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Jerusalem + Water VALLEYS / ROUTES / RIFTS

DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE SPRING 2011 ANURADHA MATHUR, DILIP DA CUNHA and RON LOUIS GROSS critics

KIDRON VALLEY

Rana Boland Jamee Kominsky Rebekah Meeks Andrew Pirie Xiayao Shi Tengteng Wang

REFAIM VALLEY Alison Hirsch Joseph Marwil

HINOM VALLEY

Sanghoon Lee Da Young Shin

ZVAIM VALLEY

Margaret Jankowsky Tyler Swanson


Water has always had many dimensions in Jerusalem: necessity, security, separator, and peacemaker. Its infrastructure anchors a place where rivers are yet to form even as it binds together events and conflicts over millennia that have made Jerusalem a household name across the world. Within this studio students developed design projects for specific sites in four valleys of Jerusalem. They engaged the infrastructure of water in its many dimensions in a landscape that is today more contentious and challenging than ever before, both culturally and ecologically. The studio considered Jerusalem at the heart of two powerful and potentially generative intersections: one geographic; the other material. The geographic intersection is a crossing of two transects. The first runs east west from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea, locating Jerusalem on a ridge and a route that has defined its access, prominence, growth, and defense. The second transect extends north south from beyond Lake Tiberius to the Gulf of Aqaba, situating Jerusalem on the Levantine Rift Valley, a tectonic line that is shearing and pulling apart geologically even as it gathers waters and peoples on the surface that it divides. This intersection of ridge and valley, route and rift, firm ground and shifting landscape plays out at smaller scales and in many analogous forms within Jerusalem. The material intersection is a crossing of two waters. The first waters fall as rain from clouds across a terrain that gathers via roofs and streets in underground cisterns, via springs and surface runoff in historic ‘pools’ designed to hold them, and, finally, via seeps and soaks in aquifers tapped by wells. The second waters flow within lines intended to contain them such as historic aqueducts and modern pipes, but also the wadis or nahals [ephemeral streams] drawn with lines on maps. These two waters call out places situated between the autonomy but chance that comes with rain and the dependency but vulnerability that comes with flows from elsewhere. Through history, Jerusalem, more than most places, has ‘worked’ this intersection although in recent times as elsewhere rain has receded in the face of the promise of certainty held out by flows. 1


VALLEYS Students began the studio with two parallel investigations: Jerusalem Tracts and Jerusalem Valleys. For Jerusalem Tracts students were asked to research and visualize through drawings and models a particular material/artifact/practice of Jerusalem and its extended landscape. Suggested tracts of research were the OLIVE [tree, grove, economy, ecology], STONE [rock, wall, sling/throw], PEOPLE [conflict, diaspora, migration], DATE [palm, culture, ecology, botany], MAP [boundary, change, use], MUSIC [rhythm, instrument, fusion], CLAY [ceramic, pottery, soil], and BUILDING [structure, technology, archeology]. For Jerusalem Valleys students explored one of the following valleys of Jerusalem with the objective of drawing out conditions, conflicts, issues, and constructions. The suggested valleys were the Kidron Valley [spring, slopes], Refaim Valley [corridor, brownfields], Hinom Valley [event grounds, pools], and the Tzvaim Valley [park, deer reserve]. Both these investigations provided a lens while on our field trip to Jerusalem which continued to be developed while on site. During these investigations students constructed a ground for the possibilities of design. ROUTES The Field Trip to Jerusalem served to discover and document [through photography, sectioning, and other modes of recording] strategic sites, edges and relationships within the students chosen valley. We also traveled the transect from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea as a way of situating and understanding Jerusalem’s infrastructure, ecology, and history. On their return students collated their site documentation and re-visited their initial research to construct an agenda, site strategy, and point of view toward initiating design proposals that invigorate the valleys, consider communities, and recalibrate their relationship to water. RIFTS Students articulated through design – places, processes and practices through which projects unfold, extend across territory, engage water, cultivate new grounds, gather and construct community, and re-invigorate the public realm. 2


to Mediterranean Sea

+

to Dead Sea K I D RO N VA L L E Y

+

SPRING/ SLOPES

+ H I N O M VA L L E Y

+

POOLS / EVENT GROUNDS

R E FA I M VA L L E Y

T Z A I M VA L L E Y

CORRIDOR / BROWN FIELDS

PARK/ DEER RESERVE

to Mediterranean Sea to Dead Sea

+


projects for

Jerusalem + Water KIDRON VALLEY

7 19 31 45 53 61

Rana Boland Jamee Kominsky Reva Meeks Andrew Pirie Xiayao Shi Tengteng Wang

REFAIM VALLEY 77 99 123 131

Alison Hirsch Joseph Marwil

HINOM VALLEY Sanghoon Lee Da Young Shin

ZVAIM VALLEY

143 159

Margaret Jankowsky Tyler Swanson


to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

SPRING/ SLOPES

K I D RO N VA L L E Y

+


KIDRON VALLEY


to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

+

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

SPRING/ SLOPES

K I D RO N VA L L E Y

CREASE // FILTER // COLLECT // CONNECT


Rana Boland


nabali

maalot

manzanillo

strike

zayith(‫ )זית‬// zaytun (‫)نوتيز‬

OLIVE // DATE

accumulate

COLLECT

bernea

VARIETY

GATHER

Olive // Date An exploration of crease Situated in the Kidron Valley on the border between East and West Jerusalem, the site is overlooked by one of the most holy and disputed sites, the Dome of the Rock, on one side, and on the other the Jewish cemetery on Mt. Olive with the Arab village of Silwan adjacent to it. This project has sought to redefine the way this small yet very contentious site is defined and lived in. The project developed out of an initial investigation of the olive and the date. I was interested in how the two crops were grown – the olive on the slopes and the date at 9 the valley bottom – and the way that the two crops are inextricably tied to the Jewish, Arab and Christian cultural and food heritage. This led to the development of a new vocabulary in which to approach and intervene on the site. I was interested in the space created where the valley bottom meets the valley side and the way that this crease is found at different scales throughout the landscape.

tamar(‫ )לקד ךיראת‬// tamr (‫)رمت‬

cut

climb elevate summit ladder

bunch bahri

pile cluster

mass group

hayani

rope zahidi

lift medjoul

deri

deglet nour

halawi

hadrawi

amari

move


olive mash

fill

crush pivot

press release

basalt limestone stone basin

flow press residue expressed liquid

merge

decant channel carve

CONTAIN

territory

liquify

extract

DISPERSE

INTENSIFY

PRESERVE

RIFT

limestone basalt

divide+contain

pick pluck sort

basket

spread

arrange expand

dry

concentrate condense sweeten

conserve

store value

identity

rake

box

10


crease // filter // collect // connect

11

Through the development of an inventory of creases ranging from the existing path networks on site, to goat paths and check dams along the Kidron Valley as it goes through the Judean desert descending to the Dead Sea, I was able to study how these different creases were used and inhabited. Paper study models were used to explore these creases in 3D and test how with the addition of added materials - glue and wood – make subtle surface changes that create significant implications for how water can flow through and over the land and valley floor. The intervention proposes three ways in which the creasing of land on the slopes and at the valley bottom can collect and filter greywater from the village of Silwan, provide irrigation to what is normally a desert condition, and mitigate flash floods and slope erosion that is caused by storms in the short yet intense rainy season.


12


13

Greywater is channeled from Silwan and through a system of runnels and overflows moves through pools planted with species chosen for their filtering ability flowing across and descending to the valley bottom. On the valley bottom the now clean water is released slowly to irrigate and create the conditions necessary for many of the wild edible plants that are important to both Jewish and Arab culture and come together in Israeli and Arab cuisine. On the West side of the valley storm water is channeled into larger scaled creases that serve as market spaces and shaded refuge during the long, hot dry season and collection pools during storm events that catch and slow stormwater as it descends to the valley floor.

concept model


existing path system

collect

contain disperse

intensify

14


COLLECT

GATHER

cut

bunch

COLLECT

GATHER

cut

bunch

merge

extract

liquify

conserve

CONTAIN

DISPERSE

INTENSIFY

PRESERVE

RIFT

spread

dry

value

territory

merge

extract

liquify

conserve

identity

CONTAIN

DISPERSE

INTENSIFY

PRESERVE

RIFT

spread

dry

value

territory

divide

identity

15 divide


Living Dead

summaq // sumac // Rhus tripartita

za’atar // Origanum syriacum

olesh // chickory // Chichorium pumilum

sbanach // wild lettuce // Lactuca serriola or Lactuca saligna

nettle // Urtica dioica

mallow // Malva sylvestris

lisan // jerusalem sage // Salvia hierosolymitana

Edible Arundo donax

Phragmites australis

Scirpus

Spartina alterniďƒ&#x;ora

Cladium jamaicense

Hydrocotyle umbellata

Filter

16


Recurvirostra avosetta | pied avocet Butomus umbellatus | flowering rush

Eid-Ul Fitr Falco peregrinus | peregrine falcon Egretta garzetta |little egret

Carex rosata | beaked sedge

Falco columbarius | merlin

Aythya marila | greater scaup

Advent

Rosh Hashannah

Christmas Milvus milvus | red kite

paths wet and dry

Ceratophyllum demersum | rigid hornwort Al-Hijira

Pandion haliaetus |osprey Chichorium pumilum | chicory Easter Sunday

Good Friday

Cyperus papyrus | papyrus

Ciconia nigra | black stork

Holy Thursday Ardea purpurea | purple heron

Eleocharis palustris | creeping spikerush Tu B’shevat

creases wet and shade

Chanukah

Milad Un Nabi_Sunni

site plan

Purim

Trinity Sunday

Glycyrrhiza glabra | licorice Passover

FILTER

wet creases Palm Sunday

Lactuna serriola | sabanach | wild lettuce

EDIBLE

Milad Un Nabi_Shia

valley bottom dry creases Malva sylevestris | mallow

Himantopus himantopus | black-winged stilt

HEAL

walls

valley bottom dry creases

Melissa officinalis | lemon balm Pentecost

Sukkot

Origanum syriacum | Oregano

Ardea cinerea | grey heron Ash Wednesday

Ranuculus sphaerospermus | swamp buttercup

Puffinus griseus | sooty shearwater

Plegadis falcinellus | glossy ibis Shavat

Yom Kippur

Rhus coriaria | sumac Eid Ul-Adha

Three Kings Day

Ashuna

17

proposed grading

Salvia hierosdymitana | lisan | Jerusalem sage

Trigonella foenum-graecum | fenugreek Ascension Day

Ramadan

Urtica dioica | nettles

Glareola maldivarum Oriental pratincole

Anthropoides virgo demoiselle crane

J

proposed water flow

Accipiter nisus Eurasian sparrowhawk

F

M

Gallinula chloropus common moorhen

A

M

Tachymarptis melba alpine swift

J

J

Upupa epops hoopoe

A

Prinia gracilis graceful parina

S

O

Anthus pratensis meadow pipit

N

D


site model

18


to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

+

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

SPRING/ SLOPES

K I D RO N VA L L E Y

SKIN AS A STRUCTURE OF FLOWS


Jamee Kominsky


Salt Across the transect from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea, the waters are mined either for their salt or for their water. A similar gradient from fresh water to salt water occurs from the Gihon Spring in the Kidron Valley to the Dead Sea. 21

Because of its high salt content, the Dead Sea is not hospitable to most plants. Using the gradient from fresh water to salt water as a guide, a list of plants that can occupy these various soils was developed. The plants vary in the way they respond to salt. Their skins have adapted to be either “includers” or “excluders”, performing operations of filtration, excretion, or dilution. The plants chosen can not only live in this zone, but also are a resource, whether it be for shelter, fuel, or food.


plantings

practices

waters

22


+ silwan GROWTHS: walls, houses built atop graves, graves built atop graves, spreading of the settlements across the valley

+ jabal mukabbir SWOLLEN: multiplicity of boundaries, trash accumulation, sewage daylighting, movement between settlements

Skin as a Structure of Flows This investigation uses the skins of the valley as a way of structuring flows, the routes of water, plantings, and people. It proposes an infrastructure for an informal settlement town on the border of Jerusalem and the West Bank, where the sewage infrastructure of Jerusalem ends, leaving raw sewage to daylight. This infrastructure collects and cleanses the various waters, using them for agricultural irrigation and recharging the valley. 23

The valley line shifts, expanding and contracting, allowing for this process of capturing and cleansing. The system is designed to accommodate established settlements, as well as to define a pattern to structure and seed future development. The plantings which are utilized for their filtering capacity, epitomize those of the transect from Jerusalem to the Dead Sea, suggesting a connection to the community at large.

+ dead sea CRACKED: salt accumulation, sea drop reveals strata of shoreline, sinkholes


24


black waters

+

gray waters

+

25 blue waters


26


27


28


29


30


to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

+

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

SPRING/ SLOPES

K I D RO N VA L L E Y

RE ENGINEERING EMERGENCE


Rebekah Meeks


1967 CE

6 DAY WAR MUGHRABI QUARTER RAIZED TO CREATE WESTERN WALL PLAZA

16 courses OTTOMAN / BRITISH

1193 CE MUGHRABI QUARTER EST.

4 courses DOME OF THE ROCK 7 courses HEROD SECOND TEMPLE

TEMPLE MOUNT 691 CE

TITUS DESTROYS 2ND TEMPLE

DOME OF THE ROCK

70 CE 17 CE

WESTERN WALL

18m

HEROD EXPANDS 2ND TEMPLE

SURVIVING RETAINING WALL OF SECOND TEMPLE HOLY OF HOLIES: DIVINE PRESENCE NEVER LEAVES

60m

587 BCE BABYLONIANS DESTROY 1RST TEMPLE

ROMAN STREET LEVEL

960 BCE 1RST TEMPLE KING SOLOMON

DRAINAGE TUNNEL BELOW TRAVELS FROM TEMPLE MOUNT TO POOL OF SILOAM

BEDROCK

jerusalem stone 2002 CE

MAJOR POLLUTION EVENT

To begin the semester, I investigated Jerusalem stone at two scales: a single meleke limestone ashlar within the Western Wall and the region’s karst topography. The karst topography is created by natural dissolution as water erodes the most porous layer of limestone. This water is then deposited into the underground aquifers. Springs emerge from this limestone bedrock, in particular the Spring 33 of Gihon, which is located at the beginning of the Kidron Valley / Wadi Nar.

SEWAGE LEAK 1.2KM FROM SPRING

PROPOSED GARDEN OF THE KING THE ISREALI GOVERNMENT WOULD LIKE TO RESTORE THE SPRING OF GIHON BUT SILWAN A MUSLIM SETTLEMENT HAS MOVED ONTO PARTS OF THE PARKLAND WELLS TAPPING AQUIFERS ABANDONED DUE TO POLLUTION FROM RAPID URBANIIZATION: OLD SEWAGE INFRASTRUCTURE SMALL INDUSTRY PARK IRRIGATION

LAST DOCUMENTED ACCOUNT OF SPRING PULSATING MAHREB ERRECTED ON THE SRING ENTRANCE

SPRING OF GIHON

HEROD BUILDS AN AQUEDUCT FROM SOLOMON’S POOLS THE NEW PRIMARY WATER SOURCE

700 BCE

HEZEKIAH’S TUNNEL / SILOAM POOL

Meleke limestone was quarried under the Old City and the stones were used to build the The Temple Mount. Within the cracks between the ashlars emerge a variety of plants. Paper prayers are deposited into the Western Wall, which anchors into the limestone bedrock of the Tyropean Valley.

REROUTED SPRING BY TUNNELING 550M OF LIMESTONE FURTHER INTO NATURAL AQUIFER SUBTERANIAN AQUEDUCT CARRIES WATER TO THE

WARREN’S TUNNEL

1000 BCE

KING DAVID USED NATURALTUNNELS TO OVERTAKE THE CITY

POOL OF SILOAM

KIDRON VALLEY ONE OF THE REASONS JERUSALEM WAS CHOSEN BY KIND DAVID 1. WATER 2. HIGH POINT EARLY AGRICULTURL LANDS USUSALLY PAIRED WITH SPRINGS


CRACKS / FISSURES:

EMERGE PLANTS HENBANE

THORNY CAPER

PHAGNALON

HORSETAIL KNOTGRASS

SICILIAN SNAPDRAGON

DEPOSIT 1m

PAPER PRAYERS

3m

LEVEL OF PERMANENCE IN COLLECTIVE MEMORY:

CAVE OF ZEDEKIAH QARRIED UNER MUSLIM QUATER OF OLD CITY

REMEMBERED POLISHED

CRACKS / FISSURES:

EMERGE

DOME OF THE ROCK

+

SPRING WATER

MIZZI AHMAR MELEKE MIZZI HILU

DEPOSIT BURIAL CAVES

34

MELEKE natural dissolution

MIZZI

mid bina formation 10-24m thick massive porous bioporous limestone acting as acquifer upper bina formation 60-90m thick well bedded dense biomicrite limestone

LEVEL OF PERMANENCE IN COLLECTIVE MEMORY: FORGOTTEN BURIED AND THROWN


The Kidron Valley / Wadi Nar begins west of the Old City of Jerusalem in Silwan where the Spring Gihon emerges. It terminates at the Dead Sea. Along the way the valley / wadi passes through Israeli and Palestinian territory.

I chose to address three conditions of emergence and deposition along the Kidron Valley/Wadi Nar. The Spring of Gihon / Pool of Siloam, the Sewage Outlet / Separation Barrier, and the Dead Sea. By ‘cracking’ or exposing these conditions it is possible to re engineer the waters along the Kidron, cleanse and replenish the aquifers, treat and recycle the sewage waters, and slow the dangerous flashfloods to allow for the valley to become an active and productive public realm and potentially heal rifts.

DEPOSITION

BEDROCK DATUM LINE STRATA

MYSTERIES EMERGE FROM + ARE DEPOSITED INTO AN UNSEEN TERRITORY

POLLUTED

DEPLEATED

0

-400

DEAD SEA

35

EASTERN MOUNTAIN AQUIFER

Past anthropogenic adaptation and imitation of geologic emergence, along with rapid urbanization, have caused the Western Mountain Aquifer below Jerusalem to become severely polluted. Since the first founding of the City of David, the Spring of Gihon has been rerouted. Recently the Spring and Aquifer were polluted when a sewage pipe burst above the present archeological site of the Pool of Siloam. Under much of the Palestinian Territories of the West Bank lies the Eastern Mountain Aquifer which is depleted. Palestinians who live in this region find it nearly impossible to receive permission to create wells. Today untreated sewage emerges from a pipe close to the separation barrier and flows down the valley / wadi towards the Dead Sea. Flashfloods make the Kidron Valley / Wadi Nar a dangerous territory, although it is still heavily used for regional agriculture.

WESTERN MOUNTAIN AQUIFER

JERUSALEM

re engineering emergence

+600


spring of gihon

pool of siloam

kidron valley / wadi nar sewage outlet

36 dead sea / raw sewage

sinkholes


37

Kidron Valley/Wadi Nar Sections_current layers of deposition_bedrock + archeology


38

sewage water spring / stormwater

RE-ENGINEERING EMERGENCE

SEWAGE OUTLET

ANTHROPOGENIC

cleansed water

SPRING OF GIHON

GEOLOGIC


67 2

660

8

3

8

67

2

67

1

66

3 65

671

3

651

65

2

65

65

1

649

1

65

0

65

2 65 3

650

65

7

66

9

65

65

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8

66

4

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66

8

66

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656 655 654 653

50

6

649

652

1

660

650

645 646 64 64 7 8

662

6 65 655 4 65

2 65

0

66

67 0

1 66 2 66 3 66

4

672

65

3 66

666

654

65

65

6 65 54 5

665

673 670

665

654

654

65

67 4

666

667

67 5

670

659

8

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643

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648

641

6

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658

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660

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640

4

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656

641

640

653

2

5

63

65

651

639

65

0

63 6

63 5

634

645

640

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650 0 65 9 64 8 64 7 64 6 64 5 64 4 64 3 64

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629 628 627

636 635 634 633 632 631

630 629

627

Spring of Gihon_Pool of Siloam


WELL TO AQUIFER CLEANSE SPRING WATER

40

WELL TO AQUIFER

WELL TO AQUIFER CLEANSE SPRING WATER CLEANSE SPRING WATER well to aquifer_cleanse spring water_slow sand filtration_cleanse sewage_eco machines

ECO MACHINES CLEANSE SEWAGE WATER CLOSED


41

Sewage Outlet _Separation Barrier


ECO MACHINES CLEANSE SEWAGE WATER

42

CLOSED AEROBIC ANAEROBIC

ECO MACHINES CLEANSE SEWAGE WATER CLOSED AEROBIC ANAEROBIC

OPEN AEROBIC CLARIFIER ECOLOGICAL FLUIDIZED BEDS UV FILTER

HOLDING TANK well to aquifer_cleanse spring water_slow sand filtration_cleanse sewage_eco machines_closed + aerobic + anaerobic + open aerobic + clarifier + ecological fluidized beds + uv filter OPEN AEROBIC

CLARIFIER ECOLOGICAL FLUIDIZED BEDS UV FILTER HOLDING TANK


UV FILTER HOLDING TANK

43

Dead Sea_Route 90

SLOW SAND FI


UV FILTER HOLDING TANK

ECO MACHINES CLEANSE SEWAGE WATER CLOSED AEROBIC ANAEROBIC OPEN AEROBIC CLARIFIER ECOLOGICAL FLUIDIZED BEDS UV FILTER HOLDING TANK

SLOW SAND FILTRATION

44

SLOW SAND FILTRATION

well to aquifer_cleanse storm water_slow sand filtration

ILTRATION


to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

+

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

SPRING/ SLOPES

K I D RO N VA L L E Y

LEVEL LIFT: AXIS / VALLEY


Andrew Pirie


Level Lift Axis / Valley At the beginning of the semester, I was interested in an element of Islamic architecture called the mihrab. It’s a niche in the wall of a mosque, placed very precisely in order to orient the congregation in the direction of Mecca for prayer. I learned that there is an analogous tradition in Judaism of praying toward the site of the Temple Mount. An early graphic exercise, pictured at right, was to map mosques and synagogues in Israel, then to draw a line from each mosque to Mecca and from each synagogue to the site of the Temple Mount. The result was two sets of lines which seemed to have two different characters. The near-parallel lines in blue suggested transcendence or a kind of idealism. In contrast, the centripetal lines in orange suggested a priority for local surroundings and 47 conditions. I named the character of the blue lines Axis and the character of the orange lines Valley. My reading of East Jerusalem and the Kidron Valley came through the development of these two categories, Axis vs. Valley, over the next ten weeks, in the form of walking, sketching and photographing on site, mapping territories, and especially model-making.


Western Wall

City of David

Silwan

“King’s Garden”

AXIS

VALLEY

48


LEVEL LIFT VALLEY

AXIS AXIS

Temple Mount

Western Wall

City of David

Silwan

“King’s Garden”

I continued to explore Axis vs. Valley. Meantime one of my instructors, Ron Gross made a beautiful observation about valley topography, it is: Standing in the valley bottom and surrounded by valley walls, you are at a relative low point. Imagine you begin to walk, and the condition of this walk is that you stay at a constant elevation. Soon you find yourself on the sloping side of the valley. Though you’re at a constant elevation, as you walk, you are obtaining a higher and higher position relative to the valley bottom. Eventually your walk takes you to the rim of the valley, a relative high point. With this image in mind, I designed a system for collecting and conveying water from the bottom of the Kidron Valley along its sides. The water would collect at three points along the rim of the valley. Ultimately it would flow into cisterns in the 49 Palestinian village of Silwan, where it would be available to the public for gardening, laundering and watering animals. Where water moved and gathered, people could move and gather, too. Crossing back and forth between Axis and Valley, supported by strands of trees, groves, and a system of shaded staircases and platforms.

AXIS

VALLEY


PLAN, 1:1000

50


51


52


to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

+

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

SPRING/ SLOPES

K I D RO N VA L L E Y

DIRECTIONAL CONTAINER


Xiayao Shi


CANAANITE + EYGPT EMPIRE

700BCE

800BCE

NEO-AS NEO-BA

ISRAEL + JUDAH

vassal

1 1

900BCE

1000BCE

1100BCE

1200BCE

1300BCE

1400BCE

1500BCE

Oil Lamp

se

Canaan

Canaan FOLD the spout

Section

common saucer lamp

Here is the analyze table of the clay oil lamp appeared in the area of jerusalem. 55

I focus on the Canaan style, which is a

Oil Lamp unique one created and used here for

Here is the analysis table of the clay oil lamp that thousands of years. appeared in Jerusalem. I focused on the Canaan style, which is unique to the region. It was created Trough I abstracted design and used the herestudy, for thousands of years.the Through this language of “contain” and “direction”, and study I abstracted the design language of “contain” and “direction” them towork. my design. apply them and intoapplied the design

Section

Section


PERSIAN EMPIRE

ROMAN JERUSALEM

400CE

300CE

200CE

100CE

0

100BCE

200BCE

HELLENIC KINGDOM

LATE ROMAN EMPIRE

ROMAN AELIA CAPITOLINA

JERUSALEM

eiged

300BCE

400BCE

500BCE

600BCE

SSYRRIAN + ABYLONIA

ACIENT GREEK

Herodian

Round Body with Independent Spout

ROME

2

2 Wheel Throw + Hand Connection

Late Rome (North Afica)

3

THE ACIENT CLAY OIL LAMPS (near Jerusalem) 01/25/2011

56

EARLY ISLAMIC

Moulded

EYGPT

Frog Body with Two Holes

600-900CE

3

Moulded


Directional Container

exsiting valley

direction 57

Directional Container Find the potential dialogue opportunities There is a potential opportunity of the two sides of the valley. for dialouge between the two sides of the Kidron Valley. Through By containing and conversation, make containment and conversation, the design aspires people theinvalley itself more, which to assist feel people regognizing the valley, which seems seems todisappeared have disappeared from from our ournotice. notice. container

proposed projects


level down

high

project 01 arab cemetery_ jewish cemetery middle

level

REDIRECTION LAYERED

work area

mid-slope level walk (west)

high

up

SECTION 1:600

01

wa

low

middle

work area

01

02

collectors presented by vegetation bio-swale bio-swale

bottom

low

SECTION 1:600 01

walk

work area

collectors

bio-swale

low

+

gravel and soil

presented by vegetation bio-swale

gravel walk

platform detail

wall detail

01

middle

work area

birdview of eastern slope

irrigation pattern

wire frame

middle

steel cap

02

bottom

02

high

01

SECTION 1:600

walk

02

exhibition space gravel and soil

concrete

01

steel cap water collector

high

02

wire frame

+

collectors

bio-swale

wall detail

gravel walk

birdview of eastern slope

gravel and soil

presented by vegetation bio-swale

irrigation pattern

SECTION 1:600 01

walk

02

gr w

wall detail

low

irrigation pattern

exhibition space gravel and soil

concrete

platform detail

58

exhi


TO PROJECT 03

low

TO PROJECT 03

AN

LINK TO TOP LINK TO PROJECTS 01\03

middle

skyline

skyline

bottom

low

work area

middle

work area

middle

work area

low

high

skyline

LINK TO TOP LINK TO PROJECTS 01\03

work area

TO TOP LINK TO PROJECTS 01\03

project 02 mount temple _ arab village

GATE OF SILWAN TO PROJECT 03

TO PROJECT 03

high

TO PROJECT 03

middle

work area

bottom

work area skyline

middle high

skyline

work area

low

middle high

59

skyline

work area

VIEW

high

skyline

low

work area

SECTION 1:600

middle

skyline

bottom

high

low

low

low

bottom

SECTION 1:600


ALONG FLOWING DIRECTION

low

SCHOOL

HOLD THE CITY GROW ALONG THE VALLEY low

 

low

low

middle

bottom 

high

ELMENTS SERVED HERE FROM 01\02 PROJECT

middle

work area





middle

  

high



project 03 city of david _ cemetery 

ALONG THE EDGE OF RELICS

high

work area





SECTION 1:600

 

bottom



 

 

 

60  

middle

work area work area

  

 

SECTION 1:600

high

TO PROJECT 03


to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

SPRING/ SLOPES

K I D RO N VA L L E Y

+ PAPER BRIDGES


Tengteng Wang


Music in Jerusalem: common horizon, different filters

klezmer

sephardi

Music in Jerusalem: The skyline of Jerusalem is like a medley 63

common / different filters of music: ahorizon mix of various cultures. On the same city horizon, different music styles The skyline of Jerusalem is a mix of various cultures: distinguish themselves through featured like a medley of music. Within the same city’s horizon, rhythm, instruments, melody. They also different music styles distinguish themselves influence eachrhythm, other instruments, as differentand cultures through featured melody. They also influence each other as different cultures interact. Based on the investigation of muinteract. on my investigation music, the sic, the Based potential “horizons” andof“filters” on potential “horizons” and “filters” on the site became the site became key issues for the design. key issues for the design.

mizradi

arab

violin

gypsy guitar

accordion

western flute

violin

gypsy guitar

lute

hand durm

indian flute

kanun

lute

hand durm

african drum

kanun

oud

hand durm


64


PAPER BRIDGE

65

SIX HORIZONS Located at the east of Jerusalem Old City, Kidron Valley enjoys great cultural and historic significance. According to Jewish Myth, there will be two bridges above the valley on the final day of judgement. People who travel through Paper Bridges the paper bridge will SIX HORIZONS ascend to haven, while Located of Jerusalem’s the oneseast travel through Old City, Kidron Valley enjoys great steel bridge will fall as cultural and historic significance. the bridge collapses. According to Jewish Myth, there will be two of bridges above the valley The idea paper on the inspires final day new of judgement. bridge People who travel through the possibilities of building paper bridge will ascend to ephemeral heaven, whileconnections the ones who travel through the steel bridge between two sides of will fall as the bridge collapses. The idea valley. Six “horizons”, of the paper bridge inspires new which is also six impossibilities of building ephemeral portant paths on both connections between two sides of the valley. Six “horizons”, which are sides of the valley was also six important paths identified to serve as on both sides of the valley were identified the basis for the “paper to serve as the basis for the “paper bridges”. bridges”.

mount of olives 800 m

derech jericho 710 m

valley path 680m

cemetry path 700m

derech haophel 720m temple mount 740m


66


VIA DOLOROSA: a pilgrimage system

DOWNHILL: a water system

TRANSECTING: horizon 1 - horizon 4

Birket_Israel pool

1-1 old city roof top collection system

route

channel

stations

channel bank access points

1-3 kidron valley olive plantation swell system

ROUTE - STATIONS - BRANCHES

branches

water gathering swells

1-2 temple mount surface water collection system

DOWN AND UP: a shade system

1-4 jewish cemetry water encatchment system

1-5 silwan community sewage water treatment system

TRANSECTING: horizon 3 - horizon 5

2-1 west slope olive plantation system

67

THREE TRANSECTS Kidron Valley serves as a sensitive filtering zone for Jewish and Arabic population. Three THREE TRANSECTS major transecting The Kidron Valley serves as movements bring new a sensitive filtering zone for access and functions to Jewish and Arabic population. the sixmajor horizons. While Three transecting movements bringfaciliate new access the transects and functions to flows the six the ephemeral of horizons. While the transects water, light, and human faciliate the ephemeral flows the valley, ofinwater, light, the and horihuman beings in thehold valley, the zons which solid horizons which solid landmarks andhold activilandmarks and activities ties, become important become important filtering filtering system. system.

route

valley transecting stairway

stations

summer time: shaded areas winter time: viewing platforms

branches

olive rows and their extentions

2-2 east slope pine forest system

3-2 west slope Z shaped visual clue

3-1 east slope Y shaped visual clue

UPHILL: a viewing system

TRANSECTING: horizon 4 - horizon 6

route

mount of olives climbing road

stations

summer time: shaded areas winter time: water catchment basins

branches

retainning walls


MIXED ADAPTATIONS: WATER - SHADE - VIEW water infrastructures providing views and shade

water storage pool in winter

water storage pool in summer

water channel in winter

water channel in summer

vegetation system as hydrological mediator

olive in hard surface setting

olive in soft surface setting

jerusalem pine in hard surface setting

jerusalem pine in soft surface setting

viewing terraces as water entachment device

68 water catchment basin with existing vegetation winter condition

water catchment basin with existing vegetation summer condition

water encatchment basin in space limited areas winter condition

water encatchment basin in space limited areas summer condition


water

horizon 1 horizon 2 horizon 3

shade

horizon 4

view

winter

69

summer

INTERSECTION 1: Horizon 3 vs. Transect 1


water

horizon 3

shade horizon 4

horizon 5

view

winter

70

summer

INTERSECTION 2: Horizon 5 vs. Transect 2


water

horizon 4

horizon 5

shade horizon 6

view

winter

71

summer

INTERSECTION 3: Horizon 6 vs. Transect 3


72


73


74


CORRIDOR / BROWN FIELDS R E FA I M VA L L E Y

to Mediterranean Sea

+ to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

to Dead Sea


REFAIM VALLEY


CORRIDOR / BROWN FIELDS

to Dead Sea

R E FA I M VA L L E Y

to Mediterranean Sea

REFAIM VALLEY: A NEW GROUND FOR WATER AND RITUAL

+ to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea


Alison Hirsch


COMMUNION

READING

TONSURE + VESTING

SUBMERSION

CONFIRMATION

OIL BLESSING + ANNOINTING

BLESSING OF THE WATER

BAPTISM

LIFE

BLESSED WATER CONTAINED

LUNAR YEAR

IMMERSE

IMMERSE

PARY

IMMERSE

DESCEND

GROOM

SHOWER

TO BE

MIQVEH

LIVING WATER RUNNING

FEET

EARS

HAIR

ARMS

FACE

NOSE

HANDS

MOUTH

TO IM

Purity Rituals: Baptism, Miqveh, Wudhu 79 The investigation in Jerusalem began with a WUDHU preliminary study of purity rituals practiced by each of the three primary religions. The study notated their calendars, as well as the body’s movement and degrees of wetness within prescribed spatial conditions. This starting point informed the sense of rhythm and notation of the site work, as well as inspired emphasis on social ritual within this socially (and politically) contentious location.

SOLAR DAY

FRESH WATER PIPED

TO W


PURITY RITUALS

LIFE

READING

SUBMERSION

COMMUNION

PERFORMANCE

TONSURE + VESTING

TEMPO

CONFIRMATION

CYCLE

OIL BLESSING + ANNOINTING

RHYTHM

BLESSING OF THE WATER

SOURCE

BAPTISM

BLESSED WATER CONTAINED

MATTHEW 3:13-17; MARK 1:9-11; LUKE 3:21-22; JOHN 1:29-33

LUNAR YEAR

IMMERSE

IMMERSE

PARY

IMMERSE

DESCEND

GROOM

SHOWER

TO BE PLUNGED

MIQVEH

LIVING WATER RUNNING

LEVITICUS 15

SOLAR DAY

FEET

EARS

HAIR

ARMS

FACE

NOSE

HANDS

MOUTH

TO IMMERSE

WUDHU

80

FRESH WATER PIPED

ASRAR AL-TAHARAH

TO WASH


Refaim Valley: A new ground for water + ritual Cutting through a diversity of neighborhoods, the Refaim Valley and the defunct railroad line that runs along its floor, creates an interesting social and cultural transect. The transect is comprised of not only Jewish and Arab populations, but offers a stepping-stone environment for shifting immigrant groups. The crossings over the rail line are particularly striking for their ritualistic qualities of 81 passing over a threshold. Significant social anchors, the reason for the most populous crossings, directed the interventions. Four such anchors serve as the programmatic generators. In each of the four strategic locations, the programs are extended into the public realm. In each location, there is a social and a water or ecological agenda, each mutually supporting and enhancing the other.


RHYTHMS_HORIZONS + MATERIALS

REFAIM VALLEY And it shall come to pass in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem; half of them toward the eastern sea and half of them to the western sea (Zechariah XIV, 8)

ANCHORS + ARTIFACTS

OPERATIONS + AGENDAS

ANCIENT JERUSALEM

SPLICE MEKOR CHAIM

STERILIZED ZONE

INTERVENTION

checkpoint

ENCOUNTER

MULTIPLY CROSSINGS

ER AT W IVIDE D

GONENIM NEIGHBORHOODS

fortified synagogue

GREEN LINE NAHAL REFAIM

DIVERT

BEIT SHEMESH

THROW OFF AXIS

SCREEN

THRESHOLD

RAV HEN THEATER (AND MARKET)

EVENT

BIBLE HILL

ENTER SACRED GROUND

BEIT SAFAFA MOSQUE + COMMUNITY CENTER NAHAL SOREK

EXCHANGE

82

OLIVE GROVES SEA

TERRACE

BREAK FORTIFICATION HAND-IN-HAND BILINGUAL SCHOOL


GONENIM

CUT OPEN SHADE WATER

PROPOSED SHADE WATER

CUT OPEN

WATER TOWER AS NEW ANCHOR

CHECKPOINT AS

FILTER + PUMP

FROM THE STORMWATER CHANNEL

FOR USE BY MEKOR CHAIM + GONENIM

COMMUNION

READING

TANK

TONSURE + VESTING

SUBMERSION

CONFIRMATION

DAM OIL BLESSING + ANNOINTING

DAM

BLESSING OF THE WATER

To the north, the rail corridor marks a sharp division between the residential neighborhoods on either side – the mixed subsidized housing of Gonenim and the Jewish community of Mekor Chaim on the other. Established in 1926 as a village of houses each with a garden and orchard, Mekor Chaim was originally surrounded by Arab villages and fortified itself for protection. A berm and fence separates the neighborhood from the rail, while Gonenim remains open. The strategy is simple – break the barrier through increased crossings, encouraging enhanced moments of ENCOUNTER. The operation of SPLICING allows for an exchange of conditions between the two neighborhoods. Lush vegetation providing much needed shade and water from the upland Mekor Chaim is introduced in Gonenim and the openness of Gonenim is pushed into the fortified Mekor Chaim through topographic cuts in the berm. The anchor for this intervention had to be fabricated – the old rail checkpoint is transformed from an artifact of political division to a filter and pump with an adjacent water tower, serving the 83 communities on both sides of the rail. Currently the rail corridor creates a kind of aqueduct, channeling piped stormwater between the berm and the rail bed. The intervention builds on this condition, by providing more deliberate infrastructure for the collected water to be channeled and dammed at points of holding before continuing into the filter and storage tank.

MEKOR CHAIM

EXISTING


ENCOUNTER_SPLICE

GENERATION: extend orientations of Mekor Chaim + Gonenim into a woven network of crossings

EXISTING

BERM broken into spaces for occupation

CROSSINGS as places of encounter

84

WATER stormwater directed from upland into channel

ANCHOR


85


BERM+CROSSING AS DAM

86

BERM AS TERRACE


COLLECT-FILTER-IRRIGATE-HARVEST-SELL-CELEBRATE

RT

DIVE

TSABAR/SABER (OPUNTIA)

RT

DIVE

PROJECTION

G

SSIN

CRO

OUTDOOR CINEMA

ISRAELI_IDENTITY/ARAB_MARKING BOUNDS

COMMUNITY AGRICULTURE The existing movie theater with ground floor supermarket provides the stimulus for an axial crossing from southern Gonenim. The program for the intervention is thus one of EVENT, pulling the market and theater into the public realm. DIVERT became the operational strategy for the intervention – diverting attention and movement from the crossing into the event space on either side. Building on the study of the miqveh, as a ritual that marks life event, the community is drawn into a descending market in which the earth collapses in three pivot points (filtration gardens). This pivoting infrastructure simultaneously collects and cleans greywater from Gonenim, directing it through the amphitheater (used for movie projections and staged performances) and storing 87 it in the depression that collects additional water from the roofs of the Talpiot industrial buildings and the channeled stormwater from Gonenim. The collective water is stored in tanks along this depression to be used for irrigation of crops sold in the outdoor market. The use of tsabar, or prickly pear, to divide the agricultural plots, references the dual cultural claims to the plant.

WATER COLLECTION

GREYWATER CHANNEL + FILTRATION GARDENS

COLLAPSED EARTH FILTRATION GARDENS

MA

MIQVEH_

TO IMMERSE


EVENT_DIVERT

EXISTING

path

rail

amphitheater stage

FESTIVAL

MARKET

greywater

HARVEST

channeled stormwater from Gonenim

WATER harvested for crop irrigation

ANCHOR

COMBINED COLLECTION OF: -filtered greywater -channeled stormwater -roofwater from Talpiot industrial bdgs STORED IN SUB-GRADE CISTERNS FOR DRIP IRRIGATION

88


89


NISAN

COLLECT-FILTER-IRRIGATE-HARVEST-SELL-CELEBRATE

BARLEY

Barley Harvest Festival WHEAT (Pesach)

IYAR

RT

DIVE

TSABAR/SABER (OPUNTIA)

RT

DIVE

PROJECTION

SING

S CRO

OUTDOOR CINEMA

ISRAELI_IDENTITY/ARAB_MARKING BOUNDS

SIWAN

Wheat Harvest Festival (Shavuot)

Israel Festival

TAMMUZ

Jerusalem Film Festival

COMMUNITY AGRICULTURE

AV

FRUIT

WATER COLLECTION

MARKET

ELUL

TISHRI

GREYWATER CHANNEL + FILTRATION GARDENS

COLLAPSED EARTH FILTRATION GARDENS

OLIVE

Fruit Harvest Festival CITRUS (Sukkot)

MARHESHWAN

KISLEW

TEBETH

90 SHEVAT

RAIN

Rain Harvest Festival

ADAR LUNAR MONTH / HEBREW CALENDAR OUTDOOR FILM/PERFORMANCE

FESTIVAL AMPHITHEATER

MIQVEH_

TO IMMERSE

MARKET NISAN

FESTIVAL


The mosque and community center that exist along the rail in the Arab community of Beit Safafa become the programmatic anchor for this intervention. Currently the rail tracks serve as a THRESHOLD over which a worshipper has to cross to reach the mosque from upper Beit Safafa. The intervention builds on this condition by extending the spiritual ground from mosque up to the rail, while dually providing enhanced social gathering space around the mosque and community center. Using the rhythm of the wudhu, the prescribed ritual of washing before prayer, screens of date palms and subtle terraces force the body to move according to the choreography of the path stepping down to the mosque. Houses abut either side of the rail in this area, so the intervention responds to 91 this compressed intimate condition. The original crossing serves as a greywater channel, while stormwater is run along the path and, during the rainy season, empties into a new ablution station. The combined water is collected in a storage tank between the mosque and center to be used for irrigation of the existing sports field and new gardens.

FEET

EARS

HAIR

ARMS FEET

EARS

HAIR

NOSE

FACE ARMS

MOUTH FACE

NOSE

MOUTH

HANDS HANDS

PIPED WATER PIPED WATER

TO WASH

SCREENS

COMMUNITY CTR

RAIL

TERRACING

SQUE

O TO M

ANCHOR

MOSQUE


THRESHOLD_SCREEN houses

rail WUDHU hands consistently wet while washing

EXISTING compressed INTIMATE GARDENS for shade, social gathering + water filtration

PATHS+ GARDENS becomes GREYWATER FILTRATION CHANNEL aligned with original crossing

SCREENS+ TERRACES

SCREENS OF DATE PALM for cultural significance + high canopy + potential sustenance, esp. during Ramadan to break daily fast

STORMWATER CHANNELED ALONG PATH FILTERED IN GARDENS to Mecca

ABLUTION STATION (rainy season) COMBINED STORAGE TANK for irrigation of non-edibles (field + gardens)

WATER

92

BEIT SAFAFA GREYWATER

SOLAR DAY

ANCHOR

COMMUNITY CENTER

SPORTS FIELD MOSQUE

PRAYER CYCLE


93


PROCESSION TO MOSQUE GARDENS, TERRACES, SCREENS

94

FILTERED STORMWATER ABLUTION STATION


AND’ BILINGUAL SCHOOL ‫ספטמבר‬ ‫ﺭﺏﻡﺕﺏﺱ‬ ‫ספטמבר‬ ‫ﺭﺏﻡﺕﺏﺱ‬

‫אוקטובר‬ ‫אוקטובר‬ ‫ﺭﺏﻭﺕﻙﺃ‬ ‫ﺭﺏﻭﺕﻙﺃ‬

G OLIVE N IN BEIT SAFAFA

‘HAND IN HAND’ BILINGUAL SCHOOL

EID EL FATIR attayif EID EL FATIR attayif POMEGRANATE POMEGRANATE

ROSH HOSHANA apple+honey dates ROSH HOSHANA pomegranates apple+honey dates pomegranates SUKKOT grains cereals SUKKOT grains cereals

‫נובמבר‬ ‫נובמבר‬ ‫ﺭﺏﻡﻑﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺏﻡﻑﻭﻥ‬

DWINDLING OLIVE CULTIVATION IN BEIT SAFAFA

‫דצמדבצרמבר‬ ‫ﺭﺏﻡﺱﻱﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺏﻡﺱﻱﺩ‬ HANNUKAH HANNUKAH

‫ינואינרואר‬ ‫ﻥﻭﻥﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻱﻥﺍﺙﻝﺍ‬ ‫ﻥﻭﻥﺍﻙ‬ ‫ﻱﻥﺍﺙﻝﺍ‬

CHRISTMAS CHRISTMAS coucous coucous baklava baklava stuffed dates stuffed dates

ANAEROBIC SEDIMENTATION BASIN

‫פברפובארואר‬ ‫ﺭﻱﺍﺭﺏﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﻱﺍﺭﺏﻑ‬

SCHOOL’S RAW IN

1 day OXIDATION POOLS 5 days

‫מרץמרץ‬ ‫ﺱﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺱﺭﺍﻡ‬

‫אפראיפלריל‬ ‫ﻝﻱﺭﺏﺃ‬/‫ﻝﻱﺭﺏﺇ‬ ‫ﻝﻱﺭﺏﺃ‬/‫ﻝﻱﺭﺏﺇ‬

95

‫מאי‬ ‫ﻭﻱﺍﻡאי‬ ‫מ‬ ‫ﻭﻱﺍﻡ‬

8 days PURIM hamantaschen PURIM kreplach hamantaschen kreplach

5 days PESACH matzoh PESACH haroset matzoh bitter herbs haroset parsley bitter herbs EASTER parsley EASTER CHICKPEA CHICKPEA

EFFLUENT FOR IRRIGATION

PLANT PLANT

YOM HA’ATZMAUT

YOM HA’ATZMAUT LAG BAOMER

‫יוני‬ ‫יוני‬ ‫ﻭﻱﻥﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻱﻥﻭﻱ‬

LAG BAOMER SHAVUOT cheese dairy SHAVUOT cheese dairy

CURRICULUM CULTIVATION CURRICULUM HOLIDAY FASTS +FEASTS

FEAST

CULTIVATION MARKET EXCHANGE HOLIDAY FASTS +FEASTS MARKET EXCHANGE

FEAST

FAST

FAST

HARVEST EXCHANGE

EXCHANGE

HARVEST


EXCHANGE_TERRACE

NEW CROSSINGS inviting community into + through

MARKET for wider exchange STUDENT-MANAGED AGRICULTURE

EXISTING OLIVE PLOTS

CURRICULUM harvests/fasts/feasts

CLASSROOMS extending from ‘fortification’ wall

STORMWATER CHANNEL

SCHOOL’S GREYWATER OXIDATION POOLS

WATER irrigation network

ANCHOR

‘HAND IN HAND CENTER FOR JEWISH-ARAB EDUCATION IN ISRAEL

96


STORMWATER TRENCH

BREAK THROUGH FORTIFICATION

The “Hand in Hand Center for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” provided the optimal programmatic anchor for this portion of the valley. The school is a massive new complex with a relentless fortification wall that separates it from the rail and the olive plantations in Beit Safafa on the other side. The intervention is based on a system of EXCHANGE as derived from the mission and values of the school. Through an operation of TERRACING or breaking through the wall and descending into the territory of the rail and olive fields, the potential for exchange is optimized. The new interstitial zone between school and fields becomes outdoor classrooms for learning about cultural practices, in particular cultivation, as well as food production as it relates to the cross-cultural 97 calendar that defines the unique academic year of the Hand in Hand school. Therefore, the curriculum is based on cultivation, holiday fasts and feasts, as well as a market exchange to provide goods that serve those feasts. The school’s greywater is terraced from the school into the valley to be used collectively for the olive plantations and the new student-managed agriculture.

GREYWATER OXIDATION POOLS


98


CORRIDOR / BROWN FIELDS

to Dead Sea

R E FA I M VA L L E Y

to Mediterranean Sea

REFAIM VALLEY: A PLAN FOR SUSTENANCE, SUSTAINABILITY, AND EDUCATION

+ to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea


Joseph Marwil


Chickpea as Base Ingredient

A combination of ingredients that make up a space may offer a totally different experience than one that is a repetition of a single element. Designing spaces as one would follow a recipe was the impetus for the project, and uniquely variable and functional environments is the result.

fruits/vegetables

spices

other ingredients

chickpea prep.

onion garlic tomatoes

cumin ginger root turmeric coriander cayenne salt

(hing) (asafoetida) (black pepper) (cinnamon)

lime juice (ghee)

chopped and pureed, boil mixture, served hot

garlic parsley

garlic parsley

onion (parsley)

onion

onion garlic

onion parsley garlic tomato green bell pepper

onion

onion garlic potato lemon dried sumac

onion green onions celery leaves spinach parsley

red onion carrots potato peas

eggplant onion garlic zucchini tomatoes

red onion (shallots)

tomatoes onion parsley

salt black pepper paprika

salt cumin chili powder black pepper

salt cardamom black pepper (turmeric)

salt black pepper cinnamon mint leaves

salt white pepper berbere

cilantro salt hot red pepper cumin

salt black pepper

allspice berries bay leaf cloves turmeric cayenne salt peppercorns (rose petals) nutmeg cumin cinnamon cardamom ginger

salt black pepper turmeric

cayenne paprika ginger salt black pepper cumin cardamom

salt cilantro black pepper nutmeg

hot chili powder garlic powder cardamom salt black pepper

cayenne coriander salt

baking soda tahina paste lemon juice olive oil

lemon juice olive oil tahini paste

olive oil

ground beef bread crumbs chicken broth

vegetable oil

baking powder

ground beef baking soda water olive oil

canola oil chicken

olive oil lamb shoulder lemon juice water (red kidney beans) (basmati rice)

olive oil tomato paste

olive oil

olive oil

olive oil

soaked in water and baking soda whole, mashed, served at room temp.

half whole, half crushed, served at room temp.

mashed into

left hole, simmered, served hot

simmered in boiling mixture, served hot

left hole, simmered, served warm

(chicken) (turkey) (lamb) (veal) (egg) ground into mixture, meatball simmered in stock, served hot

crushed and blended with mixture, simmered in boiling water as ball

vegetable oil tahini sauce pita bread

fried, served hot

blended but not pureed, fried, served hot

for mixture to be fried and served hot

shelled raw pistachios tomatoes garlic toasted sliver almonds (green onion)

couscous

left hole, spiced, placed into boiling mixture, served hot

boil whole in mixture, served hot

boiled whole, served warm

tomatoes stu ed with chickpeas onion spinach garlic lemon

tomato onion garlic pine nu

bay leaf garam masala (peppercorns) cilantro coriander (cardamoms) cumin ginger root turmeric cayenne

curry coriander cumin garam masala

cilantro salt peppe allspice cumin cayenn

olive oil lemon juice

lentils elbow macaroni rice olive oil

vegetable oil lemon juice

olive oil tomato paste sugar lemon juice pomegranate molasses

tea bag vegetable oil

olive oil

olive o butter

simmer whole, serve warm

left whole, simmer, serve warm

add whole to mixture, served hot

left whole, served hot or cold

boiled whole with mixture, gravy-like consistency

left whole, served hot

left wh

brown rice (basmati rice) plain yogurt simmered whole in mixture, served warm

chana masala onion tomatoes garlic

salt

paprika oregano

left whole in heated mixture, served warm

curried chickpeas (chole) eggplant garlic tomatoes parsley

salt chili powder cumin lemon pepper (black pepper)

onion garlic tomatoes spinach

turmeric sea salt dill weed black pepper

orange oil soy burger

lebanese moussaka tomatoes onion

red onion garlic orange peel

ginger cinnamon black pepper cumin cardamom salt basmati rice

spicy chickpeas

egyptian lentils and chickpeas (koushari) onion garlic

salt

onion fried brown onion (leeks) (broccoli) (lemon)

(grape seed oil) (olive oil) (chicken)

sautee whole, simmer, served hot

greek chickpeas with spinach

afghan chickpea rice

chickpea and rice pilaf (chana pulao)

tomato couscous with chickpeas

lamb korma

ethiopian spicy chickpea stew (yeshinbra shiro wot)

syrian eggplant and chickpea stew

ethiopian chickpea wot

land and chickpea stew (qormeh sabzi)

spiced chicken and chickpea stew (tashreed dijaaj)

chickpea our patties (shami aarde nokhodchi)

felafel

ethiopian chickpea “ sh� and sauce (yeshimbra assa)

meatballs w/ chickpeas (kofta nakhod)

chickpea dumplings (gondi)

syrian whole chickpea hummus (musabbaha)

israeli hummus

The chart on the right describes a way of viewing the chickpea as part of a dish in its whole form (i.e. chickpea salad) to its most purified form (i.e. hummus). In its range of forms, the chickpea’s flavor remains constant, but as more ingredients are added, it becomes embellished and takes on new form or flavor. This mixture of ingredients describes 101 the process by which I approached my design of the Refaim Valley in terms of landscape interventions.

chickpea dal (kabuli chana dal)

Before I approached an analysis of the valley in Jerusalem that I would orient my research, I focused on a particular element, specific to the region, that might form a basis for studying and thinking about the project in a unique way. I chose the chickpea because it is a food commonly used in various dishes throughout the Middle East, especially in Israel.


oes

uts

o

er e

STEP 3 puree 1/2 H2) 1/4 Olive oil 6 cloves garlic add 1/4 tsp add 1/4 cup add 1/4 cup

season add to serving bowl

save 10 tbsp. H2O 2 tbsp. chickpea 1/4 tsp

hole, served warm

DRAIN

COVER

3/4 cup STEP 1

STEP 2

1/4 tsp

1/4 tsp

GRIND

2 whole cloves

1/2 tsp

transfer to bowl

STIR

1/8 tsp STEP 1

STEP 2 2 pods

add 6 cups water

BOIL 40 mins

1/2 tsp

SAUTEE

1 1/2 tsp

simmer 20 mins serve STEP 4 1/8 tsp

puree

TOAST

WASH 1/2 lb

1/4 cup 2 tbsp water 1/4 cup

X2

stir baking soda in 2� of water

1/4 cup

garlic pine nuts parsley pomegranate seeds

salt black pepper cumin

pita bread lemon juice plain yogurt

heated whole till cooked, served warm

spicy toasted garbanzo beans and pistachios

cucumber green bell pepper bermuda onion tomato

mango romaine lettuce cucumber carrot celery pineapple

mung beans lettuce red onion tomatoes garlic (arugula) ginger (cucumbers) jalapeno pepper

onion parsley

black beans garlic pine nuts

potatoes

shelled raw pistachios

cilantro salt allspice black pepper turmeric paprika ginger caraway cinnamon mint

salt black pepper

salt

curry powder black pepper salt cumin seed coriander

salt

cumin salt

mint leaves red chili powder

coarse sea salt cumin black pepper cayenne pepper thyme leaves

olive oil long grain rice

lamb chunks vegetable oil tomato paste wheat bulgur

olive oil lemon juice white vinegar

lemon juice

olive oil lemon/lime juice agave sweetner

olive oil apple cider vinegar lemon juice feta cheese

olive oil

white vinegar baking soda

olive oil

left whole, served hot

sauteed whole, served hot

left whole, served chilled

mixed whole, served at room temp.

whole, served at room temp.

left whole, served chilled

left whole, served room temp.

soaked whole, simmered, served warm or cold

baked whole to golden crisp, served warm

onion

onion garlic

onion garlic tomato

onion garlic tomatoes

onion potato tomato carrots garlic

salt clove cinnamon allspice black pepper

cilantro coriander salt pepper cayenne mustard powder

cilantro salt pepper cumin allspice

coriander salt black pepper cumin allspice

lamb shank

butter

butter chicken broth rice

drain, simmer, served hot

left whole in water, simmered and served warm

left hole, simmered, served warm

SERVE

STEP 5 COOK

chickpea and potato salad

balila lebanese salad

turkish chickpea salad (hohut salatasi)

persian chickpea salad

south indian chickpea salad (sundal)

israeli chickpea salad

turkish chickpea and lamb soup (harira)

turkish chickpea and lamb soup (harira)

tomato and chickpea soup

iraqi chickpea soup

fetteh

lamb chickpea soup (shorba)

HEAT

WRAP

DRAIN

add 7 to saucepan

ne

oil

RINSE

add garlic

parsley

add 1 tbsp stir in whole chickpeas add garnish

102


REFAIM VALLEY A PLAN FOR SUSTENANCE, SUSTAINABILITY, AND EDUCATION The Refaim Valley is located southwest of Jerusalem’s old city. It is an old passenger rail corridor that has been abandoned for two decades. All that remains is a track over mostly flat ground. A photojournal was recorded in the Spring of 2011 to analyze the corridor layout and the physical conditions that surround it. The procession along the valley is photographed from the center of the track, shot in both directions, northeast and southwest. These scenes are what a rail passenger would have seen from the train window, and they encompass a series of walls, thick vegetation, and a constant variation between blocked and opened views. These are the ‘backyards’ of both Arab and Jewish neighborhoods, mostly lower income areas. In each of the existing plan views are placed the current proposals for interventions along the corridor which vary in their primary functions for interactive, productive and sustantive landscapes for local residents. Study models were constructed with various materials like wood, plexi glass, and metal wires using sight lines from the rail corridor and existing structures like apartment buildings and walls. These models were photographed and lines were extracted from the basic infrastructures like walls, water lines, and buildings, and new lines were drawn as boundaries for gardens and water storage areas. Using food as a cultural commonality among local residents, each of the five intervention areas here become more developed in their vision, and take on a different character at specific times of the growing season. Here various moments of the year show parts of each landscape as active (productive) or inactive (fallow). Diagrammatically, the structure of each of the five interventions becomes clearer as the functionality of the space is broken down into its separate components. Across all parts of the year, different events show activation of one piece of ground while others are inactive. And this process reverses as time progresses.

103

Taking sectional and perspectival views along the corridor, spaces emerge as productive landscapes. A shared use path is the horizontal connection between varying urban and rural cores, while the perpendicular crossings serve as cultural links between communities. At any given moment in the year, these spaces may be activated to provide shade, food production, water storage and irrigation, water purification and reuse, stormwater management, energy production, experimental agricultural plots for education, or open spaces for recreation. The Refaim Valley is a neglected resource for a local community struggling with poverty, water scarcity, and decreasing sustenance for nourishment. There is great potential here for cultural connections across communities, and educational opportunities for young people to enact positive change through sustainable agricultural practices now and into the future.


104


kidron valley

N

rephaim valley

hinom valley

interventions for

5 areas across old rail corridor

105

1

busy street corner marks the end of an existing shared use path and the beginning of a corridor through the backyards of a series of both arab and jewish residences

2

corridor becomes narrow between apartment complexes, views of walls , heavier vegetation present, views down valley become apparent

3

large open area between large supermarket and apartment homes, olive groves come into view, pedestrian activity frequent across corridor


106

4

cross under overpass divides jewish and arab neighborhood, various olive groves, open space becomes narrow again

5

end of old rail corridor, beginning of active freight rail track, cactus demarcate property borders, many olive groves, bilingual school next to large overpass


wheat

107

lentil

wheat

wheat

lentil

lentil

barley flax seed

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1005

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vetch

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Oats

sesame

sesame

sesame

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flax seed

flax seed

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millet

millet

Flax seed

grape

Safflower

grape

grape

Cotton

fig

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fig

Grapes Figs Pomegranate

cotton

cotton Olive

cotton

crop schedule from planting to harvest

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crop schedule from planting to harvest

crop schedule from planting to harvest

09 04

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06

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chickpea

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chickpea

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barley lentil

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flax seed

millet

olive

millet

grape cotton

grape

cotton fig

pomegranate

olive

fig

pomegranate

olive

cotton

cotton


water network

walls

water storage

walls/buildings

water network

cultivation

water storage

cultivation

water network

walls/buildings

water storage

flo ens

gard

trellis wall

storm water pools

winter

spring

lentils vetch sesame filtration detention flowers

summer

Infrastructure, Ingredients, & Calendar

shade

detention

detention flowers

fall

drainage network collecting cistern water storage

publicproducegardens

apartment houses close to corridor private community gardens concentrated produce/station for distribution market temporary greenhouse structures on permanent trellis irrigation lines along lateral gardens running from cisterns water collection east and west limited shade structures

lentils

ment

produce collection center

station collection/distribution

Complexes

r apa

distribution water

flax peas lentils vetch detention

winter

primary secondary

spring

movement

grapes sesame safflour flax peas/tomato cotton

work flow

grapes cotton millet detention

connection to neighborhoods east seasonal farmer’s market during harvest months produce collection stations (weighing, packaging) processing station (cleaning and preparation of produce) platforms for trucks vehicle parking large open field for gathering/events/play

open land filtration detention

detention

summer

fall

winter

ts tmen

drainage network collecting cistern water storage

primary secondary

et ity mark commun olive grove

ground

water

s

apartment n

oats peas barley

movement

Apart

n

cooperation

o nti

water

filtration detention

109

tree

te de

flower cultivation/long gardens/different patterns trellis seasonal plots gathering space for people as northern anchor shade restroom/water fountain loving trellis/canopy plants larger trees for shade vegetated wall functions as cistern

filtration detention

calendar

primary secondary public gathering

water storage

production

temporary uses greenho

ingredients

food

collection

drainage network collecting cistern filtration pools

tio filtra

seasonal

pool

blic puw er

public

infrastructure

water

open land vetch filtration detention flowers

spring

movement

open land tomato/cucumber grapes pomegranate filtration flowers

summer


water network

pomegranate

filtration detention active solar

retention pools

ry pora uses temgreenho

open land grapes

water

water storage

primary secondary

water storage

purification

cultivation

water network

drainage network collecting cisterns

main runoff channel irrigative output water storage input

filtration research

experimentation

lab

water

barley filtration detention active solar

movement

chickpea olive wheat

treatment system

olive filtration active solar

experimentation produce gardens adjacent to bilingual school LAB: plant genetics, blight control research, arid zone cultivation, renewable water, irrigation, and filtration technology research highway runoff captured for filtration research water retention pools wildlife observation education

filtration detention

filtration detention active solar

fall

winter

spring

summer

walls/buildings

l tro on t c earch ghres bli

cleansing

temporal cultivation fields primarily late season harvest crops (olive, pomegranate) fallow ground for majority of year pedestrian connection from bridge public produce gardens water recharge/purification station (gray water) large irrigation canals run into retention basins runoff from highway channeled to water retention pools

system

drainage network runoff & sewage filtration pools

s

energy

olive & produce

ch w fie ater ld

solar

filtered resident input local neighborhood input

pomegranate

concentrated produce output crop input water storage input

walls/buildings

hir ghw es run ay highway ea off r

cultivation

fall

winter

experimentation

irrigation research

gardens

l bilingua school

zone

filtration pools water storage

water

water storage

cultivation

primary secondary

runoff collection channels irrigative output water storage input primary drainage input produce output

movement

system

barley peas lentils vetch

oats wheat chickpea sesame safflour grapes olive

filtration detention

filtration detention

spring

summer

olive grapes detention

fall

110


water network

walls

water storage

walls/buildings

water network

cultivation

cture

water storage

cultiva

a o ens d gar seasonal

water storage

trellis wall

storm water pools

trellis

shade loving plants

water

oats peas barley filtration detention

winter

spring

movement

lentils vetch sesame filtration detention flowers

summer

shade

ment

publicproducegardens

apartment houses close to corridor private community gardens concentrated produce/station for distribution market temporary greenhouse structures on permanent trellis irrigation lines along lateral gardens running from cisterns water collection east and west limited shade structures

lentils

Apart

station collection/distribution

Complexes

water

flax peas lentils vetch

detention

detention flowers

fall

detention

winter

primary secondary

produce

n

cooperation

drainage network collecting cistern water storage

ntio

rary es tempo us greenho

filtration detention

A

tree

production

seasonal plots gathering space for people as northern anchor restroom/water fountain trellis/canopy larger trees for shade vegetated wall functions as cistern

111

primary secondary public gathering

te de

food

collection

nts

drainage network collecting cistern filtration pools

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blic puw er

spring

movement

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gr co m

de

detention

summer

f


112

b


cultivation

water network

poo

produce collection center

drainage network collecting cistern water storage

t ity marke commun olive grove

ground

water

ts apar tmen ion

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movement

water

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n

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Complexes

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apartment houses close to corridor private community gardens concentrated produce/station for distribution market temporary greenhouse structures on permanent trellis irrigation lines along lateral gardens running from cisterns water collection east and west limited shade structures

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ntio

Apart

drainage network collecting cistern water storage

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walls/buildings

water network

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detention

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detention

winter

113

spring

grapes sesame safflour flax peas/tomato cotton

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open land

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filtration detention

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detention

summer

fall

winter

spring

e B

d


114


walls/buildings

water storage

water network

cultivation

winter

115

C

olive & produce

water

movement

system

water

primarily late season harvest crops (olive, pomegranate) fallow ground for majority of year pedestrian connection from bridge public produce gardens large irrigation canals run into retention basins

open land vetch filtration detention flowers

spring

open land tomato/cucumber grapes pomegranate

open land grapes pomegranate

filtration flowers

summer

fall

filtration detention active solar

winter

retention pools

ry pora uses temgreenho

filtration detention

ion

open land

energy

cleansing

ground

water

ts apar tmen

solar

filtered resident input local neighborhood input

t ity marke commun olive grove

ay highway

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concentrated produce output crop input water storage input

purification

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primary secondary

hig r hw

s ent

drainage network collecting cistern water storage

pomegranate

public

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water network

lab


c

116


water network

solar energy

dra coll

main runoff channel irrigative output water storage input

purification

lab

water

movement

d

treatment system

hig r hw

ry pora uses temgreenho

large irrigation canals run into retention basins

retention pools

water storage

es run ea of rc f w hf a iel ter ds

water

primary secondary

water network

cultivation

research

experimentation experimentation produce gardens adjacent to bilingual school LAB: plant genetics, blight control research, arid zone technology research water retention pools wildlife observation education

e filtration detention active solar

barley filtration detention active solar

chickpea olive wheat

olive filtration active solar

filtration detention

filtration detention active solar

winter

e117

D

spring

summer

fall

winter

l tro on t csearch ghre

cleansing

primarily late season harvest crops (olive, pomegranate) fallow ground for majority of year pedestrian connection from bridge public produce gardens

drainage network runoff & sewage filtration pools

water storage

bli

olive & produce

pomegranate

ay highway

walls/buildings

experimentation

irrigation research

gardens

al bilingu school

zone

filtr wa

wa


118


water network

walls/buildings

drainage network collecting cisterns

bli l tro on t csearch ghre

research

experimentation experimentation produce gardens adjacent to bilingual school LAB: plant genetics, blight control research, arid zone

experimentation

irrigation research

gardens

al bilingu school

zone

filtration pools water storage

water

water storage

cultivation

primary secondary

runoff collection channels irrigative output water storage input primary drainage input produce output

movement

system

technology research water retention pools wildlife observation education

filtration detention

winter

119

E

barley peas lentils vetch

oats wheat chickpea sesame safflour grapes olive

filtration detention

filtration detention

spring

summer

olive grapes detention

fall

e


e

120


to Mediterranean Sea

+

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

POOLS / EVENT GROUNDS

H I N O M VA L L E Y

+

to Dead Sea


HINOM VALLEY


to Mediterranean Sea

+

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

POOLS / EVENT GROUNDS

H I N O M VA L L E Y

+

to Dead Sea

CENTER: DECENTER


Sanghoon Lee


R EU

C

A

A SI

AFR I

125

Center / Decenter In the past, people thought that Jerusalem was located in center of the world. It has been a symbolic and central place for religious, culture, and geopolitical positions. But from a different point of view, this city has been a border of continents (Asia, Africa, Europe) and religions. This city is not only the center but also the decenter. This binary idea has created a city with unique character, and continuous conflict.

A

E P O


material and wetness

Embankment Profiles

market Old Aqueduct Embankment 01

Mamilla Pool

Center Hezekiah Pool old water flow 1905 2011

a cre

ti n

g new water flow

Embankment 02

Aqueduct excavating site

Hutsot hayoser

Embankment 03

old town

Embankment 04

Sultan Pool

DeCenter

Old Fountain

Embankment 05

126 Cinematheque

Music Center

0 10

30

Embankment 06

60

100 m


embankment

valley

street

pool 01 : mamilla pool

cistern

pool

Embankment 01 : street

cistern

pool

pool 02 : historical excavating site

Embankment 02 Embankment 03 : outdoor theather

pool 03 : sultan pool

Embankment 04 : dam and museum

127 pool 04 : new pool

Jerusalem has many valleys inside the city. In the past, those valleys supported the city as a natural water resource. But now, the city has changed their water collection methods, so the valley must find a new function for the city. This binary idea was the starting point of the project: making a new valley for Jerusalem.

Embankment 05 : cultural facility

water flow

wetness

0

50

100 m


In this project, the proposal suggests three things. First, the valley can be a new place for collecting gray water for public space. For this function, I propose a new embankment system that has cisterns and a water collecting device. This new embankment system can be applied to other valleys in Israel. Second, historical pools must be used as a public open space for people. Third, some embankments can combine with cultural institutes, so those can be a attractions for users and connect the valley as one linear public landscape system.

128


Old Aqueduct outdoor theater

A cistern

Old Aqueduct A’

pool museum (inside dam)

Attractors & Walkway music enter

Embankment 2 Embankment 3

cinematheque

Embankment 1 cistern

Embankments

channel to pool

Embankment 5 drainage Embankment 6

surface water collector old fountain 1800

Water system

cistern & underground pipe

A

cistern & underground pipe

A’

A channel

A’

rai ny s

dry ea

sea

son

son

B

B’

pool habitat 1 pool

129

B

B’ habitat 2


130


to Mediterranean Sea

+

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

POOLS / EVENT GROUNDS

H I N O M VA L L E Y

+

to Dead Sea

Creating a New Hinom


Da Young Shin


3 Separation : Valley , Wall, Street

Old City of Jerusalem is historical fortress city, which had continuous invasions. From the old map of Jerusalem, while moving toward the center of Old City, I found 3 separation : Valley, Wall, and Street. Valley is natural huge barriers that protect Old City. Old Jerusalem has been surrounded with Three Hinnom ValleySeparations: and Kidron Valley and they join Wall, at theValley south of, Old City.Street

B STREET WALL

A

VALLEY

The Old City of Jerusalem is a historical fortress city,

was continuously While After which crossing the valley, invaded. the City Wallfollowing built the old mapover of Jerusalem and moving toward the with limestone 10m restrict the invasion. center of Old City, I found three separations : valley, Combine withstreet. valley, wall has formed bigger wall, and barrier.

The valley is a huge natural barrier that protects the City. Old Jerusalem is Old surrounded the Hinom StreetOld is social separation. City isby consisted Valley and Kidron Valley. They join south of the Old with 4City. quarter : Christian, Jewish, After crossing the valley, theMuslim, City Wall,and built Armenian. Two crossing streets are not only with limestone over 10m thick, restricts invasions. Valley and wall combined significant barrier. the boundary of them but form alsoapublic market

820 800 780 760 740

SEPARATION I

SEPARATION II

SEPARATION III

place. For residence, there are invisible rules.

The Street creates a social separation. The Old City has 4 quarters: Christian, Jewish, Muslim, and 133 are not just barriers but transitions that Those Armenian. Two crossing streets are not only the boundary of the quarters but also a how public market control the flows. I investigated each place. For residences there are invisible rules. and separations control and what they block

allow.These Also,are I viewed the pools terms that of not just barriers, but in transitions transition & threshold. control the flows. I investigated how each

separations controls what they block and allow. Also, I viewed the pools in terms of transition & threshold.

OPERATOR for TRANSITION

RAIN BETHESDA POOL

GIHON SPRING

SILOAM POOL SERPENTS POOL

Water source

COLLECT / TRANSFER / SUPPLY

usage water


VALLEY

CROSSING

BARRIERS

WALL

STREET occupying cycle important place event time

CROSSING VIEW

VIGILANCE

GATHERING / DISPERSING

BARRIER / GATES

EVENTS / AGENDA

MAMILLA POOL

MUSLIM QUARTER

CHRISTIAN QUARTER

THRESHOLD

HEZEKIAH POOL

I defined valley as ‘gathering / dispersing’. Roads gather and cross the valley as a bridge to overcome the territory. Wall only allows the access through the gate. Street shows different events and agenda.

JAFFA GATE

By photowork, I made my new territory of Hinnom valley and I defined valley as ‘gathering dispersing’ . Roads Jerusalem by / the relation of gather and cross the valley a bridge to overcome valley, wall,asand street.

the territory. The Wall only allows access through the gate. The Street shows different events and Valleyphotowork, is beautiful but abandon agenda. Through I made my new territory of the and Jerusalem by areaHinom evenValley though has events. the relation of Valley, Wall, and Street. The Valley ‘Crossing’ is more important for is a beautiful but abandoned area even though it me. You alsoimportant can seeforthat has events. Crossing is more me. Itthe is street apparent thatmarket the market streetcreates creates anOld Old City City energy. energy.

JEWISH QUARTER

ARMENIAN QUARTER

SULTAN POOL

134

NATURE

HABITATION

TEMPORARY EVENT WATER SYSTEM POTENTIAL

RAMPART WALK

PUBLIC MARKET


Creating NEW HINNOM

VALLEY

DISPLACED VALLEY MARKET STREET

Major Road : Source of People

To vitalize Hinnom valley, I selected major passing road as the new displaced valley. New valley can become the collector of water and this infra provide programs. In the harsh condition of Jerusalem, It 135 To vitalize the Hinom valley, I selected a major could reduce the loss of passing road as the new ‘displaced’ valley. The new water, and provide new valley can become the collector of water, and this platform for will people. infrastructure provide space for programs. In In research, I made strucJerusalem’s harsh conditions, it could reduce the loss water, and provide new public platform turalofnew valley modelsa by for people. In programs research, I made structural models of attaching and the new valley by attaching programs and elements elementsslopes including including and walls.slops and wall.

EXTEND OLDCITY ENERGY


OLD CITY

M AM LA IL

WALL

L AL

M

VALLEY

STREET

NEW JERUSALEM

CITY WALL GUESTHOUSE

KIDRON VALLEY

I made new Armature by taking Valley, Wall, and Street’s character. Market street connecting old city market, mamilla mall, and existing artist market will provide new public area between Old city and I made new and Armature by incorporating the newa city, also activate character of thevalley. Valley,New Wall, small and Street. Market Hinnom street, which connects the old city market, Mamilla will be to provide new mall, walls and existing artistcreated market, will the place. publiccontrol areas between Old city and the new city. It willThis also new activate the Hinom valley. intervention is New small walls weaving will be createdwith to controlwater the space. This new intervention is woven with a water catchment catchment system system and supporting programs.and support programs.

136


COMPOSITE PLAN

137

Composite Plan from the Armature suggests the possibility of using abandoned valley, slop, and legacy from history. With the System Plan, you can understand how it works and critical weaving points. People cross the valley with various scale. Based on This CompositeWater Plan fromOccuthe Armature suggests section, thepancy possibility of usingshows the abandoned valley, drawing slope, and the historical legacy. The System Plan the water depth it explains the critical weaving points. People cross I drewscales. selecthecontains. valley at various Based on its section thetive Watersections Occupancyto drawing shows the contained reveal water depth.Occupancy. I drew selective sections to reveal the People corresponding relationship of People Occupancy.

MARKET + WALL


NEW HINNOM : SYSTEM PLAN

WATER OCCUPANCY

PEOPLE OCCUPANCY

138


Compare to the photowork of Valley, Wall, Street, the order of them is continuously change. The image also shows the detail of the structure and water system.

POOL

Overflow

Cistern

Collector Purifier Cistern

139

Compared to the photowork of the Valley, Wall, and Street; the order continuously changes. The image also shows the detail of the structure and water system.

Museum / Education

Event Pool


140


T Z A I M VA L L E Y

PARK/ DEER RESERVE

to Mediterranean Sea

+

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea

to Dead Sea


TZVAIM VALLEY


to Dead Sea

T Z A I M VA L L E Y

PARK/ DEER RESERVE

to Mediterranean Sea

+

EDGE PARK

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea


Margaret Jankowsky


Edge Park Gazelle (Tzvaim) Valley, Jerusalem

VALLEY

145

Edge Park explores the relationship between the city and the valley


CITY

146


Edge Park Gazelle (Tzvaim) Valley, Jerusalem

147

built / unbuilt

orthogonal / oblique

ridge / valley

Jerusalem’s Old City is the ancient core of the city, and remains today as its cultural and spiritual center. As with many ancient cities, the Old City sits atop a high point, and is surrounded by valleys, some of which are very steep. The Old City is defined by ancient walls, pierced by gates in order to allow controlled access. Initially, the boundary between the city on a hill and the wilderness in the valleys around it seems clear: the ancient wall. Yet upon further study, the threshold between them is a space in its own right, and the


sky-building / sky-earth

contain / expand

proposed entrances and movement

gates are inhabitable spaces. Once the gates are viewed as their own space, the threshold between the city and the valley is not bounded by the city walls, but instead extends as far as the commercial or cultural influence of the activity within the gate allows, often further into or out of the city, depending on the direction one is travelling. The shift from city to valley is an elastic, adaptable condition, not only moderating the two conditions on either side, but also existing as its own force.

148


Edge Park Gazelle (Tzvaim) Valley, Jerusalem

149

study of the extended occupiable thresholds of city gates: controlled points of entry


150

study of the extended occupiable thresholds of the valley edge: loosely defined points of entry


151

model study: push/pull

model study: edge thickness

The Tzvaim Valley, which lies to the southeast of the ancient city walls, also has a seemingly clear boundary between city and valley, as it is surrounded by tall residential buildings on one side, and busy highways on the remaining sides, with dense built space beyond. Edge Park proposes to expand and define the space between city and valley. By working in between the two, Edge Park influences both. Furthermore, the strategy employed by Edge Park is expandable beyond the Tzvaim Valley, as a way of defining and claiming much-needed park space and wildlife habitat.


C

1

A

1

3 2

2 B

152 0m

25

50

100

250 m

3

sectional relationship between valley and city


1

2

3 4

12 11

10

5 6 7

9

153

In a city with few public parks, Edge Park highlights the threshold between city and valley by providing a place for people to move along the valley, as well as into it. The edge of the park itself is defined in several ways: sometimes by a series of retaining walls and terraces, creating an sectional separation from the valley interior; sometimes by ramping paths that criss-cross the slope, transitioning from city to park; sometimes by a substantial retaining wall; sometimes by berms planted so thickly they are impossible to pass through; and still other times by simply the end of a paved area. These many ways of breaching the boundary of the park allow for a varied experience along the way, where there are open areas where one can easily pass from city to park to valley (and where the distinctions between all three may be negotiable), to areas where the park is a space separate from both the city and the valley. 0m

25

50

100

250 m

8

13

15 14


154


155

The Tzvaim Valley does not currently have the infrastructure to collect or direct seasonal runoff. Edge Park includes shade structures that not only act as gathering points for people along a path, but also manage water.


156


157

Structures nearest the residential buildings process graywater, which is directed toward the shade structures in elevated channels, and is then filtered through the planted roof of the structure. After this, the water is collected below the structure in a cistern, and can be used to sustain the roof plants in dry months, which further cools the structure, enhancing the quality of its shade. Structures along the highway


158

edge catch rainwater, directing it to separate cisterns below the structure. Stormwater from the highways is diverted under the path, to the vegetation below, which filters out solids. In all of this, the movement of the water is clear, whether in small swales along the land, runnels in the path, or vertical channels cut into the walls of the structure to allow water to move from the roof to the cistern.


to Dead Sea

T Z A I M VA L L E Y

PARK/ DEER RESERVE

to Mediterranean Sea

+

OBSTACLES + OCCUPANTS: NOMADIC PRESERVE IN JERUSALEM

to Mediterranean Sea

to Dead Sea


Tyler Swanson


HASTE/ LACK __sacrifice __salvation __poverty __matzoh __pessah __sabbath

HASTE/ LACK

HASTE/ LACK

__sacrifice __salvation __poverty __matzoh __pessah __sabbath

__sacrifice __salvation __poverty __matzoh __pessah __sabbath

BREAD AND THE BEDOUIN An initial framing of the cultures of Jerusalem on the terms of religion and bread distilled Jerusalem’s history and life to three fundamental operations: subtraction, shift, addition. Taking up this operational understanding of landscape, the project was developed through research on the nomadic life of bedouins who once 161 traveled across much of the arid lands of Israel and the neighboring modern nations. Through these studies, the project began to take on the question of what is fixed and what moves, eventually developing an understanding of landscape in motion with nomadic life undertaken as a fixed adaptation of tactics allowing the nomad to remain on the land, riding its flows.

NOMADIC LANDSCAPES

SUBTRACT

BEDOUIN

HOST

__transubstantiation __communion __last supper

HOST

__transubstantiation __communion __last supper

SHIFT

HOST

__transubstantiation __communion __last supper

VEHICLE

__pita __shrak __pockets __folds __bedouin ______black goat law of 1950

ADD

VEHICLE

__pita __shrak __pockets __folds __bedouin ______black goat law of 1950

VEHICLE

__pita __shrak __pockets __folds __bedouin ______black goat law of 1950


162

SUN PATHS


SUN SUN SUN SUN GAZELLE SUN GAZELLE

OBSTACLES + OCCUPANTS

NOMADIC PRESERVE IN JERUSALEM The Tzvaim Valley in Jerusalem is the largest remaining area of undeveloped land within the city. Once leased by kibbutzim for agricultural production, the valley was the site for a proposed housing development similar to projects in the surrounding neighborhoods. Through the activism of community groups and nature advocacy groups the valley was saved from development. These groups came together and proposed a plan to protect the native dwindling gazelle population while providing a “central park” for Jerusalem. OBSTACLES + OCCUPANTS takes this proposed plan as its starting point and seeks to show how a spatial division of these programs will not provide viable habitat or substantial public space. The project 163 proposes instead to manage the valley in time as a dance between occupants and obstacles through a plan based on calendars. The project questions the nature of a preserve and a park. Inspired by the research of nomadic life, the project was developed as a series of minimal interventions which direct and obstruct flows to create a shifting terrain of park and preserve.

GAZELLE GAZELLE CLOUD GAZELLE CLOUD CLOUD CLOUD GRASS CLOUD GRASS GRASS GRASS DEBRIS GRASS DEBRIS DEBRIS DEBRIS DEBRIS


SU

SU

SU

SU

SU

164


MARKING

13 WALL

13 WALL

12 GRATE

12 GRATE

11 WEIR

11 WEIR

10 ROCK SLOPE 9 STONE

10 ROCK SLOPE 9 STONE

8 THICKET

8 THICKET

7 GRASS

7 GRASS

6 BERM

6 BERM

5 GABION

5 GABION 4 OLIVES 3 FENCE

OLIV LIV VEES 4 OLIVES 3 FENCE

165 2 DITCH

2 DITCH

1 PIPE

0m 20 15 10 5

25

50

75

100

125

OBSTACLES

1 PIPE 25


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MARKING RIDGE/ VALLEY


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FIELD

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JANUARY

72

WIDE PATH

FALL

PATH

73

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HOLDING

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OLIVES FRAME

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GROVE

TERRACE

EDGE


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DITCH SLOPE


GAZELLES BIRTHING BIRDS - SUMMER VISITORS - 72 SPECIES AFRICA TO ASIA

PEOPLE BIRDING

MARCH MIGRATION

173 ACTIVATING FENCES


174


GRASS REPRODUCTION STIPA CAPENSIS, AVENA STERILIS

GAZELLES BIRTHING

PEOPLE HIKING, WILDFLOWER SPOTTING

PESAH HIKE

175 ACTIVATING FENCES


176


GAZELLES MATING

PEOPLE HARVESTING OLIVES, WATCHING GAZELLES

SEPTEMBER GAZELLE MATING

177 ACTIVATING FENCES


178


BIRDS - PASSAGE MIGRANTS - 121 SPECIES EUROPE TO AFRICA

GAZELLE GESTATION

PEOPLE HARVESTING OLIVES, BIRDING

OCTOBER MIGRATION

179 ACTIVATING FENCES


180


SITE PHOTOS


Jerusalem + Water  

by Anuradha Mathur and Dilip da Cunha

Jerusalem + Water  

by Anuradha Mathur and Dilip da Cunha

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