, and, in the development work, the field of experimenting (4) has become crucial as the Digital Studio is the space and place where new ideas and educational innovations can be formed. Gradually we came to witness how all the four fields are in continuous interaction benefitting from each other and feeding each other with information and thus engaging in a collective and innovative process of knowledge creation which EngestrĂśm (1987) calls expansive learning, where the subject of learning is transformed from isolated individuals to collectives and networks. It is no longer just the individual teacher educator who is learning, but the collective of educators form a learning organization where knowledge creation becomes one of the central activities. Figure 1 illustrates this learning organization with the four fields of activities and the development group in the centre of activities. Department level learning organization, in its turn, is part of the institution of higher education.

Institution of HE

Learning organization, department level

Competence development

Research

Development group

Teaching

Experimenting

Figure 1

Learning organization.

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The notion of expansive learning is part of the activity theory where an activity system forms the central idea. According to the general model of an activity system (Engeström, 1987, p. 78), subject refers to the individual or subgroup whose position and point of view are chosen as the perspective of the analysis. Object refers to the “raw material” or “problem space” at which the activity is directed. The object is turned into outcomes with the help of instruments, i.e. tools and signs. Community comprises the individuals and subgroups who share the same general object. Division of labor refers to horizontal division of tasks and vertical division of power and status. Finally rules refer to the explicit and implicit regulations, norms, conventions and standards that constrain actions within the activity system.

Tools Object > outcome

Subject

Production

Consumption

Exchange

Rules

Figure 2

Distribution

Community

Division of labour

A general model of an activity system (Engeström, 1987, p. 78).

Engeström means that the object has got a central role with an inherent ambiguity. He sees the object as an invitation to interpretation, personal sense making and societal transformation. It also differs between a general societal meaning and a more personal sense making. Engeström argues that expansive learning leads to the formation of a new expanded object and pattern of activity oriented to the object. 39

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If the university department is seen as an activity system, we can define the subject as the teacher educator, the object as the learning outcomes, and ICT can be regarded as instruments that help the subjects to realize the commonly defined learning outcomes. Through the syllabus inventory, the object i.e. learning outcomes was renegotiated involving personal sense making of each participating teacher educator as they were rethinking of their teaching practices and became involved in experimenting with new practices. The holistic approach where all the personnel was involved in the development work altered the existing structures of power and labor and introduced a more democratic way of implementing change. Negotiations about learning outcomes and practices of education were done on a personal level as well as course level which gave the individual teacher educator the possibility to decide over her working situation. The objectives were not top-down steered but they grew from the everyday practice of individual teachers. The development group can be defined as a group of «early adopters» with varying competences and varying digital literacy practices. In the group, different generations, different personal histories and experiences of ICT were brought together contributing to a vibrant dynamics within the group itself but also within the department as a whole as those with competences and skills apply the technologies in their own teaching and thus act as inspiring examples for others. Their novel practices arouse curiosity among others in the department who in their turn wish to test different software and introduce new ICT practices in their teaching. Guiding becomes thus a part of the everyday collegial interaction at the department. Our experience is that conditions for this kind of collegial learning or expansive learning in Engeström’s terms to develop are openness, flexibility, immediacy, informality in communication that encourages exchange of experiences and knowledge. We may see competence as a staircase where each step represents a level of competence. We can raise the question whether all the personnel — all teacher educators — need to be on the same level and what that level might be or perhaps it is more adequate to think that there always will be those who place themselves on a higher level than the mainstream because they are more interested in the technological development and application of technology in their professional life. On the other hand we need to recognize that in the very specific environment of the Studio, all the users — teacher educators — are required a 40

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Development group as context for expansive learning?

certain competence level in order to be able to facilitate for learning in this environment. And yet, the rapid technological developments make it impossible for everyone to have the expertise continuously. Here, we can see the value and power of collegial work which can lead to expansive learning in the organization.

Lessons learnt and conclusion In the following, some key issues that became evident during the twoyear development process are discussed in order to highlight factors that play a central role in development work in an educational organization. 1. The use of structuring resources to determine what is reasonable and expected behavior. A prevailing understanding among teacher educators is that their first priority lies with their students, meaning that “student affairs” i.e. teaching/marking/administration always are prioritized by the teachers. This “Students go first”— attitude reflects a deeply rooted sense of duty which often prevents teacher educators from working on their own competence development and limits their possibilities to engage in development projects that are not directly part of their teaching activities. All forms of competence development are positive. Our experience is, however, that the everyday working conditions do play a main role when teacher educators decide what extra activities to take. There needs to be clear incentives in the form of pedagogical or administrative gains. For teacher educators to be able to benefit from competence development activities, they need to have a direct access to internal and external resources and experts. Teachers must be able to have influence over both the content and processes of such competence development. It is also vital that teacher educators are provided opportunities for own experimentation and reflection with feedback from experts and colleagues. The development group can provide opportunities for experimentation and reflection collegially. 2. There seem to exist both confusion and conflicts about the goals of the ICT integration in teacher education. The expected outcomes concerning ICT in the teacher education degree are general and vague in their formulations and leave too much space for 41

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local interpretations. This freedom of interpretation is not positive —in the sense that for example Ellström (2006, p. 6) suggests — but often leads to complete ignoring of the ICT. It seems to be of importance to be able to negotiate the goals on a personal level in order to make them meaningful for the own professional activities. Thus, a continuous negotiation of learning outcomes becomes an important aspect of collegial development and quality assurance of teacher education program which can be realized in the frame of the development group. 3. Integration of ICT in the curriculum and in each course syllabus seems to be the way of making ICT a natural working tool and part of education. Course integration has been a central strategy in the LIKA project for implementing ICT in teacher education. In discussions about the role and place of ICT in teacher education, it has often claimed that the program is already “full of stuff” and there is no place for another strand with ICT. This view regards ICT as something separate, with a separate content that needs to be squeezed into the program. Rather than seeing ICT as a natural, everyday tool and environment that can support teaching and learning and administration in different ways. A systematic inventory and development of syllabi can provide a way to introduce ICT in the program but also make visible the already existing ICT practices. 4. An interdisciplinary way of working that brings together the different subject areas at the department is a powerful tool for creating novel pedagogical practices where the strengths of each subject area can be utilized. As the department in question engages in arts-based teaching and learning, the exploration of multimodalities became a fruitful and powerful way of developing new strategies for teaching and learning which also gave each subject area space for strengthening and deepening their already existing practices. 5. Providing teacher educators and students with an environment and resources where the digital and analogue practices can be combined into novel ways of teaching and learning is essential. The environment, in this case the Digital Studio, needs to be accessible to both teacher educators and students whenever they need it and wish to work on their projects. This, of course, creates issues of security that need to be resolved smoothly without negative impact on teacher educators’ work load and working hours. It is also important to have access to technical support while working in the digital environment. A 42

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Development group as context for expansive learning?

basic competence is required of teacher educators, but there are always technical issues that need specialist competence that cannot be required of everyone in the teaching staff. Also, teachers need to be “freed” to concentrate on what they are specialist at, namely teaching and the pedagogical work. The two-year development project has shown us the importance of a holistic perspective to change. The organization as a whole needs to be engaged in the activities rather than having a few enthusiastic «early adopters» running a limited project. The engagement and involvement of the whole organization needs to start with adequate resources as time and equipment and an environment that makes it possible to start re-thinking teaching practices. Development work needs to be regarded as a continuous process that lives even after the limited project activities. This is why a learning organization can serve as a functional model where continuous development of competences and activities in the organization becomes a natural, everyday practice, a practice of expansive learning.

References Ellström, P.-E. (2003). Utvecklingsinriktat Lärande I Arbetet – Vilka är Förutsättningarna? Paper till konferensen HSS03 – Högskolor och samhälle I samverkan, 14-16 maj, 2003. Engeström, Y. (1987). Learning by expanding: An activity-theoretical approach to development research. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit. Engeström, Y. (2001). Expansive learning at work: Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of Education and Work, 14 (1), 133-156. Engeström, Y., & Sannino, A. (2010). Studies of expansive learning: Foundations, findings and future challenges. Educational Research Review, 5, 1-24. Gillen, J., & Barton, D. (2009). Digital Literacies. A discussion document for TLRP-TEL (Teaching and Learning Research Programme – Technology Enhanced Learning) workshop on digital literacies. Lancaster University 12-13 March 2009. (http://www.tlrp.org/ tel/files/2009/02/digital-literacies-gillen-barton-2009.pdf). Ordinance for Higher Education, Appendix 2, System of Qualifications, p.158, 2007/08. Utbildningsväsendets författningsböcker 3, Universitet och högskolor, 2007/08. Norstedts Juridik: Stockholm. Riis, U., Holmstrand, L., & Jedeskog, G. (2000). Visionär entusiasm och realistisk eftertänksamhet: KK-stiftelsens satsning på 27 “fyrtornsprojekt” 1996-1999 och de pedagogiska erfarenheter som satsningen genererat. Uppsala: Pedagogiska institutionen, Univ. Skolverket (2009). Redovisning av uppdraget att bedöma verksamheters och huvudmäns utvecklingsbehov avseende IT-användningen inom förskola, skola och vuxenutbildning samt ge förslag på insatser. U2008/8180/S. 43

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Media education and healthy nutrition: a training experience with teachers and students 1

Laura Messina* and Elena Grassi**

aBSTRacT

* Department of Education Sciences of Padua University, Via Beato Pellegrino, 28 – 35137 Padova, Italy. E-mail: laura.messina@unipd.it ** Doctoral School in Pedagogical, Educational and Instructional Sciences, Department of Education Sciences of Padua University, Piazza Capitaniato, 3 – 35139 Padova, Italy. E-mail: elena.grassi@ studenti.unipd.it

1

This article briefly presents a training experience offered to primary and secondary school teachers and their students, within the research field born from the convergence of media education and health education. The article aims at outlining this field, from which the transversal and flexible nature of media education and its theoretic and methodological potential to cross different study perspectives emerges. Keywords: media education; health education; teacher training.

This article has been developed jointly by the two authors. laura Messina has written paragraphs The experience with teachers and students and Concluding remarks; Elena Grassi has written paragraphs Health promotion policies, Media education and Health promoting media literacy education.

Edizioni Erickson – Trento

REM – vol. 3, no. 1, June 2011 (45-63)

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Health promotion policies Healthy lifestyle education becomes an integral part of the promotion of health when passing from a bio-medical model, which defines health strictly under a clinical profile as the “absence of disease” to a biopsychosocial approach, which also encompasses psychological, social and cultural factors, as well as physiological ones, to describe a broader concept of well-being. This was sanctioned internationally by the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, issued by the World Health Organization, that defines health as the extent to which «an individual or group must be able to identify and realize aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment», and health promotion as «the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health» (WHO, 1986). The promotion of health, especially targeted to the current generation, has become a widely debated theme at European level, especially as a form of education for a healthy lifestyle from childhood, to prevent physical and psychological problems, and to enhance people’s sense of well-being. At present, the institutional, health, social, and educational policies of the European Union are focusing on the prevention of obesity, a disease which is spreading increasingly amongst children in Europe as well as other countries. A recent study of the World Health Organization (WHO, 2006) estimated there would be 15 million obese children in Europe by the end of 2010. This prediction is confirmed by data issued by the European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG, 2010), according to which today 20% of European children are overweight and one third are obese. Italy is following the same course. The situation is being monitored by Okkio alla Salute (Watch your Health), observatory of the Ministry for Health (Ministero della Salute, 2008), whose latest report estimates 24% of people between 6 and 10 to be overweight, and 12% to be obese, for a total of 1.130.000 children with excessive body weight. These data have been confirmed by a recent study issued by the OECD (2010) which shows one Italian child out of three is overweight. Correct nutrition is an important element in a healthy lifestyle, and bad dietary habits can be a risk factor for the onset of the most frequent nontransmissible diseases. The role of diet as a preventive factor in the most serious chronic degenerative diseases is proven by several scientific re46

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Media education and healthy nutrition: a training experience with teachers and students

searches that analyse the relationship existing between diet, overweight, obesity and tumorous, cardiovascular, and diabetic diseases (e.g., Guarino, 2008; Petrillo & Caso, 2008; Zucconi & Howell, 2003). In order to handle this situation, on 8th December 2005, the European Commission (2005) issued the Green Paper Promoting healthy diets and physical activity: A European dimension for the prevention of overweight, obesity and chronic diseases, which contains the requirements emerging from the conclusions drawn by the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO, 2005) in a document that encourages Member States to favour nutritional education in schools and promote a healthy diet in school, developing educational activities in the fields of nutrition and physical education «as an integrated part of health education in general». Subsequently, the European Parliament (2007) issued a Resolution to further encourage Member States to recognize that «education on nutrition and health, starting from a very early age, is crucial to preventing overweight and obesity». The White Paper A Strategy for Europe on Nutrition, Overweight and Obesity related health issues, inspired by the 7th Framework Programme for Research of the European Union, which included the prevention of obesity-related diseases among the main targets of the chapter on health and diet, and by the Green Paper, was approved by the European Commission (2007a) on 30th May 2007. With this document, the European Union aims to provide an integrated approach to nutrition and consumer policies within the fields of sport, education, and transport, in order to reduce health problems related to bad dietary habits. The Commission invites Member States to develop «scientific information and education campaigns to raise awareness of the health problems related to poor nutrition, overweight and obesity. These campaigns will, in particular, be addressed to vulnerable groups, such as children», deeming that «locally focused action, targeting 0-12 year olds will be effective in changing behaviour in the long run. Work should focus on nutrition education and on physical activity. Health education and physical education are among priority themes in the new Lifelong Learning Programme (2007-2013)». The present Nuova piramide della dieta mediterranea moderna (New pyramid of modern mediterranean diet), developed by scientists and representatives of European institutions during the Third International Confer47

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ence of the CIISCAM (Centro Interuniversitario Internazionale per lo Studio delle Culture Alimentari Mediterranee – International Inter-university Centre for Mediterranean Food Culture Studies) and of INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione – National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition), held in Parma on 3rd November 2009, for the first time, contains practical indications, such as «drink a lot of water», «do physical exercise», «vary colours», that are its basic elements, along with the concepts of «conviviality» and «local season products». Also in this case the important features of a healthy lifestyle (such as physical activity and correct diet) are highlighted, in line with the above mentioned programmes and documents regarding the health and education policies of the European Union (INRAN, 2009).

Media education The above-mentioned Resolution of the European Parliament (2007) highlights that «the media (TV, radio and the Internet) are now more than ever before an essential teaching device for learning about nutritional health, and one which should offer practical advice to consumers in order to enable them to establish the right balance between daily calories consumption and energy expenditure and ultimately give them freedom of choice». Moreover, many studies show how children and teenagers’ healthy choices are considerably influenced by advertising messages and consumption models shown by the mass media (e.g., Livingstone & Helsper, 2004). According to the 10° Rapporto Nazionale sulla Condizione dell’Infanzia e dell’Adolescenza (10th National Report on the Condition of Children and Adolescents), carried out by Eurispes and Telefono Azzurro (2009), which gives a useful image of what media children use most frequently to learn, communicate and grow up, television is the most frequently used medium among children between 7 and 11 (96%) in Italy. The small screen also has the largest percentage of heavy users (8.1% watch TV for more than 4 hours a day); in general, 44.5% watch it for 1 to 2 hours a day (31.2%) and 2 to 4 hours (13.5%), while 37.4% of children watch it for 1 hour a day. 74.7% of children use a PC, 68% use the Internet, 50% have an Mp3 player and the 45% have a mobile phone. As regards the 12-14 year-old age bracket, the most widespread mass media include TV (only 3.1% never watch it), PC (6.5% do not use it), and mobile phones (6.8% do not use them). The 48

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Media education and healthy nutrition: a training experience with teachers and students

Internet is widely used as well by children (10.6% do not use it), followed by Mp3 readers (19.8% cannot go without them); mobile phones have the record of usage time: 39.8% use it for over 4 hours a day, and, in general, 25.5% use it 1 to 2 hours a day (12.8%), and 2 to 4 hours (12.7%). They are followed by Internet, with 42.9% of heavy users (19.4% use it for more than 4 hours, 23.2% use it 2 to 4 hours), and 27.8% of average users (1 to 2 hours). The PC comes third (17.6% over 4 hours; 24.1% 2 to 4 hours, 31.8% 1 to 2 hours). Media education — defined at European level as «the ability to access the media, to understand and to critically evaluate different aspects of the media and media contents and to create communications in a variety of contexts» (European Commission, 2007b; see also Frau-Meigs & Torrent, 2009) — leads subjects to develop critical thought by revealing the underlying mechanisms in the production of these messages and models (Ardizzone & Rivoltella, 2008), and it can therefore be considered one of the most suitable educational approaches in health promotion targeted to the younger generations (Martens, 2010). In addition, as it favours situated learning, media education also appears as an effective solution in bridging the gap between “thought” (knowledge and conceptions) and “action” (behaviour). This gap needs to be bridged in order for educational interventions towards a healthier lifestyle to be successful (Pieter et al., 2010). Media education can have two different approaches: a “critical” approach (Masterman & Mariet, 1994), which refers to the development of a critical thought in using media messages through a reflexive analysis of the mechanisms of the language they use, and by understanding the communicative aims and productive dynamic governing them; and a “production” approach (Buckingham, 2003), which includes the creation of media messages after a phase of analysis. As we are going to see below, the approach most frequently followed in studies on health promotion/education is the former, despite the fact that for a long time media education research has pointed out not only that critical interpretation and production activity cannot be separated, but also that production activity cannot be ignored in the development of actual critical thoughts with regard to communication carried out through the media (Galliani, 1988). Media education, performed through the production approach, can be developed in schools, addressing it to both teachers and students and, thanks to its flexible and transversal nature, can allow the tackling of curricular and extracurricular subjects (Ardizzone & Rivoltella, 2008), on one hand 49

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maintaining a sense of pleasure in learning by means of the media (Alvermann & Hagood, 2000), and on the other hand, connecting formal learning with informal learning (Eshach, 2007; Sefton-Green, 2004).

Health promoting media literacy education Investigations on health promotion and on media education are combined in the field of studies that can be defined as «health promoting media literacy education» (Bergsma & Carney, 2008). Researchers in this sector consider media education as a key factor, and important bodies such as the American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) recommend it as a strategy for health promotion, recognizing its efficacy in tackling, together with children and teenagers, the manifold issues involved in a healthy lifestyle, which is considerably influenced by communications media (for a theoretical deepening, see Yates, 1999; for a research review, see Bergsma & Carney, 2008). The researchers explore a wide range of themes, such as: – Tobacco use (Austin et al., 2005; Banerjee & Greene, 2006; 2007; Croghan et al., 2004; Gonzales et al., 2004; Pinkleton et al., 2007); – Alcohol consumption (Austin & Johnson,1995; 1997; Austin, Eintraub & Johnson, 1997); – Eating disorders (Fuller, Damico & Rodgers, 2004; Kater, Rohwer & Londre, 2002; Wade, Davidson & O’Dea, 2003); – Promotion of healthy nutrition (Evans et al., 2006; Hindin, Contento & Gussow, 2004; Tanner et al., 2008); – More specific subjects, such as sexuality and violence (Moore et al., 2000). Among the reference theories most frequently mentioned in the literature on health promotion, are Bandura’s Self-efficacy Theory (1986; 1997) and Freire’s Theory of Empowerment (1970). Several researches on health promotion (developed according to a biopsychosocial approach) are based on Bandura’s theory — e.g., those carried out by Austin et al., 1995; Banerjee & Greene, 2006; Evans et al., 2006; Hindin et al., 2004; Tanner et al., 2008. They accept the assumption that there is a relationship of reciprocal influence between people and their environment, and that people’s choices (including “health” choices) depend 50

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on the way they evaluate the efficacy they can achieve in developing courses of action which allow them to cope with possible future situations. The models of the pedagogy of well-being follow the Theory of Empowerment. The pedagogy of well-being focuses on the «interconnection between education and public health policies» (Dovigo, 2009, p. 73, our translation), and it is mentioned in several researches (e.g. Bergsma, 2004; Gonzales et al., 2004). According to Freire, empowerment can be defined as people’s ability to acquire greater power and control over the choices they make in their life in order to subsequently determine social changes. Research into the field of health promoting media literacy education (Bergsma & Carney, 2008), carried out with different subjects (children, teenagers, teachers, parents) and different (qualitative and quantitative) methods, shows the influence of media education on changing knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions of the subjects involved, even though changes do not always occur rapidly (Scharrer, 2002). Most of the health promotion interventions seem to be based on the “critical” approach (Austin & Johnson, 1995; 1997; Austin et al. 1997; 2005; Kater et al., 2002; Wade et al. 2003; Fuller et al., 2004; Hindin et al. 2004; Pinkleton et al., 2007); some studies prefer the “production” approach (Croghan et al., 2004; Gonzales et al., 2004; Evans et al., 2006; Tanner et al., 2008); some studies focuses on the comparison between the two approaches (Banerjee & Greene, 2006; 2007). Banerjee and Greene (2006; 2007) compared the efficacy of the critical approach with that of the production approach in media education, in the field of health promotion, particularly regarding the use of tobacco, in two experimental researches with teenagers. The researches showed more satisfactory results in terms of change of attitudes and behavioural intentions towards smoking, from the groups of subjects participating in media production interventions, compared with groups participating in media analysis interventions. In short, the production approach in media education: favours the interaction between scientific knowledge and common sense knowledge, which is made up of images and experiences (Alvermann & Hagood, 2000; Goodson & Norton-Meier, 2003); enhances the dimension of know-how, which integrates the sphere of knowledge (Ardizzone & Rivoltella, 2008); stimulates collaborative learning (Jonassen, 1995) through the co-construction of a media text; facilitates a process of information internalization, and favours the sharing of different points of view on the same themes. In addition, the 51

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production of media messages develops a communicative competence, as well as stimulates a direct involvement in the creative process, leading to one’s own assumption of the tackled issue (Burn & Durran, 2007; Mantovani et al., 2010).

The experience with teachers and students Almost all of health promotion interventions taking place in Italy are addressed to young people and are carried out in formal contexts (Pellai & Marzorati, 2001; Ghedin, 2004; Guarino, 2008; Petrillo & Caso, 2008; Dovigo, 2009), as schools are the places where subjects develop their personality from an early age, acquiring knowledge, experimenting with new and different relationships, and building their own world of values. Nevertheless, studies that specifically deal with health promoting media literacy education (Bergsma & Carney, 2008) rarely appear in the Italian sphere — although literature on health education is considerable, as quoted above, and some studies also tackle the media education approach (Pellai, 2010). The training experience briefly described below consists of a project called Cibo intelligente (Smart Food), which is part of a broader project called Alimentinsalute (Feeding health),2 that was launched in 2008 and supported by the Veneto Region3 in collaboration with the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, to create a network of expertise to disseminate useful knowledge to citizens (Mantovani et al., 2010), and is directed to inform and train on themes related to healthy nutrition. The Cibo intelligente project has been specifically elaborated to train teachers on health promotion through media education and to enable them to educate their students to a healthy lifestyle.4 It is addressed to primary and secondary schools in the region of Veneto,5 it is developed by IZSVE 2

3

4

5

a more detailed description of the project is reported by Mantovani et al. (2010), and also includes a part of the training experience reported here. Veneto Region Deliberations (Delibera Giunta Regionale del Veneto – DGRV n° 4432 del 2007: “Attuazione dell’Unità di coordinamento per la sicurezza alimentare”; Delibera Giunta Regionale del Veneto – DGRV n° 4434 del 2007: “Tutela del consumatore: incentivazione all’utilizzo di alimenti sanitariamente e qualitativamente qualificati”). See the Sportello Cibo intelligente (Smart Food info page) on the www.alimentinsalute.it website, launched to provide information and to know more about the project. in Veneto, as well as in italy, the improvement in social and economic conditions has deeply affected the height and weight of children, 25-33% of whom appear to be overweight or obese, according to

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(Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie), together with SIAN (Servizio Igiene Alimenti Nutrizione, the local Service for Health Food and Nutrition), Pediatri di Libera Scelta (Pediatrics), Consumers’ Associations, Sector Associations and Coltivatori Diretti (the Farmers’ Federation), Departement of Education Sciences of Padua University, and it uses the pedagogical method developed by the “Padua school” on media education6 (Galliani, 2002). We can say that the Cibo intelligente project belongs to the new branch of study that we have just mentioned and that deals with health-promoting media literacy education (Bergsma & Carney, 2008) and, in particular, with a more specific approach that endorses media message production (Evans et al., 2006; Tanner et al., 2008), as a strategy to promote correct nutrition, which differs from the more commonly-used critical media literacy approach (Bergsma, 2004).7 As we know, today, young people — structural symbionts (Mantovani & Ferri, 2008) — acquire and exchange knowledge through the media. In this sense, it is not enough to develop educational action that enhances their ability to read media messages critically in order to protect them from the “bombardment” of advertising campaigns, which are conceived to entice them to consume food and drinks that can be unhealthy or harmful. Combining our work on media education (Messina, 2005; 2007b) with the work carried out by nutrition experts (Mantovani et al., 2010), we created an interdisciplinary team for this project,8 basing it principally on two

6

7

8

data contained in the report issued by Okkio alla Salute (Watch your Health) (Ministero della Salute, 2008). This approach has been recommended for some time in many educational and training environments in italy by scholars, and also within the “padua school” (for a historical overview, see Galliani, 2002). The University of padua were pioneers in experimenting with the “production” approach that originates from the experiments started in the Laboratorio Audiovisivi (audiovisual laboratory) of the Istituto di Pedagogia (institute of pedagogy), established in 1967. Here, «the first form of distance learning was performed using TV. Today, this facility belongs to the Settore Tecnologie Educative (Sector of Educational Technologies) of the Department of Education Sciences, and is called Laboratorio Audiovisivo, Multimediale e Telematico (audiovisual, Multimedia and Telematic laboratory). it is equipped for the production of audiovisual, multimedia and e-learning materials for teaching and scientific research. The laboratory is also used for distance specialization courses of the Facoltà di Scienze della Formazione (Faculty of Education) of the University of padua» (Messina, 2007a, p. 99, our translation). in this regard, it should be remembered that the area of “health and well-being” is included among the growing demands and needs of media and information literacy: a «crucial tool in developing the health and well-being of all in [...] the right of individuals to information on health and well-being» (pérez Tornero, 2008, p. 11). During the two years of training activity (2008/2009 and 2009/2010 school years), the team has created interdisciplinary research instruments as well as instruments for practical intervention thanks to a constructive dialogue between the team members: experts in media education, experts in food safety,

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assumptions: the efficacy of training depends above all on the level of active participation of teachers and children within activities which involve them in productive roles; an educational action addressed to children must include a preliminary teacher training action, aimed at enabling teachers to guide children in the various didactic activities of healthy nutrition promotion carried out through the media.9 The project is therefore characterised by both training interventions for teachers on the promotion of healthy nutrition through media education and a systematic coaching of teachers in their classroom teaching activity. The project, and consequently the training/educational activity, is based on workshops on media education for healthy eating, and within this context, the role of teachers and children does not so much correspond to that of a critical reader but rather to that of a writer/author of messages aimed at promoting healthy eating, or more specifically of a co-writer/co-author, considering the collaborative and cooperative nature of the media writing activities (Messina, 2005). The workshops entail the participation of teachers and young people playing the role of the authors of messages, created with the kinds of technologies children know well and use easily, and their ultimate aim is not only to contribute to the development of communicative skills, but to help teachers and students focus directly on healthy nutrition issues, so that they can take it on themselves. The training carried out in schools during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 school years involved 41 schools,10 129 teachers, 1403 students,11 who participated in the project voluntarily (see Table 1). While the teachers’ workshops consisted of 5 four-hour sessions, the students participated in 8 sessions, with a total of 20 hours for both workshops. The sessions were organised as follows: introduction to the problems of healthy eating and to the media education approach; reading media texts;

9

10

11

specialists in food sciences, paediatricians, veterinary surgeons, agriculturalists, associations working in the field, food producers. We noticed a remarkable lack of familiarity with media technologies and language on the part of teachers during this training experience. The schools are mainly Istituti Comprensivi (ic), institutions that include kindergarten, primary school and lower secondary school, located in the same district. The participation of teachers and students in the lower secondary schools is logistically difficult because of recent changes in school legislation and in teachers’ timetables. For these reasons there were better results in primary schools.

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Media education and healthy nutrition: a training experience with teachers and students

2008/2009

2009/2010

pS and lSS schools participating in project

21

20

pS and lSS teachers participating in workshops conducted by experts

42

87

pS students participating in workshops conducted by experts

105

lSS students participating in workshops conducted by experts

62

pS students participating in workshops conducted by the trained teachers

181

872

lSS students participating in workshops conducted by the trained teachers

34

149

Media products designed by pS and lSS teachers under the guidance of experts

10

17

Media products designed by pS students under the guidance of experts

27

Media products designed by lSS students under the guidance of experts

8

Media products designed by pS students under the guidance of the trained teachers

9

47

Media products designed by lSS students under the guidance of the trained teachers

7

5

Table 1

Number of: schools participating in the project Cibo intelligente; teachers and students who participated in the workshops; number of products designed by teachers and students (PS = Primary School; LSS = Lower Secondary School).

writing media texts: thinking up ideas, creation of a script/storyboard, shooting, editing, watching and evaluating the products made. The workshops were conducted by experts in media education12 working alongside food and nutrition experts,13 who at some stages were also present at the sessions; particularly they participated in the sessions entailing the 12

13

The experts are: graduates of the Masters course in Audiovisual and MultiMedia Education, padua University (i. Barile, F. D’Este, E. Grassi, M. parente, F. personeni, S. Trevisan) and expert teachers in media education (S. costa, S. Tabone), working under the supervision of prof.ssa l. Messina. The nutrition experts are teachers and researchers at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and at the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences of padua University, and doctors of SiaN-Servizio igiene alimenti Nutrizione from the Region of Veneto (Hygiene Service on Food and Nutrition).

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introduction to a healthy nutrition and the early writing stages: drawing up of the story and script/storyboard. In the first year, 2008/2009, the workshops were aimed at both teachers and students, and were both carried out by experts in media education, with the participation of nutrition and health experts. In the second year, 2009/2010, only teachers were involved in the workshop directly conducted by the experts of media education, with the participation of nutrition and health experts. However, upon conclusion of the workshops, the teachers carried on with the activities in class, helped in some sections by the experts using the on-line platform that had been set up for this purpose14 and where media products could be deposited.15 Altogether a total of 130 products designed for healthy nutrition promotion (see Table 1) were created by teachers and students, using different techniques and formats: cartoon, animated power point, short film, animated fable, photograph book, video report, commercial, documentary fiction, video interview. The products were then assessed by a jury of experts and young people, with the award of a monetary prize to the schools where the best products were made, in keeping with three criteria: relevance with regard to the problem of healthy nutrition, innovation, and communicative efficacy.16 Each time, the activities of the two projects (2008/2009 – 2009/2010) were completed by staging two great events (Vicenza, May 2009 – Padua, June 2010) which hosted about 1500 primary and lower secondary school children, together with their teachers, coming from all over Veneto. During these events, the school products were awarded prizes. All the media works were collected in two CDs (Cibo intelligente I – Cibo intelligente II) and distributed to all the schools involved in the project. Moreover, the overall training action was monitored using two questionnaires, one to discover the eating habits of participants, the other to check if the primary objective of the action had been achieved — to understand the importance of healthy eating and of a healthy lifestyle. This questionnaire 14

15

16

This activity has not produced satisfactory results, because the teachers were reluctant to use the platform, and preferred interacting with experts through e-mail, leading us to revise the project and include specific training for the use of the platform. a specific section was created within “alimentinsalute”. This section contains all the media products made by the school teachers and students of the Region of Veneto for the project “cibo intelligente” (http://www.alimentinsalute.it/scuola/progetti-realizzati; http://www.alimentinsalute.it/scuola/progetti). Two prizes were awarded for teachers and students of primary and lower secondary school: the amount for the first prize was € 500.00, the second prize was € 300.00. it was also awarded a special prize of € 500.00 for the best product realized by the classes, whose teachers participated to the training workshops.

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Media education and healthy nutrition: a training experience with teachers and students

was also used to gather feedback on the usefulness of the workshop from the participants. The results of the project were very positive, not only in terms of the large number of participants and of the final products, but also in terms of the products’ communication efficacy, of teachers satisfaction with training and of the children’s improved awareness of the importance of healthy eating habits. This training action is continuing in schools during the present school year (2010/2011) and it is increasingly systematic thanks to the optimised teamwork. The workshops, organised as previously stated, are aimed at new groups of teachers in blended form: face-to-face and on-line. During the training activities teachers acquire not only skills in media reading and writing and a clearer idea of the principles of healthy eating, but they can also gain greater familiarity with the use of the on-line platform. In this way, the trained teachers can subsequently conduct similar activities in the classroom with students, assisted by media education and healthy nutrition experts in all of the sessions of the workshops through the on-line resources. At the same time, we are designing a quasi-experimental study that will involve some trained teachers and new groups of students along with their parents.17 Besides, as literature suggests (Van Cauwenberghe et al., 2010), we are planning a new training project for teachers and their students, which will entail a multi-component intervention (associating the distribution of some specific types of food with information initiatives on their health properties, and educational interventions on a healthy diet, as well as class discussions carried out by doctors and educators and media education workshops), and specific questionnaires to assess changes in the dietary behaviours of children.

Concluding remarks The experiences described above allow different kinds of reflection, that we wish to look at from the perspective of teacher training. 17

This study is part of the doctorate research project of Elena Grassi, co-author of this article, elaborated under the supervision of prof.ssa l. Messina and based on some remarkable studies on healthy eating, targeted towards children and parents and characterized by the media “production” approach, carried out by alexandra Evans and colleagues (Evans et al., 2006; Tanner et al., 2008).

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First of all, the large number of requests to participate in the Cibo intelligente project by teachers, on a purely voluntary basis, shows how urgently training in technology and media education is needed. This need is also demonstrated by the engagement of teachers in the project: 20 hours for the workshops personally attended by them in extra school time, and 20 hours for the workshops with students represent a considerable work commitment, especially if considered beside the planned and running activities during the school year. Secondly, the interest of teachers has gradually extended during the workshops towards “educations” and subject matters, even if, initially, it may have been roused by the theme — health education and healthy eating — and by the novelty of its proposition, through media education. Namely, teachers realized how knowledge of technologies and media allow them to deal with many educational topics — from health, to citizenship, peace, environment... — and subject teaching,18 and they also «playfully discovered» (Falcinelli, 2009), first alone, and then with their students, not just the pleasure of expression through media languages, but also of learning and communicating through the on-line platform, and of being producer rather than consumer, overcoming in some cases substantial — even if weakly rooted — impediments. Such impediments were accompanied by a widespread cognitive conflict, alternating between the ‘refresh obligation’ imposed by their conscience and the fear of not being able to continue independently in using media after the conclusion of workshops, even though they were assisted by the on-line platform — a more than justified fear, given the novelty for many teachers of the digital media world. To summarize, we could say that the implementation of the Cibo intelligente project has provided further evidence of the cross-cutting and flexible nature of teaching/education technologies (Ardizzone & Rivoltella, 2008) and the media education production approach (Messina, 2005), and last but not least, the efficacy of their combination. This evidence underlines a fundamental training urgency: breaking the usual improvement of digital and media competence of teachers a posteriori, typical of our context, where the university education of new teachers does not seem to be able to provide it, requiring ad hoc training plans and courses for in-service teachers. 18

Teachers of both the primary and lower secondary schools have expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the training experience, also in respect to the possible uses of the acquired knowledge.

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Media education and healthy nutrition: a training experience with teachers and students

The recent Italian Government decree concerning the training of new teachers,19 where “digital competences” take priority in the curriculum,20 could be an occasion for a turnaround, if the acquisition of the ability to use technology and multimedia languages — «for representation and communication of knowledge, for use of digital content, and more overall, simulation environments and virtual laboratories» (MIUR, 2010) — does not remain once again segregated into the areas of educational technology and media education, but flexibly across subjects and educations. In this sense, it may be useful to recall some documents drawn up at a recent International Expert Group Meeting (UNESCO, 2008), that underline how media and technologies «are inextricably intertwined» and systematically consider the «existing synergies between them» (UNESCO, 2008, p. 5), proposing a framework to outline «curricula for media and information literacy»21 devoted at «initial teacher training» and later «in-service professional development» (UNESCO, 2008, p. 11). These documents provide clear theoretical and operational principles, one of which states that «media and information literacy affects all types of learning and activities: based on this reasoning, media and information literacy is a cross-cutting consideration that affects the entire curriculum and permeates all subjects and courses» (Pérez Tornero, 2008, p. 18). This statement clearly implies «an inter-disciplinary and multimodal approach» and highlights that in the curricula for new teachers «the acquisition of media and information literacy cannot rely exclusively on a specific subject. Rather, it should be the result of the structuring and complementary nature of several types of activities» (Pérez Tornero, 2008, p. 29).

References Alvermann, D.E., & Hagood, M.C. (2000). Critical media literacy: Research, theory, and practice in “New Times”. The Journal of Educational Research, 93 (3), 193-204. 19

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Decree of 10 September 2010, N. 249, issued by the Minister of Education, University and Research, published on 31 January 2011 in the italian Republic Official Gazette, General Series N. 24, Ordinary Supplement N. 23, contains the rules regarding: “Defining the discipline of the requirements and procedures for initial training of teachers of kindergarten, primary and lower and higher secondary school”. article. 3 of Decree N. 249 of 10 September 2010, paragraph 4b, specifies that «the acquisition of digital competences foreseen in the Recommendation of the European parliament and council of 18 December 2006 are an integral part of training». The attempt here is to try to enclose in a single name — media and information literacy — some correlated concepts «such as “digital literacy”, “computer literacy”, “cultural literacy”, “information literacy”, “audio-visual literacy”, “media education”, “edu-communication”, etc.» (pérez Tornero, 2008, p. 7).

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EPSCO (2005). Obesity, nutrition and physical activity. (http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/public_health/health_determinants_lifestyle/c11542a_en.htm). Eshach, H. (2007). Bridging in-school and out-of-school learning: Formal, nonformal, and informal education. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16 (2), 171-190. Eurispes & Telefono Azzurro (2009). 10° Rapporto Nazionale sulla Condizione dell’Infanzia e dell’Adolescenza. (http://www.azzurro.it/index.php?id=225). European Commission (2005). Promoting healthy diets and physical activity: A European dimension for the prevention of overweight, obesity and chronic diseases. (http://eur-lex. europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/com/2005/com2005_0637en01.pdf). European Commission (2007a). A Strategy for Europe on nutrition, overweight and obesity related health issues. (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2 007:0279:FIN:EN:PDF). European Commission (2007b). Media literacy. (http://ec.europa.eu/culture/media/literacy/ index_en.htm). European Parliament (2007). Promoting healthy diets and physical activity: A European dimension for the prevention of overweight, obesity and chronic diseases. (http:// www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+TA+P6-TA-20070019+0+DOC+XML+V0//EN). Evans, A.E., Dave, J., Tanner, A., Duhe, S., Condrasky, M., Wilson, D., Griffin, S., Palmer, M., & Evans, M. (2006). Changing the home nutrition environment: Effects of a nutrition and media literacy pilot intervention. Family & Community Health, 29 (1), 43-54. Falcinelli, F. (2009). Educazione mediale e formazione iniziale e in servizio degli insegnanti. REM – Ricerche su Educazione e Media, 1 (1), 97-106. Frau-Meigs, D., & Torrent, J. (2009). Mapping media education policies in the world. New York-Uelva: UN-Alliance of Civilizations- Grupo Comunicar. (http://unesdoc.unesco. org/images/0018/001819/181917e.pdf). Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogia do oprimido. Rio de Janeiro: Edições Paz e Terra. (Tr. it. La pedagogia degli oppressi. Milano: Mondadori, 1971). Fuller, H.A., Damico, A.M., & Rodgers, S. (2004). Impact of a health and media literacy curriculum on 4th-grade girls: A qualitative study. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 19 (1), 66-78. Galliani, L. (1988). Educazione ai linguaggi audiovisivi. Torino: Società Editrice Internazionale. Galliani, L. (2002). Note introduttive – Appunti per una vera storia dell’educazione ai media, con i media, attraverso i media. Studium Educationis, 3, 563-576. Ghedin, E. (2004). Quando si sta bene. Educazione alla salute e adolescenza. Milano: Franco Angeli. Gonzales, R., Gilk, D., Davoudi, M., & Ang, A. (2004). Media literacy and public health: Integrating theory, research, and practice for tobacco control. American Behavioral Scientist, 48 (2), 189-201. Goodson, F.T., & Norton-Meier, L. (2003). Motor oil, civil disobedience, and media literacy. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47 (3), 258-262. Guarino, A. (2008). Fondamenti di educazione alla salute. Teorie e tecniche per l’intervento psicologico in adolescenza. Milano: Franco Angeli. Hindin, T.B., Contento, I.R., & Gussow, J.D. (2004). A media literacy nutrition education curriculum for head start parents about the effects of television advertising on 61

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their children’s food requests. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (2), 192-198. INRAN (Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione) (2009). La nuova piramide alimentare della dieta mediterranea moderna. (http://www.inran.it/358/31/ news/ecco_la_nuova_piramide_alimentare_della_dieta_mediterranea.html). Jonassen, D.H. (1995). Computers as cognitive tools: Learning with technology, not from technology. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 6 (2), 40-73. Kater, K.J., Rohwer, J., & Londre, K. (2002). Evaluation of an upper elementary school program to prevent body image, eating and weight concerns. Journal of School Health, 72 (5), 199-204. Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. (2004). Advertising foods to children: Understanding promotion in the context of children daily lives. A review of the literature prepared for the Research Department of the Office of Communications (OFCOM). Department of Media and Communications – London School of Economics and Political Science. (http://www. lse.ac.uk/collections/media@lse/whoswho/sonialivingstone.htm). Mantovani, C., Bissoli, F., Barison, B., Terreran, A., Losasso, C., Vanzo, A., Vio, P., Grassi, E., & Messina, L. (2010). “Alimentinsalute”: A social marketing project for public health communication and education on food safety and nutrition in the Veneto Region. ICERI Conference Proceedings, pp. 4553-4562. Valencia: IATED. Mantovani, S., & Ferri, P. (2008). Digital kids. Milano: ETAS. Martens, H. (2010). Evaluating media literacy education: Concepts, theories and future directions. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 2 (1), 1-22. Masterman, L., & Mariet, F. (1994). Media education in 1990’s Europe: A teacher’s guide. Strasbourg, The Netherlands: Council of Europe Press. (Tr. it. a cura di P.C. Rivoltella, A scuola di media. Educazione, media e democrazia nell’Europa degli anni ’90. Brescia: Editrice La Scuola, 2000). Messina, L. (Ed.) (2005). Andar per segni. Percorsi di educazione ai media. Padova: CLEUP. Messina, L. (2007a). La formazione delle figure educative per la produzione mediale. In M. Morcellini & P.C. Rivoltella (Eds.), La sapienza di comunicare (pp. 97-108). Trento: Erickson. Messina, L. (Ed.) (2007b). Accompagnarsi nei media. Lecce: Pensa Multimedia. Ministero della Salute – Governo Italiano (2008). Okkio alla Salute: la mappa dell’obesità infantile in Italia. (http://www.salute.gov.it/dettaglio/phPrimoPianoNew.jsp?id=188&a rea=ministero&colore=2). MIUR (2010). Decreto 10 settembre 2010, n. 249. (http://www.miur.it/Documenti/universita/ Offerta_formativa/Formazione_iniziale_insegnanti_corsi_uni/DM_10_092010_n.249. pdf). Moore, J., DeChillo, N., Nicholson, B., Genovese, A., & Sladen, S. (2000). Flashpoint: An innovative media literacy intervention for high-risk adolescents. Juvenile and Family Court Journal, 51 (2), 23-34 . OECD (2010). Obesity and the economics of prevention: Fit not fat. (http://www.oecd.org/ document/31/0,3343,en_2649_33929_45999775_1_1_1_37407,00.html). Pellai, A. (2010). Linking media education with health education. Key note speech at World Summit on Media for Children and Youth, June 14-18 2010, Karlstad Sweden. (http:// www.wskarlstad2010.se/filer/presentationer/alberto_pellai.pdf). 62

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Pellai, A., & Marzorati, P. (Eds.) (2001). Educazione alla salute. Standard e linee guida dalla scuola elementare alla scuola superiore. Milano: Franco Angeli. Pérez Tornero, J.M. (2008). Teacher training curricula for media and information literacy. Background strategy paper. International Expert Group Meeting, Paris, June 2008. (http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=20891&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_ SECTION=201.html). Petrillo, G., & Caso, D. (2008). Promuovere la salute nei contesti educativi. Comportamenti salutari e benessere tra gli adolescenti. Milano: Franco Angeli. Pieter, A., Fröhlich, M., Emrich E., & Stark, R. (2010). Situated health promotion: Reflections on implementing situated learning approaches in health promoting. Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, 1 (2), 93-99. Pinkleton, B.E., Austin, E.W., Cohen, M., Miller, A., & Fitzgerald, E. (2007). A statewide evaluation of the effectiveness of media literacy training to prevent tobacco use among adolescents. Health Communication, 21 (1), 23-34. Scharrer, E. (2002). Making a case for media literacy in the curriculum: Outcomes and assessments. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46 (4), 354-358. Sefton-Green, J. (2004). Literature review in informal learning with technology outside school. Futurelab, Report n° 7. (http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/Informal_Learning_Review.pdf). Tanner, A., Duhe, S., Evans, A., & Condrasky, M. (2008). Using student-produced media to promote healthy eating. A pilot study on the effects of a media and nutrition intervention. Science Communication, 30 (1), 108-125. UNESCO (2008). Teacher-training curricula for media and information literacy. (http:// portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=27057&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html). Van Cauwenberghe, E., Maes, L., Spittaels, H., Van Lenthe, F.J., Brug, J., Oppert, J.M., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2010). Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published ad “grey” literature. British Journal of Nutrition, 103, 781-797. Wade, T.D., Davidson, S., & O’Dea, J.A. (2003). A preliminary controlled evaluation of a school-based media literacy program and self-esteem program for reducing eating disorder risk factors. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 33, 371-383. WHO (1986). Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. First International Conference on Health Promotion, Ottawa, 21 November 1986. (http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/ ottawa_charter_hp.pdf). WHO (2006). The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies for response. (http://www.euro.who.int). Yates, B.L. (1999). Media literacy: A health education perspective. Journal of Health Education, 30 (3), 180-187. Zucconi, A., & Howell, P. (2003). La promozione della salute. Un approccio globale per il benessere della persona e della società. Molfetta (BA): La Meridiana.

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Section two: Reports of empirical studies and surveys

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Enhancing pre-service teachers’ knowledge building discourse with a hybrid learning environment Stéphane Allaire*, Thérèse Laferrière** and Fernand Gervais**

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* University of Québec at Chicoutimi, 555, Boulevard de l’Université Chicoutimi (Québec) G7H 2B1, Canada. E-mail: Stephane_Allaire@uqac.ca ** Laval University, 2325, rue de l’Université, Québec (Québec) G1V 0A6, Canada. E-mail: therese. laferriere@fse.ulaval.ca; fernand.gervais@fes.ulaval.ca

The main objective of this design experiment (Brown, 1992; Collins, 1999) was to evaluate the characteristics of a hybrid learning environment (onsite/on-line interactions) for knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994) purpose during a practicum where pre-service teachers needed to tackle a pedagogical and technological innovative context. The concept of affordance (Gaver, 1991; Gibson, 1979) was helpful to understand how participants interacted with the characteristics of the environment. Research results are coming mainly from qualitative analysis and they illustrate how onsite and on-line interactions can combine to create a collaborative learning environment enhancing pre-service teachers’ knowledge and skills. Keywords: hybrid learning environment; pre-service teachers; knowledge building; network learning; collaboration.

Edizioni Erickson – Trento

REM – vol. 3, no. 1, June 2011 (67-83)

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Introduction The learning sciences (Bransford, Brown & Cocking, 1999; Sawyer, 2005) emphasize both cognitive and social processes in learning thus calling for changes in the way we approach teaching. In the Province of QuĂŠbec, Canada, an educational reform is underway, one that promotes in particular a socio-constructivist perspective as an epistemological foundation. Professional development and reflective practice are recognized as a key part of any innovation strategy (Guskey, 1995; Fullan, 1993; Lieberman, 1996; Little, 1993). Information and communication technologies (ICTs) offer promising possibilities to this end (Kollias & Kikis, 2005; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Voogt & Knezek, 2008) because they offer great potential for collaboration purposes (UNESCO, 2008) and can be used to tighten university-school relationship, an important characteristic for bringing coherence into an educational innovation process (Holmes, 1990). Our own research work is anchored in such a partnership that focuses on the use of collaborative technologies in classrooms where each pupil has his/her own laptop connected to the Internet (networked classrooms). These elements contribute to transform the learning environment into a hybrid mode, one characterized by onsite and on-line interactions. In this context, new practices are likely to emerge and unforeseen challenges to arise, especially for pre-service teachers. At the dawn of the knowledge age, it seems crucial to learn from each other and to reinvest what has been learnt for collective professional gains to be made (Bereiter, 2002). For preparing students to deal with realities of the knowledge age, teacher communities are called to update their collective repertoire of practices. With such considerations in mind, we designed a hybrid learning environment to support pre-service teachers during their field experiences and student teaching in the networked classrooms of a secondary public school (technology-supported program). Our research development design aimed at fostering collaborative reflective practice (SchĂśn, 1983), considering such an unfamiliar and challenging classroom context for each of them, and knowledge building (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1994) considering the novelty of such a working context for teachers as a professional community. These are key processes for knowledge improvement, individual and collective. 68

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Enhancing pre-service teachers’ knowledge building discourse with a hybrid learning environment

As researchers, our main concern about the relevance of the design regarded the ways it supported knowledge building. Thus, the following specific research questions were investigated: Which possibilities of the hybrid learning environment, among those designed to foster knowledge building, were acknowledged by pre-service teachers? How did the knowledge building on-line discourse unfold? Design being an intentional activity, our working hypothesis as researchers was that the intended hybrid learning environment would support knowledge building.

Theoretical framework Sociocultural perspectives on cognition (Vygotsky, 1978; Rogoff, 1994; Wertsch, 1998; Lave & Wenger, 1991; Wells, 1999) stress that learning occurs through interactions among individuals where tools, objects and artifacts operate in various systems in their environment. We designed our hybrid learning environment being inspired by these perspectives. The concept of affordance (Gibson, 1979; Norman, 1999) was central to understand how participants interacted with specific characteristics of the environment. We adapted Gaver’s (1991) distinction of different types of affordances (perceptible affordances, hidden affordances, and emergent affordances). They describe interactions taking place between a designer’s intention and a user’s perception. A perceptible affordance is a feature of the environment that is perceived in the same way as intended by the designer. A hidden affordance is a designed feature that is not perceived at all by users whereas an emergent affordance is an affordance that is perceived by the user but one that was not purposefully intended by the designers. Thus, we wanted to link our intentional design activity with the users’ actions, to examine different kinds of affordances, digital and social. Digital affordances designate features that support human-machine interactions whereas social affordances surround human-human interactions when onsite/on-line synchronous and asynchronous activity is occurring in a hybrid learning environment (Kreijns, Kirschner & Jochems, 2002; Bradner, 2001; Bielaczyc, 2001; Little, 2003; Kozma, 2003). By referring to affordances, we were able to unite design and intervention in a concrete way. In design 69

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mode, not only have we considered our point of view, but also the user was considered a participant with his/her own point of view. Within such a framework, one understands that what is going on in a learning environment is not the result of the designers and/or teachers only, but of all participants’ interactions (and non-interactions). The intervention mode aimed at the design of social and digital affordances that were to support and scaffold, in particular, knowledge building «defined as the production and continual improvement of ideas of value to a community, through means that increase the likelihood that what the community accomplishes will be greater than the sum of individual contributions and part of broader cultural efforts». (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2003, p. 1370). This process thus refers to deliberate idea improvement for one’s local professional community’s collective knowledge and beyond.

Methodology The design research methodology (Brown, 1992; Collins, 1999; Kelley, Lesh & Baek, 2008) is recognized as well suited for educational innovation and was judged proper for the context of this study. We conducted three iterations, in quest to progressively improve our pre-service teachers program for supporting knowledge building discourse. Design of socio-digital affordances Social affordances. Social affordances were primarily the result of onsite/ on-line interactions in a knowledge building context. They were available before, during and after the field experience or student teaching. In the design of any teacher education program, connection and coherence matter (Darling-Hammond & Hammerness, 2005) as they combine to provide a clearer and stronger picture of what defines the education profession. In our design, connections between university-based and school-based teacher educators and discourse coherence when sending messages to preservice teachers were manifest in the following social affordances: similar classroom practices (constructivist pedagogies), proximal languages (collaborative project-based learning, problem-based or inquiry-based learning, network-enabled learning community, self and peer-evaluation and, to a lesser degree, knowledge building pedagogy were voiced concepts, notions, 70

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Enhancing pre-service teachers’ knowledge building discourse with a hybrid learning environment

and processes), similarity of tool use (ICT integration), common attitudes towards reflective practice and collective idea improvement. Ideas that pre-service teachers had already contributed and were going to contribute to the electronic forum (Knowledge Forum) were recognized as another form of social affordances, and so were annotations by either peers or teacher educators. In all three iterations of our design, the same university-based teacher educator and the same doctoral student participated in the on-line discourse. From one pre-service teacher cohort to the next, participants had access to previous cohorts’ on-line discourse and other learning/knowledge building artifacts. The design intention was for them to add their own contributions to their community’s understanding of a networked classroom. Thus, the second iteration made available to pre-service teachers’ views (a view is a collection of notes on Knowledge Forum) developed by former pre-service teachers, and so on for the third iteration. Moreover, beginning in the third iteration, a new social affordance was added to the hybrid learning environment: graduating pre-service teachers joined the on-line discourse. This design decision like the ones mentioned above was taken to provide an increasingly coherent environment that would afford more interaction possibilities and uncover new affordances for the renewal of pre-service teacher education. Digital affordances. For the purpose of this paper, we concentrate here on electronic forum’s digital affordances. Knowledge Forum was chosen for its diversity of affordances, especially designed to support knowledge building discourse and to encourage a community of people to write and improve ideas by building on one another’s contributions and revising their own in order to produce ideas of value to others, and advance their collective knowledge. A first key digital affordance of Knowledge Forum is its hard scaffolds feature (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1982; Brush & Sayes, 2002; Vygotskij, 1978). Each time they were to write a contribution to the forum, pre-service teachers would have the possibility to qualify its content by selecting a specific scaffold. One main set of scaffolds, based on the knowledge building principles (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2003), was available. During all three iterations, pre-service teachers were offered this set. Other digital affordances of Knowledge Forum were the following ones: participants could visually organize notes in neuron-like shapes (as opposed to the threading shape found in more conventional forums), a more flexible 71

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way to organize the collective discourse. By this means it was possible for them to move notes in the on-line collaborative space to create regroupings according to specific themes, questions, etc. This allows a more dynamic way to interact with ideas, to make clusters, and to take into consideration emergence and non-linearity. Moreover, the view creation option was to create a collection of notes into distinct sub-spaces of discussion. This was another way for participants to organize their on-line collaborative space according to emergent goals and achievements. The problem definition feature offered them the possibility to identify the problem being investigated. The keyword feature called attention to the identification of key terms during note writing. The quotation feature offered the possibility to reference another’s contributions. The co-authoring feature offered the possibility for a few authors to co-write a note. Publishing a note was also an affordance, thus allowing specific contributions to be recognized as knowledge advancement. The rise-above feature allowed for synthesis to push ideas forward and, therefore, movement beyond current thinking in a dialectic manner. That is to say the rationale underlying Knowledge Forum reflects a dynamic similar to the one of a research team/community where people try to advance ideas and knowledge of value to others. Knowledge Forum’s affordances have been designed along this rationale.

Iteration 1 proximal languages between school and university (social) Similar classroom practices between school and university (social)

Iteration 2 (in addition to those of iteration 1)

Iteration 3 (in addition to those of iterations 1 and 2)

access to previous cohort’s on-line discourse and other artifacts (digital)

participation of graduating pre-service teachers to on-line discourse (social)

Valorization of reflective practice and idea improvement (social) On-site (information interactions and reflective seminars) and on-line (Knowledge Forum) discourse between pre-service teachers, university-based teacher educator and doctoral student (social) Knowledge Forum features to support on-line discourse (digital)

Table 1

Socio-digital affordances for iterations of the design research

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Participants All participants were registered in a four-year integrated baccalaureate program in secondary education. They all did their field experiences in the same secondary school. From the fall session of 2002 to the end of the 2005 winter session, forty-five pre-service teachers (nine cohorts) did their field experiences (10 dispersed days, 5 weeks in a row or four-month duration) in a networked classroom (Table 1). Field experiences/ student teaching

Iteration 1 of the design research

Iteration 2 of the design research

Iteration 3 of the design research

Early field experience (ten dispersed days)

4 pre-service teachers

7 pre-service teachers

0 pre-service teacher

A five-week long field experience

6 pre-service teachers

5 pre-service teachers

6 pre-service teachers

A four-month duration student teaching

6 pre-service teachers

6 pre-service teachers

5 pre-service teachers

Table 2

Pre-service teachers’ distribution according to iterations.

All field experiences started with an orientation meeting led by the university-based teacher educator and the doctoral student. Goals were discussed and the networked community as a whole (university-based and school-based networked classrooms) was presented. All through their field experience and beyond, they contributed to Knowledge Forum. Besides the curricular objectives attached to such activities, the advanced pedagogical intention was for these pre-service teachers to join a collective endeavour focusing on understanding highly networked classrooms, such as changes in classroom management, engagement of pupils, teaching and learning dynamics, and so on. They were required to demonstrate reflective practice in their on-line discourse but engaging in knowledge building was optional. While the former was one element of the official curricular objectives, the latter was not, and it was considered very important that students would be intentional and self-determined inquirers. Procedures The three iterations of our design unfolded in a similar way. Each started in August and finished late April or early May. Fourth-year students’ four73

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month student teaching started at the end of August and ran until December. In late September, second-year pre-service teachers doing early field experiences joined the same hybrid learning environment for 10 dispersed days, at a rate of one day per week. Beginning in late January, there was a group (third-year students) doing the five-week long field experience. All pre-service teachers were physically in the same school, teaching in the same technology-supported program, i.e. classrooms operating as networked learning communities, and they interacted together onsite, informally and during reflective seminars. The longer the practicum was, the more they assumed teaching in the networked classroom. Moreover, they were all working on-line in the same Knowledge Forum database for reflective practice and idea improvement purposes. Each group had its own startup view on Knowledge Forum, but as stated earlier, it was possible for participants of iterations 2 and 3 to read all the other views available in the database. Data gathering and analysis Two individual interviews and participant observations were conducted to inquire into when and how pre-service teachers perceived affordances of the hybrid learning environment (research question 1). Interviews were done at the beginning and at the end of the field experience. Participant observations occurred in two ways, i.e. animation of onsite reflective seminars, during which field notes were collected by the doctoral student, and contribution to on-line discourse and its analysis using Knowledge Forum embedded analytic tools. To document knowledge building discourse (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993) (research question 2), we analyzed in an inductive manner specific discourse sequences on Knowledge Forum, i.e. notes linked to one another by participants themselves.

Results RESEARCH QUESTION 1: WHICH POSSIBILITIES OF THE HYBRID LEARNING ENVIRONMENT, AMONG THOSE DESIGNED TO FOSTER KNOWLEDGE BUILDING, WERE ACKNOWLEDGED BY PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS? The first part of the results is aligned with our adaptation of Gaver’s (1991) understanding of affordances. 74

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Enhancing pre-service teachers’ knowledge building discourse with a hybrid learning environment

Perceptible affordances As regards the perceptible affordances present in the designed hybrid learning environment, results showed that 75% of all intended socio-digital affordances were perceived, of which 64% were acknowledged from almost the very beginning of the field experience. Participants acknowledged social affordances. Social affordances were acknowledged more quickly than digital ones, i.e. they were perceived at the very beginning of the field experience. Most of the acknowledged social affordances were aligned with the designers’ pedagogical intentions. For instance, the designers wanted to provide an environment to raise the level of pre-service reflective discourse, and de-contextualize participants’ thinking about their own onsite experience. This participant’s statement is illustrative of such recognition: «Participation in the forum helped us take another look at what was going on in the classroom. It’s like we were out of the context… but at the same time we were still talking about it». Participants acknowledged socio-digital affordances that were visually most salient. These most visually salient features of the database were first acknowledged. All participants contributed to the database (778 contributions were made; 17 contributions and 14 pages of 500 words per page per participant in average), meaning the electronic forum was successful to support extensive collaborative reflective and knowledge building discourse, from a quantitative perspective. Students were also able to qualify their writing intent using the scaffolds (1303 in total; 1.67 per note in average) and to add one or more keywords to their notes (more than one per note on average). Participants acknowledged on-line social affordances to be more useful than onsite social affordances for engaging in collaborative reflective practice and knowledge building. All pre-service teachers stated that explicitly when asked to compare both dimensions of their hybrid learning environment. A striking statement was the following one: Social face to face dynamic is more alive because it gives access to the real life of the classroom, but it doesn’t allow to step back as much as the social on-line dynamic. The forum allows it, and it also supports reflection and the development of a thinking culture. The result seems interesting to me because, by reading other people’s contributions, we come up with a bunch of questions and we can trace the development of solutions applied in our own practice. 75

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Pre-service teachers’ experience in the hybrid environment was a factor in the perception and use of Knowledge Forum’s features (affordance recognition level) by other pre-service teachers who were part of the same experience during the same semester. Figure 1 shows three groups of pre-service teachers with at least one participant with previous experience in the hybrid learning environment. In Time One, no participant had previous experience; in Time Two, at least one participant had one previous experience; and in Time Three, some participants had two previous experiences.

Figure 1

Groups’ affordance recognition level according to the experience level of participants already acquainted with the environment.

The dark line shows the progress of a group including participant(s) with one previous experience (Time Two) in the hybrid learning environment: the group acknowledged 60% of the affordances in Time One and 77% in Time Two. The gray line shows the progress of another group that included participant(s) with experience (Time Two) in the hybrid learning environment: the group acknowledged nearly 70% of the affordances in Time One and 77% in Time Two. The white line shows the progress of a third group that included participant(s) with two previous experiences in the hybrid learning environment: The group acknowledged 60% (Time One), 73% (Time Two), and 88% (Time Three) of the affordances. This illustrates a collective growing capacity when the knowledge of pre-service teachers with 76

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Enhancing pre-service teachers’ knowledge building discourse with a hybrid learning environment

experience is reinvested from one practicum to another. We must clarify each “time” (X axis) doesn’t necessarily correspond to one iteration as each iteration corresponds to one school year whereas practicums are distributed all along the baccalaureate program. Emergent affordances Participants transformed some of the designers’ intentions. A first case of an emergent affordance occurred during iteration one. It was one of a digital nature and one that pertained to the views of former pre-service teacher cohorts in the same database. Designers had envisioned those views to be inert but pre-service found them useful for the progression of their own on-line discourse. In iteration two, designers presented those views as learning/knowledge building artifacts and, therefore, as part of the hybrid learning environment. But design issues remained throughout iterations two and three: some pre-service teachers had difficulty following the thinking thread of a previous cohort. As reported by one of them: We don’t really understand the views at first sight… We need to be involved [in the forum exchanges] to understand it properly. This is my opinion…. […] visual cues could help understand the views of former preservice teachers better.

A second case of an emergent affordance occurred during iteration three, one of a social nature that regarded the participation of graduating pre-service teachers to on-line discourse. Although their participation opened up a number of opportunities for newcomers, some pre-service teachers felt they were being observed if not assessed by outsiders. There was indication such as verbal expression of dissatisfaction on the part of one cohort that some pre-service teachers began to dislike the presence of graduating teachers. The design problem, one that remained a challenging one throughout iteration three, was how to minimize the possibility that graduating pre-service teachers’ comments would overshadow those of newcomers, leaving them with a sense of having a too limited space in their community. One student suggested the roles of the graduating pre-service teachers to be better clarified at the very beginning of their participation. A third case of an emergent affordance was that readers as well as writers found scaffolds useful. Even when writers did not seem to need 77

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them anymore, readers kept finding them helpful. Although a scaffold is meant to disappear once a writer outgrows it, the use of scaffolds endured for reading purposes. Readers said during interviews that they could understand more explicitly the intentions of the writers who wrote contributions to the database. Whether the use of digital scaffolds over time should be encouraged or not is an arising question, and a specific study is needed. Hidden affordances Affordances constantly hidden to most participants were the following ones: the problem definition window (although a feature as salient as the keyword window); the note publication feature; and the co-authoring note feature. The two last ones were less visible than the problem definition one. A few more experienced pre-service teachers, those who had already done a field experience combined with on-line reflection, acknowledged the note publication affordance and the co-authoring note affordance during their second and third participation in the environment, those corresponding respectively to iterations two and three of our design. RESEARCH QUESTION 2: HOW DID THE KNOWLEDGE BUILDING ON-LINE DISCOURSE UNFOLD? The second part of the results section presents discourse progression on Knowledge Forum. On some occasions, when pre-service teachers went beyond their own individual reflection and moved to communal advancement, collaborative reflective discourse transformed into knowledge building discourse. Preservice teachers tackled rather complex pedagogical challenges such as: – Ways to support metacognition in a networked classroom context – Place of individual work within collaborative inquiry – Ways to help teenagers find meaning in their learning – Strategies to get into learners’ zone of proximal development. At an inductive fine-grained level of analysis, we noticed that although each discourse thread had its own organizational logic (autopoiesis), common patterns could be identified. Figure 2 is an example. It illustrates the presence of socio-cognitive processes in each of the notes of a twenty-note discourse thread built during the second iteration. 78

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Enhancing pre-service teachers’ knowledge building discourse with a hybrid learning environment

Figure 2

Socio-cognitive processes identified in an exemplary build-on tree with 20 notes.

Discourse threads began with an authentic question growing out of the field experience. «…It would be pertinent to reflect on what we can learn while we collaborate. How is it possible to achieve collaboration? With who, where and when? Do you think such a discussion could benefit our collaborative spirit?...». Through the exchange, the initial shared object (question or problem submitted) was reformulated as new details offered more precision and as practice-based evidence was added. «…As she wrote, I think there is a specific difficulty with particular needs (student differentiation) during collaborative activity. Is this construction mode really appropriate to everyone?». Approval-type discourse not only supported but helped link participants’ ideas. «…I think your reflection is very interesting and stimulating and I’d like to share a particular case with you in this regard…». Authoritative sources were used in a limited manner; but in each, they added depth to idea formulation. …In his classroom management model, Glasser states that during the process of quality work, students become aware that the knowledge they build is relevant. If the teacher is a collaborator, i.e. someone contributing to the common goal, how will he present himself to students? Obviously, we all know the teacher is a guide, a motivator and a resource of knowledge and strategies. But is he also a knowledge builder? I think that if we define the work of the classroom from a collaborative perspective, we’ll reach a socio constructivist view of philosophy of science. Fourez talks of science as a way to structure our interpretation of the world. This way, we can consider the teacher as a group leader, alike the research director of a research group. 79

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When comparing each cohort’s longest discourse thread over the fourmonth long student teaching experience, we noticed a higher level of problem reformulation over time (0%, 36%, 58% presence), proportionally to the number of notes in the sequence. This was not the case however for the early field and the five-week long experiences, although problem reformulations were present. We stress that a vertical approach was taken by more experienced pre-service teachers as they not only set the problem but progressively updated its formulation as their discourse lead, not only to new solutions, but to a more complex understanding of the problem that was raised.

Discussion The results of this study point to the possibilities of combining onsite and on-line activity for teacher educators who want to engage pre-service teachers in rich discourse about innovative teaching practices. Rich discourse goes vertical, and leads to deep understanding rather than to shallow horizontal discussions on multiple concurrent topics. Socio-digital affordances that combine on-line and onsite supports to create a rich learning environment of interactions are a work of design through several iterations. This is the first outcome of this study, one that brings further evidence to support the relevance of design research in real settings of use in pre-service teaching. In our specific design experiment, results were incremental: on-line discourse improved as the affordance effect got stronger. From a teacher professional development perspective, the results highlight the potential of collaborative technologies to support university-school partnerships with a strong practice teaching component, and improvement in the preparation of pre-service teachers. One implication we would like to highlight is the anchoring of collaborative reflective practice into real ideas and authentic problems (first knowledge building principle, Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2003). It brought meaning to pre-service teachers’ on-line participation, thus making the electronic forum a means to support their professional thinking instead of a simple requirement task subject to evaluation. The combination of converging social and digital affordances for the design of a rich environment for teacher education and professional development is the second outcome of the present research. At a first level of convergence, designed possibilities of interaction took into account a communal shared object of inquiry by the school and the university, that is, 80

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Enhancing pre-service teachers’ knowledge building discourse with a hybrid learning environment

the merging of the imperatives of a reform context, the contribution of the social perspective of the learning sciences to educational practice, and the integration of ICTs in teaching and learning. A second level of convergence was achieved by the complementarity of the university and the school’s discourse and practice. Instead of saying something at one place and doing something else at the other, a multiple-view approach was cultivated in a context of “enough” similarity and continuity. Although some digital affordances remained hidden or were acknowledged only during iterations 2 and 3, the affordances of the electronic forum provided a means to introduce some continuity into what would have been otherwise a student teacher’s isolated field experience in an innovative classroom. As an upcoming step in a further iteration, participation of graduating teachers in the on-line discourse would need to be revisited. As some graduating pre-service teachers are sometimes hired to work in a networked classroom once they have their bachelor degree, we are in a position of asking a few of them to continue their participation in the on-line discourse as a beginning teacher on the professional development continuum, and as a way of bridging undergraduate studies and induction years in the teaching profession. This would allow for inquiry into the innovation challenges faced by beginning teachers as they reach the workplace while providing legitimacy to participate in the on-line discourse of the pre-service teacher community. Such a social affordance is now possible with the new on-line tools available, and teacher education and professional development have much to gain from learning scientists who would bring their knowledge and skill to the understanding of the socio-technical affordances available in these early years of the 21st century.

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Sawyer, K. (Ed.) (2005). The Cambridge handbook of learning sciences. New York, NJ: Cambridge University Press. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (1994). Computer support for knowledge-building communities. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3 (3), 265-283. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2003). Knowledge building. In J.W. Guthrie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of education, second edition (pp. 1370-1373). New York: Macmillan Reference. SchĂśn, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner. New York: Basic Books. Van Manen, M. (1977). Linking ways of thinking with ways of being practical. Curriculum Inquiry, 6 (3), 205-229. Voogt, J., & Knezek, G. (Eds.) (2008). International handbook of information technology in elementary and secondary education. New York: Springer. Vygotskij, L.S. (1978). Mind in society. The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wells, G. (1999). Dialogic inquiry. Toward a sociocultural practice and theory of education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Wertsch, J.V. (1998). Mind as action. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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Developing icT teachers’ training on a situated competence profile Elena Boldrini and Alberto Cattaneo

aBSTRacT

Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (SFIVET), Via Besso 84 – 6900 LuganoMassagno, Switzerland. E-mail: Elena.Boldrini@iuffp-svizzera.ch; alberto.cattaneo@iuffp-svizzera.ch

Teacher training policy is nowadays orienting towards a competencebased paradigm, thus detaching itself from the traditional pathway basically built on one side on university-based theoretical knowledge and on the other side on a following practical application in the field. In this direction the elaboration of a competence profile for teachers is needed for a consequent structuration of the training curricula based on real, situated practices. In the present contribution the authors describe and deepen a research pattern whose goal was principally the recognition — starting from real professional practices — of the ICT-related competence profile, as a part of the whole teacher competence profile. This ultimate objective cannot leave a series of wider questions out of consideration, mainly about: 1) the actual state of teacher training and the role of ICT tools; 2) the operationalisation of the concept of competence as a new paradigm for the description of the knowledge at work — and in particular for teaching competences in a blended learning scenario; 3) the relevance and significance of the building of a whole (ICT) competence profile for the elaboration and implementation of training curricula. Keywords: competence; competence profile; ICT, teacher training.

Edizioni Erickson – Trento

REM – vol. 3, no. 1, June 2011 (85-102)

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The need for professional competences In the last few years a wide consensus has been found around the fact that vocational education and training (VET) systems should foster professional competences, more than just professional knowledge itself. This argument could be a possible answer to the increasing and complexified professional requirements needs, which are becoming more and more exigent for different reasons, but largely dependent on the job-market conditions nowadays (Boldrini, 2010). In this context, in VET systems, the paradigm of competence has actually gone beyond the paradigm of qualification which regulates that kind of job description centred on regular tasks, precise and defined abilities adapted to scheduled activities, in which the knowledge-at-work was completely corresponding to the tasks prescribed (Clot, 1995). This implicates the shift from a model based on the simply qualifications (obtained once in one’s own life, usually in a precise moment of the life — the scholar age), connected to the job (emploi), to a model which privileges an active management of his own competence portfolio by the worker himself (Zarifian, 2001).1

Competence-centred teacher training and ICTs At the same time, and consequently with respect on the above mentioned changes in the VET systems, the teacher training policy is now detaching itself from the pathway basically built on one side on university-based theoretical knowledge and on the other side on a following practical application in the field. This model is clearly lacking a basic core idea arising from the mentioned competence paradigm: «each teaching situation itself needs a certain competence profile of the acting professional performances and a bringing together of the know-how with theoretical knowledge. These performances have to bring in each moment theory and practice together» (Oser, Achtenhagen & Renold, 2006, p. 1). In other words, in the large discussion about the organisation of the teachers’ training, one of the crucial issues to be faced with is about how to balance the theoretical contents and 1

in the Swiss VET system, the development of professional competences is even clearly underlined as a central goal by the law (lVE – law Vocational Education, 2002) come into force in 2004. See in particular article 3.

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the know-how-related experiential ones, hopefully avoiding the extreme situation well cited by Oser and Renold: «there is no other profession so much of “we know how to do it, but we cannot do it” as there is in teaching» (Oser & Renold, 2006, p. 25). With this respect, a teacher training based on content articulation taken from the academic discipline of the pedagogical and educational sciences (in a “deductive approach”; Kansanen, 2006, p.17) is not sufficient in order to pragmatically take into account the necessity of the development of a real competences-oriented teachers training, thus avoiding the frequent problems of transfer (Bransford & Schwartz, 2001) from theory to practice. The overcoming of this model could be assured by: 1) the general elaboration of a model of research-based teacher education, 2) primarily aiming at exploring and analytically defining the teaching situations in which the professional competences are recognisable and mobilised and 3) concretely and coherently organising the teacher training curricula on the teaching situations themselves, so fostering both a theoretical and practical/situated didactical approach. The Swiss Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (SFIVET),2 as a national Institution for teachers training and research and development (R&D) in VET, leads different programmes in order to implement the model of a competence based training, at several levels: 1) at the wide level of labour market, with the elaboration of the new competence profiles for the different apprenticeships (and professions) present in Switzerland, 2) at the even large level of VET system, with R&D actions promoting a situations-centred didactics, 3) at the educational system management level, with the elaboration of a competence profile for VET teachers, and in particular with the definition of the competences needed in order to integrate Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the teaching process. This latest should be considered as a specification and detail of the national teacher training framework, which consist of seven objectives, which in turn correspondent to operative competences, the second of which focused on «designing and developing the training units in relationship with the professional situations of the trainees» (UFFT, 2011, p. 12). With regards 2

SFiVET is EHB in German (stands for Eidgenössisches Hochschulinstitut für Berufsbildung), iFFp in French (institut Fédéral des hautes études en Formation professionnelle), and iUFFp in italian (istituto Universitario Federale per la Formazione professionale).

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to this specific objective, ICTs integration in teaching has to be considered as a crucial element,3 representing an important vector of innovation for the whole VET system. In this framework, a research project carried out in 2006 at SFIVET aimed at clarifying the ICT-related teacher professional competences, thus constituting the basis for a re-definition and updating of the teacher training curricula4 in this field.

Competence and situation: Conceptual and theoretical framework In developing the competence profile of the teacher using ICTs we had to wonder what conceptual framework and methodological path would better have led us to identify such competences. A set of questions could be outlined: what is a competence profile? Why using the concept of competence for analyzing the teachers’ practices? How to investigate the professional profile of the teacher? Why, on the basis of the obtained competences, building an entire competence profile? Some conceptual assumptions at this regard are the basis for the definition of our approach in the field of the analysis of the professional sphere of action:5 – in order to describe the identity of a profession, a reflection about the configuration of his/her professional profile has to be made; – every professional profile can be reconstructed starting from the acted competences, that is to say resources6 used in situation, as we intend competence as knowledge in action; – the schedule of the acted competences requires the analysis of the professional practices, which, in turn, build up the sphere of action of a profession (Ghisla, Bausch & Boldrini, 2008); – the listing of the resources and, then, of the competences obtained from the analysis of the professional practices, creates a professional profile. 3

4

5 6

The New law about VET underlined the relevance of R&D projects and pilot programmes in the context of the vocational schools; in particular, in the Message related to the New law about the Vocational Education (lVE-M, 2000) is clarified that a priority for the research is «the analysis of the importance of the information and communication technology in the vocational training» (§ 2.7.4). in Switzerland the teacher training is regulated by the law on the Vocational Education and Training, which foresees a teacher’s diploma learning path for all the teachers active in the VET system, whose length, duration and contents depends on the working percentage in a vocational school and on the role assumed in it. Handlungsfeldanalyse in German and analyse du champ d’action in French. Here, “resource” means resources within the person, such as knowledge, know-how, values and attitudes. See Weinert, 2001.

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On this basis we have built, developed and tested a tool for an in-depth study of the professional competence in action: the creation of this tool needs some clarification on two levels in order to make its premises operative: a) on the theoretical level: it is necessary to clarify the concepts of competence, resource, situation; b) on the methodological side: it is necessary to practically operate with the concept of competence, moving from the theoretical level to the operative one, also defining what instruments we need to analyse it with. Competence, resource. About the first issue, from a literature review on the theme and trying to make a systematisation of this complex concept of “competence” (Boldrini & Ghisla, 2006), we agreed in this study to consider competence as the new interpretative paradigm of the working practices. Nowadays, a professional cannot define his/her identity just by referring to the tasks related to a certain job (Le Boterf, 2000), as these tasks themselves are constantly evolving and adapting to the real environment requests. The professional is even more compared with complex situations, changeable contexts, personal and personalized demands. He/She does not simply practice the profession, but he/she continuously moulds and builds it, by adapting it. In the perspective which considers competence as an act of integration of resources in action (Weinert, 2001), being competent means mobilising each time, in a suitable way, and in a different measure, resources or partial competences related for example to subject matter, methodological, social, and personal ambits (Erpenbeck & Heyse, 1999); resources that Le Boterf calls knowledge, know-how, attitudes (in French: savoir, savoir faire, savoir être) (Le Boterf, 1994; 2000). “Competence”, then, stands as a paradigm that allows managing complex contexts and the current professional situations. It emerges clearly that these very new, innovative situations characterised by the introduction of ICTs, are hardly foreseeable and for this reason analysable just afterwards. The acted activities (instead of the tasks which are by definition prescribed) are nowadays indispensable to know what the worker makes in his activity field, how she/he redefines constantly the sphere of his/ her competences, as a consequence of the novelty itself. Situation. Acting in a competent way means adapting and dialectically acting the right and necessary resources requested by the context. This implies that situated knowledge, i.e. knowledge that is anchored to the working context, is considered to be strongly embedded in the situation: therefore, we refer to the competence construct, according to Le Boterf, as the capacity to 89

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mobilise cognitive abilities to handle complex situations; «the competence does not consist in the resources to be mobilised, but in the mobilisation itself of these resources» (Le Boterf, 1994, p. 16);7 in this perspective, a subject can be in possession of some resources, but not necessarily be competent/ skilled. If we privilege competence as an approach to professional knowledge, then the situation presents immediately as another concept at the centre of the theoretical system, since we consider competence as knowledge in situ(ation) and therefore always in relation to a system of activities, that as such manifests itself as situation: «competence is defined as a particular way of coupling with the context, as a form of “ecologic” integration between acting and the way in which it manifests itself» (Lanzara, 1993). For a definition of “situation” we refer to the model of the Cultural Historical Activity Theory (AT) (Engeström, 1987; Engeström et al., 1999; Nardi, 1996) this helps us consider that «contextual whole», that «environing experienced world» — to use Dewey’s words (Dewey, 1938) — which alone is able to build the analysis unit for acting equipped with sense, which is essentially human. In this context we can note the subjective, social and aimed aspect of human activity, within which knowledge is not given, unless it is situated knowledge. Competence profile. Gathering working situations is necessary for indexing and for classifying in families of similar situations — which have in common goals, actors, and actions (Kuutti, 1996) — the variability of the working situations. If our theoretical approach considers the competence as an over-all way of managing working situations, thanks to the fact that it is composed by different resources, orchestrated in situations, a certain category of situations is faced thanks to a certain kind of resources, variously combined and mobilised, accordingly to the goal. A competence profile is for this reason a limited list of competences. Each one is described on the basis of the specific resources, composing it and allowing it to manage a certain typology of situations.

The study: Methodology and tools8 For reaching the main goal of building the teachers’ ICT-competence profile, according to this conceptual framework, the teaching practices con7

8

See also the definition of the Organisation for Economic co-operation and Development within the programme “Definition and Selection of competencies” (Rychen & Salganik, 2001, p. 8). For further details on the study, see cattaneo & Boldrini (2007; 2009).

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ducted by trainers in a blended learning pilot project were examined and carried out in 2006. In order to have precise indications about the trend and the impacts of ICTs in vocational training, the necessity to monitor and collect data about the involved teachers’ practices and competences had to be faced. The methodological and theoretical emerging question was about how to build a new professional profile (référentiel de compétences) of the teacher who exploits the didactical potentials of technological tools. This would have enabled us: – to have a set of indications about teachers’ practices, representations, beliefs, and feelings during a blended learning experience; – by analysing it, to reflect on the construction of a set of competences able to define the professional profile of an ICT-updated teacher; – and, finally, to have an empirical basis on which to design a renewed teachers’ and teachers’ trainers training path about ICTs and their didactics. Starting from the idea that the competence is in-situ built, we organized the methodological pattern in a way, which could have permitted to let the different resources (as said declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and attitudes) emerge from the practice in real didactical situations using ICTs. First of all some entretien d’explicitation (Vermersch, 2006) were conducted longitudinally with the twelve teachers and tutors involved in the project: this particular kind of interview allows use to analyse in detail what the professional did in action, making it explicit. The final corpus was made from 45 interviews, each of them at least one-hour long. Analysis tools for an integrated approach: Atlas.TI and ALCESTE The analysis of the corpus foresaw the combination of two approaches, based on the consideration of a methodological complementarity between qualitative and quantitative methods, which could be fruitful and interesting (Reicher, 1994; Bianco & Serino, 2002). This conducted us to achieve a “multimethod research” (Campbell & Fiske, 1959) in the perspective of Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Softwares9 (Lee & Fielding, 1995) — which allowed us to manage the complexity and the largeness of such a wide amount of data — applying to the corpus two different analysis 9

See also http://caqdas.soc.surrey.ac.uk.

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both referred to the same approach concerning content analysis: one qualitative with the support of the software Atlas.ti, and one quantitative, with the support of Alceste. 1) The first analysis made use of Atlas.ti (Muhr, 1997).10 The theoretical premises of this tool are related to the Grounded Theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1998) which has a preference for letting the categories of analysis emerge from the data, rather than pre-hypothesize them. In fact the term “grounded” means that the analysis is deep-rooted in textual data themselves. 2) In order to have a real interplay between qualitative and quantitative analysis, both aiming to investigate texts, we made in parallel a second kind of analysis. The combination of these two approaches should have “balanced” the researcher’s ingrained and subjective intervention to which risk the first method could have exposed. This balancing strategy was also pursued by starting the analysis using simultaneously both these approaches, and then trying to have — through a comparison — a direct feed-back action of the first on the second, and vice versa. The integration also allows the operation of profitable dialog also among all the elements of that continuum existing between descriptive and experimental, numeric and not-numeric, natural and artificial research (Silvermann, 1997). That’s why the second used tool was Alceste (acronym which stands for Analyse des Lexèmes Cooccurrents dans les Enoncés Simples d’un Texte, Reinert, 1986), a software operating on the basis of a statistical treatment of textual data, founding on the psycho-social assumption that the recurring of the words inside a discourse is not just a casual fact. In the following paragraphs we show the main figures emerged by the analysis.

Discussion Some results of the Atlas.ti analysis As said before, our objective was to identify, starting from some underlined quotations in the interview texts, the resources (in terms of knowledge, 10

See also http://www.atlasti.com.

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know-how and attitudes), and then the wider competence areas composed by the resources themselves. This latter operation was conducted in parallel by two researchers in order to avoid some biases caused by the subjectivity of the classification of the resources. 929 items were considered and the following results in terms of competence areas and their specificities were found, passing through a preliminary analysis which — according with our conceptual framework — allowed us to also identify the professional situations really faced by our subjects (See Table 1): – The first category, considered on the basis of a quantitative criterion, is surely the one concerning the didactical aspects, which alone groups more than the half of all quotations. As this category is not homogeneous inside, it has been divided into two main sub-dimensions: accompaniment on one hand and all the other declinations on the other: that is to say that “motivation” and “problem solving”, for example, can be easily assimilated with “e-L: didactics”,11 which, in turn, picks up other didactical strategies. – The second category, which concerns some teacher’s personal characteristics, shows the same unhomogeneity, since “flexibility” is just one of the characteristics — evidently with a lot of occurrences, as, for example the declination about “person” and “meta-reflection”. General competences

Principal declinations

(and %)

Nr. Occurrences

accompaniment

(13.13%)

122

e-l: didactics

(36.06%)

335

Motivation

(2.15%)

20

problem-solving

(2.58%)

24

Flexibility

(6.03%)

56

Meta-reflection

(6.89%)

64

person

(4.41%)

41

psychology

(10.98%)

102

collaboration

(10.55%)

98

e-l: Technique

(7.21%)

67

Total

(100%)

929

Didactical aspects (53,95%)

personal characteristics (17,33%)

Table 1

11

Absolute and relative distribution of the occurrences for “general competences” and their “principal declinations”.

This expression stands for all the didactical aspects specifically concerned with e-learning.

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– Then there are three other categories, which, although less represented than the first two, have the pregnancy to be separately considered. The third one, with the label psychology, has almost a disciplinary character, with which we point out some aspects related specifically to adolescence — in case of apprentices — and their dynamics, and (related) to the management of the relation with the other, and, finally, to the specific object “learning”. – Collaboration has a more organisational value, as it concerns the attitude to team working, to the division of tasks, to the organisation of resources in a same project. – Finally, there is a category that probably some years ago would have appeared with a major weight: it’s about the specific technical aspects set by ICTs. Some results of the Alceste analysis Concerning the methodological details about Alceste (Image, 2000; Reinert, 1993), the total u.c.e. (Unités de contexte élémentaires)12 of our corpus are 7304, all selected for the analysis. Starting from the analysis of the specific terms of each class, we can reconstruct the emerging lexical worlds, from which it is possible to understand in depth the content of each of the 4 main classes generated by the software: – The distance didactics and the use of the related tools (with specific reference to the On-line Learning Environments – OLE). In this category we find the main thematic of the distance didactics such as the necessity of a specific planning of activities and didactical materials, the management and use of an OLE, the necessary conditions in order to plan and develop learning activities, the analysis on the suitable and useful didactical use of multimedial tools. – Consolidation of objectives on the territory. The interviewed subjects operate a comparison with the didactical activities supported by ICTs experienced formerly, directly related to the reached objectives and the impacts on the territory (context, school…), in an experimental perspective. – Accompaniment: shapes and ways of the communication. This class is a long list of actions operated by the teachers in order to realize that accompaniment 12

«il s’agit, non pas de comparer les distributions statistiques des “mots” dans différents corpus, mais d’étudier la structure formelle de leurs co-occurrences dans les “énoncés’ d’un corpus donné» (Reinert, 1993, p. 9).

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and that tutoring, which frequently is defined fundamental for the learning characterized by distance interactions. In this category emerges a set of communicative strategies with the different tools at disposal (e-mail, telephone, sms) for solving problems (technological or not) faced by the apprentices. – The time and the times of the distance. Central is the theme of the assignment, in particular connected with that of the revolution in time (and consequently in behaviours), which are imposed by distance. We are referring both to a micro- and macro- dimensions which involved the organisation of one’s activities during a longer period of time (e.g. a school-week). Merging the two analysis: The 11 competences profile From a first comparison of the two analyses, and through a following elaboration step, we have finally13 come to underline a set of 11 competences described in Figure 1. 1. Mastery of tools. The teacher knows and is able to use the different didactical technologies. in particular he/she knows the potentialities of each tool and he/she is able to use them and manage the hardware-side and the software one. 2. Didactical values of the tools. The teacher is able to choose among different tools on the basis of their characteristics and of the objectives that have to be reached. He/She knows the specificity of each technology, not only in a technical sense, but above ali for what concerns the potentiality of usage in the didactics. He/She can identify which instrument is suitable to different didactical situations and in relation to the pedagogical models chosen. He/She can also alternate different tools in order to reach diverse objectives. 3. Didactical planning. The teacher is able to make a project-based didactics. He/She can adapt in itinere the training path to the audience’s need; he/she can effectively alternate presence and distance situations, creating blended learning situations, which implicate a particular atlention to the preparation of didactical materials, of instructions and objectives. From these later the teacher wonders about which competences are enabled by the blended learning situation. 4. Didactical strategies. The teacher is able to use didactical strategies specifically related to icTs. in particular he/she doesn’t apply the traditional presence didaclics to the distance situation, but he/she knows and he/she is able to make operational peculiar didactical approaches for the distance learning. He/She is aware of the distance dynamics and he/she is able to face them and use them in order to obtain better results in learning, making use, each time, of the collaborative and cooperative learning, of the individualisation parcours, of the problem solving, of the learning by doing, etc.

13

Having at our disposal the whole competence profile, we finally had a validation process made through a survey delivered to about 100 teachers using icTs, survey which foresaw an attribution to each of the 11 competences concerning its importance; the results validated the “very important” character of all the underlined dimensions, confirming their significance. No adding competences have been identified by the sample with reference to one’s own experience with icTs in didactics.

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5. Familiarity with the new normative and symbolic context. The teacher has internalized a new training system which gets over the traditional and aristotle’s unities of space and time. in particular he/she now knows that the training has not a unique piace and time anymore, neither a unique form (formal training versus informal training). The teacher is able to act in this new framework, to adapt to it, and to take advantage of it, seeing its potentialities. 6. Accompaniment. The teacher is able to build a support to the learning process. in particular he/she can use strategies such as scaffolding, tutoring, coaching, mentoring, which support the students and facilitate in their learning path. Doing this, the teacher brings into play his resources related to computer mediated communication, and his/ her ability to manage and animate groups. 7. Posture de recherche. The teacher is able to develop a constant reflection on his/her own practices. in particular he/she is able to wonder about acted didactical situations, and to assessing their impact; he/she can put his/her experiences and errors to good use; in the realisation of the didactical projects, he/she is able to adopt an experimental perspective, in a research-action perspective. 8. Relational dynamics. The teacher can create positive and profitable pedagogical relationships with his/her students and with other participants to the work-group. in particular he/she is sensible to the relational dynamics, open to iistening and helping, he/she is able to engage him/herself in dedicate time, energies, and care to the relationships, taking care, in particular, of distance interactions, by feeding them in presence, and, indeed, preparing them in presence. 9. Ethic approach. The teacher is able to reflect on the ethic aspects imposed by the new technologies, and to accomplish suitable and consequent training situations. He/ She is in fact able to teach a critical use of the technologies, in particular of the web, by creating and negotiating shared usage rules (netiquette). 10. Flexibility. The teacher can be flexible, open, reactive, adaptable to diverse contexts and situations: that means he/she is able to adapt him/herself to new space-time contexts, made possible by the use of icTs and characterized by the flexible reorganisation of time and by the decentralisation of spaces. 11. Team-work. The teacher is able to operate effectively and efficiently in a teamwork. That implicates, in addition to the above-mentioned relational abilities, the capability to work in a network of professionals, exploiting and integrating each competence, creating and maintaining a positive atmosphere, organising a fair division of tasks on the basis of the roles and working in an interdisciplinary perspective.

Figure 1

The competence profile description.

Towards the implementation of the proile in the teacher training curricula Given the new competence profile considering ICTs integration in teaching practices, the following step concerned how to implement it in the already existing teacher training curricula. In particular, most of the intervention impacted on a single training module, devoted to planning teaching 96

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activities. The module is divided in two main courses: one dedicated to didactics and general principles for learning design, and the second to multimedia and ICTs in training. The certification job required is the planning for learning activities covering 6 to 10 lesson units and integrating effectively ICT elements, with a strong argumentation on the “whys” concerning the choice of the tools themselves and their coherence with the whole planning from a didactical point of view. The structure of the module is to be considered as the follow-up of the competence profile analysis. The 11 competences can be grouped in three different areas (see Table 2): competences 1 to 4 referring to the tools; competences 7, 6 and 8 to the actors; and the competences 5, 9, 10 and 11 to the organizational areas. Of course, it is a conventional choice, since — being in front of a system — several are the overlappings among the areas. At this point, we identified three core elements on which to work on in the training curricula. I. The preponderant interest for didactical aspects. The first four competences refer to the technological literacy, which has to be intended here as a didactical tool/potentiality: ICTs-related competences are not a goal themselves but an instrument for the achievement of pedagogical or didactical goals. The preoccupation for technical aspects, formerly predominant, occupies only a relatively important place. This is not to say that the technological aspects are irrelevant, neither the teachers training path in this field concluded; it entails a shift in paradigm, which requires a higher investment in the instructional design of the didactical units, as well as in the design, elaboration and realisation of multimedial didactical materials, and moreover a good mastery of the technological tools and a tight relationship between them and the didactical strategy. The competence to develop a training unit is focused on knowing the specificity of ICT tools, in order to be able to choose with ratio didactica which is the most suitable instrument, in order to plan a didactical path conforming to the different potentialities made available by ICTs. To operationally implement this first element, we decided to be consistent with the approach presented: after having taken confidence with some of the most used ICT tools, we propose the teachers to analyse each tool from a competence point of view, through a specific grid (Cattaneo & Nicoli, 2010): which competence foreseen for the apprentices

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curriculum can this tool be useful for? Which are the pro and contra of the tool for developing this competence? Other metacognitive prompts help teachers to reflect on the coherence between the tool and the learning objectives to be reached. II. Teacher’s identity and role(s). The second main emerging correspondence is related to the teacher’s identity changes and the re-definition of his/her role. This fact has a different meaning if we think about this identity as self-related or etero-related: in the first case we have to train the teachers more and more to become used to understanding and analysing their own practices and the contexts where these take place; they need then to develop a posture de recherche as an adaptability answer to the changing contexts, which impose to adopt, in a proactive way, an experimental perspective and, on the other side, to have an habitus for the meta-reflection, the innate attitude to build a praxis-reflection circularity on one’s action (Schön, 1983). In the second case, the “role” meaning varies considering the teacher’s interaction with the micro institutional context (the classroom and the interaction with the students) and the enlarged one (the school, the families, and — in VET — also the companies and the professional associations). In this frame resources referred to the accompaniment or relational dynamics make sense: the teacher is not a transmitter of knowledge anymore, but rather the one who orchestrates (Dillenbourg & Jermann, 2010), leads the discovering of knowledge. It is worth deepening this scaffolding function in its different facets such as coaching, monitoring, tutoring, etc. At the same time, this dimension refers to the necessity of mastering the communication in its shapes and modalities (both in presence and at distance, both computer-mediated and not). Operationally, during the training we ask teachers to analyse each other’s practices through the so-called “intervision” process, a sort of peer-accompaniment; additionally, the curriculum foresees a mentor’s in-class visit on which to reflect together; finally, on the research attitude, we strongly recommend collecting data in order to evaluate the impact of the ICT-project planned. III. To gain experience of new contexts. The third focus is related to the impact ICTs have on the context: ICTs determine an important innovative factor able to even deeply modify the central aspects of the training and teaching action, starting from the setting (e.g. considering the new 98

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meaning of “time” and “place” of learning) and up to organizational issues. The trainer has to build a new sense of closeness to this new change, which asks of him/her a huge availability and flexibility, new modalities to interact with the other colleagues, and the negotiation of the rules institutionally shared. In particular, the opportunity to perceive oneself as a team-at-work as worthy of attention. As this is not a very usual practice in the teachers’ community, intended team which face jointly the same challenges related to one or more classes. The monitored experience has frequently shown that a didactical project could have benefits by a foreseen, shared, and effective division of roles. Operationally, we made some attempts in order to integrate reflections concerning the cognitive and psycho-social changes due to ICTs in everyday life, as well as the ethical issues arisen in the digital era. These attempts are anyway not yet completely satisfying, and need to be further deepened. In this sense, we think that a stronger reference to the concept of situation in itself, and more concretely to the professional situations the teacher has to face could be helpful both for integrating this group of competences as a whole into the training path and to more coherently conclude the reflection we proposed here on the general approach, thus finding in its implementation a close compliance with the theoretical framework.

Conclusions and perspectives In this contribution we have depicted a research pattern for the analysis of the teachers’ professionalism, as a territory worth exploring. In the much larger framework concerning the redefinition of almost every professionalism. Being SFIVET largely involved in the process of redefining all the professional profiles and curricula of vocational training,14 it was useful and coherent both to develop a model for professional competences analysis (Boldrini, Cattaneo & Bausch, 2008) and to adopt it for analysing the whole teacher profile. In particular, here we focused our attention on the ICT-related competence areas within the whole competence profile of 14

See for an overview http://www.bbt.admin.ch/themen/berufsbildung/00104/index.html.

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02. Didactic values of the tools 03. Didactic planning

Tools (area 1)

04. Didactic strategies 07. Research attitude 06. accompaniment 08. Relational dynamics 05. Familiarity with the new normative and symbolic context 09. Ethical approach 10. Flexibility 11. Team work

Table 2

actors (area 2)

Organization (area 3)

}

DIDACTICS

ROLE

pROJEcT DESiGN cOMMUNicaTiON

01. Mastery of tools

CONTEXT

A categorization of the competence profile. Emerging correspondences between the main areas and the whole profile.

the trainers. The research methodology has proved the pregnancy of a situated competence concept as a main describing element for the professional practices. The concept of competence profile allowed us to obtain a set of competences empirically pointed out, and then to use them as a basis for the design of teacher training. In this direction, a praxis-reflection circularity, on the didactical experience using ICTs seems to be the way to be taken also to investigate the impacts of ICTs in education.

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Boldrini, E., Cattaneo, A., & Bausch, L. (2008). Monitoring professional changes: Analysing practices and creating competence profiles. In H. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.), Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: Pedagogical, organisational and technological issues (pp. 21-28). Amsterdam: SCO-Kohnstamm Instituut, Universiteit van Amsterdam. (http://dspace.ou.nl/bitstream/1820/1634/1/Proceedings_Madrid_upload.pdf). Bransford, J.D., & Schwartz, D.L. (2001). Rethinking transfer: A simple proposal with multiple implications. Review of Research in Education, 24 (3), 61-100. Campbell, D.T., & Fiske, D.W. (1959), Convergent and discriminant validation by multitraitmultimethod matrix. Psychological Bullettin, 56, 81-105. Cattaneo, A., & Boldrini, E. (2007), ICT... Innovazione, Competenze, Tecnologie. Analisi delle pratiche e professionalità del formatore. Roma: Carocci. Cattaneo, A., & Boldrini, E. (2009). Eleven Competences for the Teacher Using ICTs: A Quali-quantitative Research Pattern. In U. Bernath, A. Szűcs, A. Tait & M. Vidal (Eds.), Distance and E-learning in Transition – Learning Innovation, Technology and Social Challenges (pp. 261-290). London-Hoboken (NJ): ISTE – Wiley. Cattaneo, A., & Nicoli, M. (2010). Schede didattiche. In A. Cattaneo, G. Comi & P. C. Rivoltella (Eds.), Tecnologie didattiche e formazione professionale. Strumenti (pp. 77-111). Breganzona-Lugano: Divisione della Formazione Professionale – Istituto Universitario Federale per la Formazione Professionale. Clot, Y. (1995), La fonction psychologique du travail. Paris: PUF. Dewey, J. (1938/1963), Experience and Education (pp. 66-67). New York: Macmillan. Dillenbourg, P., & Jermann, P. (2010). Technology for Classroom Orchestration. In M. S. Khine & I. M. Saleh (Eds.), New Science of Learning (pp. 525-552). New York: Springer Science and Business Media. Engeström, Y. (1987), Learning by Expanding: An Activity-Theoretical Approach to Developmental Research. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit. Engeström, Y., Miettinen, R., & Punamaki, R.-L. (Eds.) (1999). Perspectives on activity theory. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Erpenbeck, J., & Heyse, V. (1999), Die Kompetenzbiographie. Strategien der Kompetenzentwicklung durch selbstorganisiertes Lernen und multimediale Kommunikation. Berlin: Waxmann. Ghisla, G., Bausch, L., & Boldrini, E. (2008). CoRe – Kompetenzen-Ressourcen: Ein Modell der Curriculumentwicklung für die Berufsbildung. Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik, 3/2008, 431-466. Glaser, B.G., & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New York: Aldine Publishing Company. Kansanen, P. (2006). Constructing a research-based program in teacher education. In F. K. Oser, F. Achtenhagen & U. Renold (Eds.), Competence oriented teacher training. Old research demands and new pathways (pp. 11-22). Rotterdam: Sense Publisher. Kuutti, K. (1996). Activity Theory as a potential framework for human-computer interaction research. In B. Nardi (Ed.), Context and consciousness: Activity theory and HumanComputer Interaction (17-44). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Image (2000). Alceste (version 4.5). Toulouse: Image. Lanzara, G.F. (1993). Un profilo della competenza: base cognitiva, ecologia funzionale, carattere sociale. In G.F. Lanzara (Ed.), Capacità negativa: competenza progettuale e modelli di intervento nelle organizzazioni (pp. 23-57). Bologna: il Mulino. 101

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Le Boterf, G. (1994). De la compétence: essai sur un attracteur étrange. Paris: Les Éditions d’Organisation. Le Boterf, G. (2000). Compétence et navigation professionnelle. Paris: Les Éditions d’Organisation. Lee, R., & Fielding, N.G. (1995). User’s experiences of Qualitative Data Analysis Software. In U. Kelle (Ed.), Computer-aided qualitative data analysis: Theory, methods and practice. London: SAGE. LVE (2002). Legge sulla Formazione Professionale (LVE), Assemblea Federale della Confederazione Svizzera, pp. 4557-4586. LVE-M (2000). Messaggio relativo a una nuova legge sulla formazione professionale, Assemblea Federale della Confederazione Svizzera, pp. 4958-5045. Muhr, T. (1997). Atlas.ti short user’s guide. Berlin: Scientific Software Development. Nardi, B.A. (Ed.) (1996). Context and Consciousness: Activity Theory and Human-Computer Interaction. Mass: MIT Press. Oser, F. K., Achtenhagen, F., & Renold, U. (Eds.) (2006). Competence oriented teacher training. Old research demands and new pathways. Rotterdam: Sense Publisher. Oser, F.K., & Renold, U. (2006). Modeling teacher competencies: Identifying and measuring standards. In F.K. Oser, F. Achtenhagen & U. Renold (Eds.), Competence oriented teacher training. Old research demands and new pathways (pp. 23-48). Rotterdam: Sense Publisher. Reicher, S. (1994), Particular methods and general assumptions. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 4, 299-304. Reinert, M. (1986), Un logiciel d’analyse lexicale. Les Cahiers de l’Analyse des Données, 4, 471-484. Reinert, M. (1993), Les “mondes lexicaux” et leur “logique” à travers l’analyse statistique d’un corpus de récits de cauchemars. Langage et Société, 66, 5-39. Rychen, D.S., & Salganik, L.H. (Eds.) (2001). Defining and Selecting Key Competencies. Göttingen: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. Schön, D.A. (1983). The reflective practitioner. How professional think in action. New York: Basic Books. Silvermann, D. (1997), The logic of qualitative research. In G. Miller & R. Dingwall, Context and method in qualitative research (pp. 12-25). London: Sage. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998), Basics of qualitative research. Techniques and procedures for developing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks: Sage. UFFT (Ufficio Federale per la Formazione Professionale e la Tecnologia) (2011). Programmi Quadro d’insegnamento – responsabili della formazione professionale. Berna. Vermersch, P. (2006), L’entretien d’explicitation. Paris: ESF. Weinert, F.E. (2001). Concept of Competence: A Conceptual Clarification. In D.S. Rychen & L.H. Salganik (Eds.), Defining and Selecting Key Competencies (pp. 45-65). Göttingen: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. Zarifian, P. (2001), Le modèle de la compétence. Paris: Éditions Liaisons.

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The relationship between attitude, thinking and activity of students in an e-learning course Rivka Wadmany, Rikki Rimor and Einat Rozner

aBSTRacT

Kibbutzim College of Education, 149, Namir Road – 62507 Tel Aviv, Israel. E-mail: wadmany@macam.ac.il; rimor@macam.ac.il; rozner@macam.ac.il

The goal of the current research is to examine whether there is a relationship between the metacognitive thinking, activity and attitudes of students in an e-learning course. The study included 29 undergraduate students at a Teachers’ College of Technology in Israel who were enrolled in an e-learning course. The course was taught through an internet site, and participation in the on-line forum was one of the course requirements. Students’ activity was measured by the number and content of messages posted by each student to the forum during the course. 670 metacognitive statements on the forum were analyzed. Student attitudes regarding the learning process and its attributes were examined using a tool developed for examining the attitudes of students in an on-line course (Tiene, 2000). The relationship found between attitude and activity on the one hand and metacognitive thinking on the other can signify the cognitive contribution made by academic on-line courses to learning and thinking. Keywords: on-line learning; on-line forum; metacognition; attitudes; contribution of an academic on-line course to teacher education.

Edizioni Erickson – Trento

REM – vol. 3, no. 1, June 2011 (103-121)

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Theoretical background Introduction The expansion of distance learning in the educational system in general, and in higher education in particular, has intensified the need to provide a theoretical basis and empirical evaluation of this new pedagogy. The research literature stresses that e-learning must take into consideration pedagogical principles together with the use of technology. Many researchers (Clarke et al., 2008; Dede, 2009; Schmoeltz et al., 2010) specify the pedagogical principles to be used as criteria for effective evaluation of e-learning, including philosophical-pedagogical measures of learning, such as learning theory, goal-directed orientation, types of motivation, attitudes and perspectives, the role of the teacher, metacognition, and cooperative learning. The current study focuses on examining three dimensions as criteria for evaluating the learning of students enrolled in an on-line course: a) metacognitive thinking; b) student activities; and c) student attitudes. Metacognitive thinking and its importance in an e-learning environment A person’s ability to think about his own thinking was first referred to as «metacognition» by Flavell (Flavell, 1979). Flavell divided metacognitive knowledge into three distinct components: 1) person – knowledge about personal characteristics; 2) task – knowledge about the demands of the task; and 3) strategy – knowledge about the strategies required to carry out the task (Flavell, 1979; 1987). Various investigators have expanded the definition of the concept of metacognition in different directions, yet all agreeing that metacognition comprises people’s knowledge and awareness of their own cognitive processes, as well as their ability to actively direct and monitor these processes (Gunstone & Case, 2006; Indig et al., 2004). The research literature indicates that reflective writing mirrors thought is used as a tool for structuring knowledge (McQuaid, 2010) and for enhancing expressions of insights on the metacognitive level (Rimor & Kozminsky, 2002). The constructivist theory of learning sees reflection and discourse as part of an essential mechanism for constructing knowledge (Wadmany, 2004). Reflective thinking emerges while solving practical problems, in 104

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particular in learning situations that are not structured and whose solution is not clear (Gunstone & Case, 2006). The importance of reflective processes in learning is even more prominent in interactive computerized environments that serve as the outer representation of knowledge-based tools and discussion-based tools, such as on-line forums. The combination of interaction and asynchronism encourages students to reflect on their own learning and on that of their peers. They have sufficient time to think about what they are writing and about the best way to express themselves (Dede, 2007; Ertmer & Ottenbreit, 2010). It can be assumed that the nature of the discourse in a forum is also dependent upon participants’ attitudes toward e-learning, as well as on how they relate to and communicate with one another and with the course assignments. Articulating ideas, asking questions and expressing doubts all guide participants toward structuring knowledge (Wadmany & Levin, 2004; 2005). Student activities in a computerized learning environment The growing use worldwide of computer-mediated communication (CMC) as part of the learning environment in formal systems of education, points to the great importance of interaction as one of the dimensions that must be examined in the teaching-learning process in such environments (Kuboni & Martin, 2004; Scardamelia & Bereiter, 2008). Collaborative learning while interacting with other learners is, indeed, the most important process in structuring knowledge (Kozma, 2003; Levin & Wadmany, 2008). The level of participation and the quality of the interactions in the learning environment of on-line forums are important for promoting learning processes in a collaborative learning environment, and examining these factors is likely to assist in designing an on-line learning environment in accordance with the planned pedagogical perspective (Garrison et al., 2004; Gunawardena et al., 2010; Rozner, 2000). Researchers have pointed also to difficulties and obstacles likely to be detrimental to the potential of on-line learning, such as the lack of face-toface interaction with the other members of the community and the lecturer and the need for self-learning. This can lead to negative experiences during the learning activities for students who are not accustomed to this format, or for those who prefer a learning style different from that supported by the distance learning environment (Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005; Tiene, 105

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2000). Hence, the researchers emphasize the need to take into consideration individual differences among the learners and to help get them accustomed to the on-line learning system (Ginns & Ellis, 2007). Student attitudes toward on-line learning The growing trend toward integrating on-line courses into academic programs has provoked the need to examine the experience and attitudes of students toward e-learning, in addition to examining the learning results (Garrison & Vaughan, 2008). It appears that students who are aware of the advantages of an on-line learning environment and who are motivated to use it are more successful in e-courses. Investing numerous resources in planning an on-line course without taking into account considerations related to user attitudes toward the on-line environment is likely to be detrimental to the effectiveness of the learning (Brinkerhoff & Koroghlanian, 2005; Palmer & Holt, 2009). Many studies have found a relationship between learners’ attitudes and their experiences in on-line courses, as well as with their technical and cognitive abilities (Brinkerhoff & Koroghlanian, 2005; Indig et al., 2004; Lee et al., 2009). There are still not enough studies that describe and evaluate the metacognitive processes of learners on on-line forums and that examine the relationship between these metacognitive processes and other variables, such as the degree of student participation in academic forums and the attitudes toward the forum. Therefore, in the current study we examined the metacognitive measures that emerged from the electronic protocols of students participation on the on-line forum as well as the relationship between these measures of thinking, degree of participation in the forum and student attitudes toward e-learning. The study focused on two questions.

Research questions Do measures of thinking for high-level and low-level students vary with respect to their activities on the forum, and to what degree? To what degree is there a relation between metacognitive thinking, level of forum activity and student attitudes toward learning in an on-line forum? 106

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Method Research outline The study examined the learning processes of 29 undergraduate students in the Department of Communications and Film enrolled in an on-line course at the Teacher College of Technology. The course was structured as a combination of face-to-face teaching supported by a website for transmitting assignments, posting announcements, providing content and communicating among course participants. E-learning was new to these students. They were required to participate in the forum at least twice a week from the beginning of the course. The course lasted one semester and covered topics related to distance learning: pedagogical, cognitive, affective and social. Three types of data were collected for this study: 1. Metacognition data 2. Extent of forum activities 3. Attitudes toward forum use. Tools The three research variables were examined by three tools: 1) tools for analyzing metacognitive thinking; 2) students’ attitudes questionnaire; 3) statistical software for analyzing the extent of forum participation. These tools were used to examine the three research variables as follows: 1. Metacognitive thinking was examined by analyzing the forum protocols with a tool developed for reflective analysis of students on on-line forums (Rimor & Kozminsky, 2001-2002). The tool was based on Flavell’s three metacognitive dimensions: person dimension, task dimension and strategy dimension (Flavell, 1979). Operational measures were defined for each of these dimensions in order to analyze the statements of students on the forum. Examination of the protocols included content analysis of the statements according to the metacognitive dimensions and measures defined in the tool. Each student was analyzed separately. A total of 270 postings on the forum and 670 metacognitive statements were analyzed. 2. Student activities on the forum were examined using automatic documentation of each student’s forum participation (total number of entries, total number of postings). Student activities were measured according to the number of messages posted by each student on the forum during the course. 107

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3. Student attitudes toward the learning process and its attributes on the on-line forum were examined toward the end of the semester using a tool for examining attitudes in on-line courses (Tiene, 2000). The tool included 18 items representing attitudes toward learning on an on-line forum. The students were asked to rank their attitudes on a scale of 1-5 (1 = agree completely; 5 = totally disagree). The relation between thinking, attitudes and activities was examined using the following tests: 1. Pearson’s coefficient for examining correlations between measures of metacognitive thinking and activities on the forum; 2. Spearman rank coefficient for examining correlations between measures of metacognitive thinking and attitudes; 3. ANOVA of metacognitive measures and activity levels in the forum; 4. ANOVA of metacognitive measures and student attitudes.

Findings Metacognitive thinking on e-forums Following is the distribution of the three metacognitive dimensions on the forum.

Strategy Task person

Figure 1

Distribution of metacognitive dimensions on the forum (N = 670).

Figure 1 shows that students in the forum refer equally to the personal dimension (45%), which deals with characterizing the learner, and to the task dimension (48%), which deals with characterizing the task. Most of the 108

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statements on the forum (93%) relate to these two dimensions. Very little reference was found to strategic dimensions (7%). Following is the distribution for each of the measures of metacognitive thinking: person, task and strategy. a. person dimension 39,7% 40% 29,3%

35% 30% 25% 20% 15%

9,0%

9,0%

6,3% 0,7%

6,0%

10% 5% 0%

pa1

Figure 2

pa2

pa3

pa4

ps

pp

pa’

Distribution of person dimension on the forum (N = 300). Legend: Ps = Referring to preferences one has in regards to his/her own way of learning; Pa1 = Expression of liking, consent, satisfaction; Pa2 = Expression of anger, aggression, rejection; Pa3 = Expression of communality, enjoying forum collaboration; Pa4 = Expression of getting lost, hesitation, despair, fear, frustration; Pa’ = Response requests, patience requests, reaction time; Pp = Referring to one’s own achievement, or sense of progress.

Figure 2 presents the statements analyzed for the person dimension, including student insights regarding themselves as learners in an on-line environment. A total of 300 statements on the forum were analyzed for this dimension. The data indicate that most of the metacognitive statements on the person dimension express feelings regarding searching for and handling information, and/or regarding the communicative process over the network (PA = 88%). More than two-thirds (69%) of the statements present positive feelings with respect to on-line learning: 29.3% of the statements express liking, consent, satisfaction (pa1), and 39.7% express feelings of community (pa3). In contrast, only a few expressions of negative feelings (18%) toward on-line learning were found: 9% expressions of anger and resistance (pa2) and 9% feelings of being lost, of despair and frustration (pa4). 109

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Moreover, for the person dimension, we found metacognitive statements that were concerned with personal preferences with respect to methods of surfing/searching/communicating over the net (PS = 6.3%) and others that referred to reaction time, response requests, patience requests (PA’ = 6%). B. Task dimension 33,2% 35% 27,4% 30% 25% 15,1%

20%

9,8% 9,2%

15% 10%

3,7% 1,5%

5% 0%

ts

Figure 3

tc

tf

tp

tr

tz

td

Distribution of task dimension on the forum (N = 325). Legend: Td = Monitoring the quality of the task requirements, reporting on the main goal and questions of the investigations; Tr = Evaluating the relevance of the task in compare with the learner’s goal or interest; Tp = Describing difficulties and problems one encounters in performing the task; Tf = monitoring time, space and resources needed to accomplish the task; Tc = Describing content, data and materials of the task; Ts = Relating to structure and functions of data-base; Tz = data availability and accessibility.

Figure 3 presents statements analyzed for the task dimension, which include student insights with respect to the nature and requirements of the task. A total of 325 statements were analyzed. The data show that around half of the statements of students on the forum were concerned with task dimension (48%). One third of these referred to features of the network environment – structure and functions of the Internet (TS = 33.2%). In addition, insights were identified with respect to task content (TC = 27.4%), as well as to data availability and accessibility (TZ = 15.1%) and data relevance (TR = 9.8%), as analyzed from all the statements for the task dimension.

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c. Strategy dimension 66,7% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 8,9%

8,9%

4,4%

2,2%

10%

sm

Figure 4

20%

8,9%

se

sa

sh3

sh1

sg

0%

Distribution of Strategy dimensions on the forum (N = 45). Legend: Se = Referring to results of data search and data-base construction; Sm = Correcting the strategy used before and explain reason for the change; Sa = Providing a rational or an explanation to a description related to the learning process; Sg = Expressing generalized view about the content, or about the learning process; Sh = Describing situations where the help of another person was needed.

Figure 4 presents statements containing references to the strategies required to carry out the task. A total of 45 statements were found for this dimension (only 7% of all the statements for all three dimensions). The findings for the strategy dimension indicate that most of the reflective statements analyzed for this dimension refers to generalization and drawing conclusions regarding the task and work over the network (SG = 66.7%). The rest of the statements on the forum dealt with the three following measures: referral to websites and recommendations for action (SH3 = 8.9%), explanation or rationale related to searching for information (SA = 8.9%), and evaluation of results of network searches for data and for sites (SE = 8.9%), as calculated from the total statements for the strategy dimension. Activities on the forum Student activities on the forum were measured and defined according to the number of messages posted by each student to the forum. Activities 111

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on the forum were divided into three levels according to the number of messages posted: A. High activity level: 13-18 messages B. Medium activity level: 6-12 messages C. Low activity level: 0-5 messages. As shown in Figure 5, it appears that most of the students in the course (72%) had a high or medium activity level. 28% of the students had a low level of activity (N = 8).

28% 38%

low medium 34%

high

Figure 5

Distribution of student’s level of activity.

Relation between activities and metacognitive thinking on the forum Correlations between activities and thinking on the forum Table 1 presents the correlations between the general metacognitive score and each of the three levels of student activity on the forum: low, medium and high. Activity level on the forum

High

Medium

Low

pearson coefficient

0.466

0.460

0.416

Table 1

Correlations between general metacognitive score and three activity levels on the forum.

A significant positive correlation was found between overall level of thinking and each of the activity levels. 112

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The correlations between each activity level and the scores on each of the metacognition dimensions were calculated separately, as follows: person (r = .90, p < .01), task (r = .66, p < .01), strategy (r = .51, p < .01). A significant positive correlation was found between level of student activity on the forum and each of the dimensions of thinking. In summary, it appears that level of metacognitive thinking increases with increasing activity on the forum, both in general and for each of the three dimensions separately. Differences in thinking between activity levels To test whether there are metacognitive differences between the different activity levels, one-dimensional ANOVA tests were performed for each of the metacognitive dimensions. The following data point to significant differences between the different levels of activity for each of the metacognition dimensions: person (F(2,26)= 36.217, p < .01), task (F(2,26) = 8.949, p < .01), and strategy (F(2,26) = 8.840, p < .01). The metacognition scores vary for each of the dimensions in accordance with the level of activity on the forum. a. person dimension For the person dimension, a significant difference was found between each of the three activity levels. The average metacognition scores for students whose level of activity on the forum was low (M = 2.50, SD = 1.65) differed significantly from students whose activity level was medium (M = 9.63, SD = 4.63) and from those with a high level of activity (M = 18.09, SD = 5.33). B. Task dimension For the task dimension, the average metacognition scores for students with a low activity level (M = 1.80, SD = 3.74) were found to differ significantly from scores of students with a medium activity level (M = 13.00, SD = 7.97) and from those with a high activity level (M = 18.45, SD = 12.62). c. Strategy dimension For the strategy dimension as well, the average metacognition scores for students with a low activity level on the forum (M = 0.00, SD = 0.00) were found to differ significantly from those of students with a medium activity 113

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level (M = 2.75, SD = 1.49) and from students with a high activity level (M = 2.00, SD = 2.00). From the above, it appears that the metacognitive level on the task dimension and the strategy dimension is higher for students with medium or high participation in the forum (those who posted 6-18 messages) than for those whose activity level was low (posted 0-5 messages). For the person dimension, metacognitive differences originate in each of the three activity levels. Student attitudes on the forum Student attitudes were examined using a questionnaire containing 18 attitudes toward learning on an on-line forum. Each attitude was marked on a scale of 5, ranging from “agree completely” to “totally disagree.” The midpoint attitude was indicated as “not sure”. The findings of the investigation of student attitudes toward learning on an e-forum are presented in Figure 6.

Figure 6

Distribution of student attitudes toward learning on the forum, in percentages. Legend: 1 = agree completely; 2 = agree; 3 = not sure; 4 = disagree; 5 = totally disagree.

The data indicate that the distribution is symmetrical – the total number of positive attitudes toward use of the forum was 37%, and the total number of negative attitudes toward use of the forum was 39%. Moreover, it appears that 24% of the students did not formulate any opinion regarding learning on the forum (“not sure”). 114

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Relation between attitudes and metacognitive thinking on the forum Correlations between attitudes and metacognitive thinking on the forum In the examination of the relation between attitudes and thinking, Spearman rank coefficients were calculated separately for each of the tool’s dimensions. These coefficients indicated that for the task dimension there was no significant correlation between the variables (r = .34, p > .05). For the strategy dimension as well, no significant correlation was found between the variables (r = .21, p > .05). On the other hand, for the person dimension a significant correlation was found between attitudes and thinking (r = .37, p < .05). This indicates that there is no relation between attitudes and metacognitive thinking for the task dimension or the strategy dimension, but there is a connection between attitudes and metacognitive thinking for the person dimension. That is, as student attitudes become more positive, the level of metacognitive thinking on the person dimension increases. Differences in thinking between the attitudes The results of the ANOVA point to significant metacognitive differences between the different attitudes for the person dimension and the task dimension (F(2,26) = 4.816, p < .01 and F(2,26) = 3.413, p < .05, respectively). No significant differences were found for the strategy dimension between the attitude levels (F(2,26) = 2.043, p < .15). Duncan’s test was applied to examine the source of the differences in level of metacognitive thinking between the types of attitudes. The results indicated that for the person dimension there is a significant difference in level of thinking between those with negative attitudes and those with positive attitudes (M = 2.50, SD = 2.17 and M = 12.20, SD = 5.85, respectively). A significant difference was also found between those with negative attitudes (M = 2.50, SD = 2.17) and those whose attitude was “not sure” (M = 12.50, SD = 8.07). No difference in level of thinking was found between students with positive attitudes and those who were “not sure”. Relation between attitudes and activities on the forum An examination of the relation between activities on the forum (Spearman test) revealed positive correlations between activities and attitude. That is, as activities increased, student attitudes toward learning on the on-line forum became more positive. Students with the most positive attitude were also the most active on the forum (r = .367, p < .005). 115

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Discussion This study has endeavored to characterize the metacognitive thinking of students learning on an on-line forum and to examine the connection between their activities and attitudes toward learning on the forum and their metacognitive thinking. Encouraging metacognitive thinking is perceived as desired goal of learning and teaching in general, and of the computerized environment in particular. The study’s findings indicate that around half of students’ metacognitive statements on an on-line forum refer to task measures. The students’ reflective attitudes toward the forum related primarily to the attributes, requirements and information related to the tasks they had to perform. Similar attitudes were also found in student statements referring to person measures. Note that this was the students’ first experience participating in an educational forum as part of an on-line course. The statements of the students on the on-line forum are marked by personal reflections dealing with positive feelings toward e-learning. An examination of the distribution of these reflections for the person dimension shows major attention to the feeling of community. It appears that collaborative learning on the forum did indeed create a feeling of a common agenda and of cooperation. The analysis of the metacognitive discourse on the forum reveals major references to positive feelings. A state of mutual understanding and tolerance is created as part of the common experience. The participants discuss significant matters, build meaning, and thus understand that their “voice” is taken into consideration (Birenbaum, 2003). Along with the affective insights that students expressed, there were also insights related to the content of the tasks. The findings related to the task dimension indicated relatively major reference to the measure of “structure and functions of the network environment” and to the measure “learner’s insight regarding content” — data, new ideas, prior knowledge, as well as relevance, availability and accessibility of the data on the network. The relatively major interest we found in the task dimension on the on-line forum shows that students are monitoring the information they find and considering its suitability to the required educational task. Student interest in the strategy dimension was found to be very low (7%). The research literature indicates that the use of metacognitive strategies by learners in e-courses promotes judgment and evaluation of their cognitive 116

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actions, with the goal of understanding and discovering how the knowledge used contributed to the results. Reflection on strategies for action leads to higher levels of thinking; therefore, encouraging such reflection in the learning environment is recommended. The average metacognition score on the strategy dimension was low relatively to the other two dimensions (person and task) for each of the activity levels (high, medium and low). This may be because the course combined both on-line and conventional methods, so that students were able to ask for help on anything connected to network functions from their fellow students and from the teacher, even during the face-to-face encounters. The research literature indicates that participation in a discussion is an essential component of the learning process, and the extent of this participation is one of the measures for determining the effectiveness of learning in a course (McQuaid, 2010; Levin & Wadmany, 2008). In the current study, even though student participation in the on-line forum was a course requirement and constituted a significant component in evaluating student achievement in the course, we found that the level of participation among a quarter of the students was low. The low participation of some of the students in the forum can be explained in view of the fact that this was their first experience with an on-line forum. The results of the study point to a connection between the measures of metacognitive thinking and participation in the forum. This finding is also supported by other studies that examined the relations between participation on a forum and achievement level in a course (So & Bonk, 2010). The examination of attitudes revealed that students with positive attitudes toward learning on the forum had a significantly higher metacognitive level than students with negative attitudes, as expressed on the person and task dimensions. It appears that positive attitudes toward the forum elicit many more reflective expressions from the participants regarding the e-learning, and therefore it is important to nurture and create such positive attitudes among the community of learners on the forum. The current study also examined personal attitudes with respect to the various educational interactions on the on-line forum. It is known that students participating in e-courses must have a higher level of technological skills than those participating in conventional courses (Garrison & Kanuka, 2004; Palmer, 2009). A wide-ranging study by Brinkerhoff and Koroghlanian (2005) found that students with more positive attitudes toward e117

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learning were those who had prior experience with on-line courses. These findings provide extensive support for the distribution of students’ attitudes in the current study. In the current study a significant relation was found between attitudes and activities on the forum. A positive attitude toward learning on the forum is related to a high level of participation. Concurrently, we also found a positive relation between rate of forum participation and measures of metacognitive thinking. Students whose participation in the forum was greater also expressed more metacognitive reflections, as measured in this study. In examining the relation between students’ attitudes and their metacognitive thinking, we found a difference between the attitude analysis and the analysis of the content of student reflections. The distribution of attitudes shows the class’s ambivalence toward learning on the forum, as discussed in the results. On the other hand, the results of the analysis of the metacognitive dimensions reveal positive emotional insights regarding learning on the forum, as discussed in the section on the person dimension. It seems that the content analysis of the reflective statements on the forum reveals a more abundant repertoire of reflections and insights regarding e-learning on the forum than that obtained by marking attitudes on a scale. Other studies that have examined student attitudes toward on-line and face-to-face courses found that students look favorably on the use of the virtual environment but only as a supplement to F2F meetings in the classroom and not as a replacement for such meetings (Garrison & Cleveland-Innes, 2005; Tiene, 2000). Thus, recent research findings indicate that blended learning integrating many aspects of the on-line learning is an optimal for learning (Chen & Jones, 2007; Andrews & Haythomthwaite, 2007). The finding in the current study regarding the ambivalent attitudes of students toward learning on the forum is in line with these findings, and with those of the comprehensive study by Allen et al. (2002). This study compared distance learning to traditional methods and found that the level of student satisfaction with the traditional classroom was similar to the level of satisfaction with distance learning. This finding reflects ambivalent attitudes, as found in the current study. Yet the attitudes evaluation should take place with larger size of participants as well as varied levels of technological experience. The uniqueness of the current study can be found in its integration of the characterization and analysis of metacognitive thinking with an examination of the attitudes and activities of students participating in an 118

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on-line course and forum. Many studies that have examined the relation between forum participation, student attitudes and student achievements did not examine the relation between these variables and metacognition (Collins et al., 2001; Gunstone, 2006; Indig et al., 2004). In this study, examination of student attitudes toward e-learning and examination of student participation in an e-forum did not suffice. Rather, the study applied qualitative and quantitative methodologies to achieve an integrated examination of the attitudes, activities and metacognitive thinking of students in the on-line forum. Students who were active on the forum and who held positive attitudes toward learning on the forum were found to have a higher level of metacognitive thinking.

Implications of this study to teacher education Based on these findings, we recommend teachers to enhance positive attitudes among students toward on-line forums and to encourage intensive forum participation. Such steps will make it possible to realize the potential of reflective activities on the forum in advancing thinking on a higher metacognitive level. The relation found between attitude and activities on an on-line forum on the one hand and metacognitive thinking on the other can lend support to the contribution of on-line academic courses to learning and to thinking.

References Andrews, R., & Haythornthwaite, C. (2007). The Sage handbook of E-learning Research. L.A: Sage Publications. Birenbaum, M. (2003). On-line forum, Tel Aviv University, http://learn.snunit.k12.il/snunit/ lashon/upload/teachers/forum.doc (Hebrew). Brinkerhoff, J., & Koroghlanian, C.M. (2005). Student Computer Skills and Attitudes toward Internet-Delivered Instruction: An Assessment of Stability over Time and Place. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32 (1), 27-56. Chen, C.C. & Jones, K.T. (2007). Blended Learning vs. Traditional Classroom Settings: Assessing Effectiveness and Student Perceptions in an MBA Accounting Course. The Journal of Educators On-line, 4 (1), 1-15. Clarke, J., Dede, C., & Dieterle, E. (2008). Emerging technologies for collaborative, mediated, immersive learning. In J. Voogt & G. Knezek (Eds.), The international handbook 119

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of technology in primary and secondary education (pp. 901-910). New York: SpringerVerlag. Dede, C. (2009). Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning. Science, 323 (5910), 66-69. Flavell, J.H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906-911. Flavell, J.H. (1987). Speculation about the nature and development of metacognition. In F.E. Weinert & R.H. Kluwe (Eds.), Metacognition, motivation and understanding (pp. 21-29). HillSdale, NJ: Lowrence Erlbaum Associates. Garrison, D.R., & Cleveland-Innes, M. (2005). Facilitating Cognitive Presence in On-line Learning: Interaction Is Not Enough. American Journal of Distance Education, 19 (3), 133-148. Garrison, D.R., & Kanuka, H. (2004). Blended learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 7 (2), 95-105. Ginns, P., & Ellis, R. (2007). Quality in blended learning: Exploring the relationships between on-line and face-to-face teaching and learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 10 (1), 53-64. Gunawardena, C.N., Linder-VanBerschot, J.A., LaPointe, D.K., & Rao, L. (2010). Predictors of Learner Satisfaction and Transfer of Learning in a Corporate On-line Education Program. American Journal of Distance Education, 24 (4), 207-226. Gunstone, R., & Case, J. (2006). Metacognitive development: A view beyond cognition. Research in Science Education, 36, 51-67. Hess, M. (2005). From the Learners’ Eyes: Student Evaluation of On-line Instruction, Paper presented at the National Educational Computing Conference. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (http://center.uoregon.edu/ISTE/uploads/NECC2005/KEY_7179064/Hess_ NECC2005_EvaluationofOn-lineInstruction_USF_RP.pdf). Iding, M., Vick, R., Crosby, M., & Auernheimer, B. (2004). College Students’ Metacognition in On-line Discussions. In L. Cantoni & C. McLoughlin (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (pp. 2896-2898). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Kozma, R. (Ed.) (2003). Technology, innovation, and educational change: A global perspective. Eugene, OR: International Society for Educational Technology. Kuboni, O., & Martin, A. (2004). An Assessment of Support Strategies Used to Facilitate Distance Students’ Participation in a Web-Based Learning Environment in the University of the West Indies. Distance Education, 25 (1), 7-29. Lee, S., Lee, J., Magjuka, R., Liu, X., & Bonk, C.J. (2009). The challenge of on-line casebased learning: An examination of an MBA program. Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 12 (3), 178-190. (http://www.ifets.info/download_pdf.php?j_id=44&a_ id=9). Levin, T., & Wadmany, R. (2006). Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices in Technology-based classrooms: A Developmental View. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39 (2), 159-180. Levin, T., & Wadmany, R. (2008). Teachers’ Views on Factors Affecting Effective Integration of Information Technology in the Classroom: Developmental Scenery. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 16 (2), 233-263. Chesapeake, VA: AACE. 120

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McQuaid, J.W. (2010). Using Cognitive Load to Evaluate Participation and Design of an Asynchronous Course. American Journal of Distance Education, 24 (4), 177-194. Palmer, S., & Holt, D. (2009). Staff and student perceptions of an on-line learning environment: Difference and development. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25 (3), 366-381. (http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet25/palmer.html). Reeves, T.C., & Reeves, P.M. (1997). Effective dimensions of interactive learning on the World Wide Web. In B.H. Kahn (Ed.), Web-based instruction (pp. 59-67). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Rimor, R., & Kozminsky, A. (2002). Tool for reflective analysis of students in an Internet environment. Seminar on Internet, Intertext: New Spaces for Creation and Research. Burda Center, Ben Gurion University, May 2002 (Hebrew). Rimor, R., & Kozminsky, E. (2001-2002). An Analysis of the Reflections of Students in Online courses. (http://burdacenter.bgu.ac.il/publications/finalReports2001-2002/rimor.pdf). Rozner, E. (2000). Collaborative activities for advancing learning processes – a case study of an on-line discussion group. Master’s thesis, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Hebrew). Schmoelz, A., Payrhuber, A., & Hahn, D. (2010). Instructional Design and eDidactic. A student-centered approach for first-year students. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (pp. 374-379). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. So, H.-J., & Bonk, C.J. (2010). Examining the Roles of Blended Learning Approaches in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Environments: A Delphi Study. Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 13 (3), 189-200. (http://www.ifets.info/ journals/13_3/17.pdf). Tiene, D. (2000). On-line discussions: A Survey of advantage and disadvantages compare to face to face discussions. Journal of Educational Multimedia and hypermedia, 9 (4), 371-384. Wadmany, R., & Levin, T. (2004). The use of Information technologies in the classrooms: Patterns of change and development in educational beliefs and in educational practices among teachers and their students. Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education. International Conference, 1, 4295-4299. (http://dl.aace.org/15128). Wadmany, R., & Levin, T. (2005). Integrating Information Technology in the Classroom: Importance of the student’s voices and Support Role. Phoenix, Arizona: Society for Information Technology and teacher Education. International Conference.

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Using internet information: Undergraduate teachers’ critical competencies Patrick Giroux, Mathieu Gagnon, Stéphanie Lessard and Josiane Cornut

aBSTRacT

University of Québec at Chicoutimi, 555, Boulevard de l’Université Chicoutimi (Québec) G7H 2B1, Canada. E-mail: pgiroux@uqac.ca; Mathieu1_Gagnon@uqac.ca

The increasing use of Internet by young people imposes an urgent liability on the education system: schools should contribute actively to empower students to use the Internet critically. However, to do this, teachers must themselves be critical thinkers. This study was designed as a first step to explore whether undergraduate teachers in a Québec university do or do not possess the necessary tools. Participants had to search for information on an imposed subject and judge the information. A questionnaire was then created to study the critical practices declared in light of the information found on the Internet. Findings indicate there seems to be a difference between undergraduate teachers’ critical practice and their declared practice. They also show what is interpreted as a lack of refinement in the participants’ epistemological judgment. Keywords: critical practices; critical thinking; undergraduate teachers; internet; web; information.

Internet and today’s youth: The same around the world Studies in France (Association Ic@re, 2010), the United States (PEW Internet & American Life Project, 2010a; 2010b; Rideout, Foehr & Roberts, 2010) and Canada (Media-Awareness Network, 2001; 2005) indicate that young people are increasingly using the Internet. The Research also points out that cell phones and other mobile devices are gaining importance, beEdizioni Erickson – Trento

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ing used more often and earlier in life. According to this research, media consumption (TV shows, books, etc.) on the Internet is increasing steadily among youth. CEFRIO (2009) highlighted the importance of information technology and communication for youth in Quebec and the impact they have on their lifestyle. It concluded that young Quebecers are no different from young people elsewhere. According to CEFRIO’s study, 12-17 yearolds spend an average 16 hours per week on the Internet. However, it is clear from this research that young people use the Internet more often at home than they do at school. CEFRIO’s research, like that of the Media Awareness Network (2001; 2005), confirmed that young people are interested to learn how to seek and evaluate information found on-line. The Quebec study, however, indicates that young people question the competence of their teachers in this field. To today’s youth, Internet is more than a forum. It has become a place where they are in contact with a variety of information, sometimes contradictory, even diametrically opposed to our values, thereby helping to generate conflicting ideas between generations and cultures. Without saying that they find everything on the Internet, it is nevertheless clear that they can find many things: empathy and hatred, sympathy and contempt, harmony and violence, respect and defamation, information and misinformation. In short, it is not only teenagers’ relationship with knowledge, it is their appreciation of the nature and value of the former that is confronted by the growth of the Internet, as well as their values, their morals and their emotions. This trend imposes an increasingly urgent liability on the education system: schools should contribute actively to empower students so they use the Internet in a thoughtful and responsible way. Young people should be encouraged to develop their abilities to judge the quality and veracity of information they face. Québec’s educational program recognizes this need and often refers to the development of critical thinking. We find, for example, critical thinking in the educational goals and developmental priorities of the “Media Literacy” broad areas of learning (MEQ, 2001, pp. 48-49; 2004, pp. 27; MELS, 2007, pp. 11-12). In this context, the Quebec government clearly states that students should not only be able to distinguish the different sources of information, but also and especially be aware that not all of them are of equal epistemological value. It follows that teachers should create conditions for youth allowing them to think critically in light of different information sources. However, to do this, teachers must themselves be critical thinkers. This research was designed as a first step to explore 124

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whether undergraduate teachers in our university do or do not possess the necessary tools. The overall objective was to review the critical skills and practices of undergraduate teachers towards the Internet to assess our local situation. Where do they find information? Do they judge information? How? Based on which criteria? Before outlining the main findings of this research, the article clarifies the relationship between critical thinking and evaluation of information found on the Internet and elsewhere. The research method and results are then presented and discussed.

Critical thinking in relation to information Critical thinking is considered by Unesco (2007) as a necessary skill to deal effectively with the challenges of the 21st century, particularly as it allows a true understanding of events (Delors, 1996, p. 47) which, in the modern world, become increasingly complex (Paul, 1990; Ku, 2009; Lipman, 2003). In this regard, our definition is based on that of Brookfield (1987), by which critical thinking is considered as a situated action. This is why, among other things, we prefer the expression “critical practices”, since it refers to the idea of situated conduct, particularly within a social framework. The definition on which we rely is as follows (translated from Gagnon, 2008, p. 108; 2010, p. 160): Critical thinking is an evaluative practice based on a reflexive, selfcritical and self-corrective approach involving the use of various resources (knowledge, thinking and social skills, people, information, materials) to determine what and why it is reasonable to believe (in the epistemological sense) or do (in the methodological and ethical sense) by carefully considering the criteria for choice and their contextual differences.

This definition confirms, as per Ennis (1985), the teleological sense of critical practices by strictly focusing on one’s actions, i.e. the evaluative mode. This process differs from algorithmic thinking since it requires a concern for the contexts, which are variable and contribute to the identification and the development of selection criteria. Situated within the concerns of information available on the Internet, this definition states that critical practices emerge and grow within the situations in which we are asked not only to seek, evaluate and select the information, but also and especially to assess its scope and limitations. 125

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The fact that the specific mode of critical thinking is an evaluative mode means that when it is directed towards information, it consists of engaging in processes within which the information will be judged on different criteria, including the following: clarity, reliability, relevance, quality, accuracy, consistency. The use of criteria to judge information is fundamental to the extent that, in the words of Lipman (2003), critical thinking and criteria go together. Therefore, in order to judge the information, the critical thinker will look to overcome his personal impressions and base his decisions on compelling reasons. These criteria, however, should not be applied blindly (since critical thinking is also reflective) but deliberately with an awareness of their relative importance depending on the aims and the context. Some of them will sometimes have more importance than others. The date of publication might be used as an example since, depending on the type of information sought, it may easily be considered more or less important. This demonstrates the significance of context, an important component of a critical practice (Daniel et al., 2004; Lipman, 2003). In the literature, the relationship between critical thinking and information is primarily anchored in the works of Ennis (1985), Halonen (1986) and Paul (1990). These relationships are now part of different definitions of critical thinking (Ku, 2009). Ennis focuses its definition around a taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities, some of which relate specifically to the question of information. In this regard we find, among dispositions identified by Ennis (1985; 1993), «the willingness to provide a constant effort to be well informed» (1985, p. 12) As for abilities, they include citing sources, as well as judging and assessing their credibility. Similarly, Halonen (1986) speaks of «information seeking», while Paul (1990) refers to assessing credibility. In line with our own definition, it is understood that it is not limited to the presentation of sources, but also and especially to identify them in the light of an evaluation process based on known criteria to determine their credibility, reliability, relevance, etc. In other words, it is still necessary to identify the reasons on which we rely in order to assign credibility and/or value to information, and this, in different contexts. It should also be noted that the processes associated with research, identification and evaluation of sources, insofar as they relate to a context, cannot be applied by using a “recipe” or a pre-determined approach. Again, the situation will guide the articulation and the co-construction of practices that can, or cannot, be qualified as being critical. That it is valuable, even essential, to evaluate information is one thing, but it is another to expose the basic elements upon which these evaluative 126

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processes are built. Among these elements, different skills and dispositions serve as a guide to evaluative action (Bailin, 2002; Brell, 1990; Brookfield, 1987; Ennis, 1985; 1993; Facione & Facione, 1996; Ku, 2009; Lipman, 2003; Mc Peck, 1981; Siegel, 1988). Here is a list of those that seem to relate specifically to the evaluation of information: – seeing and judging the structure of an argument – judging the credibility of a source • expertise, lack of conflict of interest, agreement among sources, reputation, use of established procedures, known risk to reputation – studying and judging observation reports – making and judging deductions/making and judging inductions – making and judging value judgments (background facts) – identifying and judging assumptions – identifying and judging fallacies – defining terms and judging definitions – asking and answering questions of clarification – seeking other possible explanations – seeking and evaluating evidence and counter-evidence – seeking and appreciating logical rigor – judging the use of established procedures. As we can see, it is not sufficient to simply identify the source, author, date or place to conclude that the evaluation of information falls within a critical approach. We must look deeper, going beyond the call to authority by a thorough examination of frames of reference, theoretical and discursive contexts, consistency and quality of arguments and demonstrations that are deployed. In other words, it is not sufficient to name the source. One must furthermore explain how it is credible, reliable and appropriate to the context. In this sense, the elements identified above constitute resources that are to be mobilized and combined to assess more carefully the sources and information. These can take shape within the different phases of a process, and their action cannot be defined a priori. It is therefore a complex dynamic in the sense of Morin (1986), to reach the co-construction of multiple and changing relationships — at times seeking clarification, or otherwise judging findings. In addition, the relationship with information and sources invariably brings us back to the epistemological question of the relationship to knowl127

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edge (Gagnon, accepted). In this regard, it is increasingly acknowledged and empirically based (Daniel et al., 2005; Gagnon, accepted; Golding, 2009; Kitchener, 1983; Kuhn, 2003) that the ways in which we define knowledge, both scholarly and scientifically, have an impact on the critical nature of our practices. Indeed, it seems that the more we share a positivist view of the developmental process of knowledge, the less we demonstrate critical thinking about that knowledge (Dean & Kuhn, 2003). Similarly, the more we have a dogmatic relationship with experts, that is to say that the more we see them as bearers of objective truth, the less we are inclined to question their ideas. In contrast, it appears that regarding all knowledge as relative, that is to say depending on culture, values and/or personal experiences, means that everything is true in a certain way and that it is not necessary to engage in the assessment processes, thus compromising any critical thinking process (Daniel, 2005; Golding, 2009; Kitchener, 1983). Therefore, it appears that an inter-subjective definition of knowledge promotes critical thinking, since it is structured in terms of contexts according to a logic of sustainability and not the absolute truth. In this sense, demonstrating a critical thinking approach to information implies involvement in an epistemic cognitive process in which evaluative thinking will lead to reviewing the approaches to development, value, scope and limitations of information, whether scholarly knowledge or knowledge derived from experience. In conclusion, not only does the exercise of critical thinking pertain to a series of intellectual skills (often related to formal logic), but it is also accompanied by certain attitudes, including self-correction (Daniel, 2005; Lipman, 2003; Paul, 1990). However, self-correction is based on metacognitive processes and self-criticism. Thus, it is necessary to take some time to review the scope and limitations of our processes, and modify them as needed. In this context, it could mean an exercise in reflexion regarding the strategies used to seek, evaluate and select information. It could also mean to modify oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s strategies and adapt them to their contexts.

Method Procedures and research tools This research was conducted in French at UQAC, a relatively small regional university (around 6400 students) in QuĂŠbec (Canada). A three-step 128

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Using internet information: Undergraduate teachers’ critical competencies

approach was developed. Interviews were first conducted in February 2009. A practical assignment on researching and evaluating information was then given to a second sample of education students in October 2009. Finally, a questionnaire was developed from the interviews and administered to a third sample of students at the end of the 2010 winter semester (MarchApril). Only the results of the second and third steps will be presented and discussed in this article. The interview used open ended questions which were based upon various critical thinking models. Questions were organized around three main axes: (1) overall information sources (most often used sources by undergraduate teacher, which sources are most reliable, selection criteria), (2) Internet (use of Internet sources, value of information found on the Internet, evaluative practices and criteria, ability to evaluate information) and (3) teaching (teachers’ responsibilities toward information evaluation, their competencies to assume those responsibilities and teaching strategies). A qualitative analysis of content (induced categories — L’Ecuyer, 1990; Van der Maren, 2003) led to the formulation of 11 categories of arguments: the author (e.g.: business, experience, training); the institution that oversees the site; site type (e.g.: blog, wiki ); the type of information presented (e.g.: opinions, research results); the amount of information on the site; the proximity of the site object with the subject of research; the presence of hyperlinks or references, geographical origin; presentation or visual appearance; the date of update/publication; and language quality. The questionnaire (39 items) was developed around those 11 categories to study the critical practices declared in light of the information found on the Internet. Three or four items were formulated for each category using statements or examples from the interviews. Every item was a statement referring to when students go on-line or when they must judge the quality of information (e.g. «When I have to judge the quality of information found on the Internet, I select only recent information»). For each statement, the participants were asked to indicate how the statement fits their situation using a scale from 1 (does not correspond at all) to 6 (corresponding perfectly). The practical activity required teams to perform research and evaluation of sources. This activity was part of the regular lesson plan in a course about educational technology. The subject, «barriers and facilitators of ICT integration in school», was imposed by the professor. Participants were asked to indicate the URL of the data sources identified, assess the relevance of each 129

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source on a scale from 1 (poor) to 5 (high), and explain their judgment. The instructions regarding judgment did not specify the number of arguments to give or what criteria to use. The specific objectives of this activity were to identify key judgment criteria and frequency of use. Participants Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirty-six second year undergraduate secondary teachers to identify the criteria they use to judge information. The practical activity was conducted with 40 undergraduate teachers from one of three programs: preschool and primary education, special education, secondary education. No participant was involved in both activities. As the professor in charge of the course was one of the researchers, no information revealing students’ identity was collected for the first two samples, in accordance with the institutional ethics committee requirements. A total of 235 students enrolled in a course offered by the Department of Educational Sciences responded to the questionnaire. The participants were mostly women (89.4%, N = 235). The mean age was 21.76 years (N = 235, SD = 2.693, Min = 19 Max = 34) and 83.3% of participants were aged 23 years or less. The majority (97.9%, N = 235) of students who responded to the questionnaire were enrolled full time. Table 1 shows the distribution of the sample by program of study and year of training. Participation is unequal depending on the program and year of program since some students were involved in practice teaching.

Data analyses The results of the practical activity were first processed through a qualitative analysis of content organized in a mixed model (induced and predetermined categories — L’Ecuyer, 1990) drawing on the “6 Questions du cyberespace” teaching material offered by the Media-Awareness Network. A research assistant coded the undergraduate teachers’ answers according to the six categories proposed by the Media-Awareness Network. When needed, the assistant proposed new categories to better fit the data. The entire process was supervised and reviewed by one of the researchers until they agreed and no more categories seemed necessary. 130

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Year of program Total

Program

Preschool and primary education

Special education

Secondary education

Total

1

2

3

4

79

1

53

4

137

% (Program)

57.7%

.7%

38.7%

2.9%

100.0%

% (Year of program)

59.0%

2.5%

94.6%

100.0%

58.5%

34

16

0

0

50

% (Program)

68.0%

32.0%

.0%

.0%

100.0%

% (Year of program)

25.4%

40.0%

.0%

.0%

21.4%

21

23

3

0

47

% (Program)

44.7%

48.9%

6.4%

.0%

100.0%

% (Year of program)

15.7%

57.5%

5.4%

.0%

20.1%

134

40

56

4

234

57.3%

17.1%

23.9%

1.7%

100.0%

% (Program)

% (Year of program) 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Table 1

Sample distribution by program and year.

Table 2 shows the resulting categories. Descriptive statistical analysis was then used to draw a portrait of the criteria chosen by students to evaluate websites. Data from questionnaires about reported critical practices were digitized using SPSS software. Descriptive statistics were used for each item.

Results What undergraduate teachers do The 40 education students who completed the assignment identified and evaluated 300 sites. As shown in Figure 1, evaluation of sites was mostly good or bad, rarely neutral (N = 300, M = 3.12, SD = 1.327, Mo = 4, Min = 1, Max = 5). The analysis of the justification provided to explain each judgment led to the consolidation of 11 categories of arguments that are mostly related to those discovered during the interviews. 131

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120

Number of site

100

80

60

40

20

0 1. Poor

2

3

4

5. High

Relevance

Figure 1

Evaluation of sites (N = 300).

On average, participants justified their evaluation of each site by 1.34 criteria (N = 300, Mo = 1, SD = 0,565, Min = 1, Max = 4). The criteria most often used by undergraduate teachers to justify their judgment of site suitability is the link between the information presented and the subject of research (N = 171, 45.4%). Table 2 shows how often participants made reference to each criteria. What undergraduate teachers claim they do From the questionnaire we understand that undergraduate teachers say they attach great importance to the author of the sites used. The majority claims to dwell on the authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s identity, occupation and field of activity, but pays little attention to his/her educational background. They trust sites produced by governments or official bodies and claim they try to take into account the credibility of these institutions. In contrast, almost half of respondents take little or no account of the objectives and functions of the institution. 132

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Using internet information: Undergraduate teachers’ critical competencies

Criteria

Frequency (%)

proximity with the subject of the research

171 (45.4)

amount of information

41 (10.9)

Site type

13 (3.4)

Type of information

29 (7.8)

Date of update/publication

28 (7.4)

author

24 (6.4)

presentation or visual appearance

20 (5.3)

institution

20 (5.3)

References and hyperlinks

15 (4.0)

Geographical origin

14 (3.7)

language

2 (0.5)

Total

Table 2

377

Frequency for each criteria.

Respondents say they overwhelmingly favor studies and scientific research and seem reluctant to retain sites offering opinions. The amount of information available on a site is moderately important to them, as is the fact that the site covers all aspects of a subject. On the other hand, the proximity of the site object with the subject of their research is very important to them even if they also agree to use sites that are not completely in line with the object of their research. Participants then give importance to references, but do not judge hyperlinks as important. It also appears that the context or the geographical source of information is unimportant to the respondents. In contrast, they consider the information better if the language is specific to their context, i.e. education or Québec’s educational program. They perceive a positive relationship between the quality of the language and the credibility of a site and do not give more importance to English sites. They also say they are not automatically excluded from their research. They are divided in regard to the importance of accessibility and complexity of language. Undergraduate teachers say they are not influenced by the speed with which a page is displayed and believe that advertising undermines credibility, even if the ads are linked to the site content. They claim the presence of pictures, diagrams or videos has a positive influence on their judgment of the quality of a site. They also declare that the sub-division of the text does 133

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not influence their decision. They are divided on the importance of overall appearance and ease in navigating the site. The majority of respondents consider the release date of the sites they use, but many still use sites that have not been updated recently. A table presenting descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, mode, skewness and kurtosis; range is not reported as it was always maximal) for all items related to the questionnaire was prepared and made accessible on-line because of limited space (http://edupsy.uqac.ca/ pgiroux/descriptives%20stats%20for%20questionnaire_giroux%20et%20 gagnon%202010.pdf).

Discussion Data indicated that participants think many of the actions described in the questionnaire are consistent with or very close to their usual behaviors as they surf the web. However, according to the data from the practical assignment, participants seem to regularly use a single and unique criteria to judge information: the proximity with the subject of research. The contradiction also becomes apparent when considering that participants in the practical assignment identified the author, the institution, the type of information and the language as a criteria for less than 20% of the sites evaluated. On the other hand, the importance given to the proximity with the subject of research and to the geographical origin are coherent in both the practical assignment and the questionnaire. The instructions given to realize the task did not explicitly ask to list all the criteria used to decide, but still asked to explain every decision. The fact that the largest portion of the assessment depended apparently on a single criteria therefore seem significant. Critical practices require the consideration of a variety of criteria depending on the context. It is also intriguing to observe that the two criteria that were most frequently identified in the practical assignment relate more to the relatedness and the quantity of information than its quality. Beside the proximity with the research subject and the amount of information, no data collected in the practical assignment seems to show that students really care for judging the quality of information. There was little or no reference to the structure of arguments, the reasoning, the assumptions or the definitions. Also, it does not indicate that participants have been looking at alternatives, pros and 134

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Using internet information: Undergraduate teachers’ critical competencies

cons or the methods. The same can be said in regard to the author and the institution, because students did not appear to investigate potential conflicts of interest, the theoretical assumptions of the authors, the areas to which they belong and their potential impact on their words. Overall, we found few traces of the skills and dispositions described in the theoretical framework that are related to the evaluation of information. It could be that undergraduate teachers believe the criteria are important, but do not know how to put them into practice, or need to exercise those skills. According to Baildon and Damico (2009), websites are difficult to judge since they combine several modalities (e.g. text, image, videos, music) the viewer must read and evaluate as a whole: a challenging process. In the matter of accessing the participants’ critical skills level, our research design clearly limits our analysis because we only have access to reported data. It also makes it hard to compare the data from the assignment to those from the questionnaire as we have two different groups of participants that are of different sizes, and both methods of evaluation were different. The qualitative analysis of the practical assignment yielded categories of criteria mostly related to the interview and should therefore be somehow linked to the questionnaire. But to what extent? A future research needs to address this question. Other ways of collecting data might also be explored to investigate further and gather more detailed information about the participants’ critical practices. Think aloud protocols and case studies might be interesting alternatives since they will force the participant to explain and to place himself more clearly in a particular context. The fact that the assessment of sites was so often “good” or “bad” is also very questionable. Participants identified 300 sites. With such a large sample, the distribution of evaluation should have been closer to a normal distribution. We doubt that the information available about the subject is so clearly significant and credible. Why did undergraduate teachers prefer to dichotomize sites between relevant and irrelevant? Why weren’t more sites rated “in the middle”? Did this happen because they lacked the skills to refine their epistemological judgment or because they were not sufficiently motivated to engage? When it comes to using and judging Internet and library sources, Burton (2000, p. 321) thinks that students «do not have the personal investment in their topic or even their discipline that a professional in the field would have». He also explains that students most often use the same source evaluation logic «regardless of whether they are 135

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considering library-based sources or Internet-based sources». Considering the multi-modal nature of information found on the Internet, it is possible the criteria undergraduate teachers were trained to use did not transfer well to the Internet. According to CEFRIO (2010, p. 15), use of the Internet is scarce in Québec’s classes. Education programs in our university also offer only a few hours of training about the Internet and information research. A lack of investment combined with few hours of formal training and the use of a variety of information sources might partially explain poor refinement in the participants judgment. Does teacher education contribute sufficiently to sophisticate the epistemological beliefs of students?

Conclusion Based on the foregoing, we believe undergraduate teachers need to be better equipped when they are asked to mobilize their critical thinking toward information found on the web. They recognize the importance of several criteria when it comes time to judge the relevance of information, but they do not seem able to put these criteria into practice in a reflective way. Given the importance of ICT and critical practices toward information nowadays, it appears essential to better understand the situation and take corrective measures so that future teachers are able to help children develop their critical thinking toward Internet. Furthermore, it seems necessary to refine our conceptualization of the criteria used to judge information, their relations and their contextual complexity. It may also be necessary to determine whether different training programs in education are more successful than others and, where appropriate, to study why. We should perhaps also compare teachers with other professionals. Without realizing it, professors and lecturers of the same program may put more emphasis on the importance of certain criteria or values or perhaps convey specific ideas about the profession which have a critical influence on practices as a contextual element. This could help us improve our training of future teachers by providing us with insight into the most effective ways of teaching and learning to be critical toward information.

Acknowledgements This research was made possible through the financial support of PAIR-UQAC. 136

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References Association Ic@re (2010). Moi et les écrans. (http://www.asso-icare.fr/Rapport-Moi.et.les. ecrans-2010.pdf). Baildon, M., & Damico, J. (2009). How Do We Know?: Students Examine Issues of Credibility With a Complicated Multimodal Web-Based Text. Curriculum Inquiry, 39 (2), 265-285. Bailin, S. (2002). Critical Thinking and Science Education. Science & Education, 11, 361375. Brell, C. (1990). Critical thinking as Transfer: The Teconstructive Integration of Otherwise Discrete Interpretations of Experience. Educational Theory, 40 (1), 53-68. Brookfield, S. (1987). Developing Critical Thinkers Challenging Adults to Explore Alternative Ways of Thinking and Acting. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Burton, V., & Chadwick, S. (2000). Investigating the Practices of Student Researchers: Patterns of Use and Criteria for Use of Internet and Library Sources. Computers and Compositions, 17 (3), 309-328. CEFRIO (2009). Génération C: les 12-24 ans – Moteurs de transformation des organisations. Québec (Canada): CEFRIO. (http://www.cefrio.qc.ca/index.php?id=74&tx_ ttnews[tt_news]=4507&tx_ttnews[cat]=31&tx_ttnews[backPid]=55&cHash=ca8826 2eac). Daniel, M.F. (2005). Pour l’apprentissage d’une pensée critique au primaire. Montréal: Presses de l’Université du Québec. Daniel, M.-F., Splitter, L., Slade, C., Lafortune, L., Pallascio, R., & Mongeau, P. (2004). Dialogical Critical Thinking: Elements of Definitions Emerging in the Analysis of Transcripts from Pupils Aged 10 to 12 Years. Australian journal of education, 48 (3), 295-313. Dean, D., & Kuhn, D. (2003). Metacognition and Critical Thinking. ED477930. Delors, J. (1996). L’éducation, un trésor caché dedans. Rapport à l’UNESCO de la commission internationale sur l’éducation au xxlème siècle. Paris: Odile Jacob. Ennis, R. (1985). A logical basis for Measuring Critical Thinking Skills. Educational Leadership (October), 44-48. Ennis, R. (1993). Critical Thinking Assessment. Theory into Practice, 32 (3), 179-186. Facione, S., & Facione, P. (1996). Externalizing the Critical Thinking in Knowledge Development and Critical Thinking. Nursing Outlook, 44 (3), 129-136. Gagnon, M. (accepted). Proposition d’une grille d’analyse des pratiques critiques d’élèves en situation de résolution de problèmes dits complexes. Recherches qualitatives. Gagnon, M. (2008). Étude sur la transversalité de la pensée critique comme compétence: entre “science et technologie”, histoire et philosophie au secondaire. Thèse de doctorat. Québec: Université Laval. Gagnon, M. (2010). Regards sur les pratiques critiques manifestées par des élèves de quatrième année du secondaire dans le cadre de deux activités d’apprentissage par problèmes menées en classe d’histoire au Québec. In M.-A. Éthier & J.-F. Cardin (Eds.). Histoire, musées et éducation à la citoyenneté: recherches récentes (pp. 159-181). Québec: MultiMondes.

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Golding, C. (2009). Epistemic Positions and Philosophy for Children. Farhang. Quarterly Journal Humanities and Cultural Studies. Issue Topic: Philosophy for children, 22 (69), 83-116. Halonen, J. (1986). Teaching Critical Thinking in Psychology. Milwaukee: Alverno Productions. Kitchener, K. S. (1983). Cognition, Metacognition and Epistemic cognition: A three-level model of cognitive processing. Hum. Dev., 26 (4), 222-232. Ku, K. (2009). Assessing Students’ Critical Thinking Performance: Urging for Measurements using Multi-Response Format. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 4, 70-76. L’Écuyer, R. (1990). Méthodologie de l’analyse développementale de contenu. Sillery: PUQ. Lipman, M. (2003). Thinking in Education. New York: Cambridge University Press. McPeck, J.E. (1981). Critical Thinking and Education. New York: St. Martin’s. Media-Awareness Network (2001). Jeunes canadiens dans un monde branché – La perspectives des élèves. (http://www.media-awareness.ca/francais/ressources/projets_speciaux/ sondage_ressources/perspective_eleves/jcmb_rapport_final_eleves.pdf). Media-Awareness Network (2005). Jeunes canadiens dans un monde branché (Phase II) – Tendances et recommandations. (http://www.media-awareness.ca/francais/recherche/ JCMB/phaseII/upload/JCMBII_tendances_rec.pdf). Ministère de l’Éducation (MEQ) (2001). Québec Education Program – Preschool Education – Elementary Education. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec. (http://www.mels. gouv.qc.ca/dgfj/dp/programme_de_formation/primaire/pdf/educprg2001/educprg2001. pdf) Ministère de l’Éducation (MEQ) (2004). Québec Education Program - Secondary School Education, Cycle One. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec. (http://www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/ DGFJ/dp/programme_de_formation/secondaire/qepsecfirstcycle.htm). Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport (MELS) (2007). Québec Education Program – Secondary School Education, Cycle Two. Québec: Gouvernement du Québec. (http:// www.mels.gouv.qc.ca/sections/programmeFormation/secondaire2/index_en.asp). Morin, E. (1986). La connaissance de la connaissance. Paris: Seuil. Paul, R. (1990). Critical Thinking: What Every Person Needs to Survive in Rapidly Changing World. Sonoma: Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique. Pett, M.A., Lackey, N.R., & Sullivan, J.J. (2003). Making Sense of Factor Analysis: The Use of Factor Analysis for Instrument Development in Health Care Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication. PEW Internet & American Life Project (2010a). Teens and Mobile Phones. (http://www. pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2010/PIP-Teens-and-Mobile-2010-with-topline. pdf). PEW Internet & American Life Project (2010b). Social Media and Mobile Internet Use Among Teens and Young Adults. (http://pewinternet.org/~/media//Files/Reports/2010/ PIP_Social_Media_and_Young_Adults_Report_Final_with_toplines.pdf). Rideout V.J., Foehr V.G., & Roberts D.F., (2010). Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-to 18-Year-Olds. Menlo Parks CA: J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (http://www.kff.org/ entmedia/upload/8010.pdf). Siegel, H. (1988). Educating Reason: Rationality, Critical thinking, and Education. New York: Routledge. 138

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Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (4e ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. UNESCO (2007). Une approche de l’éducation pour tous fondée sur les droits de l’homme. (http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001588/158891f.pdf). Van der Maren, J.-M. (2003). La recherche appliquée en éducation. Bruxelles: De Boeck.

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integrating technology into instructional practices: a training researchintervention with in-service 1 teachers Laura Messina* and Sara Tabone**

aBSTRacT

* Department of Education Sciences of Padua University, Via Beato Pellegrino, 28 – 35137 Padova, Italy. E-mail: laura.messina@unipd.it ** Fellowship researcher at the Department of Education Sciences of Padua University, Via Beato Pellegrino, 28 – 35137 Padova, Italy. E-mail: sara.tabone@unipd.it

1

This article concerns a training intervention, based on the Technological, Pedagogical And Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework developed by Koehler and Mishra (2005; Mishra & Koehler, 2006), and involving 110 lower secondary school teachers in the Italian region of Veneto participating in the Cl@sses 2.0 Action. After a short introduction to the Cl@sses 2.0 Action and TPACK framework, the article presents results obtained through a questionnaire submitted to teachers, aimed at surveying their knowledge with respect to the areas of the TPACK framework. Finally, suggestions to guide teachers in implementing TPACK and developing flexible knowledge to integrate technologies into instructional practices are concisely presented. Keywords: in-service teachers training; technology integration; content; pedagogy; technology; TPACK; cl@sses 2.0 action.

This article has been discussed jointly by its two authors. laura Messina has written paragraphs Cl@sses 2.0 Action, Integration of technology in teaching and Intervention development; Sara Tabone has written paragraph The research.

Edizioni Erickson – Trento

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Cl@sses 2.0 Action The Cl@sses 2.0 Action is part of the Digital School plan and was promoted by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) for the first time in the school year 2009/2010. In that year, it involved 156 first grade classes from lower secondary schools, selected in 18 regions on the national territory; then it was extended during the following school year to 124 third grade classes from primary schools and to 136 first grade classes from higher secondary schools. According to the MIUR notice for lower secondary schools in year 2009/2010, which we refer to in our present work, Cl@sses 2.0 Action, is aimed at «realizing appropriate learning environments for a constant and widespread use of technology in school’s everyday life, in order to assess, in a three-year period, how and how much the impact of technology can affect formative processes in an era of changes in the languages of communication and knowledge diffusion» (MIUR, 2009). MIUR (2009) specifies that the pursuit of these goals is entrusted to «the planning of a didactic, technological and organizational model». Each of the 156 lower secondary school cl@sses is requested to elaborate its own triennial planning, and then to implement it in collaboration with the Regional Teamwork group consisting of: the University; the National Agency for the Development of School Autonomy (ANSAS); and the Regional School Office (USR) which coordinates the teamwork.2 The theoretical and operative assumptions of the MIUR Project are specified in a document regarding «school coaching and support» that also underlines its logic: «to enhance the implementation of innovative models that can generate good technology usage practices also among those schools that not participate in the initiative» (ANSAS, 2009). Therefore, according to the general intents of the Digital School plan, the selected lower secondary school cl@sses are expected «to modify learning environments through the integration of technology into instructional practices». 2

Different tasks are assigned to the three components of the Regional Teamwork that operate in a synergistic complementarity: the University is in charge of «scientific support»; aNSaS of «teacher support»; and the USR of «management control» (aNSaS, 2009). Monitoring and evaluation of both ongoing and final results of the students are assigned to the Giovanni agnelli Foundation and the compagnia di San paolo Foundation.

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integrating technology into instructional practices: a training research-intervention with in-service teachers

Cl@sses 2.0 Action is certainly an innovative and demanding project, which has started, we could say, by imagining “ideal” classes and teachers, able to measure themselves immediately, with both the planning of new learning environments and new instructional practices. However, with regard to Veneto, similarly to other Italian regions, many class councils of the selected 12 cl@sses,3 inevitably had to deal with some basic issues before tackling these tasks such as: the problem of technological training for teachers, some of whom had little or no knowledge of technologies,4 consequently the difficult planning of new technological environments; and last but not least the complexity of negotiating and agreeing unanimously on educational and technological choices to achieve a shared and innovative three-year instructional planning. The first of the three year period engaged the Veneto Regional Teamwork5 in supporting class councils in solving these problems and providing them with scientific support to develop the expected «educational, technological and organizational model» and to try to begin its implementation. During the second year, the scientific support of the university continued on a voluntary basis, offering teachers different deepening paths, one of which is based on the TPACK framework of Mishra and Koehler (2006).6

Integration of technology in teaching Research on the introduction of technology into education — which consists primarily of case studies, teacher self-reports, descriptions of good practices, experimentation with specific technologies (Lawless & Pellegri3

4

5

6

The twelve 2.0 cl@sses of the Veneto Region belong to the following schools: SMS Valgimigli – albignasego (pD); SMS i. Nievo – Belluno (Bl); ic – Bosco chiesanuova (VR); ic – legnaro (pD); SMS casteller – paese (TV); SMS Bonturi-piubello – S. Bonifacio (VR); ic R. Onor – S. Donà di piave (VE); ic Battistella – Schio (Vi); ic – San Vendemiano (TV); SMS c.G. cesare – Venezia Mestre (VE); ic Barolini – Vicenza (Vi); ic – Taglio di po (RO). The classes have attempted to overcome this problem with self-training activities, carried out by the most experienced teachers considering the explicit exclusion of «training» from the financing of the schools, as reported by the MiUR notice (2009). The Veneto Regional Teamwork group was made up of the University of padua, the aNSaS of Mestre and the USR of Veneto. The padua University team comprised prof. l. Galliani (referent), prof. M. De Rossi, prof. l. Messina and prof. c. petrucco. The financial agreement between MiUR and the university ended in august 2010, and was again renewed in april 2011. From September 2010 to March 2011, the scientific support of the University continued on a purely voluntary basis; in that same period the deepening path — described below and supervised by l. Messina — was developed.

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no, 2007) — has allowed scholars to outline various theoretical and practical proposals for pre-service and in-service teacher training (e.g., Fulton, Glenn & Valdez, 2003; Hughes, 2004; Niederhauser & Stoddart, 2001) and develop theoretical models aimed at integrating technologies into teaching (e.g., Angeli & Valanides, 2009; Mishra & Koehler, 2006; Wang, 2000; Zhao, 2003). The model of Koehler & Mishra (2005; Mishra & Koehler, 2006) seems to be particularly interesting and appropriate for Cl@sses 2.0 teachers, especially when, as in this case, the coaching action is also aimed at developing their reflections on what integrating technology in teaching — and directing its effective integration — means. The adoption of this model, in fact, was conceived as a theoretical framework able to direct personal reflection towards the actions taken not only to transform the learning environment, but also to develop one’s own professional competence: in our opinion, a basic value in any type of innovation, and as important as the impact of the new learning environment on students’ formative processes. The following presentation of TPACK framework underlines its essential points, primarily clarifying one of its limits;7 in fact the framework takes into account only the basic core of teachers’ knowledge without considering, for example, their attitudes or beliefs, which have strong cognitive relevance in teaching (e.g., Borko & Putnam, 1996; Clerici, Lamon & Messina, 2009), as well as social knowledge, based on dialogue and negotiation, co-construction, shared reflective practices, also present in other models (Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000; Wang, 2008). However such framework, which in a certain sense could be read according to the cognitivist paradigm, regards a type of knowledge that is absolutely necessary to teacher professionalism, keeping always in mind, in addition, that the cognitivist assumptions have not been wiped out by socio-cultural or socio-constructivism approaches, but are subsumed in it (Messina, 2002). The TPACK framework The TPACK framework is the development of a previous model,8 namely Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) — proposed by Shulman (1986; 7

8

also the researchers admit that «no single framework tells the “complete story”» (Mishra & Koehler, 2006, p. 1047). Even though it explicitly derives from Shulman’s model, TpacK is also related to other previous studies (e.g., Sweeder, Bednar & Ryan, 1999).

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1987) in the 1980s, when one of the main problems of research was trying to overcome the classical view on teacher training, historically oriented toward content knowledge — and to prove the need to integrate it (and not just to add or juxtapose it) with pedagogical knowledge (Figures 1 and 2).

Figure 1

CK

PK

Content Knowledge

Pedagogical Knowledge

Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Knowledge, examined in isolation.

CK

PK

Content Knowledge

Pedagogical Knowledge

PCK – Pedagogical-Content Knowledge

Figure 2

Integration between Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Knowledge, from which Pedagogical-Content Knowledge results (according to Shulman’s model).

Shulman’s model (Figure 2) underlines the need for teacher training to conjugate those two bodies of knowledge, and this conjunction can be translated into a question that all teachers ask, not only at the beginning of their career: “how can I teach (efficiently) content so that it may be learnt (properly) by my students?”. Shulman (1986, p. 9) identifies Pedagogical-Content Knowledge (PCK) as «the ways of representing and formulating the subject that make it comprehensible to others», referring explicitly to «forms of representation, analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations, and demonstrations». 145

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The Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge framework – TPACK (labelled originally as TPCK) has been developed by Koehler and Mishra during the last decade (Mishra & Koehler, 2006; Koehler & Mishra, 2008; Mishra & Koehler, 2008), and can be intended as a framework «for thinking about the complex problems posed by technology integration» (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 3). According to Figure 3, teachers’ knowledge is represented in three sections: – CK – Content Knowledge, that is «knowledge about the actual subject matter that is to be learned or taught; knowledge of central facts, concepts, theories and procedures within a given field; knowledge of explanatory frameworks that organize and connect ideas; and knowledge of the rules of evidence and proof» (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 3). – PK – Pedagogical Knowledge, that is «deep knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning and how it encompasses (among other things) overall educational purposes, values and aims». This is a generic form that «includes knowledge about techniques or methods to be used in the classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating student understanding» (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 6). – TK – Technology Knowledge, which includes knowledge about technology, ranging from traditional (books, blackboard...) and semi-traditional ones (video camera, still camera...) to new digital technologies (computers, software...), and must be intended not only as strictly instrumental knowledge (e.g. installing or removing software, or creating a database), but also as media language knowledge. Moreover, Figure 3 shows new forms of knowledge determined by the intersection of the three different kinds of knowledge: – As we have just seen, the PCK – Pedagogical Content Knowledge results from the intersection of PK (Pedagogical Knowledge) and CK (Content Knowledge). In this case, «the key question is how disciplines differ from each other and whether disciplines can or should be taught through the same instructional strategies» (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 6). From a formative point of view, teachers might ask: can the same pedagogical strategies and techniques be adopted to teach, for example, Music or Geography? Or should those subjects be taught in different ways? And on the basis of which specificities? 146

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TPACK Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge

TPK Technological Pedagogical Knowledge

TK Technological Knowledge

PK Pedagogical Knowledge

TCK Technological Content Knowledge

CK Content Knowledge

PCK Pedagogical Content Knowledge Contexts

Figure 3

TPACK framework (adapted from Koehler & Mishra, 2009).

– The TCK – Technological Content Knowledge results from the intersection of TK (Technology Knowledge) and CK (Content Knowledge). As Mishra and Koehler (2008, p. 7) underline, «teachers need to master more than the subject matter they teach, they must also have a deep understanding of the manner in which the subject matter (or the kinds of representations that can be constructed) can be changed by the application of technology. Teachers need to understand which specific technologies are best suited for addressing subject-matter learning in their domains and how the content dictates or perhaps even changes the technology — or vice versa». From a formative point of view, this requires a reflection on how technologies modify the way to represent knowledge within each single subject-matter. – The TPK – Technological Pedagogical Knowledge, that is the ability to use technology into teaching and learning context, results from the intersection of TK (Technology Knowledge) and PK (Pedagogical Knowledge). TPK is an understanding of how teaching and learning change 147

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when particular technologies are used. That means «knowing the pedagogical affordances and constraints of a range of technological tools as they relate to disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies» (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 9). From a formative point of view, teachers can wonder if technologies can be considered “neutral” and if some can be more appropriate for some students and/or for particular cognitive and social processes. – The TPACK – Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge, an emergent form of knowledge, as specified by Mishra & Koehler (2008, p. 10) results from the «intersection of all three bodies of knowledge». It allows an understanding of how technology, content, and pedagogy «interact with each other». This kind of knowledge includes «an understanding of how to represent concepts with technologies, pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help students learn; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge and to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones». It is not by chance that Mishra and Koehler present this kind of knowledge as a new form of «literacy»: highlighting the fact that teachers should turn from «consumers» into «designers» and «producers» (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 10); proposing a specific approach — learning by design — that «can help teachers develop a flexible and situated understanding of technology» (Koehler & Mishra, 2005, p. 95); and appealing to teachers’ creativity «to flexibly navigate the landscape» of TPACK (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 11).

The research This research represents the first step of the training intervention based on TPACK framework that involved Veneto lower secondary school teachers participating in Cl@sses 2.0 Action. After presenting the framework, a questionnaire was proposed to teachers in order to let them deepen their understanding of it, reflect upon their own knowledge and collect data which could be useful for developing and better defining their educational planning. 148

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Instruments and procedure The instrument used for the research is an adaptation of “Survey of preservice teachers’ knowledge of teaching and technology”, developed by Shmidt, Baran, Thompson, Koehler, Mishra and Shin (2009) for pre-service teachers.9 This questionnaire was modified for in-service teachers — as some researchers have already done (e.g., Niess et al., 2009; Graham et al., 2009; Doukakis et al., 2010) — taking into consideration that in Italy different subjects can be taught by a single teacher, such as Mathematics and Science, or Italian, History and Geography. In order to obviate this problem, some questions — where necessary — were differentiated by subject and repeated. According to the regulations in force, each teacher can teach a maximum of three subjects. The questionnaire is structurally divided into three parts. In the first part, some demographic information is required: schools attended, personal e-mail address,10 gender, age, teaching subject, educational qualification (high school qualification, university degree, PhD or MBA, specialization in teaching in secondary school), participation in refresher courses on technology in past and current years of teaching. The second part of questionnaire goes to the heart of TPACK framework. It is divided into seven sections — TK (Technological Knowledge); CK (Content Knowledge); PK (Pedagogical Knowledge); PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge); TCK (Technological Content Knowledge); TPK (Technological-Pedagogical Knowledge); TPACK (Technological, Pedagogical And Content Knowledge) — consisting of several items: each item is formulated as a statement on which the teachers are required to express a position of agreement or disagreement on a five-point scale (1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). The first section, TK, consists of 6 items (1-6); the second section, pertaining to CK, consists of 3 items, which can be repeated for a maximum of three subjects (7-9); the third section, pertaining to PK, consists of 7 items (10-16); the fourth section, pertaining to PCK, consists of 3 items, which can be repeated for a maximum of three subjects (17-19); the fifth section, pertaining to TCK, consists of 3 items, which can be repeated for a maximum of three subjects (20-22); the sixth section, pertaining to TPK, consists of 5 9 10

The questionnaire was translated and adapted by l. Messina. During data processing the e-mail was not associated with the respondent.

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items (23-27); the seventh and last section, pertaining to TPACK, consists of 3 items, two of which can be repeated for a maximum of three subjects (28-30). The third part of the questionnaire focuses on the participants’ personal experiences, through two open-ended questions, the first concerning their teaching activities, and the second, their teacher training.11 Participants The sample considered includes almost all of the Veneto lower secondary school teachers involved in Cl@sses 2.0 Action. As the voluntary nature of the intervention, the suggestion of a deepening theoretical path based on the TPACK framework has been accepted by 11 class councils out of 12 and by all the teachers of the 11 cl@sses, except for one, for a total of 110 participants. With respect to the teachers’ gender, 30.6% are male and 69.4% are female. With respect to age, only 1.9% are under 30, 12.8% are between 30 and 40, 29.3% are between 40 and 50, 52.3% are between 50 and 60, and 3.7% are over 60.12 According to the regulation in force (D.M. 354/1998), teachers were grouped into the following subjects: Italian, History and Geography (n = 16); Mathematics and Science (n= 11); foreign languages: English and a second European language (n = 22); Technology (n = 10); Arts (n = 11); Music (n = 12); Physical Education (n = 11); Religion (n = 11). Learning support (n = 6) must be added to these, although not originally factored into the questionnaire.13 With regard to their educational qualifications, 83.6% of the teachers have a university degree; the remaining 16.4% have a high school degree (also including Conservatoire) that allows them to teach in lower secondary school. Postgraduate qualifications are rare: only 4 of the teachers involved have a PhD, 3 have a Master’s degree, 2 attended postgraduate courses, 11 have 11

12 13

The questionnaires were administered in December 2010 and were collected by the representative of each class council in January 2011. The results were returned in early March 2011 using the on-line platform of cl@sses 2.0 action. For data relating to gender and age, the respondents were N = 109. The data relating to learning support teachers can be partial, since the participation of this group of teachers may not have been systematic, because learning support was not explicitly considered in the questionnaire. according to italian law (l. 104/1992), all learning support teachers are co-teachers of the class they work in, consequently some learning support teachers decided to fill out the questionnaire.

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a secondary school teaching qualification (SSIS), and 3 have an analogous title for learning support teachers (SOSS). With respect to the participation in refresher courses on technology for teaching, 54.5% of participants attended them in the past: specific activities, as surveyed by means of open-ended questions, range from basic computer courses organized by schools and held by experienced colleagues, to For-TIC (i.e. ICT) courses and IWB courses sponsored by MIUR. With regard to the current school year, 22.7% of the teachers are still keeping up to date with technology, in contrast to the remaining 77.3%. The course for IWB is the most used: it was attended by 55.8% of teachers who participated in training courses on “technology for teaching” in the past, and it is currently attended by 44% of teachers who want to improve their knowledge in this field. Data analysis of the second part of questionnaire The first data analyses of the second part of the questionnaire refer to the entire group of teachers, without any distinction according to subject taught.14 As specified above, the level of agreement of the respondents was measured on a five-point scale, where 1 indicates complete disagreement and 5 indicates complete agreement with the statement given. The reliability of each section of the adapted questionnaire was tested by means of Cronbach’s alpha. The results appear to be more than satisfactory: for section TK, α = . 930; for section CK, α = .919; for section PK, α = .885; for section PCK, α = .863; for section TCK, α = .969; for section TPK, α = .931; for section TPACK, α = .864.15 Mean and standard deviation of each item within the seven sections considered (see Tables 1-7) were calculated in order to observe any item within each section and to detect score differences among items belonging to the same construct. To give just one example, in the TPACK section (Table 7), differences between items 29 and 30 (being able to teach lessons that appropriately combine content, technologies and teaching approaches; being able to use strategies that combine content, technologies and teaching approaches in the classroom) and item 28 (providing leadership in helping others to coordinate the use of content, technologies and teaching approaches) are found. 14

15

The rare and sporadic missing data were replaced by the average of the responses of other teachers to the same item, in order not to exclude subjects who missed a single response. These scores are consistent with, if not greater than, those reported by Schmidt et al. (2009).

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Moreover, the dispersion index (standard deviation) of responses to items associated with the different areas of the questionnaire is a notable datum: low values are found in the statements included in the CK (Content Knowledge), PK (Pedagogical Knowledge) and PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge) sections; this can be interpreted as the self-confidence of most teachers in managing content and teaching methods, both in the broad sense and specifically related to their teaching subject, in contrast with what appears in other questionnaire sections. TK (Technology Knowledge)

Me

SD

1. i know how to solve my own technical problems

2.69

1.139

2. i can learn technology easily

3.28

1.110

3. i keep up with important new technologies

2.76

1.196

4. i frequently play around the technology

2.75

1.342

5. i know about a lot of different technologies

2.43

1.129

6. i have the technical skills i need to use technology

2.95

1.082

Table 1

Mean and standard deviation of each item belonging to the Technology Knowledge section (TK).

CK (Content Knowledge)

Me

SD

7. i have sufficient knowledge about my teaching subject (specify subject)

4.54

.691

8. i can use a way of thinking adequate to my teaching subject (specify subject)

4.51

.728

9. i have various ways and strategies of developing my understanding of my teaching subject (specify subject)

4.43

.720

Table 2

Mean and standard deviation of each item belonging to the Content Knowledge section (CK).

PK (Pedagogical Knowledge)

Me

SD

10. i know how to assess student performance in classroom

4.35

.696

11. i can adapt my teaching based upon what students currently understand or do not understand

4.45

.584

12. i can adapt my teaching style to different learners

4.21

.679

13. i can assess student learning in multiple ways

4.21

.718

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14. i can use a wide range of teaching approaches in a classroom setting

4.19

.748

15. i am familiar with common student understandings and misconceptions

3.95

.799

16. i know how to organize and maintain classroom management

4.35

.685

Table 3

Mean and standard deviation of each item belonging to the Pedagogical Knowledge section (PK).

PCK (Pedagogical Content Knowledge)

Me

SD

17. i can select effective teaching approaches to guide student thinking and learning in my teaching subject (specify subject)

4.27

.672

18. i can plan lessons that stimulate studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interest

4.23

.706

19. i can guide students to connect disciplinary concepts with their own reality

4.29

.732

Table 4

Mean and standard deviation of each item belonging to the Pedagogical Content Knowledge section (PCK).

TCK (Technological Content Knowledge)

Me

SD

20. i know about technologies that i can use for understanding and doing teaching subject (specify subject)

3.57

1.163

21. i know what technologies i can use to apply/practice my subject

3.47

1.183

22. i can choose the technologies that improve the content in my subject

3.39

1.187

Table 5

Mean and standard deviation of each item belonging to the Technological Content Knowledge section (TCK).

TPK (Technological Pedagogical Knowledge)

Me

SD

23. i can choose technologies that enhance the teaching approaches for a lesson

3.43

1.121

24. i can choose technologies that enhance studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; learning for a lesson

3.33

1.134

25. i am thinking critically about how to use technology in my classroom

4.05

1.082

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26. i can adapt the use of the technologies that i am learning about to different teaching activities

3.35

1.105

27. i can select technologies to use in my classroom that enhance what i teach, how i teach and what students learn

3.43

1.184

Table 6

Mean and standard deviation of each item belonging to the Technological Pedagogical Knowledge section (TPK).

TPACK (Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge)

Me

SD

28. i can provide leadership in helping others to coordinate the use of content, technologies and teaching approaches at my school and/or district

2.39

1.264

29. i can teach lessons that appropriately combine content of my teaching subject (specify subject), technologies and teaching approaches

3.15

1.063

30. i can use strategies that combine content of my teaching subject (specify subject), technologies and teaching approaches in my classroom

3.08

1.076

Table 7

Mean and standard deviation of each item belonging to the Technological Pedagogical And Content Knowledge section (TPACK).

For each questionnaire section, synthetic indexes were constructed to summarize in a single score the average of the scores expressed in the items constituting the same section (Table 8).

Table 8

N

Me

SD

TK

110

2.90

1.022

cK

110

4.53

.713

pK

110

4.32

.589

pcK

110

4.28

.679

TcK

110

3.48

1.143

TpK

110

3.52

.992

TpacK

110

2.88

1.009

Mean and standard deviation of each synthetic index of the sections presented in the second part of questionnaire (PK, CK, TK, PCK, TCK, TPK, TPACK).

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As regards the seven sections included in the second part of the questionnaire, teachers participating in the research show higher scores in Content Knowledge – CK (M = 4.53), which indicates a good knowledge of concepts, theories, frameworks and ways of thinking capable of understanding the subject they teach. Moreover, high scores are found in Pedagogical Knowledge – PK (M = 4.32) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge – PCK (M = 4.28). In the first case, data show that teachers believe they have solid knowledge on what the process of teaching/learning is, they feel able to adapt their teaching action and style according to students, to assess students’ learning in many ways and to organize and manage classroom activities. In the second case, data show that teachers feel able to choose effective teaching and learning approaches to guide students’ reasoning, to plan lessons that stimulate students’ interest, and to guide students to link the subject-matters with their own reality. Lower scores are obtained in Technology Knowledge – TK (M = 2.90), which, according to Mishra and Koehler (2008), is associated with the ability to use different technologies and learn them easily. Contrary to what might be expected, the score in Technological Knowledge – TK section (M = 2.90) is less high than the scores in the Technological Content Knowledge – TCK section (M = 3.48) and TechnologicalPedagogical Knowledge-TPK section (M = 3.52). These data may indicate, on the one hand, that teachers believe they know relatively well the appropriate technology to understand/apply to their subject and to teach it to their students with respect to the range of possibilities offered by the market, and on the other hand, that perhaps they feel more confident in using the technologies available in schools. The lowest score among the questionnaire sections is in Technological, Pedagogical And Content Knowledge – TPACK (M = 2.88): as it was expected, and could be found in other works (e.g., Shin et al., 2009; Grahm et al., 2009), in which the lowest scores reported are in TPACK and TCK, teachers are less confident in their ability to appropriately integrate content, technology and teaching approaches in the actual classroom activities. Examining the correlations among the seven sections of the second part of the questionnaire (Table 9), using the synthetic indexes created for each section and the Pearson correlation index, coefficients range from .099 (TK and PK) to .858 (TCK and TPK). There are ten significant correlations at the .01 level and three significant correlations at the .05 level. The strongest 155

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correlations appear between TCK and TPK (r = .858), between TPACK and TPK (r =. 793), and between TPACK and TCK (r = . 715). TK

CK

PK

PCK

TCK

TK

CK

.111

PK

-.099

.361**

PCK

.133

**

.448

.462**

TCK

.553**

.084

.188*

.265**

TPK

.430**

.137

.159

.207*

.858**

.085

*

**

TPACK

.537

**

.113

TPK

TPACK

.199

.715

– .793**

** The correlation is significant at the .01 level (2-tales). * The correlation is significant at the .05 level (2-tales).

Table 9

Correlation between the synthetic indexes of the seven sections of the second part of the questionnaire (PK, CK, TK, PCK, TCK, TPK, TPACK).

In order to understand if there could be significant differences in relation to the subject taught, an analysis of variance was carried out, creating the variable “subject” in order to include each teacher within one category and one only, according to the regulation in force (D.M. 354/1998). Foreign Language teachers — making no distinction between English and other UE languages — were aggregated, as well as teachers of Mathematics and Sciences, and teachers of Italian, History and Geography. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in TCK, F(8, 101) = 2.262 and p = .029; TPK, F(8, 101) = 3.364 and p = .002; TPACK, F(8, 101) = 3.136 and p = .003. The post-hoc analysis, conducted with the Bonferroni method, revealed significant differences in scores: – as regards TCK, between Physical Education teachers (M = 2.64) and Technology teachers (M = 4.23); – as regards TPK, between Physical Education teachers (M = 2.38) and Foreign Language (M = 3.69), Technology (M = 3.70), Music (M = 3.70) and Religion (M = 3.87) teachers; – as regards TPACK, between Physical Education teachers (M = 1.82) and Foreign Language (M = 2.97), Technology (M = 3.70) and learning support (M = 3.39) teachers. 156

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Physical Education teachers reported significantly lower scores than the group of colleagues with regard to the areas of investigation involving the knowledge of technology and its use in teaching practices. This difference might also be mirrored in the on-line platform the teachers can access, where there are thematic sections for all subjects except Physical Education, as well as in the reservations expressed by Physical Education teachers about the questionnaire, that emerged, for example, when they, filling it out, replaced the word “classroom” with the word “gymnasium”.16 Data analysis of the third part of the questionnaire The third part of the questionnaire is aimed at identifying, through two open-ended questions, teachers’ personal experiences on the integration of content, technologies and teaching approaches. The first question regards the teaching experiences in the classroom, and the second the training experiences. For each question, a description of context, leader, subject matter, technologies and teaching approaches adopted are required. As regards teachers’ experiences during the training, only 30% said they had assisted at the integration of content, technologies and teaching approaches. However, 73.6% of teachers appeared to have directly experienced activities in which they created or showed the integration of such factors in the classroom. The answers to both questions are often incomplete and not always pertinent, since teachers tend to focus primarily on the content tackled and the technology used, usually omitting the teaching approaches adopted, and rarely referring to the “meaning” of using a particular technology to achieve specific goals, to the effectiveness of the intervention in relation to those involved (students often are not even mentioned) and, ultimately, to the effective integration of content, technology and pedagogy. From the answers collected, some other interesting aspects emerge, including the instrumental use of technology as a teaching aid. For example, the IWB — which is the tool mentioned most frequently — is used for explaining topics, for individual and group exercises, for some tests, as well as to create concept maps to summarize a topic, to document it and then to reflect upon it. 16

Reservations emerged even during class councils, in which some physical Education teachers expressed scepticism about the usefulness of technology for their teaching subject.

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Intervention development The questionnaire filled out by teachers, as we have already seen, had the primary purpose of enabling them to assess their own knowledge personally, being directly involved in the TPACK framework, and to reflect upon its possible significance as a conceptual lens to analyse the process that goes along with the development of “better learning environments” and the integration of technology into instructional practices, and to guide self-observation and reflection on this process. On the basis of this first step and of the restitution of the questionnaire data on the on-line platform, the implementation of TPACK has started with the intent, following Shulman (1987, p. 13), to help teachers «to reason soundly about their teaching as well as to perform skilfully», taking into account that a «sound reasoning requires both a process of thinking about what they are doing and an adequate base of facts, principles, and experiences from which to reason». The implementation process was based on some assumptions: professional development should involve the entire class council, it should be common to all curricular areas, but also relate to a specific subject-matter or subject-matter groups; there is no «one best way to integrate technology into curriculum», and «integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject matter ideas in specific classroom contexts» (Koehler & Mishra, 2009, p. 62); the planning of a lesson or learning unit is always a «wicked problem», even for more experienced teachers, who must be able «to find the right combination of technologies, teaching approach, and instructional goals (considering that) there is no single solution that will apply uniformly across teachers, courses, districts, or approaches» (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 2). Among the possible ways in which TPACK can be implemented — individual, group, class — we have chosen the one proposed by Harris and Hofer (2009), which is structured on the «learning activity types», considered «as the building blocks for instructional planning» (Harris & Hofer, 2009, p. 100). As the two researchers point out, «learning activity types function as conceptual planning tools for teachers; they comprise a methodological shorthand that can be used to both build and describe plans for standards-based learning experiences» (Harris & Hofer, 2009, p. 100). 158

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Each activity type «captures what is most essential about the structure of a particular kind of learning action as it relates to what students do when engaged in that particular learning-related activity (e.g., “view a presentation;” “collect data;” “make predictions”). Selected learning activity types are combined to create lesson plans, projects and units» (Hofer & Harris, 2010, p. 3858). Harris and Hofer’s (2009) theoretical proposal envisages that, after exploring the technologies used in each curricular area and familiarizing with them, teachers begin to build their TPACK in a practical way, day by day, choosing the technology relevant to the learning activities, after having first defined goals and content. The approach based on «learning activity types» also pays particular attention to knowledge forms implied in the different types of activities, drawing a distinction between «knowledge building» and «knowledge expression», and in the latter case between «convergent knowledge expression» and «divergent knowledge expression» and, therefore, between convergent and divergent learning (Harris & Hofer, 2009). On the basis of this approach, we designed a grid to implement TPACK, which can be used by teachers to plan one or more learning units (or a single episode), considering the following categories, as shown in Annex 1: content of learning unit; learning goals; teaching approach/es; activity type; description of activity type; possible technologies; knowledge form/s; evaluation instruments. Our intent is that teachers — through the use (even better if jointly) of this grid and their collective reflections on it17 — develop a degree of expertise that allows them «to flexibly navigate the space» of TPACK in their «specific context» (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 10). Besides, the acquisition of this «new form of literacy» (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 10) should also allow teachers to take into consideration other models (e.g., Garrison, Anderson & Archer, 2000; Wang, 2008), and to strengthen their own autonomy to keep on developing their knowledge and to guide not only their present students of Cl@sses 2.0 Action, but also the many classrooms they will guide throughout their careers.

17

We also suggested the members of the class councils to develop shared reflections using a on-line forum in the reserved platform, but with little response.

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References Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2009). Epistemological and Methodological Issues for the Conceptualization, Development, and Assessment of ICT–TPCK: Advances in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). Computers and Education, 52 (1), 154-168. ANSAS (2009). Il progetto Cl@ssi 2.0. (http://mediarepository.indire.it/iko/uploads/allegati/ KPFUUN73.pdf). Borko, H., &. Putnam, T. (1996). Learning to Teach. In D.C. Berliner & R.C. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (pp. 673-708). New York: Macmillan. Clerici, R., Lamon, E., & Messina, L. (2009). Credenze, conoscenze e pratiche di educazione mediale di insegnanti della scuola primaria: una indagine esplorativa. In G. Domenici & R. Semeraro (Eds.), Le nuove sfide della ricerca didattica tra saperi, comunità sociali e culture (pp. 489-504). Roma: Monolite. Doukakis, S., Psaltidou, A., Stavraki, A., Adamopulos, N., Tsiotakis, P., & Stergou, S. (2010). Measuring the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) of In-Service Teacher of Computer Science who Teach Algorithms and Programming in Upper Secondary Education. In K. Fernstrom (Ed.), Readings in Technology and Education: Proceedings of ICICTE 2010 (pp. 442-452). 8-10 July 2010, Corfu, Greece. Fulton, K., Glenn, A., & Valdez, G. (2003). Three Preservice Programs Preparing Tomorrow’s Teachers to Use Technology: A Study in Partnerships. (http://www.ncrel.org/tech/ preservice). Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical Inquiry in a Text-Based Environment: Computer Conferencing in Higher Education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2 (2-3), 87-105. Graham, C.R., Burgoyne, N., Cantrell, P., Smith, L., ST. Clair, L., & Harris, R. (2009). TPACK Development in Science Teaching: Measuring the TPACK Confidence of Inservice Science Teachers. Tech-Trends, 53 (5), 70-79. Guzey, S.S., & Roehrig, G.H. (2009). Teaching Science with Technology: Case Studies of Science Teachers’ Development of Technology, Pedagogy, And Content Knowledge. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9 (1), 25-45. Harris, J., & Hofer, M. (2009). Instructional Planning Activity Types as Vehicles for Curriculum-Based TPACK Development. In C.D. Maddux (Ed.), Research Highlights in Technology and Teacher Education 2009 (pp. 99-108). Chesapeake, VA: Society for Information Technology in Teacher Education (SITE). Hofer, M., & Harris, J. (2010). Differentiating TPACK Development: Using Learning Activity Types with Inservice and Preservice Teachers. In D. Gibson & B. Dodge (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2010 (pp. 3857-3864). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Hughes, J. (2004). Technology Learning Principles for Preservice and In-service Teacher Education. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 4 (3), 345-362. Koehler, M.J. & Mishra, P. (2005). Teachers Learning Technology by Design. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 213), 94-102. Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPACK. In AACTE Committee on Innovation & Technology (Eds.), Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Educators (pp. 3-29). New York, NY: Routledge. 160

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integrating technology into instructional practices: a training research-intervention with in-service teachers

Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9 (1), 60-70. (http://www. citejournal.org/vol9/iss1/general/article1.cfm). Lawless, K.A., & Pellegrino, J.W. (2007). Professional Development in Integrating Technology into Teaching and Learning: Knowns, Unknowns, and Ways to Pursue Better Questions and Answers. Review of Educational Research, 77 (4), 575-614. Messina, L. (2002), Media e apprendimento: il contributo della ricerca psicopedagogica. Studium Educationis, 3, 593-615. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Framework for Integrating Technology in Teacher Knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108 (6), 1017-1054. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M.J. (2008). Introducing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. New York City, March 24-28, 2008. (http://mkoehler.educ.msu.edu/ blog/2008/03/24/aera-2008-presentation-introducing-tpack). MIUR (2009). Bando Cl@ssi 2.0. (http://www.istruzione.it/getOM?idfileentry=84334). MIUR (s.d.). Piano Scuola Digitale. (http://www.istruzione.it/web/istruzione/piano_scuola_digitale). Niederhauser, D.S., & Stoddart, T. (2001). Teachers’ Instructional Perspectives and Use of Educational Software. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 15-31. Niess, M.L., Ronau, R.N., Shafer, K.G., Driskell, S.O., Harper, S.R., Johnston, C., Browning, C., Őzgün-Koca, S.A., & Kersaint, G. (2009). Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards and Development Model. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9 (1), 4-24. Schmidt, D.A., Baran, E., Thompson, A.D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M.J., & Shin, T.S. (2009). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK): The Development and Validation of an Assessment Instrument for Preservice Teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42 (2), 123-149. Shin, T.S., Koehler, M.J., Mishra, P., Schmidt, D.A., Baran, E. & Thompson, A.D. (2009). Changing Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) through Course Experience. In I. Gibson, R. Weber, K. McFerrin, R. Carlsen & D.A. Willis (Eds.), Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference Book, 2009 (pp. 4152-4156). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Shulman, L.S. (1986). Those Who Understand: Knowledge Growth in Teaching. Educational Researcher, 15 (2), 4-14. Shulman, L.S. (1987). Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57 (1), 1-22. Sweeder, J.J., Bednar, M.R. & Ryan, F.J. (1999). Conjoining Product Technologies with Multiple Intelligence Theory: Rethinking Teacher Education. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 64), 273-282. Wang, Q.Y. (2008). A Generic Model for Guiding the Integration of ICT into Teaching and Learning. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45 (3), 411-419. Zhao, Y. (Ed.) (2003). What Should Teachers Know about Technology? Perspectives and Practices. Greenwich, CO: Information Age Publishing. 161

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REM â&#x20AC;&#x201C; vol. 3, no. 1, June 2011

ANNEX 1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; tpack implementation proposal (l. messina, padua university) On the basis of both the TpacK framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) and the research of Harris and Hofer (2009), summarized in the documents uploaded on the on-line platform, the TpacK implementation proposal concerns the planning of a learning unit (or more units, or a single episode) aimed at considering the interactions among content, learning goals, teaching approach, activity type, technology, knowledge forms and evaluation instruments, following the grid below. Planning of a Learning Unit (or Episode) Teacher

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

classroom ______________________________________________________________________________________________ School __________________________________________________________________________________________________

Evaluation instruments

Knowledge forms

Possible technologies

Description of activity

Activity type

Teaching approach/es

Learning goals

Content

Subject-matter ________________________________________________________________________________________

Etcetera (you can add as many lines as necessary) Key to entries content: indicate the topic you want to deal with in the curricular unit. learning goals: indicate the specific goals of the unit. Teaching approach/es: indicate the teaching approach/es you want to adopt (e.g., frontal lesson; cooperative learning; etc.). activity type: analytically specify all the activities in which you engage students (one per line). Description of activity: describe what each of the planned activities consists of (one per line, in correspondence with the type of activity). possible technologies: indicate the possible (traditional and new) technologies that can be used for each type of activity.

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integrating technology into instructional practices: a training research-intervention with in-service teachers

Knowledge forms: indicate what kind of knowledge can be developed through the activities chosen (e.g., construction of knowledge, expression of divergent visual knowledge, etc.). Evaluation instruments: indicate the assessment instruments deemed appropriate to verify the effectiveness of each type of activity. Brief remarks on the difficulties encountered in planning the learning unit (or episode)

Brief remarks on the difficulties encountered in carrying out the learning unit (or episode)

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Note to the authors Submissions are to be sent, as MS Word iles, to the email address of the Secretary: rem@educazionemediale.it Submission and writing-up guidelines:

To be suitable for publication in REM – Researches on Education and Media, submission should be sent electronically (as Word or RTF iles), at least 6 months prior to publication, at the address: rem@ educazionemediale.it Together with the submission, a letter should be sent, undersigned by each contributor, authorizing publication of the submitted material and guaranteeing the material’s originality and uniqueness; the letter should be sent to the address: Edizioni Centro Studi Erickson, via del Pioppeto 24, 38121 Trento. The authors should acquire all the needed permissions for the reproduction of copyrighted or previously published material. Galley copies will not be sent to the authors. The Journal acquires the literary property of the submitted articles and reproduction of the material, total or partial, is prohibited. Each article will be submitted anonymously, to two referees. Articles not composed following the editorial guidelines will not be considered. Each article should include:

1. on a separate sheet: full name, institution, address of the institution, position in the institution, e-mail, phone number of the author(s); 2. title of the submitted article; 3. abstract in English; 3. abstract in Italian (for the website); 4. keywords in English (2-5, separated by a semicolon), limited to the terms included in the European Education Thesaurus (http://redined.r020.com.ar/en/); 4. keywords in Italian (for the website) (2-5, separated by a semicolon), limited to the terms included in the European Education Thesaurus (http://redined.r020.com.ar/en/); 5. full text, subdivided in paragraphs and sub-paragraphs, titled but not numbered; 6. bibliography, following APA – American Psychological Association rules; 7. igures and tables (if any) progressively numbered, in their deinitive and graphically perfect version. Abstract and summary guidelines:

The maximum length for both summaries and abstracts is 200 words.

Article guidelines:

– the maximum length of articles – Studies and researches – is 12 pages, or about 30.000 characters, including spaces (and including graphics, tables, notes and bibliography); – footnotes, if any, should be progressively numbered, and should have only an explanatory function (no bibliographical notes); – the different paragraphs (with bold title, no numbering) and sub-paragraphs (with italic title, no numbering) should be clearly marked by leaving one line between title and text, and two lines between a paragraph and the following title; – to highlight text portions or foreign words, italics should be used, never bold or underscored; – quoted text from sources listed in the bibliography should follow the APA rules, such as in the following examples: (Bruner, 1986); or (Bruner, 1986, p. 11); or (Bruner, 1986, pp. 11-12); or (Tufte, Rasmussen & Christensen, 2005); or (Mayer et al., 2005), or (Ardizzone & Rivoltella, 2003). – iconographic documentation (igures, graphs and other documents to be included as originals) should be provided in original form (no photocopies); images extracted by newspapers or other low-quality sources should be avoided. Digital images (supports: 100 MB ZIP or cd-rom) should conform to these characteristics (the printed image will have the same size of the provided image): line drawings (in black and white) 600 to 1200 dpi resolution; grayscale images 300 dpi resolution;

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in any case the images, as also the tables, must be referred to in the body of the main text, provided with legends and progressively numbered. The editorial board reserves the right of slightly modifying the placement of images for printing purposes. As images are often copyrighted, it will be the author(s) responsibility to acquire written permission to reproduce both images and material which is part of previous publications, or not owned by them. In the case of pictures portraying people, the author(s) will have to obtain publication permission from the subject(s). Quoted texts must be listed in bibliography following strictly the standards set by APA Publication Manual (http://www.apastyle.org/) – by alphabetic order of author’s names, and in chronological order (from the oldest to the most recent publication) where works by the same author are concerned. Depending on the kind of work quoted, bibliographical reference should strictly follow these models: a) Journal articles: Messina, L. (2007). Valutazione dei prodotti mediali: il “collaudo” di Gnam! Il cibo in gioco, CADMO, XV (1), 87-114. b) Journal Articles in Press: Ricciardi, M., & Bossi, V. (in press). Convergenza tecnologica e creatività digitale. Economia dei servizi. c) Books: Rivoltella, P.C. (2006). Screen generation. Milano: Vita e Pensiero. d) Italian version of a foreign book: – if in the main text, only author and date are quoted: Novak, J.D. (1988). Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept Maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (Novak, J.D., L’apprendimento signiicativo: le mappe concettuali per creare e usare la conoscenza. Trento: Erickson, 2001). – if in the main text author, date and page(s) of the Italian edition are quoted: Novak, J.D. (2001). L’apprendimento signiicativo: le mappe concettuali per creare e usare la conoscenza (pp. 0-0). Trento: Erickson. (Novak, J.D., Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept Maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988). – if in the main text author, date and page(s) of the foreign edition are quoted: Novak, J. D. (1988). Learning, creating, and using knowledge: Concept Maps as facilitative tools in schools and corporations (pp. 0-0). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (Novak, J.D., L’apprendimento signiicativo: le mappe concettuali per creare e usare la conoscenza, Trento: Erickson, 2001). e) Books «edited by»: Ricciardi, M. (Ed.) (2008). Interfacce della memoria. Napoli: ScriptaWeb. Rivoltella, P.C. (Ed.) (2008). Digital literacy: Tools and methodologies for information society. Hershey: IGI. f) Contributions to a collection or anthology: Limone, P. (2006). Videogiochi e pedagogia. Training level ed applicazioni didattiche. In T. GrangeSergi, & M.G. Onorati (Eds.), La sida della comunicazione all’educazione. Prospettive di media education (pp. 129-142). Milano: Franco Angeli. g) Congress papers: Galliani, L., & De Waal, P. (2005, June), Learning face to face, in action and on line: Integrating model of lifelong learning. Paper presented at Eden Annual Conference, Bringing e-learning close to lifelong learning and working life: A new period of uptake, Finland, Helsinki. Messina, L., Personeni, F., Tabone, S., & Manio, S. (2008). Lello & Lella international research project. In L. Gómez Chova, D. Martí Belenguer, & I. Candel Torres (Eds.), INTED2008 Proceedings. International Technology, Education and Development Conference (pp. 216-224). Valencia: IATED. h) Quotes from web sites: Rivoltella, P.C. (2006). Media Education e ricerca. (http://www.ilmediario.it/cont/articolo.php?artic olo=313&canale=Terza&nav=1).

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Edizioni Erickson – libri e software Alberto Agosti e Mario Guidorizzi

CINEMA A SCUOLA 50 ilm per bambini e adolescenti € 20,50 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 16,40 Il libro propone un percorso didattico, da attuare nella scuola primaria e secondaria di primo grado, che sfrutta la visione di ilm d’autore per far rilettere i ragazzi su una serie di temi. È organizzato in schede, ognuna delle quali presenta un ilm, raggruppate pp. 240 – cm 17x24 in base all’argomento trattato, in modo da creare una sorta di antologia del cinema. In ogni scheda si trovano un riassunto della trama, spunti di rilessione e le indicazioni metodologiche per il lavoro in classe. In questo modo il singolo insegnante o il gruppo di docenti potranno decidere se un determinato testo ilmico sia adatto al contesto scolastico al quale appartengono, anche in considerazione dell’età degli allievi e delle speciiche esigenze di ordine didattico.

Lucia Dongilli

FIABE E FAVOLE PER IMPARARE L’INGLESE CON LA LIM (KIT LIBRO + CD-ROM) Attività di comprensione, grammatica e lessico € 52,00 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 41,60 Il CD-ROM contiene 2 ambienti con 13 racconti (5 iabe e 8 favole). Ogni racconto prevede la narrazione della storia con tavole illustrate, l’audio e i sottotitoli (tutto in inglese), una versione ridotta della storia in forma testuale e audio, esercizi e giochi di approfondimento delle tematiche grammaticali, semantiche e lessicali affrontate. La presenza di pulsanti d’aiuto e suggerimenti offre la possibilità di fruirne a più livelli, sia come rinforzo allo studio curricolare che come veriica delle conoscenze acquisite. Obiettivo principale dell’opera è favorire la comprensione di frasi semplici e brevi testi, arricchire il vocabolario con parole utili, fare proprie alcune strutture linguistiche fondamentali, esercitarsi all’ascolto e alla corretta pronuncia della lingua inglese. Vai su www.erickson.it per consultare il catalogo completo, essere aggiornato sulle ultime novità e fare acquisti diretti

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Antonio Calvani, Antonio Fini e Maria Ranieri

VALUTARE LA COMPETENZA DIGITALE Prove per la scuola primaria e secondaria € 18,50 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 14,80 C’è crescente consenso sul fatto che il tema della competenza digitale acquisterà un ruolo sempre più importante per la scuola di questo nuovo millennio; tuttavia, quando ci si chiede come gli insegnanti possano intervenire didatticamente e valutare i risultati in questo ambito, ci si imbatte in una quasi totale assenza di strumenti di valupp. 200 – cm 17x24 tazione pedagogicamente signiicativi e operativamente applicabili nella scuola. Il libro propone una serie di prove, divise per livello scolastico, con l’obiettivo di valutare la capacità degli alunni e degli studenti di utilizzare in modo corretto e consapevole le nuove tecnologie. Le prove sono state ideate nello spirito suggerito dalle Raccomandazioni sulle Key Competences per il Lifelong Learning del Parlamento e del Consiglio Europeo. Il volume si propone non solo di attrezzare gli insegnanti con una strumentazione indispensabile per valutare l’eficacia della loro azione formativa ma anche di favorire uno spostamento delle attività tecnologico didattiche da una accentuazione prevalentemente tecnocentrica verso inalità pedagogicamente rilevanti.

i a h mo voci nuove. c r e C EricksonLIVE ha già dato voce a tanti insegnanti, educatori, formatori, psicologi, genitori, operatori sociali, medici, studenti. Hai anche tu un progetto da condividere? Contatta EricksonLIVE! Selezioniamo, pubblichiamo e divulghiamo descrizioni di buone prassi, sperimentazioni educative, racconti di storie, esperienze di vita, rilessioni e saggi. Le tue esperienze meritano di essere condivise. Per saperne di più: www.ericksonlive.it E-mail: live@erickson.it

Vivi. Scrivi. Pubblica. Condividi. La nuova linea editoriale di Erickson che dà voce alle tue esperienze.

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Ivan Sciapeconi e Eva Pigliapoco

PERCORSI DI SCRITTURA CON LA LIM 1 (KIT LIBRO + CD-ROM) Costruire e analizzare testi e storie in gruppo € 42,00 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 33,60 Il CD-ROM, risultato di una sperimentazione durata 5 anni, contiene 4 applicativi per attività di apprendimento cooperativo nei primi due anni della scuola primaria. Attività, queste, che non si ispirano al classico modello del «clicca sulla risposta giusta», ma offrono all’insegnante una sorta di scaffolding all’interno del quale operare. Nello speciico: Analizzare: per costruire e analizzare frasi e brevi testi, allenare le strategie cognitive e potenziare la correttezza sintattica; Sillabare: per consolidare, in un ambiente di apprendimento integrato, le abilità legate alla lingua scritta; Raccontare: per ragionare sulla correttezza sintattica delle frasi, avviare l’analisi logica e stimolare una rilessione avanzata sulla lingua; Comporre: per consolidare, in ambiente cooperativo, le competenze legate alla scrittura di un testo. Il software contiene inoltre dei ilmati-video con dei tutorial e delle lezioni in aula in cui vengono spiegati nella pratica i possibili usi degli ambienti e la loro speciica declinazione didattica.

Camillo Bortolato

ANALISI GRAMMATICALE E LOGICA CON LA LIM (KIT LIBRO + CD-ROM) Strumenti e attività per l’apprendimento intuitivo con il metodo analogico € 42,00 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 33,60 Il CD-ROM è strutturato in due parti distinte, Analisi grammaticale e Analisi logica. Ciascuna di esse contiene lo strumento digitale, cioè la Striscia e un ricco apparato di esercizi graduali di rinforzo e allenamento. Il software contiene inoltre una serie di ilmati in cui vengono spiegati con esempi pratici i possibili usi degli strumenti e la loro speciica declinazione didattica. Il libro presenta una parte introduttiva sull’apprendimento intuitivo e sul metodo analogico applicato all’analisi grammaticale e logica. Spiega poi l’importanza di utilizzare strumenti di sintesi che aiutano l’alunno a visualizzare le tappe fondamentali dell’apprendimento. Vengono presentati gli strumenti e gli esercizi di rinforzo e approfondimento e seguono delle schede operative. Sfoglia gratuitamente alcune pagine del libro su www.erickson.it

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Tullio De Mauro e Dario Ianes (a cura di)

GIORNI DI SCUOLA Pagine di diario di chi ci crede ancora € 15,00 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 12,00 «In questo momento chi ci crede ancora sta entrando in aula con una nuova lezione in testa, si sta confrontando con i colleghi durante l’intervallo, sta scrivendo sulla LIM, sta organizzando un gruppo cooperativo, sta dando spazio e voce ai pensieri e alle emozioni degli alunni, sta preparando un corso di recupero, sta rilettendo sulla propria giornata pp. 144 – cm 15x21 tornando a casa in macchina.» Questo testo corale raccoglie le pagine di un «diario immaginario» scritto da chi, nella scuola, insegna o lavora. Un volume che vuole essere un segno di stima e di riconoscimento, un messaggio di iducia e di speranza per chi nella scuola crede ancora.

Rocco Quaglia e Claudio Longobardi

IL COLLOQUIO DIDATTICO Comunicazione e relazione eficace con le famiglie degli alunni € 18,50 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 14,80 Questo libro è stato pensato per offrire agli insegnanti uno strumento capace di favorire una più precisa conoscenza dell’allievo, della sua storia e delle sue dificoltà, attraverso le informazioni che il colloquio con il genitore può comunicare. Il testo si propone inoltre di promuovere nei genitori una maggiore disponibilità pp. 136 – cm 17x24 verso la vita scolastica del iglio, attraverso l’utilizzo del colloquio inteso non solo come momento di confronto con i docenti ma anche come mezzo per acquisire, a propria volta, una conoscenza più reale delle sue competenze e dei suoi interessi. Nell’ambito della collaborazione scuola-famiglia, Il colloquio didattico si rivolge pertanto, in modo prioritario, a insegnanti e a genitori per la creazione di alleanze e azioni educative eficaci dirette alla formazione degli allievi-igli.

Prezzi agevolati e libri in omaggio per chi si abbona a più di una rivista! Trovi tutte le info su www.erickson.it

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Maria Cristina Strocchi

PROMUOVERE RELAZIONI POSITIVE IN CLASSE Migliorare la comunicazione e prevenire il bullismo € 17,00 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 13,60 Sia il bullo che la vittima hanno in comune l’incapacità di comunicare emozioni e bisogni: il primo usa l’aggressività, il secondo reprime i suoi bisogni, ma in entrambi si creano stress, frustrazione e dificoltà relazionali. Quindi uno degli strumenti per prevenire tale problema è quello di insegnare in dalla scuola primaria le tecniche di comunicazione eficace dei bisogni e delle emozioni. Questo libro propone un pp. 120 – cm 17x24 programma adatto alla scuola primaria e alla secondaria di primo e secondo grado. Con la collaborazione dello psicologo, gli insegnanti potranno strutturare delle sessioni per l’apprendimento delle abilità di comunicazione assertiva, nell’ambito delle attività didattiche. Il progetto è stato sperimentato in alcune classi primarie e in alcune scuole superiori con ottimi risultati.

Luigi Tuffanelli e Dario Ianes

LA GESTIONE DELLA CLASSE Autorappresentazione, autocontrollo, comunicazione e progettualità € 20,00 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 16,00 Si fanno molti discorsi sulla scuola, pochi sul mestiere di insegnante. Come si gestisce una classe? Fra alunni che cambiano, nuovi bisogni e riforme mai fatte o malfatte, la questione è più che mai complessa. Prendendo spunto da un dialogo fra tre insegnanti con identità e punti di pp. 232 – cm 17x24 vista differenti, il libro analizza le variabili cruciali del lavoro di docente, e propone per gli insegnanti strumenti di rilessione e schede di autovalutazione. In particolare, i temi affrontati nel manuale sono il ruolo e la responsabilità sociale dell’insegnante, i problemi di stress e di autostima, l’autorevolezza, la programmazione e i diversi modi di fare lezione, le dinamiche di classe e le strategie per governarle, i saperi, le abilità e le competenze, la valutazione degli studenti e le relazioni che strutturano la funzione docente. Vai su www.erickson.it per consultare il catalogo completo, essere aggiornato sulle ultime novità e fare acquisti diretti

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John G. Borkowski e Nithi Muthukrishna

DIDATTICA METACOGNITIVA Come insegnare strategie eficaci di apprendimento € 7,00 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 5,60 Il volume propone un importante saggio di John G. Borkowski e Nithi Muthukrishna, che rappresenta ancora oggi un punto di riferimento sia per gli studiosi sia per gli insegnanti che vogliano introdurre l’insegnamento metacognitivo in classe. Fin dai suoi esordi, la psicologia cognitiva ha inseguito l’ambizione di costruire un modello organico, che sapesse dare conto delle differenti dimensioni della persona, inendo però, il più delle pp. 64 – cm 12x19 volte, per soffermarsi su aspetti circoscritti delle componenti metacognitive. Borkowski e i suoi collaboratori sono invece riusciti a costruire un modello metacognitivo globale capace di offrire una visione di insieme del sistema integrato emozioni-motivazioni-metacognizione-cognizione. Il testo, riproposto in ragione della sua forte attualità, si rivolge quindi a psicologi, pedagogisti, insegnanti e educatori come ausilio per potenziare le capacità cognitive degli studenti, creare un clima di classe positivo ed elaborare un modello di insegnamento eficace.

Dario Ianes, Heidrun Demo e Francesco Zambotti

GLI INSEGNANTI E L’INTEGRAZIONE Atteggiamenti, opinioni e pratiche € 10,00 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 8,00 In che senso oggi è necessario parlare onestamente di integrazione e cercare di comprenderla a fondo, anche scavando sotto la supericie della retorica ministeriale e del «vogliamoci bene»? Cosa ne pensano realmente gli insegnanti? Quali sono i loro atteggiamenti e le loro opinioni? Quali sono i pp. 248 – cm 12x19 beneici per l’alunno con disabilità e per i compagni di classe? Quanti modi diversi esistono di fare integrazione quotidianamente nelle scuole italiane? Come inluiscono sulla vita sociale a scuola? Siamo davvero pronti a rigenerare profondamente questa meravigliosa realtà della scuola italiana?

Sfoglia gratuitamente alcune pagine del libro su www.erickson.it

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Beniamino Brocca

GOCCE DI PEDAGOGIA Per l’istruzione e la formazione € 16,00 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 12,80

Il cambiamento che sta investendo la scuola e la società è sempre più evidente, ed è necessario saper rispondere a questa situazione con una preparazione adeguata. In tale prospettiva, il libro raccoglie e discute alcune «gocce di pedagogia» presentate in 5 aree tematiche — pensare, conoscere, risvegliare, insegnare e progettare — che hanno lo scopo di fornire agli insegnanti gli strumenti per promuovere negli alunni lo «spirito pp. 205 – cm 13x24 critico», antidoto allo zapping mediatico; per scommettere sulla cooperazione, per attenuare gli effetti negativi della rivalità; per valorizzare le discipline, non concepite come cumulo di conoscenze; per procedere verso i «fondamentali», che hanno come perno gli studi umanistici; per incrementare il rispetto per tutto ciò che è esistente e vivente; e, infine, per suscitare la capacità della meraviglia contro l’apatia e la sfiducia serpeggianti in molti istituti.

Elena Grandi

SE FACCIO, RICORDO Mediatori per l’organizzazione della memoria € 15,00 – prezzo per gli abbonati € 12,00 Questo libro si propone di costruire un luogo adatto in cui esercitare la funzione mnemonica, utilizzando quattro diversi mediatori trasversali a tutte le fasce di età: la pittura sulle scatole, che permette di suddividere lo spazio e organizzare la memoria, ordinando il materiale all’interno del laboratorio; il disegno, che libera attraverso il segno l’espressione di sé; la creta, materiale che permette di lasciare la propria impronta personale; la fotografia, mezzo per memorizzare i segni pp. 215 – cm 12x24 lasciati durante le attività. A supporto di tali mediatori, gli studi sui processi cognitivi, la funzione del gioco per lo sviluppo e la crescita, i concetti di persona e memoria nella riflessione sociologica e la fenomenologia dell’invecchiamento costituiscono la cornice su cui si innestano le riflessioni inerenti al «fare» e al «ricordare».

Prezzi agevolati e libri in omaggio per chi si abbona a più di una rivista! Trovi tutte le info su www.erickson.it

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Centro Studi Erickson – Formazione online Summer School – Corsi online Anche per l’estate 2011, Erickson propone alcuni corsi online intensivi, con durata di circa un mese, su diverse tematiche legate ai Disturbi Speciici dell’Apprendimento.

Martedì 12 luglio 2011 Tecnologie e strategie per compensare i disturbi speciici dell’apprendimento Autori: Flavio Fogarolo (coordinatore), Maria Rita Cortese, Angiolella Dalla Valle, Paolo Rizzato e Caterina Scapin

Martedì 12 luglio 2011 Disturbo speciico dell’apprendimento (DSA) della letto-scrittura: caratteristiche generali e approccio didattico – corso base Autrici: Giorgia Sanna e Monja Tait

Martedì 26 luglio 2011 Disturbo speciico dell’apprendimento (DSA) della letto-scrittura – corso avanzato Autrice: Susi Cazzaniga

Martedì 26 luglio 2011 Le dificoltà di apprendimento della matematica – corso base Autrici: Germana Englaro e Martina Pedron

ACCEDERE E PARTECIPARE AI CORSI ONLINE È FACILE! Unico requisito fondamentale per iscriversi a un corso online Erickson è avere una casella di posta elettronica (indirizzo e-mail) e un computer con l’accesso a internet. Dopo aver inviato la scheda di iscrizione (scaricabile anche dal sito www.ericksonformazione.it/corsi) e il pagamento al Centro Studi Erickson, il primo giorno di corso, verranno spedite tramite posta elettronica una password e una username per l’accesso. Ogni corso ha una data di inizio e una data conclusiva, oltre la quale non sarà più possibile accedere ai materiali. Costi e modalità di iscrizione Il costo previsto per i corsi base è di € 160,00 + IVA 20% (€ 192,00), mentre per quelli avanzati è di € 180,00 + IVA 20% (€ 216,00). Il costo del corso

«Tecnologie e strategie per compensare i DSA» è di € 195,84 + IVA 20% (€ 235,00) e comprende il lettore vocale ALFa READER. Inviare la scheda d’iscrizione completa dei dati al Centro Studi Erickson, Via del Pioppeto 24, Fraz. Gardolo – 38121 Trento o tramite fax al numero 0461 956733, allegando la fotocopia della ricevuta di versamento. Per informazioni: Michela Mosca Centro Studi Erickson Via del Pioppeto 24 Fraz. Gardolo 38121 Trento Tel. 0461 950747 – Fax 0461 956733 E-mail: formazione@erickson.it

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8

2011

Ladell’integrazione Qualità °Convegno internazionale

Rimini, 18-19-20 novembre

scolastica e sociale Andrea Canevaro Dario Ianes Direzione scientifica

Rim 18- ini

1

nove 9-20 mbr Seg e na l in ag e dat end e a!

L’APPUNTAMENTO PIÙ IMPORTANTE PER CHI SI OCCUPA DI EDUCAZIONE IN ITALIA

www.erickson.it/qualitaintegrazionescolastica

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Finito di stampare nel mese di giugno 2011 da legoprint â&#x20AC;&#x201C; lavis (TN) per conto delle Edizioni centro Studi Erickson S.p.a. Trento

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SPECIAL ISSUE: ICT AND TEACHER EDUCATION ICT and teacher education to build new learning environments Davide Parmigiani Section one: Methodological and theoretical essays Development group as context for expansive learning? About attempts to integrate ICT in teacher education Sirkku Männikkö-Barbutiu Media education and healthy nutrition: A training experience with teachers and students Laura Messina and Elena Grassi Section two: Reports of empirical studies and surveys Enhancing pre-service teachers’ knowledge building discourse with a hybrid learning environment Stéphane Allaire, Thérèse Laferrière and Fernand Gervais Developing ICT teachers’ training on a situated competence profile Elena Boldrini and Alberto Cattaneo The relationship between attitude, thinking and activity of students in an e-learning course Rivka Wadmany, Rikki Rimor and Einat Rozner Using internet information: Undergraduate teachers’ critical competencies Patrick Giroux, Mathieu Gagnon, Stéphanie Lessard and Josiane Cornut Integrating technology into instructional practices: A training research-intervention with in-service teachers Laura Messina and Sara Tabone

Edizioni Erickson Via del Pioppeto 24 – 38121 TRENTO Subscriptions: +39 0461 950690

Subscriptions print & online

ISSN 2037-0830

€ 32,00 individuals € 37,00 institutions € 25,00 students € 56,00 foreign

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REM vol.3, n.1 June 2011  

Research on Education and Media. Six monthly journal