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VOLUMES ISSUE Get people to connect real books ISSUE 01 SPRING 2021


Contents


01 02

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Why We Need Printed Books Are Paper Books Really Disappearing

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Why We Don’t Read, Revisited?

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Physical books still outsell e-books, and here’s why

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Independent Bookstores and Books Organization What is an Artists’s Book?

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Printed Matter

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Chronicle Books

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City Lights Booksellers & Publishers

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Books Kinokuniya

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San Francisco Center for the Book

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Letterform Archive

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AIGA 50 Books and Covers Introduction

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Alpine Cooking

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Albert Oehlen

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American Illustration 38

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Brazilian Drag Superstars in Bolsonaro’s Era

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Contemporary Architectures in Paraguay

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Designs for Different Futures

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Dias exemplares

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Futures: A Science Fiction Series

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Impertinentes • 14 livros de Gustavo Piqueira • 2012-2018

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Made in Fukushima

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Remy Jungerman. Where the River Runs

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Signal. Image. Architecture.

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Y/our future is now

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Used Source

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01 Why We Need Read Printed Books?

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Are Paper Books Really Disappearing? If the printed word becomes a thing of the past, it may affect how we think. Are printed books destined to eventually join the ranks of clay tablets, scrolls and typewritten pages?

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Chapter 01 | Why We Need Printed Books

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When Peter James published his novel Host on two floppy disks in 1993, he was ill-prepared for the “venomous backlash” that would follow. Journalists and fellow writers berated and condemned him; one reporter even dragged a PC and a generator out to the beach to demonstrate the ridiculousness of this new form of reading. “I was front-page news of many newspapers around the world, accused of killing the novel,” James told pop.edit. lit. “[But] I pointed out that the novel was already dying at an alarming rate without my assistance.” Shortly after Host’s debut, James also issued a prediction: that e-books would spike in popularity once they became as easy and enjoyable to read as printed books. What was a novelty in the 90s, in other words, would eventually mature to the point that it threatened traditional books with extinction. Two decades later, James’ vision is well on its way to being realised. That e-books have surged in popularity in recent years is not news, but where 10

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they are headed – and what effect this will ultimately have on the printed word – is unknown. Are printed books destined to eventually join the ranks of clay tablets, scrolls and typewritten pages, to be displayed in collectors’ glass cases with other curious items of the distant past? And if all of this is so, should we be concerned? Answers to these questions do not come easily, thanks to the variability in both e-reading trends and in research findings on the effects (or lack thereof) that digital reading has on us. What we do know, according to a survey conducted last year by Pew Research, is that half of American adults now own a tablet or e-reader, and that three in 10 read an e-book in 2013. Although printed books remain the most popular means of reading, over the past decade e-books have made a valiant effort at catching up. Pinpointing the emergence of the first digital book is challenging, however, mostly because people’s definition of

what constitutes an e-book varies. In the 1970s, Project Gutenberg began publishing electronic text files, and books written in HyperCard followed in the 80s and 90s, pioneered by companies such as Voyager and Eastgate Systems. Later programs and devices for accessing early e-books included the Palm Pilot, Microsoft Reader and Sony Reader. “Microsoft and the Palm experiments around the turn of the century began to really sort of make e-books happen, although not in a substantial, commercial way,” says Mike Shatzkin, founder and CEO of the Idea Logical Company, a consultancy group in New York City specialising in publishing’s digital transformation. Indeed, despite the hand wringing that Jones’ Host – said by some to be the first digital novel – caused in 1993, publishers weren’t too concerned. “In 1992, I spoke to CEOs at probably five of the seven major publishing companies, and they all said ‘This has nothing to do with us. People will never read on screens’,” says Robert Stein, founder of


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the Institute for the Future of the Book and co-founder of Voyager and the Criterion Collection. In 2007, with Amazon’s release of the Kindle, that attitude abruptly changed. Almost immediately, the device began causing palpitations in the publishing industry. “Amazon had the clout to go to publishers and say, ‘This is serious. We want your books,’” Shatzkin says. “And because Amazon is Amazon, they also didn’t really care as much about profit on every unit sale as they did for lifetime customer value, so they were happy to sell their e-books for cheap.” From 2008 to 2010 e-book sales skyrocketed, jumping up to 1,260%, the New York Times reports. Adding fuel to the e-book fire, Nook debuted, as did the iPad, which was released alongside the iBooks Store. “By that time, the publishing industry had lost all possible ability to regain any initiative and momentum,” Stein says. In 2011, as Borders Books declared bankruptcy, e-books’ popularity continued to steadily rise – though not exponentially, as it turns out. or the past two years, there has been a shift. According to the Association of American Publishers, e-book sales, which constitute about 20% of the book-buying market, have plateaued, and Pew’s newest data, collected in March and April this year, also corroborates the fact that e-book readership has steadied over the past year. What’s more, the Times indicates that the first few months of 2015 actually saw a decline in the number of e-books sold. (Pew’s data, however, also show that the number of Americans who read at least one print book fell from 69 to 63% from 2014 to 2015.) “[The publishing] guys are all sort of breathing a sigh 12

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of relief, saying ‘Whew, half our market doesn’t like reading on screens,’” Stein says. “The problem is that they’re reading the tea leaves incorrectly.” While no one can say with certainty what the future holds for paper books, Stein believes that what is a plateau now will, at some point, return to a steep incline. “We’re in a transitional period,” he says. “The affordances of screen reading will continuously improve and expand, offering people a reason to switch to screens.” Stein imagines, for example, that future forms of books might be developed not by conventional publishers but by the gaming industry. He also envisions that the distinction between writer and reader will be blurred by a social reading experience in which authors and consumers can digitally interact with each other to discuss any passage, sentence or line. Indeed, his latest project, Social Book, allows members to insert comments directly into digital book texts and is already used by teachers at several high schools and universities to stimulate discussions. “For my grandchildren, the idea that reading is something you do by yourself will seem arcane,” he says. “Why would you want to read by yourself if you can have access to the ideas of others you know and trust, or to the insights of people from all over the world?” Books themselves, however, likely won’t disappear entirely, at least not anytime soon. Like woodblock printing, hand-processed film and folk weaving, printed pages may assume an artisanal or aesthetic value. Books meant not to be read but to be looked at—art catalogues or coffee table collections – will likely remain in print form for longer as well. “Print will exist, but it will be in a

different realm and will appeal to a very limited audience, like poetry does today,” Stein says. “However, the locus of intellectual discourse is going to move away from print.” “I think printed books just for plain old reading will, in 10 years from now, be unusual,” Shatzkin adds. “Not so unusual that a kid will say, ‘Mommy, what’s that?’ but unusual enough that on the train you’ll see one or two people reading something printed, while everyone else is reading off of a device.” Shatzkin does believe, however, that the eventual and total demise of print “is inevitable,” though such a day won’t arrive for perhaps 50 to 100 or more years. “It will get harder and harder to understand why anyone would print something that’s heavy, hard to ship and not customisable,” he says. “I think there will come a point where print just doesn’t make a lot of sense. Frankly, I reached that point years ago for books that you just read.” While some might mourn the aesthetic loss of the printed book, is there anything else we risk forfeiting should print disappear entirely? Some research indicates that there is cause for concern. “The reality is that there is great anxiety that the book might disappear,” says Maryanne Wolf, director of the Center for Reading and Language Research at Tufts University in Massachusetts, and author of Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain. “But people like myself have good reason to hope that that will not be true, for readers’ sakes.”

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According to Wolf and others’ research findings, electronic reading can negatively impact the way the brain responds to text, including reading comprehension, focus and the ability to maintain attention to details like plot and sequence of events. Research roughly indicates that print falls on one end of the reading spectrum (the most immersive) and that online text occurs at the other end (the most distracting). Kindle reading seems to fall somewhere in the middle. “A lot of people are worried that our ability to enter into the story is changing,” Wolf says. “My worry is that we’ll have a short-circuited reading brain, excellent for gathering information but not necessarily for forming critical, analytical the deep reading skills.” The field, however, is in its infancy, and findings about the negative impacts of e-reading are far from chiseled in stone. Indeed, some studies have produced opposite results, including that e-reading does not impact comprehension or that it can even enhance it, 14

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especially for readers with dyslexia. Findings are also mixed for how digital reading affects children. Illustrated children’s e-books often include the enhancements, including movement, music and sound. But the effect these additions have on reading varies depending on how they are executed. If done well, “they can be a kind of guide for children,” says Adriana Bus, a professor at Leiden University in the Netherlands who conducts research into reading, and reading problems. In several experiments involving more than 400 kindergarten, Bus and her colleagues found that kids who read animated e-books understood the story better and learned more vocabulary than those who read static ones. “For young children, written language is often difficult, but animated pictures can help them understand more difficult parts of the text,” she says. But for all the worries about e-books changing the way we comprehend the written word and interact with one

another, Wolf points out that “never before have we had such a democratisation of knowledge made possible.” While too much time on devices might mean problems for children and adults in places like Europe and the US, for those in developing countries, they may be a godsend, Wolf says—“the most important mechanism for the giving literacy.”In light of this, she hopes that we continue to maintain a “bi-literate” society —one that values both the digital and printed word. The recent uptick in the number of independent bookstores, at least in the US, gives her encouragement that others, too, are recognising the value of print. “A full reading brain circuit is one of the most important contributions to the intellectual development of our species,” she says. “Anything that threatens that should be a matter of great vigilance and scrutiny.”


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Why We Don’t Read, Revisited

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A little more than a decade ago, I wrote an article for The New Yorker about American reading habits, which a number of studies then indicated might be in decline. I was worried about what a shift to “secondary orality”—a sociological term for a post-literate culture— might do to America’s politics. “In a culture of secondary orality, we may be less likely to spend time with ideas we disagree with,” I wrote. I suspected that people might become less inclined to do fact checking on their own; “forced to choose between conflicting stories,” they would “fall back on hunches.” I’ll go out on a limb and say that I don’t think that I got this part wrong. But I’ve often wondered whether I was right about the underlying trend, too. Were Americans in fact reading less back then? And are they reading even less today? Whenever I happen across a news article on the topic, I wonder if I’m about to find out whether I was Cassandra or Chicken Little.

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In assessing reports about reading the habits, I keep in mind a couple of lessons from the research that I did a decade ago. First, although American adults seem to get a kick out of worrying about whether American children are reading enough, this is an enormous waste of time in the world in which we happen to live. Children who have any hope of getting into or remaining in the middle class are under great social and economic pressure to excel at academics, and, of all Americans, they are perhaps the least likely to change their reading habits of their own volition. Even the amount of pleasure reading they do seems likely to reflect the social pressure they’re under— not where America in general is headed. Second, in studies of reading habits, the gold standard is asking participants to report hour by hour how they spent a particular day. It’s pretty much useless to ask how many books somebody read last year, because almost nobody remembers,


and many exaggerate, to seem smarter. At the time I wrote my article, the best American data came from a time-use study begun by the U.S. Department of Labor in 2003, statistics that were then still only a few years old, and inconclusive. In January, however, a Times article about American sleep habits alerted me to the fact that the Department of Labor’s American Time Use Survey is alive, well, and all grownup now. It now has fourteen years of data, series upon series of which is easily accessible through its home page, and also through a Labor Department data portal. Another look at American reading habits seemed timely. ll cut to the chase: between 2003 and 2016, the amount of time that the average American devoted to reading for personal interest on a daily basis dropped from 0.36 hours to 0.29 hours. It would seem that reading in America has declined even further in the past decade. But statistics can be tricky, so let’s kick the tires a little.

One hazard of statistics is the contribution of “compositional effects.” Suppose a survey finds that the average American today eats a third fewer French fries than he did a decade ago. Oddly, this wouldn’t necessarily mean that any Americans have changed their Frenchfry-eating habits. It might be, instead, that the “composition” of the American population has changed. Maybe there are fewer men and more women in America than there used to be, and maybe men tend to eat more French fries. In that case, the average Frenchfry consumption would drop even if the typical man and the typical woman continued eating a number of French fries no different from the number they had eaten from the time immemorial. It’s possible that a compositional effect explains the decline of reading in America. Maybe, for example, as more women have entered the workforce, their full-time employment has left them with less leisure to read. It’s easy to check such a hypothesis by parsing the data from the American Time Use Survey according to gender. Women read more than men, it turns out, but time spent reading has declined steadily for both genders. If you break down the data according to employment status, meanwhile, you see that the unemployed do read more, but they, part-timers, and full-timers all read steadily less as the decade went forward. The same applies when you break down the data by race and ethnicity or by age; you see differences in the amount of reading, but a decline is taking place in almost every subgroup.

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Perhaps whatever is eating away at reading is also eating away at socializing. More and more people are taking part in “game playing” and “computer use for leisure, excluding games,” even as the time that devotees spend on the activities holds steady.

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A less explored cause might be the recession. America’s middle class is shrinking, and the proportion of Americans in the labor force is lower than it has been since the nineteen-seventies. Maybe people read less when they have less money? From a breakdown of reading by income quartile, it turns out that the rich read more—but they read less and less every year. Americans in the lowest income quartile did manage to read more in 2016 than they did in 2003—a rare trend—but that’s probably a dead-cat bounce; the 2003 number was so low that it was as likely to improve as not. All these factors are probably making some contribution to a compositional effect. But nothing, to my eye, looks substantial enough to explain away the over-all trend: Americans are reading less. To make sense of the data from the American Time Use Survey, it helps to know how they’re collected. A pamphlet explaining the survey is mailed to each subject ahead of the day to be observed. The day after, a survey-taker telephones to ask how the subject spent her time. A subject who doesn’t report any reading may not be a non-reader in any absolute sense. All we know for sure is that she didn’t happen to do any reading on the day under scrutiny. As a statistic, therefore, the number of average hours spent reading is perhaps less telling than two other statistics: the percentage of the population that did some reading, and the average time that these readers spent on their reading time.

Here there’s a little bit of good news: the average American reader spent 1.39 hours reading in 2003, rising to 1.48 hours in 2016. That’s the very gradually rising blue line in the graph above. In other words, the average reading time of all Americans declined not because readers read less but because fewer people were reading at all, a proportion falling from 26.3 per cent of the population in 2003 to 19.5 per cent in 2016. You could call this a compositional effect, but it’s a rather tautological one: reading is in decline because the population is now composed of fewer readers. And the assessment would be a little unfair: we don’t know that the survey’s non-readers are in fact never-readers. All we know is that, when Americans sit down to read, they still typically read for about an hour and a half, but fewer are doing so, or are doing so less often.

In assessing reports about reading the habits, I keep in mind a couple of lessons from the research that I did a decade ago. First, although American adults seem to get a kick out of worrying about whether American children are reading enough, this is an enormous waste of time in the world in which we happen to live. Children who have any hope of getting into or remaining in the middle class are under great social and economic pressure to excel at academics, and, of all Americans, they are perhaps the least likely to change their reading habits of their own volition. Even the amount of pleasure reading they do seems likely to reflect the social pressure they’re under— not where America in general is headed.

Second, in studies of reading habits, the gold standard is asking participants to report hour by hour how they spent a particular day. It’s pretty much useless It’s beyond my statistical powers (though to ask how many books somebody probably not beyond an expert’s) to read last year, because almost nobody figure out whether a decline in an individ- remembers, and many exaggerate, to ual’s reading tends to be correlated with seem smarter. At the time I wrote my a rise in any other activity measured by article, the best American data came the American Time Use Survey. I can only from a time-use study begun by the U.S. offer suggestive comparisons. The activ- Department of Labor in 2003, statistics ity that the survey calls “socializing and that were then still only a few years old, communicating” seems to be shifting in and inconclusive. more or less the same way that reading In January, however, a Times article is: those who take part spend about as about American sleep habits alerted me much time on it as they ever did, but the to the fact that the Department of Laover-all average of hours per day spent bor’s American Time Use Survey is alive, on it is declining because fewer people well, and all grownup now. It now has are taking part. fourteen years of data, series upon seIt’s possible, too, that the numbers may ries of which is easily accessible through be reflecting a shift in the way that its home page, and also through a Labor people read news and essays. As best Department data portal. Another look at American reading habits seemed timely.

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One hazard of statistics is the contribution of “compositional effects.” Suppose a survey finds that the average American today eats a third fewer French fries than he did a decade ago. Oddly, this wouldn’t necessarily mean that any Americans have changed their French-fry-eating habits. It might be, instead, that the “composition” of the American population has changed. Maybe there are fewer men and more women in America than there used to be, and maybe men tend to eat more French fries. In that case, the average French-fry consumption would drop even if the typical man and the typical woman continued eating a number of French fries no different from the number they had eaten from the time immemorial.

they, part-timers, and full-timers all read steadily less as the decade went forward. The same applies when you break down the data by race and ethnicity or by age; you see differences in the amount of reading, but a decline is taking place in almost every subgroup.

A less explored cause might be the recession. America’s middle class is shrinking, and the proportion of Americans in the labor force is lower than it has been since the nineteen-seventies. Maybe people read less when they have less money? From a breakdown of reading by income quartile, it turns out that the rich read more—but they read less and less every year. Americans in the lowest income quartile did manage to read more in 2016 than they did in 2003—a rare trend—but that’s probably a It’s possible that a compositional effect dead-cat bounce; the 2003 number was explains the decline of reading in Ameriso low that it was as likely to improve ca. Maybe, for example, as more women as not. All these factors are probably have entered the workforce, their fullmaking some contribution to a compotime employment has left them with less sitional effect. But nothing, to my eye, leisure to read. It’s easy to check such a looks substantial enough to explain away hypothesis by parsing the data from the the over-all trend: Americans are reading American Time Use Survey according less. To make sense of the data from the to gender. Women read more than men, American Time Use Survey, it helps to it turns out, but time spent reading has know how they’re collected. A pamphlet declined steadily for both genders. If explaining the survey is mailed to each you break down the data according to subject ahead of the day to be observed. employment status, meanwhile, you see The day after, a survey-taker telephones that the unemployed do read more, but to ask how the subject spent her time. A they, part-timers, and full-timers all read subject who doesn’t report any reading steadily less as the decade went formay not be a non-reader in any absolute ward. The same applies when you break sense. All we know for sure is that she down the data by race and ethnicity or by didn’t happen to do any reading on the age; you see differences in the amount day under scrutiny. of reading, but a decline is taking place in almost every subgroup. It’s possible that a compositional effect explains the decline of reading in America. Maybe, for example, as more women have entered the workforce, their fulltime employment has left them with less leisure to read. It’s easy to check such a hypothesis by parsing the data from the American Time Use Survey according to gender. Women read more than men, it turns out, but time spent reading has declined steadily for both genders. If you break down the data according to employment status, meanwhile, you see that the unemployed do read more, but Chapter 01 | Why We Need Printed Books

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Physical books still outsell e-books, and here’s why Do you prefer reading an e-book or a physical version? It might be a surprise, but for most people, old school print on paper still wins.

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“People always need knowledge and people always need stories, so from that point of view, the very core of the book industry I am sure is very strong.” — Jacks Thomas, Director of The London Book Fair

Publishers of books in all formats made almost $26 billion in revenue last year in the U.S., with print making up $22.6 billion and e-books taking $2.04 billion, according to the Association of American Publishers’ annual report 2019. Those figures include trade and educational books, as well as fiction. While digital media has disrupted other industries such as news publishing and the music business, people still love to own physical books, according to Meryl Halls, managing director of the Booksellers’ Association in the U.K. “I think the e-book bubble has burst somewhat, sales are flattening off, I think the physical object is very appealing. Publishers are producing incredibly gorgeous books, so the cover designs are often gorgeous, they’re beautiful objects,” she told CNBC. People love to display what they’ve read, she added. “The book lover loves to have a record of what they’ve read, and it’s about signaling to the rest of the world. It’s about decorating your home, it’s about collecting, I guess, because people are completists aren’t they, they want to have that to indicate about themselves.” Genres that do well in print include nature, cookery and children’s books, while people prefer to read crime, romantic novels and thrillers via e-reader, according to the Book International. 26

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It’s more than a decade since Amazon launched the Kindle, and for Halls, there is also a hunger for information and a desire to escape the screen. “It’s partly the political landscape, people are looking for escape, but they are also looking for information. So, they are coming to print for a whole, quite a complex mess of reasons and I think … it’s harder to have an emotional relationship with what you’re reading if it’s on an e-reader.” While millennials are sometimes blamed for killing industries, it’s actually younger people who appear to be popularizing print. Sixty-three percent of physical book sales in the U.K. are to people under the age of 44, while 52% of e-book sales are to those over 45, according to the Nielsen. It’s a similar picture in the U.S., where 75% of people aged 18 to 29 claimed to have read a physical book in 2017, higher than the average of 67%, according to Pew Research. Not every author is a fan of e-books: “The Catcher in the Rye” author JD Salinger famously resisted digital media and information sharing online, but in August his estate agreed to publish his work as e-books for the first time. Salinger’s son Matt said a letter from a woman with a hand-related disability who found physical books hard to handle had convinced him to make his books available, according to a report in the Guardian.


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02 Independent Bookstores and Books Organization

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What is an Artists’s Book?

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Printed Matter works to distribute and promote artists’ books to bring an increased visibility and appreciation to the field. The range of publications stocked at the shop is a testament to our broad and all-inclusive understanding of the medium. Unlike an art book, catalog or monograph that tend to showcase artworks created in another medium, the term ‘artists’ books’ refers to publications that have been conceived as artworks in their own right. These ‘projects for the page’ are generally inexpensive, often produced in large or open editions, and are democratically available. The book is a medium that allows an artist’s work to be accessible to a multitude of people in different locations at any given time. The more copies produced the more widely the work can be distributed; it is this potential to reach a larger audience that lends the book its social qualities and increases it’s political possibilities. In this way, the artists’ book can be an incredibly powerful communicative force.

The simplicity of a book that is small in scale, costs relatively little to produce, and is easily replicable allows the work to flow outside of mainstream channels and reach an audience without institutional or commercial consent. The artists’ book offers a criticism of and alternative to these systems by circumventing them. While artists’ books can take many forms, there are a few elements that are common across the practice. Understanding a book as an artwork invites a reflection on the properties of the book form itself. Much like any act of reading, an artists’ book is a physical experience that allows a connection with the medium that – while social in its implications – is individual and personal. The artists’ book invites us to hold it and turn through its pages. Whether the contents are visually or linguistically based (often a mix of both), physically moving through an artwork implicates notions of sequence, repetition, juxtaposition, and duration.

The interplay of text and images, as well as considerations of printing process and the design of the book, allows for many exciting possibilities within narrative, media, and meaning that are specific to the artists’ book alone. The shelves of Printed Matter store are filled with these diverse publications, and the stock is rotating constantly. Our entire inventory is also publicly available through our online catalog on this website. The best way to get a sense of the medium is to browse!

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Artists’ books must be contrasted with other terms that may appear to be the same, but are, in fact, vastly different. These are: art book, illustrated book and painter’s book.

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There is a crucial difference between presenting an artist’s work in a book form—a retrospective collection of reproductions—and an artist making a book. The first is the honorific art book. ‘Book art’ should be saved for books that are works of the art, as well as books. The next three terms are all used to refer to the same type of work. These terms, most specifically livre d’artiste, came into parlance in France during the 1890’s. The art dealer Ambroise Vollard began to commission his artists to illustrate texts, often classics, and then to have these works finely printed and bound. These are not works conceived and produced by the artist, nor are they free from the pressures of the art market, which are both qualities antithetical to artists’ books. The idea of a book conceived wholly by the artist is fundamental to the concept of artists’ books. Unique books are related but different [than published fine books]. Divorced from the notion of publishing and unrestricted by the economic and structural limitations of manufacture, they can take their “bookness” to the limits of a maker’s imagination. Books which have been produced by artists distinct from other kinds of art publishing in that they’re not tied to the conventions of literature or criticism or illustration. The principle theory of artists’ books is that instead of being about art they’re rather books which are intended as artworks themselves. Taking the structure of the book beyond everyday expectations is is often a goal of the artist’s book. Other important aspects of artists’ books are: the use of cross-disciplinary media, the production of the

reaction against the established art world art market. Often the impetus behind the use of the book form is to cross boundaries and defy existing limitations and definitions. It is a medium of expression that allows for, in fact calls for, the combination of several modes of creation. “In fact, this confluence of art forms had affected artists’ books to such a degree that they have become characteristically and foremost multidisciplinary. This tendency towards cross-disciplines also allows an artist to belong to no explicit discipline while referring to many.” This freedom from a definitive role can allow the creator to make something that is not considered part of his/her usual oeuvre or method of working. Even artists, who are supposedly “free spirits,” need a way to grant themselves permission to explore ideas outside of their normal modes of thought. Artists’ books take on this role. The self-production of the book and the desire to subvert the establishment stem from a wave of creation during the 1960’s in the U.S. The “democratic” impulse in the artist’s book movement was intended as a means “to provide a critique and an alternative to the system whereby a work of art is unique, revered, inaccessible to any but an elite, and bought and sold as investments and as highly prestigious objects of private property.” By this time in history, a book was no longer a prized invaluable object (like a manuscript handlettered on vellum), but a mass produced item available to many. Breakthroughs in technology at this time—primarily photocopying and offset printing—made the

made the production of the book economically easy for artists to do themselves. The idea behind the work and the production of multiple copies are both removed from established to the channels. That is how the literature I have read presented the development of and reason behind artists’ books. While I understand the reasoning behind the democratic/antiestablishment desire, I do not feel it is bad to create unique objects of art. The point of certain creations is their uniqueness as the vision of an individual. However, it would be ideal if that vision could be easily shared with a large audience. I also have no problem with art being highly valued, as that communicates the worth of pursuing and presenting a personal voice or vision. But hoarding of these creations as status symbols or prizes defeats the purpose of any artist’s desire to communicate through making a physical representation of ideas and thoughts in his/her mind to share with a larger audience. I think contemporary artists’ books seek a balance between these two views of the art world. Now an artist’s book is acceptable as either a unique item or a number of copies, an edition. The word “book” is often perceived of as a small, confined concept. Upon further exploration, one finds that the possibilities that can be contained within it are limitless. So the book becomes “an unfathomable large single concept which can itself be the understood as a metaphor for the boundlessness of the imagination”

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Printed Matter “Perhaps whatever is eating away at reading is also eating away at socializing. More and more people are taking part in “game playing” and “computer use for leisure, excluding games,” even as the time that devotees spend on the activities holds steady.”

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Founded in 1976, Printed Matter, Inc. is the world’s leading non-profit organization dedicated to the dissemination, understanding and appreciation of artists’ books and related publications. First established in Tribeca by a group of individuals working in the arts (among them artist Sol LeWitt and critic Lucy Lippard), Printed Matter was developed in response to the growing interest in publications made by artists. Starting in the early 60s, many of the pioneering conceptual artists (as well as performance, process, environment, sound and other experimental media artists) began to explore the possibilities of the book form as an artistic medium. Large-edition and economically produced publications allowed experimentation with artworks that were affordable and could circulate outside of the mainstream gallery system. Printed Matter provided a space that championed artists’ books as complex and meaningful artworks, helping bring broader visibility to a medium that was not widely embraced at the time.

After 13 years on Lispenard Street in Tribeca, Printed Matter moved to a location on Wooster Street in SoHo in 1989. The spacious bookshop with large storefront windows allowed for the development of expanded public programming, including more exhibitions and events, and contributed to the cultural vibrancy of the neighborhood. In 2001 Printed Matter made its move to Chelsea, which had since become New York City’s contemporary arts district. In 2015, the store relocated to its current space on 11th Avenue. The new location features a much larger bookstore spread across a ground floor and a large public stairwell leading to a mezzanine level. The space features a dedicated exhibition area, as well as increased office space for its growing staff. Printed Matter’s new home provides a much more comfortable environment for visitors to engage with the ever-growing inventory, and for a busy schedule of public programs.

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Mission & History

7 Lispenard Street (1977–1989)

7 Lispenard Street (1977–1989)

77 Wooster Street (1989–2001)

195 Tenth Avenue (2005–2015)

195 Tenth Avenue (2005–2015)

231 11th Avenue (2015–present)

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77 Wooster Street (1989 - 2001)

Artists’ books continue to provide a remarkable reflection of contemporary artistic practices – tracing and even leading many of the most important developments in the historical trajectory. In the face of the ongoing proliferation of digital media and information, there has been an astounding resurgence over the past several years in both artists’ publishing and public interest. In tandem with this truly international phenomenon, Printed Matter founded the NY and LA art fairs (in 2004 and 2013 respectively), which have become the world’s largest venues for the distribution, investigation and celebration of artists books and art publishing. It is thrilling that Printed Matter’s mission continues to be resilient, and remains more relevant than ever.

In addition to being packed full of unique publications, we host an array of programs and events on a regular basis. From rotating exhibitions and window installations to events such as book launches, talks and performances, there’s always something going on at Printed Matter. The shop also holds the non-profit offices where our small staff works on various services in support of book artists and can always help you find what you’re looking for. Printed Matter is fully wheelchair accessible. We have two lifts in the store, one for the front steps and one to access the mezzanine.

Printed Matter is located in the heart of the busy Chelsea art district, surrounded by hundreds of galleries, arts organizations, and fellow arts non-profits. With well over 100,000 visitors annually, the active street-level storefront offers a glimpse into the thriving state of contemporary artists’ publishing, featuring artists’ books, zines, posters, prints, multiples, audio works and a broad selection of out-of-print material.

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Publishing Printed Matter has a long history of working with artists to produce new artists books and publications. Conceived of as both a publisher and bookseller when it was founded, Printed Matter published a series of books by artists between 1976 and 1978 including Douglas Huebler, Ellen Lanyon, Martha Rosler, Michelle Stuart and the Guerrilla Art Action Group, among others. In the early 2000s, the publishing program was revived with a focus on emerging artists. Printed Matter has since published or co-published over 70 books. The support of innovative artists’ book projects remains the primary feature our current PM Publishing Program. We’re interested in artists’ publications that fall outside the interest of commercial publishing houses and that may not otherwise be produced. The program is generally organized under three themes that offer artists a range of approaches to work with:

Network, Nicolas Jaar (2017)

Printer Prosthetic: Futura, Federico Pérez Villoro and Christopher Hamamoto (2017)

GAAG: The Guerrilla Art Action Group, 1969-1976: A Selection, Jon Hendricks & Jean Toche (2011)

Artists & Activists 1-12 Box Set (2011)

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Pictures of Pictures, Sara Cwynar (2014)


Social Activism

Innovation

Printed Matter provides a forum for critical engagement with works dealing with issues of social, economic, and political justice. The program recognizes that the widely distributable printed page is a powerful vehicle for the exchange of information. We seek out artists’ projects that advance the democratizing possibilities inherent in the book and critically address topical themes and issues.

The PM Publishing Program also undertakes a series of the ambitious projects that showcase the exciting possibilities of technical production in contemporary artists’ publications. This includes innovative ways of thinking about the parameters of the book as an editioned object, experimenting with design and printing processes, and bringing together form and content in innovative ways.

Past works in this series have included GAAG: The Guerrilla Art Action Group, 1969-1976: A Selection, first published in 1978 (and reprinted in 2011), which collects the manifestos, letters and press communiqués issued by the activist artist group, and The Guerrilla Girls Art Museum Activity Book, which offers a satirizing take-down on high culture, endemic. sexism, unethical behavior and conflicts of interest pervading the art world.

Past works in this series have included, a pop-up book with artist Tauba Auerbach, featuring 6 oversized geometric sculptures, and Blue Icons by Dan Walsh, which is composed of small ‘halftone’ dots that shift across the blue color spectrum, with each page spread trimmed down to a reducing size.

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Programs Exhibitions Printed Matter regularly organizes the exhibitions that engage in the rich history of artists’ publications and draw lines of continuity to a new generation of artists’ publishing. Exhibitions are organized by staff members as well as guest curators, artists and publishers, and are presented on our large back wall and our dedicated gallery space.

Window Installations Printed Matter’s longstanding Window Installation Series provides artists with the opportunity to produce and display site-specific works in our large, the public-facing storefront window. Today the PM Window Series has a broader mandate, regularly evoking themes of political and social justice as well as providing a space for emerging artists to create installations in association with their publications.

Curated Shelves The Printed Matter Curated Shelf program aims to establish a network of partnerships with art institutions committed to supporting artists’ books, providing a forum for the broader disseminating of these works as an affordable and accessible medium.

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NY Art Book Fair Initiated in 2005, Printed Matter’s NY Art Book Fair (NYABF) is the leading international gathering for the distribution of artists’ books, celebrating the full breadth of the art publishing community.

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WAHT IS AN ARTIST’S BOOK

FEB 2020

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The Classroom The Classroom presents informal lectures, readings, screenings, and other activities by artists, writers, designers, and publishers. The program series highlights exciting new releases and fosters dialogue around important themes within contemporary art publishing and the broader community. Organized by David Senior, Head of Library and Archives, SF MOMA. Over the course of four days, Printed Matter’s NY Art Book Fair provides more than 100 free conversations, workshops, performances, and other artist-led programs. Fair programs also include curated exhibitor sections, publication-focused exhibitions, and signings and launches of new books.

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Held at MoMA PS1 in Long Island City, the 2019 NY Art Book Fair will host 369 exhibitors from 31 countries, including a broad range of artists and collectives, small presses, institutions, galleries, antiquarian booksellers, and distributors. Free and open to the public, the event draws more than 40,000 individuals including book lovers, collectors, artists, and art world professionals each year. With a commitment to diversity and representation, the fair will serve as a meeting place for an extended community of publishers and book enthusiasts, as well as a site for dialogue and exchange around all facets of arts publishing.


LA Art Book Fair The LA Art Book Fair, initiated in 2013, is Printed Matter’s companion fair to the NY Art Book Fair. Held at the Geffen Contemporary building at MOCA in downtown Los Angeles, the LA fair features over 300 exhibitors from the west coast and some 20 countries, and is attended by more than 35,000 visitors annually.

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Printed Matter’s LA Art Book Fair returns to The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA in 2019. This year’s Fair welcomes 390 exhibitors from more than 30 countries, featuring small press publishers, artists, collectives, institutions, galleries, antiquarian booksellers, and distributors, including the participation of nearly 100 first-time exhibitors. Over the course of the Fair weekend, the LAABF will bring together upward of 35,000 visitors from the broader LA community and beyond, serving as a meeting place for artists, publishers and book enthusiasts, as well as a space for dialogue and exchange around all facets of arts publishing. The 2019 edition of the Fair will feature a weekend-long schedule of artist led programs, including discussions, performances, interactive workshops, book signings, and special projects, offering a dynamic view into contemporary and historical art publishing.

Held at MoMA PS1 in Long Island City, the 2019 NY Art Book Fair will host 369 exhibitors from 31 countries, including a broad range of artists and collectives, small presses, institutions, galleries, antiquarian booksellers, and distributors. Free and open to the public, the event draws more than 40,000 individuals including book lovers, collectors, artists, and art world professionals each year. With a commitment to diversity and representation, the fair will serve as a meeting place for an extended community of publishers and book enthusiasts, as well as a site for dialogue and exchange around all facets of the arts publishing. Initiated in 2013, Printed Matter’s LA Art Book Fair (LAABF) is the companion fair to the NY Art Book Fair. Free and open to the public, the two fairs are among the leading international gatherings for the distribution of artists’ books, and they celebrating the full breadth of the art publishing community.

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Archive

NY ART BOOK FAIR 2019

NY ART BOOK FAIR 2018

NY ART BOOK FAIR 2017

NY ART BOOK FAIR 2016

NY ART BOOK FAIR 2015

NY ART BOOK FAIR 2014

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NY ART BOOK FAIR 2013

NY ART BOOK FAIR 2012

NY ART BOOK FAIR 2011

In the context of an art market that can now feel really alienating to artists in New York, it is a really important meeting place where a community of artists, designers and publishers can develop relationships and see itself,� said David Senior, a bibliographer at the Museum of Modern Art Library.

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Chronicle Books Chronicle Books is an independent publisher based in San Francisco that has been making things since the Summer of Love. They are inspired by the enduring magic of books, and by sparking the passions of others.

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What They Do As soon as you pick up our publishing, we want you to be able to tell that what you are holding comes from us. We consider every detail, and ask questions like these: does the design support and enhance the content? How does it feel in your hands? What special touches can we add to make it an object you’ll treasure? We apply this approach to everything we make, whether it’s a book, journal, game, ebook, zines or the our newest invention.

Where They Do It Based in San Francisco, our headquarters are in an old maritime machine shop and warehouse. There are 4 floors: one for sales, marketing, and operations, one for editorial and contracts, another for design and production, and meeting space where we all come together. There’s even a storefront you can visit. Stop by the next time you’re in town and bring your favorite tote, or take home one of ours.

We’ve often been told “I see your books everywhere” and that’s just how we like it—you’ll find our telltale spectacles on store shelves of all kinds, all over the world. We also have our own retail locations where you can explore our latest and greatest, as well as a home base in London. Once you start looking, you can’t miss us. Wherever you are, we invite you to see things differently too.

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Chronicle Books Turns 50 Fifty years ago, Chronicle Books opened in San Francisco with a two-room office and a handful of employees. Since then, the company has survived bookstore booms and busts, publishing fads, and multiple digital revolutions. The publisher, one of the largest in the West, now counts more than 7,000 titles, with 250 million units sold around the globe. Originally owned by the San Francisco Chronicle, in its first 10 years Chronicle Books focused on publishing books by its reporters as well as titles of regional interest. When Jack Jensen arrived 40 years ago, the company was publishing 12 titles a year. “We all wore a great many hats,” he said, remembering his first job as a sales rep. “You had a soupto-nuts understanding of the book publishing endeavor.” Jensen now serves as president of the McEvoy Group, the holding company that acquired Chronicle Books in 2000. He started alongside five employees and now oversees 160. To this day, “interdisciplinary teams” of designers, editors, and production managers still tackle every project together and trade roles as needed—just like in those early years at Chronicle. “We have tremendous respect for the expertise each team member brings, but are also skilled at wearing each others’ hats,” added Sara Schneider, Chronicle Books’ executive publishing design director. Jensen fondly recalls working on signature titles during his first years at 56

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the company, books like Kinsey Photographer, a trade paperback edition that made the work of Darius Kinsey, a landscape photographer dubbed “the Ansel Adams of the logging industry,” available to a mainstream audience. The odds weren’t great for the scrappy press in those early years. Indie publishers were popping up all over the Bay Area, but most were just one-book wonders. By the 1980s, shopping mall book chains B. Dalton Bookseller and Waldenbooks dominated the marketplace. The chains didn’t know how to categorize books from the indie press, and Jensen returned to his office with terrible news after one fall season sales meeting: both booksellers had “passed on the entire list.” That could have sunk the press, but Jensen and his team made the fateful decision to “sell outside the bookstores,” taking Chronicle’s first single-subject cookbook Sushi to cookware stores. These specialty shops kept coming back for more copies of the photograph-heavy trade paperback. “It started a phenomenon of single-subject cookbooks which we enjoyed for many years,” Jensen recalls. Waldenbooks and Dalton have both gone out of business, but Chronicle has built a long-lasting business on the foundation of its gift division, selling its signature literary creations in thousands of retail locations, both bookstores and beyond. Now, the publisher releases


300 titles every year, and the gift book format makes up one-third of the sales. “Jensen appreciated that our publishing could reach people who might never choose to look for a gift, the gift of reading, in a bookstore.” The company’s key categories expanded for these new audiences, broadening to include children’s books, pop culture, lifestyle, and stationery. The publisher has survived a number of technological revolutions as well. Chronicle invested in everything from CDROMs to apps when these digital tools were touted as print book killers. “We’ve enjoyed our fair share of digital fads,” Carswell said. “I’m proud of the apps we produced and the innovative spirit they represent. I’d have been a lot happier if they’d made us a bit more money.” Jensen never worried that the digital revolution would topple his business. “The digital opportunity is not one where readers are replaced,” he said. “It’s one where you are able to add readers. It’s not either-or. It’s both. Whenever we were told the books were toast, I never believed that.”

stocked everywhere from bookstores to hip clothing stores. Given its 50 years of resilience in the tumultuous business of publishing, perhaps it’s no coincidence that the publisher was able to sell three million copies of a survival manual.

“Chronicle changed the way people find books,” —Christine Carswell An executive editor in Chronicle.

Chronicle’s bestselling book is 1999’s The Worst-Case Scenario Survival Handbook by Joshua Piven and David Borgenicht, whose text and practical black-and-white illustrations taught readers how to escape quicksand and handle sword fights. The book was Chapter 02 | Independent Bookstores and Books Organization

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“Self-knowledge facilitates growth and plants seeds of wisdom and inner peace.” —Chronicle Books

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City Lights Booksellers & Publishers

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Founded in 1953 by poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti and Peter D. Martin, City Lights is one of the few truly great independent bookstores in the United States, a place where booklovers from across the country and around the world come to browse, read, and just soak in the ambiance of alternative culture’s only “Literary Landmark.” Although it has been more than fifty years since tour buses with passengers eager to sight “beatniks” began pulling up in front of City Lights, the Beats’ legacy of anti-authoritarian politics and insurgent thinking continues to be a strong influence in the store, most evident in the selection of titles. The nation’s first all-paperback bookstore, City Lights has expanded several times over the years; we now offer three floors of both new-release hardcovers and quality paperbacks from all of the major publishing houses, along with an impressive range of titles from smaller, harder-to-find, specialty publishers. The store features an extensive and in-depth selection of poetry, fiction, translations, politics, history, philosophy, music, spirituality, and more, with a staff whose special book interests in many fields contribute to the handpicked quality of the what you see on the shelves.

The City Lights masthead says A Literary Meetingplace since 1953, and this concept includes publishing books as well as selling them. In 1955, Ferlinghetti launched City Lights Publishers with the now-famous Pocket Poets Series; since then the press has gone on to publish a wide range of titles, both poetry and prose, fiction and nonfiction, international and local authors. Today, City Lights has well over two hundred titles in print, with a dozen new titles being published each year. The press is known and respected for its commitment to innovative and progressive ideas, and its resistance to forces of conservatism and censorship. All City Lights Publications that are currently available are proudly featured in the bookstore and on this website as well. With this bookstore-publisher combination, “it is as if,” says Ferlinghetti, “the public were being invited, in person and in books, to participate in that ‘great conversation’ between authors of all ages, ancient and modern.” City Lights has become world-famous, but it has retained an intimate, casual, anarchic charm. It’s a completely unique San Francisco experience, and a must for anyone who appreciates good books.

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The bookshop that brought us the Beats Initiated in 2005, Printed Matter’s NY Art Book Fair (NYABF) is the City Lights, the San Francisco bookshop that published Allen Ginsberg’s Howl, is 60 this year but there’s still no better place to encounter American literature.

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I remember the first time I went to City Lights—the first all-paperback bookstore in the US, founded in San Francisco in 1953 by Lawrence Ferlinghetti. I was so intimidated I barely looked at the books on the shelves, maybe picking one up every now and then and pretending to read it, just so I had a reason to the stand there. This place had a powerful influence not only on American poetry— with the publication of Allen Ginsberg’s Howl in 195—but also on the American consciousness, being the nation’s most daring publisher of independent literature and an epicentre for progressive thought. The immense popularity of Ginsberg’s book and its obscenity trial also propelled the Beat generation into the international spotlight, with writers such as Jack Kerouac and William S Burroughs directly influencing a generation of non-comformist youth. For the first and—arguably—only time, literature became a popular movement in the US: busloads of tourists from all over the world travelled to the North Beach book store in search of the famous “beatniks”.

As a college student, the mythology of the Beats and their writing so inspired me and my best friend that we hit the road in 2003 and drove from Savannah, Georgia, to San Francisco, going hours out of our way at every opportunity just to give people rides and to embrace our adventure. We actually started calling each other Jack and Neal, which feels pretty embarrassing now, but we were living the dream and, though it wasn’t ours, we were determined that it could be. It was six years later that I moved to San Francisco, and I don’t even remember the first event that got me hooked on City Lights. The poetry room, where it hosts most of its events (still as many as four a week), is relatively small, holding maybe 30 people, and I’ve been back so many times I’ve seen some authors release more than one book there. I’m still learning about the goings-on at City Lights, despite having contributed countless videos and an occasional audio file to its blog because, like any force of nature, it just keeps upping the

ante: in almost four years of living in the city, I’ve seen week-long festivals and new imprints launched and it shows no signs of slowing down. All in all, City Lights puts out more than a dozen books per year and has now published more than 200 titles. I don’t know how it does it—the staff hasn’t got any bigger—but I do know the reverence I feel when I walk into the store is not diminishing. A subversive attitude pervades it: people are welcome to sit in the basement or in the poetry room and read entire books if they want (and many argue there is no better spot to do so). While most of the Beats are gone and tourists don’t expect to find them, North Beach remains a destination for visitors and locals alike, as the neighbourhood has maintained the charm and vitality of an older time. City Lights continues to flourish, providing an ever-fertile environment for writers, thinkers and the promise that they can change the world.

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Books Kinokuniya Kinokuniya USA offers a wide variety of books, magazines, and stationery from Japan. We are proud to bring you our extensive collection of manga, graphic novels, art and design books, cookbooks, travel books, children’s books, and more, both in English and Japanese. We also offer Chinese books at our Seattle store.

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Books Kinokukniya founded in 1927.

The Kinokuniya Building was established in 1964.

Kinokuniya San Francisco

Establishing

Building in Tokyo

Expanding Overseas

On January 22nd 1927, Books Kinokuniya was founded by former president Moichi Tanabe. Located in the Shinjuku district of Tokyo in a two-story wooden building, with a floor space of 125 square meters (1,349 sq.ft.) and an art gallery on the second floor. The first Kinokuniya started with five employees, including Mr. Tanabe himself.

The Kinokuniya Building was established in Shinjuku, Tokyo in 1964. The building consists of nine stories and two underground floors. In addition, it includes Kinokuniya Hall and Art Gallery, as Kinokuniya believes that bookstores should also function as a center for the promotion of art and culture. In 2017, this Kinokuniya Building was designated as a Tokyo Historic Building.

In 1969, Kinokuniya opened its first overseas bookstore in San Francisco, California and then the second overseas location in New York in 1981. Today, we have over 80 stores and 35 sales office locations worldwide, including Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, Malaysia, United Arab Emirates, and Australia. Visit here for links to our stores worldwide.

Kinokuniya began importing English books in 1949 and opened its first sales office in Osaka, Japan in 1956. This marked the beginning of the company’s nationwide expansion into the academic institutional market.newest invention.

We honor our initial goal by offering a wide assortment of titles in Japanese and English in all our U.S. bookstores.

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Kinokuniya San Francisco The San Francisco store is located inside Japan Center mall at Japantown. We opened at this current location in 1969 as the first Kinokuniya Bookstore to open in the US, and 2019 will mark our 50th anniversary.

the general English and Japanese books, magazines and gift items. The store also hosts occasional signing events by authors and creators, which we’ve had the honor of hosting Donald Keene, George Takei in the past.

We started off as one of the tenants on the 2nd floor, providing mostly Japanese and Japan related books and merchandise, but expanded our space to include a portion of the 1st floor about 10 years ago. Today, this 1st floor is our Anime/Manga section with a wide range of Japanese and English Manga, Art books, and Anime merchandise. There is an illustration drawn by Japanese artist, Katsuya Terada at the entrance on the 1st floor, which was live-painted when he visited the store in 2013. The 2nd floor is where we have

Meet authors, artists, and illustrators showcasing their latest work at our stores. Or stop by our booth at one of the many conventions we attend across the U.S. throughout the year.

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San Francisco Center for the Book / SFCB A center of inspiration for the book arts world, featuring the art & craft of letterpress printing, bookbinding, and artists bookmaking.

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SFCB is a non-profit organization that fosters the joy of books and bookmaking, the history, artistry, and continuing presence of books in our culture and enduring importance as a medium of self-expression. We provide both a home for Bay Area book artists and a place where the wider community can discover book arts. Everyone is welcome here, experienced practitioners and newcomers alike. We offer more than 300 workshops annually, which offer learning opportunities at all levels: from introductory classes, to focused advanced and master courses spanning the range of bookbinding and letterpress printing techniques, from traditional methods to cutting-edge printing techniques and experimental book forms. Exhibitions at San Francisco Center for the Book are designed to inform and inspire visitors. Free public programs include opening receptions for exhibitions in the gallery, book release parties for our publications, gallery talks, tours, open houses, mixers and other community events including the annual Roadworks Steamroller Printing Festival and Holiday Fair.

Since its inception in 1996, San Francisco Center for the Book has mounted well over 100 book arts related th exhibitions. SFCB’s long standing practice of highlighting artist book innovators, wide ranging concepts within the art book community, and creative collaborations has provided gallery goers with current insight into the world of artists’ books. Programs related to each exhibition encourage community dialogue, education, and social opportunity. The Imprint of SFCB, run through its Imprint Committee, is the publishing arm of the San Francisco Center for the Book. It is a home for selected artists to explore the art and craft of the handmade book through the popular Small Plates Edition Series and an Artist in Residence Program that ran from 2005-2012. The Imprint facilitates SFCB’s mission of promoting the traditional book arts alongside exploration of experimental forms and techniques.

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Workshop SFCB offers more than 300 workshops each year in three broad categories: Printing, Binding, and Related Arts. Registration begins as soon as each trimester’s workshops are announced, and continues throughout the trimester. Students are encouraged to register early, as class size is limited and workshops are filled on a first-come, first-served basis.

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Art Arts workshops at the San Francisco Center for the Book are the creative heart of bookmaking—where concept, materials, form and content come together. You’ll find courses on varying approaches for creating an artist’s book, the many art processes to capture your vision, and structures to spark your imagination.

Printing Our printing curriculum is designed to introduce the fundamentals of letterpress printing, get you printing on your own and present recent technologies and alternative techniques for producing images and text on paper.

Binding SFCB’s bookbinding courses range from the enduring structures of both Western and Eastern traditions to contemporary approaches, with a wealth of the bookmaking techniques in between, including pamphlets, pop-ups, exposed sewing stitches, protective boxes, photo albums and more.

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Letterform Archive Letterform Archive is a nonprofit center for inspiration, education, and community.

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Our Collection The Archive was founded by Rob Saunders, a collector of the letter arts for over 40 years, as a place to share his private collection with the public. We opened to visitors in February 2015 and now offer hands-on access to a curated collection of over 60,000 items related to lettering, typography, calligraphy, and graphic design, spanning thousands of years of history. So far, the Archive has welcomed over 10,000 visitors from 30 countries, including students, practitioners, and letterform admirers from every creative background. Some come with specific research ideas in mind, while others are simply looking for inspiration. Invariably, thanks to the breadth and accessibility of the collection, they stumble on something unexpected. Serendipity is key to the Archive experience. In addition to hosting visits and public events, the Archive serves a global community through social media, stateof-the-art photography, and publications. We offer courses and workshops in type design, calligraphy, and typography. We also curate exhibitions of our holdings, organize lectures by visiting artists and designers, and host salons and receptions to showcase collections or celebrate out-of-town guests.

We hold physical and digital artifacts in a variety of formats, including books, periodicals, posters, sketches, original art for reproduction, and related ephemera, as well as a robust reference library. Together, these works chronicle the history of written communication, from the invention of writing and medieval manuscripts to modernism, the age of print to the present explosion of digital type. See a sampling. The Archive doubled its holdings in 2015 by acquiring the typeface specimen collection of the late Dutch publisher Jan Tholenaar. Recently donated archives include Emigre, pioneers of experimental digital design; Ross F. George, author of the Speedball textbooks; and Aaron Marcus, a seminal figure in computer graphics. Also featured prominently in the collection are Rudolf Koch, Jack Stauffacher, Irma Boom, and Piet Zwart.

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From Paper to Screen: The Digital Capture

E.M. Ginger, our imaging mentor, contributed to this article. 76

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The Archive’s digitization librarian offers a glimpse at how we digitally capture the artistry and craft of our physical collection.

A peek at our photography process, shot by Christian Bruno and Dan Cowles.

High-fidelity digitization is an important part of our mission. While there is no substitute for holding a rare book or designer’s sketch in your own hands, we want to offer the Letterform Archive experience to those who can’t visit in person. This goal has never been more vital than right now, in the midst of a pandemic, but it was always central to what we do. Digital images preserve the collection for posterity, and make it shareable worldwide through Archive publications, social media, and the Online Archive.

We developed our photography standards in consultation with E.M. Ginger of 42-Line, a leader in the digital imaging of rare books and artwork. With raking light, sensitive staging, premium camera equipment, and very high-resolution files, we can produce imagery that is as lifelike as possible. Our goal is to capture the smallest details of a book or print or poster: the texture of the paper, the inky brushstroke, the impression of type in the surface. Each item is documented in its essential form—not as a flat image, but as an object with a story.

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Photos not Scans

Handling and Staging

Our method for digitization is both an art and a science, and needless to say, we don’t use robots or an automated scanning technology. Every type of the artifact—from a tightly bound 15th century book of hours to a homemade binding of a Bauhaus pamphlet requires different standards for set-up. Books are particularly demanding, with their myriad sizes, shapes, and conditions. With materials this rare and old, practically every item is unique, having been in circulation and handled for sometimes hundreds of years.

The copystand is standard, with the exception of its height, which is customized to accommodate open spreads of large folio volumes. Books and all the other kinds of materials are set up directly below the mounted camera on the heavy glass surface of a custom-built light table. The backlight provides a pure white background for simple masking of the object during image processing. When not lit, the glass surface offers a neutral gray background.

We developed our photography standards in consultation with E.M. Ginger of 42-Line, a leader in the digital imaging of rare books and artwork. With raking light, sensitive staging, premium camera equipment, and very high-resolution files, we can produce imagery that is as lifelike as possible. Our goal is to capture the smallest details of a book or print or poster: the texture of the paper, the inky brushstroke, the impression of type in the surface. Each item is documented in its essential formZ—not as a flat image, but as an object with a story.

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Some books have tight spines, so the pages won’t lay flat; in these cases we set the book up, open it to the middle, and stack foam blocks or props that are a tiny bit higher than the open book about six inches away around its perimeter. We set Plexiglas on the props, which gently holds the four top edges of the book, keeping the spine undamaged during the 1/10-second shot on that spread. In the event that an object is shiny and creates a glare, we reposition lights, angle the objects differently, try an unusual background, tip the item at an angle, or reposition the lights. These are just a few of the things we might encounter in a day. Because of the unique challenges posed by different objects, and because of the rare and fragile nature of the materials, we use humans, rather than robots to digitize the collection. This job requires a discerning eye, both for the preservation of the object and for the image quality, which just isn’t available with an automated process.


Image Formats Three main image formats are part of our standard digitization workflow, each optimized for a different use case. Our original source images, for example, are quite different from the images we display in the Online Archive. Objects are first photographed in a RAW format specific to the Phase One camera system. The results are then exported and processed as TIFFs, with layers preserved to allow for color correction and other adjustments for future printing or publishing purposes. The processed TIFFs are cropped and output as web-ready JPEGs in two different sizes (thumbnails and regular size) for viewing on the Online Archive. Our digitization program is ongoing and a constant work in progress. Ultimately, we aim to make everything in the Archive digitally accessible (as copyright permits), but as the collection grows, so too does the digitization workload. We’ve captured about 1,500 objects of over 60,000 in the complete collection, so the task is daunting. What we can do depends on you! Join or donate today to support this initiative.

Anonymous scribe, detail of manuscript Bible leaf on vellum, Germany, 1450. Michael Doret, detail of mechanical for Toronto Blue Jays Scorebook Magazine, 1987. Lehmann Printing, gouache maquette (detail) for 8 x 11 cm beverage label, ca. 1920. Chapter 02 | Independent Bookstores and Books Organization

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About AIGA 50 Books \ 50 Covers

This survey of book design represents perhaps the longest-standing legacy in American graphic design. Beginning in 1923, the Fifty Books of the Year competition was a yearly mainstay of AIGA. As dust jackets became more common, covers were added to the competition. From 2012–2018 Design Observer hosted the competition with AIGA through a joint venture. AIGA is delighted to usher in another year of amazing book and cover design. Browse the current submissions here. This time-honored competition aims to identify the 50 best-designed books and book covers of 2019. The juror-selections from the 50 Books | 50 Covers competition exemplify the best current work in book and book cover design. Entries are open to anyone for books published and used in the marketplace in 2019. Selections are included in the AIGA Design Archives, a searchable database of historical images documenting nearly 100 years of design excellence. Winners of 50 Books | 50 Covers of 2011–2017 can be viewed on Design Observer. Physical copies of the winners become part the Rare Book and Manuscript Library collection at Columbia University’s Butler Library in New York City for future generations to study and enjoy.

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2019 Gallery New York (May 18, 2020)—AIGA, the professional association for design announced the results of the 50 Books | 50 Covers of 2019 competition. Book designers and publishers entered nearly 800 book and cover designs from 32 countries and this year’s jury recognized submissions that successfully demonstrate design excellence in the book and cover categories. The 2019 winning selections will become a part of a permanent, accessible, and historic collection of notable graphic design in the AIGA Design Archives. The books become part of the AIGA collection at the Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Columbia University’s Butler Library in the city of New York. The 50 Books | 50 Covers of 2019 winners can be viewed in the AIGA winner gallery.The jurors—Michael Bierut, chair, Hilary Greenbaum, Lisa Lucas, and Silas Munro—evaluated each work’s integrated design approach, including concept, innovation, and the visual elements such as typography, illustration, and/or information design. Entries were open to books published and used in the marketplace in 2019.

increasingly digital world where so many of us are isolated, a well-designed book provides opportunities to share knowledge and create shared experiences,” he said. AIGA is committed to uplifting powerful and compelling book design. Beginning in 1923, the Fifty Books of the Year competition became an annual event, and as design morphed over the years and items such as dust jackets became more common, covers were added to the competition. “We are delighted to share the winning 50 Books | 50 Covers for 2019,” said Bennie F. Johnson, AIGA’s Executive Director. “Our world has changed since the inception of this competition—and even the judging which took place in New York City on March 9. How we interact with books has shifted thanks to technological and societal advances, but it has not changed the power of a book. The elements that make up the entirety of a book play an important role in how we communicate and share knowledge. This competition honors the best of book and cover designs and I’m proud to be able to share this year’s winners with everyone.”

About AIGA AIGA, the professional association for design, advances design as a professional craft, strategic advantage, and vital cultural force. As the largest community of design advocates, AIGA brings together practitioners, enthusiasts, and patrons to amplify the voice of design and creates the vision for a collective future. AIGA defines global standards and ethical practices, guides design education, inspires designers and the public, enhances professional development, and makes powerful tools and resources accessible to all. Learn more at aiga.org.

As 50 Books | 50 Covers competition chair, Michael Bierut says, good book design builds a case for sustainability, permitting us to connect with the world in thrilling and relevant ways. “In an Chapter 03 | Independent Bookstores and Books Organization

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Alpine Cooking Description Category: Book and Cover Title: Alpine Cooking Author/Editor: Meredith Erickson/ Julie Bennett Publisher: Ten Speed Press/ Penguin Random

Project Description: A lushly photographed cookbook and travelogue showcasing the regional cuisines of the Alps, including 80 recipes for the elegant, rustic dishes served in the chalets and mountain huts situated among the alpine peaks of Italy, Austria, Switzerland, and France. The impressive format, stunning photography, and an 8-page fold-out featuring maps of the regions make this a thoughtful gift for armchair travelers, food lovers, European expats, skiers and hikers, and anyone with a mountain or lake cabin in the woods.

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Project Description: This slender, unbound catalogue accompanies Albert Oehlen’s solo exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery, London. The John Graham Remix is a series of works dating from the 1980s until today, in which the artist reshuffles elements from Graham’s Tramonto Spaventoso (1940-49) in the tradition of abstract and surrealist painting. As the centerpiece of the exhibition, Oehlen created a site-specific installation of large-scale paintings, turning the domed heart of the gallery into a reinterpretation of the Rothko Chapel in Houston, Texas. In the catalogue, full-bleed reproductions of paintings and charcoal drawings are compiled into a bundle of large-format sheets to mirror Oehlen’s layered display. These matt-coated spreads are held together by a clear acetate cover screen-printed with a drawing made especially for the artists book. The title is featured on the cover and repeated on the poly bag enclosing the publication.

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Albert Oehlen Description Category: Book and Cover Title: Albert Oehlen Author/Editor: Amira Gad and Joseph Constable Publisher: Koenig Books, Serpentine Galleries and Gagosian, London Design Firm: Zak Group Art Director: Zak Kyes Book Designer: Asel Tambay Jacket Designer: Asel Tambay Other Credits: Typedesigner Nizar Kazan

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American Illustration 38 Description Category: Book and Cover Title: American Illustration 38 Author/Editor: Mark Heflin Editor Publisher: Amilus Inc. Book Designer: Jordan Awan Jacket Designer: Sally Deng cover artist Illustrator: Juried collection Production Coordinator: Mauricio Ledesma

Project Description: American Illustration presents the year’s best commercial, personal and fine art work as selected by a jury of art and design experts. From over 7,000 images submitted to our annual competition, the jury selected only 362 illustrations to be included in the oversized, beautifully printed, deluxe 384-page annual hardcover award book. AI38 is produced in a clothbound hardcover case, fitted in a fully illustrated clamshell box, with pullout ribbon, foil debossed stamping and uses Centra No2 typeface. Creative direction and design by Jordan Awan. The original cover art is by Sally Deng.

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Brazilian Drag Superstars in Bolsonaro’s Era Project Description: This 100 page publication aims to analyze the images that are built by Brazilian drag superstars Pabllo Vittar, Gloria Groove, and Linn da Quebrada, inserted in the context of Brazil, a country that has elected Jair Bolsonaro as a fascist president. Relating mainly with how pop and the internet have been a medium of expression, agents for the construction of our identity, and perhaps even a weapon to combat the patriarchy and heteronormativity. But by coincidence (or not), they fail (or not) and also give rise to fake news, WhatsApp chains, a country with the highest LGBT murder rate, a ‘gay conversion therapy’ law approved in 2017, and now a fascist president. Pop and the internet are egalitarian, pop and the internet are for everyone. Thus, pop and the internet could be looked at a knife that cuts on both sides and that is held by the victimizer and victim, that could be a tool and medium of resistance and/or propaganda. The publication a collection of materials that explain not why but how those realities are living in the same country and who are the public characters of these stories.

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Description Category: Cover Title: Brazilian Drag Superstars in Bolsonaro’s Era Author/Editor: Juan Pablo Rahal Publisher: Juan Pablo Rahal Design Firm: Juan Pablo Rahal Creative Director: Juan Pablo Rahal Art Director: Juan Pablo Rahal Book Designer: Juan Pablo Rahal Jacket Designer: Juan Pablo Rahal Illustrator: Juan Pablo Rahal Photographer: Rodrigo Fonseca Picture Editor: Juan Pablo Rahal Production Director: Guilherme Godoy Other Credits: Linn da Quebrada


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Description Category: Book and Cover Title: Contemporary Architectures in Paraguay Author/Editor: Goma Oficina Publisher: Romano Guerra / Editora Escola da cidadel Design Firm: Goma Oficina Book Designer: AndrĂŠ Stefanini, Maria Cau Levy, Ana David, Christian Salmeron Jacket Designer: AndrĂŠ Stefanini, Maria Cau Levy, Ana David, Christian Salmeron Photographer: Fernando Banzi

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Contemporary Architectures in Paraguay Project Description: The graphic design of the book Arquitecturas Contemporåneas en Paraguay was carried out by the own book’s organizers, the collective Goma Oficina, which made a greater integration between the design concept and the critical research presented. The Paraguayan works selected in the book stands out for experimenting with ordinary materials, resulting in extremely contemporary, heterogeneous and purposeful interventions. We made the constructive elements of the book (paper, fold and sewing) apparent, revealing its structure as much as possible, and referring to the tactile sensation that the own Paraguayan architecture provokes. The materials chosen were the most common and available on the market, used without finishing and major refinements. The choice of using a fifth special color, neon orange, appears as the representation of clay - an important element of the Guarani constructive repertoire. On the other hand, the graphic paper was diagrammed in its original size, (96 x 66 cm) in order to explore the incidence of folds in the graphic composition of the images and chapter titles. The typographies used (with or without serif) reveal the contrast between new and old, and are supports for the bilingual content.

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Designs for Different Futures Description Category: Book and Cover Title: Designs for Different Futures Author/Editor: Kathryn B. Hiesinger, Michelle Millar Fisher, Emmet Byrne, Maite Borjabad LĂłpez-Pastor, ZoĂŤ Ryan Publisher: Yale University Press Design Firm: Walker Art Center design studio in collaboration with Philadelphia Museum of Art and the Art Institute Chicago Creative Director: Emmet Byrne Book Designer: Ryan Gerald Nelson Jacket Designer: Ryan Gerald Nelson Photographer: Bobby Rogers Production Coordinator: Richard Bonk Publishing Director: Katie Reilly; Editors: Katie Brennan and Kathleen Kratten maker

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Project Description: Designs for Different Futures records the concrete ideas and abstract dreams of designers, artists, academics, and scientists exploring how design might reframe our futures, socially, ethically, and aesthetically. Encompassing nearly 100 contemporary examples—from wearable objects to urban infrastructure—this handbook interrogates attitudes toward technology, consumption, beauty, and social and environmental challenges. The projects examined include a typeface unreadable by text-scanning software, the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, a dress incorporating the sound-wave patterns of birds in flight, a shelter for cricket farming, and a speculative prosthetics catalogue for the “post-human.” Commissioned essays and interviews from figures such as Francis Kéré, Bruno Latour, Neri Oxman, and Danielle Wood give voice to issues faced in futures near and far. With perspectives ranging from historical visions of the future to the use of biological materials in production processes, this is essential reading for anyone interested in how design might shape the world to come. The book adopts a magazine mentality by combining dozens of short think pieces with a visually arresting layout strategy that combines collage work, custom display typography, and an

over-the-top cacophonous collision of aesthetics meant to complement the exhibition’s embrace of a messy, fertile present, anticipating an infinite number of overlapping and competing futures. The collages for each section of the book were made from scratch, employing about a dozen photoshoots, two 3-d body scans, various stock photography and modeling, and any number of Photoshop blending effects. The subject matter of each collage evokes the spirit of each theme and were also utilized as giant wall graphics and projections for the actual exhibition. The display typography of the book is a custom-adjusted typeface (through GREP styling) that automatically adjusts the width of certain characters and uncapitalizes the letter “s” when it falls at the end of a word, in line with the exhibitions larger strategy of pluralizing the word “futures” and the word “designs,” as well as each theme, to speak to the complexity of each term and work against abstract, monolithic definitions. “The future” is something that happens to us. “Our futures” are things that we create together. This catalogue was produced by the Philadelphia Museum of Art publishing department in collaboration with the Art Institute Chicago and the Walker Art Center.

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Description Category: Book and Cover Title: Dias exemplares [Specimen Days] Author/Editor: Walt Whitman Publisher: Carambaia Book Designer: Thiago Lacaz Graphic Producer: Lilia GĂłes; Design Assistant: Leonardo de Vasconcelos

Project Description: The design was inspired by Whitman’s habit of storing dry leaves in his notebooks. Between April and May 2019 1,200 leaves of natural plants were collected in Rio de Janeiro to create the images for the project. Each leaf was cataloged, planned and digitized. The print run of 1,000 copies has 1,000 unique covers, each showing the silhouette of a different leaf digitally printed under the screen printed text.

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Dias exemplares /Specimen Days

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Futures: A Science Fiction Series

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Project Description: An embattled wind engineer facing personal and climatic disaster. A society on the brink of collapse. Polar bear mutiny. And, of course, robots. This box set collects the seven chapbooks from Futures: A Science Fiction Series, originally published as a monthly subscription. These beautifully illustrated chapbooks explore critical contemporary issues inspiring us to rethink our future. Futures was edited, designed, printed, and bound in-house by the workers of Radix Media.

Description Category: Book and Cover Title: Futures: A Science Fiction Series Author/Editor: Authors: John Dermot Woods; Vera Kurian; Ashley Shelby; Hal Y. Zhang; germ lynn; Aeryn Rudel; Alexander Pyles Editors: Sarah Lopez; Lantz Arroyo Publisher: Radix Media Design Firm: Radix Media Creative Director: Sarah Lopez Art Director: Sarah Lopez Book Designer: Lantz Arroyo Jacket Designer: Nicholas Hurd and Sarah Lopez Illustrator: John Dermot Woods; Alma Elaine Shoaf; Sabrina Cintron; Nico Roxe; Nicholas Hurd; Hal Y. Zhang; Sarah Lopez Photographer: Lantz Arroyo Picture Editor: Lantz Arroyo Production Director: Radix Media Production Coordinator: Radix Media Production Artist: Sarah Lopez, Nicholas Hurd

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Impertinentes • 14 livros de Gustavo Piqueira • 2012-2018

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Project Description: The book, edited as a kind of catalog of the homonymous exhibition that took place between October of December 2019 at the Biblioteca Brasiliana Guita and José Mindlin, at USP, in São Paulo, compiles 14 books created by Gustavo Piqueira produced between 2012 and 2018 that, with different degrees of intensity, sought to blur many of the existing limits between the established categories of the printed book, through the exploration of the most varied articulations between text and image, visual and material, industrial and handmade, past and present, fiction and non-fiction.

The cover therefore reflects two of the main dimensions of Gustavo’s work: the deconstruction of “traditional” arrangements, when it appears as a book cover in which everything seems out of place, and, by offering the reader the possibility of assembling / disassembling it, the playful look on the book as an object.

Description Category: Cover Title: Impertinentes • 14 livros de Gustavo Piqueira • 2012-2018 (Impertinents • 14 books by Gustavo Piqueira • 2012-2018) Author/Editor: Gustavo Piqueira Publisher: WMF Martins Fontes Design Firm: Casa Rex Book Designer: Gustavo Piqueira & Samia Jacintho Art Director: Gustavo Piqueira & Samia Jacintho Jacket Designer: Gustavo Piqueira & Samia Jacintho

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Description Category: Book and Cover Title: Made in Fukushima Author/Editor: Serviceplan Germany Publisher: METER Group Design Firm: Moby Digg Gmbh Creative Director: Alex Schill, Franz Rรถppischer, Lorenz Langgartner, Maximilian Heitsch Art Director: Saurabh Kakade, Eduardo Alvarez Book Designer: Gabriela Baka, Sebastian Haiss Illustrator: Gabriela Baka, Sebastian Haiss Photographer: Nick Frank Picture Editor: Nick Frank Production Coordinator: Robert Kaminski

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Made in Fukushima Project Description: After the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, more than 25,000 hectares of farmland were contaminated. Despite scientists developing a decontamination method that allowed farmers to grow safe rice again, many chose not to buy it because they failed to understand the decontamination process at all. Made in Fukushima is a book made out of rice straw—harvested, dried, cleaned, cut and crafted into paper—from the decontaminated fields in Fukushima. The book tells the story of the region, the disaster and the decontamination, the farmers and their products. To help people understand the process it uses photography, interviews, reports, and data visualization illustrated across 296 pages. The art direction combines traditional Japanese methods with modern design all in a distinctive and coherent aesthetic. Paper specialists worked together to produce unique paper that contains a visible part of rice straw without distracting from the content. From the cover to infographics, and the Japanese binding with photography, used to show the radiation at the locations the photos were taken.

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Remy Jungeman. Where the River Runs Description Category: Book and Cover Title: Remy Jungerman. Where the River Runs Author/Editor: Rob PerrĂŠe Publisher: Jap Sam Books Design Firm: Mainstudio Creative Director: Edwin van Gelder Book Designer: Edwin van Gelder and Florian Schimanski Jacket Designer: Edwin van Gelder Photographer: Aatjan Renders Picture Editor: Edwin van Gelder, Remy Jungerman

Project Description: A monograph about the work of Remy Jungerman. The book opens with a monumental work from the 2019 Art Biennale of Venice. Following this, his work is arranged as a score in the image section of the book. The different series are clustered by typology and alternate rhythmically. The essays are printed with 4 layers of white offset ink on red paper, where the text literally becomes the carrier, the red paper. This refers to Remy Jungerman’s work in which he uses kaolin clay and scratches away so that the bottom layer becomes visible.

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Signal. Image. Architecture. Project Description: “Signal. Image. Architecture.​“ aims to clarify the status of computational images in contemporary architectural discourse—it meticulously builds a theory of architecture “after imaging,” or the status of architecture after all architecture is born digitally.

Description Category: Book and Cover Title: Signal. Image. Architecture. Author/Editor: John May Publisher: Columbia Books on Architecture and the City Design Firm: Laura Coombs Creative Director: Laura Coombs Art Director: Laura Coombs Book Designer: Laura Coombs Jacket Designer: Laura Coombs Production Coordinator: Laura Coombs Other Credits: Edited by James D. Graham and Isabelle Kirkham-Lewitt

The design of the book emanates from the idea of an “image” in printing, and from the largest imageable area of the book—the press sheet. The book is designed as groupings of 16 pages (one press sheet) rather than by single pages, and the effects of this can be seen inside the book as images slip off of their pages and on to others. These slippages reveal how the book is printed and constructed as a set of cut and folded sheets. The DNA of the “image” is referenced in the cover typography—the word “architecture” is literally re-imaged at a lower, pixelated, typographic resolution. The design of the book also reflects the idea of a “signal” through the treatment of chapter beginnings and endings. Each chapter begins in the same page location as the previous chapter left off, allowing each to chapter to signal to the next, and creating a continuous text, even with chapter title page interruptions.

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Y/our future is now Description Category: Book and Cover Title: Y/our future is now Author/Editor: Olafur Eliasson, Gonçalo M. Tavares Publisher: Museum of Contemporary Art—Serralves Design Firm: Márcia Novais Creative Director: Márcia Novais Art Director: Márcia Novais Book Designer: Márcia Novais Jacket Designer: Márcia Novais and drawing of Human time is movement (winter), 2019 by Olafur Eliasson Illustrator: Cover drawing of “Human time is movement (winter)”, 2019 by Olafur Eliasson Photographer: Filipe Braga geral @filipebraga.com /Olafur Eliasson Picture Editor: Biljana Joksimović-Große, Kathryn Politis Production Director: Maria Ramos Production Coordinator: Gisela Leal; Kristina Koper, Studio Olafur Eliasson

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Project Description: This book was designed for Museu de Arte Contemporânea Serralves, in Porto, Portugal, which accompanied the exhibition Y/our time is now by Olafur Eliasson at the Museum. The book is organized by firstly present the exhibition views, then three texts — a preface by the director; an essay by Olafur Eliasson where the artist reveals how the climate change influences the artworks he presents at the exhibition; and a text that wonders around the works presented by Gonçalo M. Tavares; then a visual essay by Eliasson; and lastly, a list of works. Between the texts, the reader is surprised with archival images of old sketches and works by the artist, that support and culminate in the exhibition at the Museum. The Portuguese text is placed on the top of the page and the English at the bottom. The cover is based on Human time is movement (winter), one of the three variations on the mathematical form known as the Clelia curve.

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“The tangibility of printed books and the ability to experience them through multiple senses—sound, smell, sight—is often cited.” —Charles Jarrold, CEO of the BPIF

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Used Sources [ Contents ] bbc.com/future/article/20160124-are-paper-books-really-disappearing newyorker.com/culture/cultural-comment/why-we-dont-read-revisited cnbc.com/2019/09/19/physical-books-still-outsell-e-books-and-heres-why printedmatter.org chroniclebooks.com citylights.com theguardian.com/travel/2013/may/25/san-francisco-city-lights-bookshop-beats usa.kinokuniya.com sfcb.org letterformarchive.org 50books50covers.secure-platform.com en.wikipedia.org

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[ Photography ] en.wikipedia.org cnbc.com/2019/09/19/physical-books-still-outsell-e-books-and-heres-why printedmatter.org chroniclebooks.com citylights.com theguardian.com/travel/2013/may/25/san-francisco-city-lights-bookshop-beats usa.kinokuniya.com sfcb.org letterformarchive.org 50books50covers.secure-platform.com stock.adobe.com unsplash.com/s/photos/people-in-library

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Š 2020 Yajie (Penny) Xu All rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, recording, photocopying or otherwise, without prior permission of the Volumes. Thank you for reading and supporting Volumes Issue. Our next issue will be released in Spring 2021. Meanwhile, check our website to learn more about the Volumes project and follow us on Instagram for more updates.


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Volumes Issue | MFA Thesis __ Yajie (Penny) Xu  

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