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MUMBAI STUDIO | CREEK FORTS

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL OF DESIGN DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE SPRING 2010 ANURADHA MATHUR and DILIP DA CUNHA, critics


MUMBAI STUDIO | CREEK FORTS UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL OF DESIGN DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE SPRING 2010 ANURADHA MATHUR and DILIP DA CUNHA, critics

Marisa Bernstein Jessica Brown Rong Chen Annabelle Hernandez Xiaohan Jie Janelle Johnson Nicolas Koff Hoyoung Lee Michelle Lin Anna Park Yuichiro Tsutsumi Stephanie Ulrich Emily Vogler

1


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Mumbai, Worli, Mahim, Rewa, Sion, and Sewri, that were command

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points for a complex east-west passage connecting the Arabian Sea

cial, recreational, industrial, drainage, and transportation, or "mixes! of

and Mumbai Harbor. Since the 1800!s, the passage has been gradually

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predisposed to control, which is why they were the "other! in a colonial

stages of degradation, restoration, and occupation these forts were

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ning and administration today. It is also why these landscapes are both

They became starting points of design strategies for the Mumbai Studio

threatened and threatening.

2010 and brought into play many contested issues of Mumbai!s landscape and the transformation of infrastructure and communities in their

Design in an estuary then, does not work by probabilities and control as

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master plans do. Instead it works by possibilities and resilience, absorbLQJ DQG GHĂ HFWLQJ ,W FDOOV QRW IRU HQG VFHQDULRV EXW LQLWLDWLRQV VHHGV

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extended from them. The monsoons and the sea were considered in-

land and sea.

siders that needed to be welcomed and engaged rather than outsiders feared and distanced.

Students were encouraged to explore strategies of documentation, research, drawing, and modeling that migrated towards a greater

Throughout the course of the studio, the students had to remain mind-

consideration of section, horizon and time, while being aware of the

ful that Mumbai!s estuary does not lend itself to master planning, which

potential and limitations of modes of representation that enforced plan,

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boundary, and property. While students began their inquiry with the

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This studio is a continuation of a series of studios that we initiated in

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was on the western periphery of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park, the

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joined us for a studio discussion during a working session at Penn, and

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Mumbai!s terrain was initiated by SOAK, a project that opened as an H[KLELWLRQLQ0XPEDLDWWKHVWDUWRIWKHPRQVRRQ

I am grateful to all the students who participated in the studio, their enWKXVLDVPIRUWUDYHOLQJWR0XPEDLDQGZLOOLQJQHVVWRLQYHVWLJDWHWHUULWR-

There are many people to thank in making the studio in 2010 possible

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Koff and Marisa Bernstein in compiling this document as a record of their work of one semester. They all hope, as I do, that this compilation

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can generate interest and a dialogue about what might be possible for

el to Mumbai. While in Mumbai the students worked closely with fellows

the forts of Mumbai and communities that occupy the tenacious world

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of Mumbai!s estuary.

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In this work, most of all I remember Carol A. Breckenridge, whose spirit

Anita Patil Deshmukh, director PUKAR, for encouraging and support-

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ing our efforts to undertake this studio and for making so many things

with SOAK, continues to propel us forward.

possible at short notice. We are grateful to her colleagues at PUKAR, in particular Reshma Lubde for sharing their research and facilitating RXUHQWU\LQWRDUHDVZHFRXOGQRWKDYHRQRXURZQ:HWKDQN38.$5 IHOORZV0DWLDV(FKDQRYHDQG5DKXO6ULYDVWDYDIRUDOOWKHLUJXLGDQFHLQ Mumbai and for their relentless enthusiasm as they answered all of our questions along the way.

ANURADHA MATHUR Associate Professor, Associate Chair, Landscape Architecture Department, School of Design 8QLYHUVLW\RI3HQQV\OYDQLD

3

4


Projects for 0XPEDL V(VWXDU\ 128 118 108  78 68 58 46 38 28 18 8 page

Xiaohan Jie

13

Nicolas Koff Marisa Bernstein Emily Vogler

12 11 10

Stephanie Ulrich Rong Chen Yuichiro Tsutsumi Michelle Lin Janelle L. Johnson Hoyoung Lee

 08

Jessica Brown Annabelle Hernandez Anna Park

07 06 05 04 03 02 01

5


MUMBAI WATERS


Anna Park

01

7


Mumbai Waters Proposed water infrastructure system aims to provide stable water with new water activity to the largest slum in Dharavi, India, where people suffer from water shortage. The system is composed of rain water harvesting system, ground water reusing system and sewage water treating system with buffer zones against flood. They are interconnected with new community areas including public taps or toilets. Thus, they provide fresh water supply as well as promote public health in Dharavi.

EXISTING SITE CONDITION

Monsoon... flood fears amid water shortage The average total annual rainfall is 2,400 mm (94 inches) for the city in Mumbai. During Monsoon season, between June and September, many area area flooded as more than 2,300mm of rain falls down in this time frame. 2,300mm of rain translates into over 95% of the average annual rainfall.

Barada & Central Indian railroad road

Dharavi slum

pipe line pipe line (invisible)

but... During dry season, many people suffer from a water shortages. Lots of places people supply only 30 minutes of drinking water. Many slums have only 1 single conmmunity tap, and sometimes it takes 1.5 hours to carry two or three buckets of water. Mahim creek Dharavi channel Dharavi channel (invisible) Bandra tank

Thus... I propose a system of three types of waters

too wet

mangrove swamp green space

RAIN WATER HARVESTING GROUND WATER REUSING SEWAGE WATER TREATING with a buffer zone against floods

too dry


Mumbai is... TRANSFORMING MUMBAI

Priod to 1827

1827

1864

1874

1969

2010

about 1845

1925

1931

1969

2010

SHRINGKING MANGROVE SWAMP

1827

Importance of mangrove swamp for mumbai - A natural control of eroding shoreline and increasing tidal amplitude - Fisheries resource - Coastal biodiversity including a million migratory birds - Open space

The life in a mangrove habitat

MONSOON IN MUMBAI original outfall extended storm water lines & sewage outfalls original island land reclaimed by 1900 flood areas high risk slum sites mangrove

9


Site Analysis 1

PIPE FOR DRINKING WATER

1. Bandra Tank 1. Bandra Tank

2 2. Wetland + Channel + Pipe

2. Wetland + Channel + Pipe

3 3. Pipe + Mahim Creek

MAHIM CREEK

MANGROVE SWAMP

3. Pipe + Mahim Creek MANGROVE SWAMP

4. Pipe + Channel + Mangrove Swamp

5. Channel + Mangrove Swamp

4

4. Pipe + Channel + Mangrove Swamp 5. Channel + Mangrove Swamp

5

MAHIM SION LINK ROAD

MAHIM CREEK 6

6. Pipe + Dharavi Slum DHARAVI

7

MAHIM FORT

6. Pipe + Dharavi Slum 7. Channel + Dharavi Slum

DHARAVI

8

7. Channel + Dharavi Slum

8. Mahim Talao DHARAVI MAIN ROAD MAHIM FORT

9 9. Channel + Railroad

9. Channel + Railroad

10

10. Channel + Bridge 10. Channel + Bridge

CHANNEL FOR SEWAGE WATER


Three types of water RAIN WATER HARVESTING

on the pipe line

Pipe line passing through mangrove swamp and Mahim creek

Pipe Line with Wetland Pipe Line Connecting Mahim Creek Pipe Line for Drinking Water Crossing Mangrove Swamp Dharavi Recycling Community on the Pipe Line

GROUND WATER REUSING

around the historical wetland

Ground texture of ground water during monsoon season Bandra Tank Maidan

Maidan Historical Wetland

Maidan Maidan

SEWAGE WATER TREATING

with a buffer zone against floods along the Dharavi

Mysterious sewage pipe lines in Dharavi slum

Channel

Mahim Creek

Direct Sewage Water Pipe Lines Dharavi Channel Dharavi Channel Under the Slum Dharavi Channel Crossing Railway

11


Strategy of a new water system : to solve water shortage crisis in Mumbai


Model Photos RAIN WATER HARVESTING

GROUND WATER REUSING

SEWAGE WATER TREATING

Proposed water infrastructure about three types of water

Proposed water infrastructure with a sectional existing corridor 13


system

-ground water holding system with trash screen -liner wetland -water treatment wetland (living system) -washing place

GROUND WATER REUSING

-sewage treatment system in Dharavi slum -public toilet in a community area -wetland buffer zone during monsoon season -container buffer zone during monsoon season

SEWAGE WATER TREATING system with a buffer zone against floods

-new path on the pipe -rain water capturing system -rain water containing system -public taps in conmmunity areas

RAIN WATER HARVESTING system

Proposed Plan


Proposed Series of Sections

RAIN WATER HARVESTING system 1. Rain water harvesting system passes through a new reservoir as well as mangrove nursery

RAIN WATER HARVESTING system 2. Rain water harvesting system passes through mangrove swamp as well as provides new path on the exsisting pipe line

RAIN WATER HARVESTING system 3. Rain water harvesting system passes Dharavi slum

GROUND WATER REUSING system 4. Wetland corridor to collect ground water passes a new community area where Dharavi slum people can drink water from public taps

SEWAGE WATER TREATING system with a buffer zone against floods 5. Whole channel itself becomes a sewage water treatment system

15


RAIN WATER HARVESTING PATH ON THE PIPE LINE

RAIN WATER CONTAINER

A SERIES OF SECTION FOR RAIN WATER HARVESTING SYSTEM


RAIN WATER HARVESTING structure & system RAIN WATER CAPACITY

RAIN WATER HARVESTING CANOPY WITH PUBLIC TAPS

RAIN WATER HARVESTING CANOPY WITH PATH ON THE EXISTING PIPE

17


GROUND WATER Ground water reusing system around the historical low area LAND TRASFORMATION IN MUMBAI

GROUND WATER REUSING SYSTEM THROUGH LANDFORM

GROUND WATER FLOW


GROUND WATER GROUND WATER HOLDING & COLLECTING AROUND A COMMUNITY AREA

19


SEWAGE WATER TREATING Everyday sewage water treating system with a buffer zone against flood along the Dharavi Channel DHARAVI POPULATION DENSITY

TREATMENT PROCESS

314,887 people/skm

possible area 18,008.65 sm

SEWAGE WATER TREATING SYSTEM & COMMUNITY AREAS WITH PUBLIC TOILETS

BUFFER ZONES FOR OVERFLOW DURING MONSOON SEASON

A SERIES OF SECTION


SEWAGE WATER TREATING Structure & System along the Dharavi channel WETLAND TYPE BUFFER ZONE WITH PUBIC TOILET IN A COMMUNITY AREA

SEWAGE WATER TREATING SYSTEM

21


MEETING THE EDGES


Annabelle Hernandez

02

23


7KHSURMHFWLVORFDWHGLQWKHĂ€VKHUPDQŇ‹VYLOODJHRIWKH :RUOL)RUW0XPEDL-XVWHQWHULQJWKHYLOODJHRQHFDQ see that the urban fabric of the community seems to be pleasant for the local population and they are happy with their labyrinth pattern.

2QWKHRWKHUKDQGWKHHDVWDQGZHVWFRDVWDUHDPD]LQJSODFHVIRUWKHREVHUYDWLRQRIWKH horizon, but the water is polluted and used for garbage disposition and human discharge. ,WLVLUUHOHYDQWWRFKDQJHWKHLUXUEDQIDEULFEXWUDWKHUIRFXVRQWKHHGJHFRQGLWLRQVRIWKH community. 8SRQXQGHUVWDQGLQJWKHJHRORJ\RIWKH:RUOLFRPPXQLW\LVREVHUYHGWKDWWKHHDVWFRDVW is mainly silt soil beach and the west side is mostly basalt rock formation. Following an analogical approach, diagrams in different formats explain these two opposite situations. Basalt Rock on the west coast is a more embedded condition where the erosion takes SODFH LQ D YHU\ VORZ PDQQHU +RZHYHU WKH HDVW FRDVW LV D PRUH G\QDPLF SODFH ZLWK dramatic changes of low and high tide. In addition, the silt soil is a granular material that PRYHVZLWKWKHPRYHPHQWRIWKHZDYHV7KHLQWHUYHQWLRQZLOOEHORFDWHGRQWKHVPDOO streets that meet these edges and the sea.


25


Fisherman!s Daily Activities 10 am - 1 pm

Open Sea

Anchoring

Unloading Cleaning Nets

Sorting

Packing Selling NORTH 3

Drying

NORTH 2 NORTH 1

EAST 6 EAST 5 EAST 4

WEST 2 EAST 3 WEST 1

EAST 2 EAST 1

FISH MARKET

9 to10am anchoring

4 - 9am high tide

10am unloading

200’ 100’

500’

scale : 1” = 750’

3984'

Plantation Open Field

Analogical Program

Water Storage + Distribution

Public Showers + Laundry

Filtration

Composting

100ft

Drying

Selling


open sea

Open Field

SILT SOIL Composting + Plantation Composting + Plantation Composting + Plantation

SHALE SOIL

Public Showers + Toilets + Laundry

slums

selling

drying

Filtration + Water Storage + Distribution

packing

sorting

Open Field

cleaning nets unloading

Open Field

anchoring

FISHERMAN

Composting + Plantation

Composting + Plantation

Composting + Plantation Public Showers + Toilets + Laundry

BASALT ROCK

slums

TEMPLES

FISH MARKET

LAWN

TREES

27


H. T.

H. T.

H. T.

L. T.

H. T.

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L. T.

H. T.

30 ft

L. T.

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37 ft H. T.

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37 ft H. T.

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35 ft FISH MARKET

H. T.

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60 ft

H. T.

L. T.

60 ft

H. T.

70 ft

scale : 1” = 1000’

scale : 1” = 400’

L. T.


Rainwater Storage + Filtration + Distribution

bougainvillea

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coccoloba uvifera

trash collector

casuarina equisetifolia

platforms for sorting the trash for moving the trash

container : sawdust peat moss leaves rice hulls coco coir

1 YEAR Humanure Composting

STORAGE COVER MATERIAL

*"#&'% *"

5 gallon bucket

&"#-,%

Humanure Toilet &"#(%

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completley

88LB of compost a year

+"

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hay weeds straw grass

2 YEAR

ADD ORGANIC MATER Above ground pile will generate higher temperatures thereby ensuring a more rapid and complete destruction of potential human pathogens.

Temperature : Time RATIO 122F : 1 day for killing all posible pathogens 115F : 1 week

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East : Composting + Trash Management Area

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31


West : Public Showers + Laundry + Compost Toilets

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33


INTERVENTIONS AROUND REWA FORT


Jessica Brown

03

35


rsing

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45


WORLI FORT


38

Hoyoung Lee

04

47


WORLI FORT Worli Fort is located in the Worli Koliwada, an area that was originally an island. However, due to landfill, this area became a prominent peninsula on mahim bay. With the construction of the Sealilnk, this area now has the potential to be developed very differently. The Koliwada community is mainly composed of two areas: One is a residential area and the other is open spaces. Two main streets organize these areas, these two streets have different meanings: The first one, a narrow community street is mainly composed of small markets for the community, the second, located to the west is open to the sea and sealink. We can encounter several open spaces along this street where people enjoy cricket and festivals.

SEQUENCE VIEW FROM SEALINK


URBAN SCALE CONTEXT

COMMUNITY SCALE CONTEXT

ANCHOR 04 fisherman working place

ANCHOR 01 Worli Fort

Arabian Sea

sea

basalt

maidan

ANCHOR 02 community market

ANCHOR 03 entrance




EXISTING CONDITION

ANCHOR 01 fisherman working place

NEW URBAN MAIDAN In the Koliwada community, there are 4 anchors, fisherman working place, Worli fort, community market and entrance area. The main layers of this site are the Arabian Sea, the Sealink, the basalt ground, the Maidans and main streets. Therefore, the first design process is to make strong axis going through these layers between each anchors and the sealink. The second process is to extend existing streets to the end point of this community. These extended streets would allow people to access the maidan and other spaces easily. The last process is to make layered program, so people moving through this site can benefit from diverse programmatic uses and experience various landscape.

ANCHOR 02 Worli Fort

Arabian Sea

sea

basalt

maidan

ANCHOR 03 community market

ANCHOR 04 entrance


PROCESS 01

PROCESS 02

Worli Fort

PROCESS 03

Worli Fort

Worli Fort Maidan 01

Sealink

Sealink Community Market

Sealink Community Market

Community Market Maidan 02

Entrance

Entrance

Entrance

51


dock

ANCHOR 01 _ WORLI FORT The first anchor is Worli Fort. In order to attract people to this site from the urban area, we need strong attractions. A viewing kiosk hanging to the Sealink and a sea museum which is related to the history of Mumbaiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s terrain and sea environment can be strong attractions. The zigzag shape path also can be an interesting element, allowing people to walk to the fort, meeting temporal market places and gardens along the way.

dock

sea kiosk

garden parking lot

sea museum

view deck

+5 +6

+9

+11

bamboo structure

market place

pedestrian bridge

+12

fort

maidan

garden

+7

basalt area

PARTIAL SECTION

market place sea kiosk

fort

sea museum pedestrian bridge

bamboo structure

garden

fort


collage

53


ANCHOR 02 _ COMMUNITY MARKET The second anchor is the community market. I propose setting-up seafood restaurants and an urban orchard using the site slope. People can enjoy fresh seafood provided by the community fish market. Marigold which is very popular in India can be planted in the urban orchard and this site can produce a new urban landscape. The Maidan can be used for Cricket, Festivals, or other purposes.

basalt area

funeral hall

community market urban orchard

dock water garden

deck

pedestrian bridge restaurant dock

maidan

view deck

forest

PARTIAL SECTION urban orchard

dock

water garden

promenade

restaurant

maidan

community market


collage

55


ANCHOR 03 _ ENTRANCE The last anchor is the entrance area. This area is currently used as a workplace for fishermen. This area consists of two parts: On one hand polluted water is coming from the urban area to this entrance area through a pipe, showcasing a need for a water purification system; on the other hand, the small open space located there can also help rearrange the fishermenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work place and put in place a small restaurant and market for visitors.

dock

swimming pool

dock

view deck

bamboo structure

water promenade garden

working place maidan entrance restaurant & market

water purification system rest area

PARTIAL SECTION

dock

bomboo structure

garden

water garden


collage

57 12





FLOWS AND SEEDS / SION FORT


Janelle L. Johnson

05

61


THE OBSTRUCTION OF FLOW &HQWUDO0XPEDLRQFHDĂ XLGODQGVFDSHZHOFRPHGWKH ULVLQJWLGHVFDXVHGE\WKHPRQVRRQUDLQV2YHUWLPH

1827

as its water holding capacity was diminished due to QHJDWLYHVKLIWVLQWKHWKUHVKROGEHWZHHQODQGDQGVHD the monsoon became a nuisance and a threat during the wet season. The transformation caused by urban Ă&#x20AC;OOLQIUDVWUXFWXUHLPSOHPHQWDWLRQDQGWKHFRQVWUXFWLRQ RILQIRUPDOVHWWOHPHQWVKDVOHIWWKHODQGVFDSHYRLGRI WKLVKLVWRULFĂ RZ 7KH LGHQWLĂ&#x20AC;HG WHUULWRU\ LV DQFKRUHG E\ WZR KLVWRULF creek forts, rewa and sion. Rewa fort, once protruding into the estuary at the edge of a peninsula, is now QHVWOHGLQWRGKDUDYLDGMDFHQWWRDQXQGHUXWLOL]HGEXV depot and the maharhastra nature park. Sion fort sits DWRS D KLOO  7KLV IRUWLĂ&#x20AC;FDWLRQ RQFH DFFHVVLEOH YLD WKH



HVWXDU\LVQRZODQGORFNHGWKHĂ RZRIZDWHUFRPSOHWHO\ obstructed.

2007


rewa fort

sion fort

mahim bay

63


estuary

THE PRESENT FLOW This photowalk traces the present landscape of past Ă RZV7KHSUHVHQWODQGVFDSHDVGHSLFWHGIURPUHZD fort to the sion tank, with extensions to the nature park and sion fort, is a landscape that replaced the estuary with roads, rail lines, and housing. Rather than water, WKHĂ RZRISHRSOHQRZLQXQGDWHVWKHODQGVFDSH 7KLVSDUWLFXODUURXWHDOVRVHUYHVDVWKHSULPDU\URXWH between rewa fort and the sion tank for the ganesh chaturthi procession. Celebration, as performed in this IHVWLYDOLQFOXGHVLQWLPDWHZRUVKLSDODUJHSURFHVVLRQ from the place of worship to a designated body of water, and a symbolic immersion of the Ganpati idol. This IHVWLYDO DORQJ ZLWK VHYHUDO RWKHUV WDNH SODFH GXULQJ WKHPRQVRRQVHDVRQDQGSURYLGHVDQRSSRUWXQLW\IRU

1827

the common parade route to be used as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;platformâ&#x20AC;? for the display, celebration, and choreography of the monsoon rains.



rewa pandal

+

GKDUDYL


sion fort

sion rail

eastern express highway

sion tank 65


SEED SITES FOR A NEW VOCABULARY ,QRUGHUWRFHOHEUDWHWKHYDOXHRIUDLQEURXJKWE\WKH monsoon, the spectacularization of the monsoon is

bus depot

H[HFXWHGWKURXJKWKHGHYHORSPHQWDQGLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI D YRFDEXODU\ RI LQIUDVWUXFWXUH WKDW JDWKHUV KROGV and distributes rain water.

The seed sites for the

GHSOR\PHQW RI WKLV YRFDEXODU\ LQFOXGHV   WKH EXV depot and nature park at rewa, 2) the sion station

rewa fort

SODWIRUP DQG UDLOURDG WUDFNV   WKH HOHYDWHG HDVWHUQ express highway, and 4) the sion hill and tank. The DJHQGD RI WKH LQWHUYHQWLRQ LV WR UHLQVWDWH WKH Ă RZ RI water. The components for gathering water include pipes, UXQQHOV FKDQQHOV YHJHWDWHG VZDOHV DQG ZDWHU terraces.

These elements are designed to catch

the hill!s runoff and direct the water to the holding sion station

FRPSRQHQWV  )RU KROGLQJ WKH YRFDEXODU\ LQFOXGHV D ZDWHUZDOODQGVHYHUDOYHUVLRQVRIWKHWUDGLWLRQDOWDQN And from these holding components the methods of distribution range from functional to fun. The testing of

train platform sion tank

WKLVVWUDWHJ\IRUUHLQVWDWLQJWKHĂ RZRIZDWHULVH[HFXWHG at the sion hill and tank.

eastern express highway

sion fort

fort tank


gather | channel

dry season

wet season

dry season

wet season

KROG_Ă&#x20AC;OWHULQJZDWHUZDOO

distribute | pump

67

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wet season


TOPOGRAPHY OF NO CONTAINMENT

eeh

sion complex

runoff

erode

waste

sion tank


INFRASTRUCTURAL FLUIDITY

eeh

gather

hold

distribute

sion tank




4 GANESH CHATURTHI

8 KRISHNA JANMASTAMI

JULY 15 RAKSHA-BANDANA

JUNE

5 NAGA PANCHAMI

11 SLEEP OF VISHNU

MAY

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10 GANGA PUJA

14 NARASIMHA JAYANTI

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1 NEW YEAR

15 HOLI

APRIL AUGUST SEPTEMBER

THE LANDSCAPE GRADIENT

14

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11 WAKING OF VISHNU

5 LAXSMI PUJA

1 GUJARATI NEW YEAR

14 DIWALI

10 DUSSEHRA

1 DURGA PUJA

OCTOBER FEBRUARY MARCH

71

phalguna

magha

pausa

agrahayana

kartika

DVYLQD


THE CHOREOGRAPHY 7KH SURJUDP RI WKH FROOHFWLYH ´VWDJH¾  LV LQWHQGHG WR KDYH WKH à H[LELOLW\ WR EH XVHG DOVR DV D SODFH IRU KDELWDW FUHDWLRQ SXEOLF JDWKHULQJ DQG SDVVLYH DQG

sion tank

DFWLYHUHFUHDWLRQ7KHVKLIWVLQWKHXVHRIWKHVSDFHV

immersion ramp

are expected to align with the shifts in seasons as the ZDWHU OHYHOV FKDQJH  7KH ODQGVFDSH JUDGLHQW LV QRW only exhibited by the choreography of the rain, but also the blooming cycle of the botanic gardens. sky walk

7KH ZDWHUFRXUVH GLYHUJHV IURP DQG FRQYHUJHV ZLWK the delineated path as the gathered rainwater dances

eastern express highway

around the hill. And while the path switches back and forth up the hillside, the delineation strategically disappears, becoming implied as it enters the wooded

outlook

VORSH  7KH LQWHUYHQWLRQ HQKDQFHV WKLV H[LVWLQJ GHVWLQDWLRQWRIXQFWLRQDQGVHUYHDVDODQGVFDSHRIDOO

garden terraces

seasons. delineated walk cistern

sion fort RYHUĂ RZVOXLFH tank

watercourse outlook


SION TANK + IMMERSION RAMP

BOTANIC GARDEN + WATER INFRASTRUCTURE

73


FRONTIER LAND


Michelle Lin

06

75


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Present

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Informal settlements

Rewa Fort

Basalt

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Trash/Fill 77


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MAHIM BEACH PROJECT


Yuichiro Tsutsumi

07




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THE CONFLUENCE OF TWO ECOLOGIES


Rong Chen 08




researches on Mumbai estuary wedge effects, salt and water treatment

design palette 10

SALT WEDGE ESTUARY

g, kin oo ,c g ing hin ink as dr h w dis 30

5.39 m Highest 4.42 m Mean 3.30 m Mean water level [ tidal flow & monsoon]

15 30

1.86 m lowest 0.76 m Mean 0.46 m Mean

10

00

20

ing

17.2

15

980.2 m3 water/ capita/ year Arabian sea

Mahim Bay

Mithi River

42.5

'()&%

lpcd

90

bath

!"#$%&

minimum average water requirement

70

- litres per consumer per day

water level

7.3

coastal

50 40 30 20 10 00 ppt

estuary

2.7 101

moist agriculture

98

30 toilet flu sh

ing

30

15 w as

hin

50

gc

loth

30

es

0.5 saline water

00

brackish water

fresh water

15 25 20 15 10 05 00

25

12.5

3.75

2.5 tonnes per hectare per year

productive ecosystems #4

3.75

productive ecosystems #1

productive ecosystems #2

AQUATIC & MARSH

biofilter

Pontederia cordata

Typha latifolia

Scirpus setaceus

Scirpus lacustris

Brassica juncea

Heliantus annuus

Phragmites australis

Canna indica

mangroves

salt marshes

phyto-remediation

Secale cereale

Cynodon dactylon

Heritiera littorails

Clerodendron inerme

fish

crab

shrimp

molluscs

MANGROVES

seaweed

existing

red mangroves

SOLAR SALT

Acrostichum aureum white mangroves

Derris heterophylla buttonwoods

Sonneratia sp.

Avicennia sp.

Bruquiera sp.

Acanthus ilicifolius

Kandelia candel

mangrove associates

salt drained/2-3 months

drain area

salt water wash

salt settled and removed wash tank

nurse pan c

evaporation

brine

evaporation

sea water

fresh water wash

leftover

brine

nurse pan b

black mangroves

blue-green algae

salt

soluble impurity

nurse pan a brine sea water

insoluble impurity

replanting/ nursery

brine

Lumnitzera sp.

Ceriops tagal

Xylocarpus sp.

Aegiceras corniculatum

Excoecaris agallocha

DESALINATION product water tank

membrane filtration tank

low-pressure RO unit

pump

suck-back tank

safty filter

energy recovery system

pump

RO pre-treatment unit water

membrane unit processing water

intake pump

sea water

COCONUT cocos nucifera

water intake well processing water discharge tank

intercropping

Elephant foot yam

Amorphophallus campanulatus

Tapioca

Manihot utilissima

Yam

Dioscorea spp.

sea water

pump to water treatment plant

irrigation for tree crops and orchards out

SEWAGE TREATMENT

mixed farming flows or pumped

to gas powered electric generator

cows

goats

gas sewage water flows or pumped

flows or pumped

liquid

sludge

to digestor

ecological purification: aeration and rooted aquatic plants

ecological purification: aeration, floating and rooted aquatic plants

solar silo fish hatchery and production facility

fertilizer

human waste

sewage sludge

horses

Sweet Potato Ipomoea batatas

Banana

Musa spp.

Pineapple

Ananas sativa

Ginger

Zingiber officinale

Rhizophora sp.


LANDFILLS AND COCONUT OARTS

CHANGE OF MANGROVES

Mumbai: Flooding, Sewage and Slums

1827

1827

1827

1872

1872

1909

1909

1930

1930

1930

1969

1969

1969

Flood 26 July 2005

CONCLUSION OF HISTORICAL MAPS: Increasing of settlements; Closure of Mithi river; Diminishing detention ponds; Vanishing of Coconut Oart along Mahim Beach; Lost of mangroves.

high tide @15:55 4.18m

200

Flood inundation in low lying areas

low tide @22:13 0.9m

180 160 140 120

HIGH 1.5 m

100 80 60 40

Mumbai drainage capacity

2009

2009

Mumbai Precipitation Chart

08:30

07:30

05:30

06:30

04:30

03:30

02:30

01:30

00:30

23:30

22:30

21:30

20:30

19:30

18:30

17:30

16:30

15:30

13:30

14:30

12:30

11:30

10:30

20

2009

LOW 0.5 m

25

09:30

The planning and design of this piece of land faced the emergent challenge of securing the safety of people, enhancing the quality of life, and rehabilitate the eco system of this region. The landscape of coconut and mangrove will display as gradient according to the attributes of transition from land to water, from fresh to salt, from sand to silt, play a role as infrastructure, which will achieve all the aims above and reach beyond to cleanse the sewage, produce food and so on. The Confluence of two ecologies will benefit a larger regional district, and makes the confluence of waters and ecologies possible thus bring ecological, economic and social changes to this area and beyond.

HISTORICAL MAP

08:30

The site is located at the mouth of the Mithi River, where the Mahim fort labels the dividend two discrepant ecologies: the salt water and fresh water. The identical estuary ecology benefited by the salt wedge effects, where rich habitant diversity and activities will occur. However, due to the past three hundred yearsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; settlement sprawl, the ecology of the Mumbai estuary was in decline and almost destroyed, flood and poverty became frequent visitors to this once prosperous land.

Peak 15-min rainfall intensities on flooding days (mm/h)

MONSOON SEASON JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

120

DEC

110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 25 Mumbai drainage capacity

30 20 10

0.6

1.5

0.1

0.6

13

574

868

553

306

63

15

5.6

1999

1999

2000

2000

2001

2001

2002

2002

2003

2003

2004

2004

Precipitation Facts 50% in 2-3 events about1200 mm

96% in monsoon season

average annual precipitation 2400.4 mm

2301 mm




b.10 b.10

b.09

b.05 b.03 b.04 b.09 b.06

b.07

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b.02 b.01

b.07

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b.06

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a.08

a.07

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a.06

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a.05

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a.05

discharge pipe RB Prabhu Garden Mayors Bungalow Shivaji park

a.04

discharge pipe S.K.S. Marg

a.03

discharge pipe Kashinath dhurn Marg

a.02

discharge pipe P Balu Marg street

a.01 sea link fishing village Worli

101


TRANSECT SECTIONS _ Site and Context scale 1:2000

Dharavi Main Road

MITHI RIVER

Dharavi

Mithi River

ARABIAN SEA

ARABIAN SEA


Dharavi Main Road MITHI RIVER

MITHI RIVER

MITHI RIVER

Mithi River

Dharavi

TRANSECT SECTIONS _ Proposed Strategy scale 1:2000

ARABIAN SEA

ARABIAN SEA

ARABIAN SEA 103


Dharavi Main Road MITHI RIVER

MITHI RIVER

Mithi River

MITHI RIVER

TRANSECT SECTIONS _ Design Vision scale 1:2000

ARABIAN SEA

ARABIAN SEA

ARABIAN SEA

Dharavi


CROSS SECTIONS _ Site and Context scale 1:2000

CROSS SECTIONS _ Proposed Strategy scale 1:2000

CROSS SECTIONS _ Design Vision scale 1:2000

105


AMATURE_proposed strategy

_ linear landscapes: _ linear landscapes:

_ infrastructure: _ infrastructure:

roads, pipeline & railway roads, pipeline & railway

19301930

_ infrastructure: roads, pipeline & railway _ infrastructure: roads roads

roads, pipeline & railway

plantation, mangrove & sewage streetscape plantation, mangrove & sewage streetscape

_ linear landscapes: 19301930

plantation, mangrove & sewage streetscape _ linear landscapes: 1930 1930plantation, mangrove & sewage streetscape

1930

roads

1930

1930

1930

roads pipepipe

1930

1930

pipe pipe rail rail rail rail pipepipe pipe pipe

_ fields: _ fields:

park, mangrove nursery, depot, filtration park, mangrove nursery, busbus depot, filtration bedbed etc.etc.

_ ghat: _ ghat:

19691969

_ fields: 19691969 park, mangrove nursery, bus depot, filtration bed etc. _ fields:

1969

park, mangrove nursery, bus depot, filtration bed etc. 1969

1969

1969

20092009

20092009

20092009

2009

2009

2009

2009

2009

2009

19691969 1969 1969

vegetated, stepped & bridged vegetated, stepped & bridged

_ ghat: vegetated, _ ghat: stepped & bridged vegetated, stepped & bridged


_ infrastructure: roads, pipeline & railway

107


ACTIVATING ARMATURES


Stephanie Ulrich






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.%*#+!'+*%/%&$#%"& Mangroves exclude salt by having significantly impermeable roots which act as an ultra-filtration mechanism to exclude sodium salts from the rest of the plant. They are able to desalinate the surrounding salt water for use by the plant. Analysis of water inside mangroves has shown that 90% to 97% of salt has been excluded at the roots. Even though excluding salts, the salt concentration is still higher than most plants. Excess salt is deposited in the bark of stems and roots and accumulates in old leaves which the plant then sheds. Avecinia also has two salt glands at each leaf base which allows it to secrete salts directly.

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+,#+&-'(#%*# Tidal areas where Avecinia grow have soil that is perpetually waterlogged with very limited oxygen and nutrients available to the plants. As a result, the species has adapted an elaborate floral infrastructure to handle the harsh conditions. Shallow horizontal roots radiate outwards, often for a distance of many meters. At intervals of 15-30 cm vertical structures known as pneumatophores emerge and stand erect up to 30 cm above the mud surface. The pneumatophores are covered with pores on their bark called lenticles, which are particularly abundant close to the point at which the column roots enter the soil surface. Roots entering the soil are largely composed of aerenchyma tissue, honeycombed with air spaces which run longitudinally down the root axis to facilitate the transport of oxygen to the roots. A single Avecinia tree 2-3 m in height may have more than 10,000 pneumetaphores. The lenticles are hydrophobic so that while a root is covered by water they are in effect closed and neither air nor water can enter. When the tide recedes and the lentils are again open, air is sucked in.

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Avecinia Marina *UH\PDQJURYH RFFXSLHV the meeting ground between fresh-water and salt-water and land and sea. Research into the agency and resilience of this plant VSHFLHVVHUYHGDVDVWDUWLQJSRLQWIURPZKLFK WRH[SORUHDVHULHVRILQWHUYHQWLRQVDORQJWKH 0LWKL5LYHU(VWXDU\LQ0XPEDL,QGLD*LYHQ WKHGDLO\WLGDOĂ XFWXDWLRQVDQQXDOPRQVRRQ Ă RRGVDQGKLVWRULFODQGUHFODPDWLRQSURMHFWV the edge between land and sea in Mumbai is an uncertain shifting territory. Within the HVWXDU\ZDWHUĂ RZLVUHVWULFWHGE\Ă&#x20AC;OOIRUURDG and railroad crossings and along the edge it is characterized as an open toilet and dumping ground for the surrounding slums. This SURSRVDOLQLWLDWHVDVHULHVRILQWHUYHQWLRQV along the crossings, the edge and within the FRPPXQLW\WKDWVHUYHWRGLUHFWKROGDQGĂ&#x20AC;OWHU water.

!"#$#%"&'()$*+ Because of the limited freshwater availability in salty intertidal soils, mangroves limit the amount of water that they lose through their leaves. They can restrict the opening of their stomata (pores on the leaf surfaces, which exchange carbon dioxide gas and water vapor during photosynthesis). They also minimize heat gain and water loss to transpiration by holding leafs at an angle to the horizontal, so minimizing heat gain. The angle varies from about 75 degrees in leaves with great exposure to the sun, to 0 degrees (horizontal) in leaves in full shade. Smaller leaves loose more heat to heat to convection than large ones: leaves exposed to full sunlight , and heat stress are smaller than those that are shaded. Leaves are smaller in the more salt tolerant species, where water economy must be stringent.

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&0!#0!+'$-$1#$2%*%#3 All mangroves disperse their offspring by water . Unlike reproduction in orthodox plants that propagate through fruit or seed, avecinia produces propogules. After pollination the growing embryo remains on the parent tree, and is dependent on it for a period that often stretches to many months. The phenomenon is known as vivipary. During germination, the seedling receives nutrients and water from the parent tree and it grows uninterrupted until, becoming too heavy to bear, it falls off into the mud beneath. Once separated from the parent tree, Avecinia propogules are posed for germination and root outgrowth whenever the opportunity offers. Where the propagule develop depend on the tides and obstructions. 78% of avecinia stay within 2 km of their starting point most within 50 m. The avecinia propagules initially float horizontally. Over a period of a month or so they shift to the vertical position where they are more likely to drag in the mud and lodge. The long lived propagules are able to access dispersal in time in addition to dispersal in space. 7</

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CLOSING THE GAP: RECONNECTING MUMBAI!S ESTUARY


Marisa Bernstein 11

131


ESTUARY

The focus of this project revolves around finding new ways to perceive and

SHRINKAGE

manage the many intense flows that constitute Mumbai, one of the fastest growing cities in the world. Prior to our visit to Mumbai, I investigated two historical processes of the city: salt extraction and sugar extraction from the iconic Palmyra tree. I also became very intrigued by the cultural role of salt, which for me culminated in Gandhiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s protest of the salt export tax, when he marched many miles from inland to sea to extract salt himself. More than a factual analysis, these processes and events gave me

SEVEN ISLANDS

a unique lens in which to view the city and the connection of land to sea.

1874

CURRENT

SION FORT

PROCESS_PALMYRA + SALT F E R MENTATION

7

DISTILL

6

COVER

5

FERMENT

4

SOLIDIFY

3

REDUCE

2

BOIL

EXTRACT

CLIMB

1

8

sweetSAP

toddy

vinegar

arrack arrack

ankleshvar

anand

dandi

sabarmati ashram 1930

3

2

1

WARM

4

IRRIGATE

5

TAMP

6

RAKE

7

SHIFT

saltWATER

TRANSPORT

march

DISTRIBUTE

12

CRYSTALLIZATION


EXISTING

NETWORKS

Geographically, the starting point of my design strategy is centered on Sion Fort, which sits atop one of the city’s only hills and is surrounded by Palmyra trees. The fort is adjacent to a series of maidans that was at one point a crucial part of Mumbai’s estuary but has since been CREEKS

in-filled, forever obstructing the historic flow of water. My proposal seeks to reconnect the estuary by addressing issues such as monsoon flooding, contaminated water supply and insufficient sanitation, through an integrated ‘soft’ infrastructural system that responds

MAIDANS

ecologically and programmatically to the seasonality of the city. The system uses the network of maidans to create a series of projects (ridge, game strip, fields) that together capture, cleanse, slow and release water, while maintaining the historic use of the maidan

ROADS + RAIL

as gathering spaces for residents and tourists alike.

CONNECTIVE POSSIBILITIES DIRECT

LEAST INFRASTRUCTURE

ENGAGES COMMUNITY + CITY EDGES

133


FORT

RIDGE

PHOTOWORKS

143’

113’

0’

OVERPASS

TANK

35’

TANK

-35’

MAIDAN

CREEK BANK PIPE


FRESH WATER

MONSOON / RAINFALL

78”

2009 LEVELS JUNE 13.27’ JULY 16.56’

ESTUARY

AUGUST 12.56’

HIGH TIDE 14.80’ 12.21’

LOW TIDE 5.41’ 1.97’

135

SALT WATER


03 CONNECT WATER FLOWS HOLDING FIELDS

COMPOSTING FIELDS

AQUAPONICS TANKS

02 CONNECT FROM FORT TO SEA

PALMYRA LINE

CULTIVATION CELLS

FORT

RAIL TANKS

GAME COURTS

INFILTRATION CHANNELS

CULTIVATION CELLS

01 CONNECT THE MAIDANS

GAME COURTS

AQUAPONICS TANKS

GARDEN TERRACES

TANK

STRATEGIES


TRAJECTORIES 01 R E C R E A T I O N A L / G A M E S T R I P

PATH + BENCH

DRY

WET

STRIP_COURT

STRIP_TANK

STRIP_GATHERING

137


TRAJECTORIES 02 S O C I A L

/

PATH

DRY

RIDGE

WET

RIDGE_PATH

RIDGE_SHELTER

RIDGE_OVERLOOK

RIDGE_SKYWALK


TRAJECTORIES 03 E C O L O G I C A L / F I E L D S + C H A N N E L S

DRY

WET

EMBANKMENTS + INFILTRATION CHANNELS

MIXING OF FLOWS

FRESH WATER

SALT WATER

FIELD_COMMUNITY EDGE GRAY WATER

FIELD_MANGROVE CULTIVATION

 FIELD_HOLDING


03 ECOLOGICAL /

FIELDS + CHANNELS

RIDGE

02 SOCIAL /

GAME STRIP

01 RECREATIONAL /

PROGRAM

GRADIENT

MONSOON JANUARY

FEBRUARY

MARCH

APRIL

MAY

JUNE

JULY

AUGUST

SEPTEMBER

OCTOBER

NOVEMBER

DECEMBER

HOLDING CRICKET COURTS

SHADE DEVICE

MARKETS

CIRCUS

MONSOON DEVICE

COMMUNITY TANK

MONSOON DEVICE

MARKETS

CRICKET COURTS

TRAVERSING PALMYRA PATH

SKY WALK

GARDEN TERRACES

RIDGE PATH

SKY WALK

PALMYRA PATH

MIXING BIO-SANITATION

WETLAND TERRACES

CULTIVATION

CISTERNS

AQUAPONICS

DHOBI GHATS

CHANNELS

WETLAND TERRACES

WELLS

CISTERNS

SALT PANS


TYPOLOGIES 01 H O L D I N G T A N K S

SOFT SURFACE

WATER SYSTEM

HARD SURFACE

BENCHES

141 DRY

FLOOD


TRAJECTORIES 02 C U L T I V A T I O N C E L L S

RAIN BARRELS + PIPES

SOFT SURFACE

WATER SYSTEM

EMBANKMENTS

DRY

FLOOD


TYPOLOGIES 03 F O L D E D P L A N E S

SOFT SURFACE_ SALT-TOLERANT PLANTS

PALMYRA + FISH TANKS

HARD SURFACE

143 DRY

FLOOD


THE FOUR STAGES OF WORLI


Nicolas Koff

12

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Mumbai February 2010

Anuradha Mathur


Marisa Bernstein

Jessica Brown

Rong Chen

171


Annabelle Hernandez

Xiaohan Jie

Janelle Johnson


Nicolas Koff

Hoyoung Lee

Michelle Lin

173


Anna Park

Yuichiro Tsutsumi

Stephanie Ulrich


Emily Vogler

175


Creek Forts  

by Anuradha Mathur and Dilip da Cunha

Creek Forts  

by Anuradha Mathur and Dilip da Cunha

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