MUMBAI CITY | NATIONAL PARK (part 1 of 2)

Page 1

MUMBAI CITY | NATIONAL PARK

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL OF DESIGN DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE SPRING 2009 ANURADHA MATHUR and DILIP DA CUNHA, critics



MUMBAI CITY | NATIONAL PARK UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL OF DESIGN DEPARTMENT OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE SPRING 2009 ANURADHA MATHUR and DILIP DA CUNHA, critics

Bret Betner Ho Ling Chang Bungyu Choi Jisu Choi Aroussiak Gabrielian Marguerite Graham Vivian Hu Gloria Lau Jiyoung Nam Kathleen O’Meara Nicholas Pevzner Sanjukta Sen Sookyung Shin


In 2007 we initiated the Mumbai Studio at Penn Design

illegal encroachment. Yet the proximity of the Park and

with a landscape design strategy for the Mithi River. The

habitation affords Mumbai a rare opportunity. The vast

studio this year focused on the western periphery of the

periphery of the National Park can, with strategic and

vast territory that gathers the head waters of the Mithi

innovative design and planning, become an asset rather

known as the Sanjay Gandhi National Park.

than ecological disaster; a terrain of negotiation and engagement rather than a battle ground between oppos-

The National Park, a tropical wilderness of 87 sq km of

ing interests and purposes. Indeed the Park edge can

largely forested terrain in North Mumbai was consoli-

become a player in the collection and diversification of

dated in 1960’s from a range of government and private

Mumbai’s waters, in reducing their scarcity and accom-

holdings to protect the watersheds of the Tulsi and Ve-

modating their excess, particularly in the monsoon.

har reservoirs. These reservoirs were built in the latter half of the 18th century by British engineers introducing

The studio developed a number of design proposals

piped water to Mumbai. Today, the fifty miles of Park

for the CITY/PARK EDGE. These proposals are more

edge collide with two million inhabitants, making a place

than thresholds between park and city; they are start-

where one sees extensive development, quarrying, and

ing points of initiatives that generate and cultivate more


dynamic and productive terrains that extend from the

as they developed their proposals. We extend our thanks

edge in multiple ways. They turn the edge from a site of

to Sunjoy Monga for all his guidance on our field trip to

conflict to a new frontier for Mumbai – a powerful cultural

Mumbai and for his relentless enthusiasm as he navigat-

and ecological force in its own right.

ed us through the National Park, answering our endless queries about the Park and beyond.

I am grateful to all the students who participated in the studio. They traveled to Mumbai at their own expense

We are indebted to Kavita Khanna and the Oberoi Tri-

and helped compile this document as a record of their

dent Hotel for making our last few days in Mumbai special

work of one semester. They hope, as much as I do, that

by accommodating us all at the Hotel for three nights in

this compilation can generate interest and a dialogue

February 2009. It was a time of sadness and reflection in

about what might be possible for this amazing and di-

Mumbai following the events of November 2008, which

verse threshold of City and Park.

we hope will not lead to a landscape of greater boundaries -- but a terrain that cultivates ingenuity, imagination,

The studio benefited greatly from Dilip da Cunha’s assistance in setting the agenda and in advising students

and resilience. ANURADHA MATHUR

4



128 118 108 96 78 68 58 46 38 28

18 8 page

Projects for the Park|City Kathleen O’Meara Marguerite Graham Sanjukta Sen

Aroussiak Gabrielian Jiyoung Nam + Bungyu Choi Vivian Hu Bret Betner Nicholas Pevzner Ho Ling Chang Sookyung Shin Gloria Lau Jisu Choi

12 11 10 09 08 07

06 05 04 03 02 01

6


OPERATING INTERSECTION OF THE WELL


Jisu Choi

01

8


overpass ground water

overpass ground water

overpass ground water water table overpass ground water


INTERSECTION The Dahisar is one of Mumbai’s rivers that flow from its headwaters in the National park to the Arabian Sea. In the city, there are also flows of people via roads, highways, railways, overpasses, and bridges. Many such intersections exist as potential opportunities in Mumbai. I saw two possibilities from these intersections. Firstly, intersections have the potential to be hubs for people. Secondly, intersections have the underneath space which could change to function. I tracked the Dahisar river and met these intersections in my traverse. Each intersection entailed different events and capabilities. Significantly, I found four sites with agents such as a new bridge, manhole, well, and dam in the park. I looked at these agents as the potential activators of these intersections. I chose to develop the site which has the well as an agent. When I was there, I saw a young boy who dived into the well. This vertical movement juxtaposed with horizontal movement of the train and overpass left an impression on me. I found the well site to be the most dynamic and as having great potential. Intersection deal with two issues of Mumbai’s water. First of all, intersection treats the monsoon water along the railways. Basically, there is a trench for collecting water during the monsoon season. With this trench, are programs such as a street market, garden, playground and so on. In addition, intersection also treats the Dahisar river water. Vertical soil filters are proposed under the overpass. The river water is purified with this soil filtering system. Along with this water treatment function, there is a public program component, a garden of aquatic plants on the embankment. The well intersection will be the starting point to treat water in Mumbai. It can spread out along the railway and dahisar river. 10


WELL

The intersection of the well is the most dynamic site juxtaposing its vertical movement with the horizontal flow of the city.


mounded soil ground level ďŹ ne sand coarse sand

treatment 1 monsoon water

water level

ground water

grout concrete gravel silt&clay sand small gravel

pool

large gravel

+

+ bedrock

public program with linear park

road screen

railway

pedestrian

trench

along the train railway dahisar river

overpass

beam

well as an agent

soil ďŹ lter

under the overpass

embankment

aquatic planting

treatment2 dahisar river water

screen

12


INTERSECTION & WELL Monsoon water and the Dahisar river exist at the intersection with the well. Two different lands meet with the two different waters a this junction. The land along the railway treats the monsoon water with a long trench. This trench will stretch with a linear park which has various programs such as a market, pocket garden, playground and pool. The land alongside the Dahisar treats the polluted river with vertical soil filters.

monsoon water

dahisar river water

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

soft surface

vertical soil ďŹ lter

hard surface

embankment trench

playground

program deck

trench

pool

circulation

aquatic plant garden garden streetmarket

circulation

land

land


rock

large gravel

gravel

gravel

coarse sand

coarse sand

ďŹ ne sand

ďŹ ne sand

charcoal

plants

monsoon water

0

10

30

60

100 m

dahisar river water 14


view from the road

view from the overpass


pumping water

1% slope

sewer water

pedestrian deck

aquatic plants

well

pool

trench

16


RECALIBRATED RIVERINE ECOLOGY


Gloria Lau

02

18


Tulsi Lake

Rivers in Mumbai are hidden from the public eyes and are treated as open sewage. This project focuses on Poisar River, which originates from Tulsi Lake in Sanjay Gandhi National Park to the Arabian Sea. Tracing the Poisar in Mumbai, it is bounded by hard edges (high walls built by high rise developments and industry) and soft edges (fluid edges next to slums and open area). During monsoon season, the water is held by the hard edges but flood past the soft edges. Poisar is not bounded by the river banks, but it is a center line which water as surface expands and contracts through different edges and seasons. A system of treatment wetland and alternative sewage system is proposed for the river. The proposal includes three subsystems of 1) catchment and bypass, 2) wastewater treatment, and 3) biosolids treatment and disposal. Capturing the fluidity of surfaces and flows, opportunity zones are identified for further investigation and design. Areas where water expands have interventions that are visible and engage the public. The hard edges require interventions that are not necessary public but would intercept and transport sewage and pollutants to the wetland system that are otherwise just openly dumped into the river. This proposal provides a framework to engage the wetland system with the ever changing nature of water and development in Mumbai.

Sanjay Gandhi National Park

Park Border

Mahindra & Mahindra

Poisar

Mangroves


20


OPPORTUNITY AREAS

PLAN - TREATMENT WETLAND + ALTERNATIVE SEWAGE SYSTEM

Reservoir - Rainwater Catchment Reservoir 1

CATCHMENT + BYPASS

BIOSOLIDS TREATMENT + DISPOSAL

WASTEWATER FILTRATION + TREATMENT

sewage

sedimentation

New Development 1

Solid Screen 1

auto manufacturing plant pollution

JFMAMJJASOND

Wetland

Industry 1 auto manufacturing plant pollution

sewage

auto manufacturing plant pollution

Maidan 1

sludge from filtering Bypass 1 auto manufacturing plant pollution

Aeration Sub-surface wetland

SEDIMENTATION + AERATION + SUB-SURFACE WETLAND

JJA

Anoxic

biosolids from filtering

Water Storage 1

JFMAMJJASOND

sewage

Slum 1

CROPS FIELD

Crop Fields

Water Storage 2

JFMAMJJASOND

Bypass 1

biosolids from filtering

sewage

Western Express Highway

FERTILIZER + COMPOST

Solid Screen 3

Solid Screen 2 Water Storage 1 AERATION + TRIPLE FILTER

JJA

HARVESTING + RECYCLING

Bypass 2

Surface Wetland

Crops

Field 1

biosolids from filtering

Water Storage 2

sewage SURFACE WETLAND sewage sewage

Compost Fields

sewage

sewage

sewage

Slum 2

sewage HARVESTING + RECYCLING

JJA

Sand Surface Wetland

Industry 2

Bypass 3

AERATION + MEDIA FILTER + SUB-SURFACE WETLAND

Peat Moss Microbes

human waste

Bypass 2

JJA

Wetland

biosolids from filtering

JFMAMJJASOND

Aeration

Surface Wetland

sewage

sewage

Solid Screen 3

Rail

Former Industry 1 New Development Construction 1

Former Industry 2 New Development Construction 2 Slum 3

JFMAMJJASOND

Slum 4 Bypass 4 Field 2

Bypass 3 Algae

Aeration

human waste

Sub-Surface Wetland

Solid Screen 4 Water Storage 3

The straightening of the river sections and singling out pieces of city fabric emphasizes the areas that can be intervened in physically. The plan of the treatment wetlands and sections of sewage and water flow correspond to the territories opened up by monsoon water and the type of programs needed for different types of land uses. Mangroves

Versova Sewage Treatment Plant + Lagoon


FLOW + LEVEL NON-MONSOON

FLOW + LEVEL MONSOON

FLOW + LEVEL PROPOSED SECTIONS

FLOW + LEVEL TREATMENT SYSTEM

Park

Mahindra & Mahindra

Western Express Highway

Food Corporation

Railway

Poisar

Mangroves

22


The resurfacing of the Poisar allows for different forms and programs of interventions. The sequential sections, perspectives, and models of the three territories illustrate a sliver, a moment of intersection, between the wetlands, city, and water. The plexi on the model expresses transparent public engaging interventions that are woven with the city fabric. The white cardboard shows interventions that are not visible to the public, but through infrastructure, intercept the sewage and chemicals that need to be treated. The project aims to create a framework for looking at the river intersecting with the hard and soft edges as a surface; and how this framework can be translated into a structure for a wetland system that fluctuate with the constant changing rhythm of the city and monsoon.


LOKHANDWALA DEVELOPMENT

MAIDAN

MAHINDRA & MAHINDRA AUTO PLANT

surface wetland aeration

aeration tank

aeration tank

subsurface wetland anoxic

screen

sedimentation

solid filter

24


EXISTING RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT

SLUM

FOOD CORPORATION floating wetland aeration

floating wetland aeration

compost +crops

bridge to food corp

screen to slow water speed

public wetland

overflow

trickle filter aeration + anerobic t+ anoxic

overflow

bypass waste harvesting


RAGHULEELA MALL + POISAR BUS DEPOT

NEW DEVELOPMENT

SLUM

EXISTING NEW DEVELOPMENT MAIDAN + POISAR GYMNASIUM

anoxic

overflow

EXISTING NEW DEVELOPMENT

subsurface wetland aeration floating wetland aeration

floating wetland aeration

public wetland

SLUM

public wetland

aeration

biofilm anerobic overflow

bypass

waste harvesting

26


CULTIVATING NEW THRESHOLDS


Sookyung Shin

03

28


NEW ACTIVATOR This project is about cultivating a new entrance for the Sanjay Gandhi National park. The national park a tropical wilderness of 87sq km of largely forested terrain has only one active entrance which is connected from Borivali station and the Dahisar river. I believe that if the park is to be a frontier landscape for Mumbai rather than a background, accessibility from the city is to be an important factor. The territory which I chose is the only area that has green cover, directly meeting the city. Its other edge directly meets national park. The green area which is called Aarey milk colony is situated at a distance 30 Km north to Mumbai city and came in to existence in the year 1949. It is the area available for cultivation of quality fodder and grasses is about 400 acres and tracts are also leased out to various organization and institutions.

SANJAY GANDHI NATIONAL PARK Borivali

The high-rise residential area which is developed by ‘Mumbai Housing Board’ is still actively under construction. The east edge of this development colony meets National Park

MAIN ENTRANCE

Between these two contrasting fields the whole territory has a lot of potential in terms of the diverse circumstance. Developing this territory will be starting point of cultivating new entrance of the park. BOUNDARY

+

Oshiwara river

Goregaon

CULTIVATING TERRITORY NEW ENTRANCE OF THE PARK oshiwara river

Railway

=

Western Express Highway

TERITORRY

road to the park

new territory

The Oshiwara river weaves across two contrasting fields, milk colony and development, and the Road(to the park) starting from entrance of aarey milk colony crosses the river and creates another edge of the territory.


NORTH BOUNDARY_OSHIWARA RIVER

Oshiwara River begins in the Aarey Milk Colony, cuts through the Goregaon hills, across the Aarey Milk Colony before emptying into the Malad Creek. It meets all the diverse condition of the territory. Significantly, the intersection of flows, between river and road is the place which has the potential to be cultivated as a meeting point of different neighborhoods.

WATERFALL

ROAD

ROAD

ROAD CONVERGENCE ROAD

ROAD

WESTERN EXPRESS HIGHWAY

OSHIWARA RIVER 30


TERRITORY_OSHIWARA RIVER TO SOUTH BOUNDARY From dense urban development, to the National park, this territory has a range of conditions. Ironically, the tracts directly meeting urban situations have the most green cover and the tract directly meeting the national park is the most developed area.

NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARY

RESERVED LAND FOR DEVELOPMENT & NATIONAL PARK

DEVELOPMENT

VILLAGE (SLUMS)

VILLAGE

OSHIWARA RIVER

AGENCY OF CULTIVATING NEW PARK

EXISTING ROAD SPINE OF NEW PARKWAY

AAREY MILK COLONY

N

1800 feet

WESTE

RN EXP

RESS H

IGH WA Y


STRIPS FROM OSHIWARA RIVER oshiwara river road ENTRANCE OF THE PARK

national park

From the junctions of the Oshiwara and the road six strips are extended to the parkway. Cultivating these six strips will be the starting point for cutivating the entire territory.

PROGRAM OF 6 STRIPS

0bservation

CHOOSING THE SITE_CONTRASTED TWO TERRITORY END OF TERRITORY

Green network

Water purification Water Amusement

NATIONAL PARK MEETING WITH NATIONAL PARK INCLINED SURFACE BARREN AREA

START OF TERRITORY

Flower Market

City market

ARREY MILK COLONY MEETING WITH WESTERN EXPRESS HIGHWAY FLAT SURFACE GREEN AREA 32


VIEW TOPOGRAPHY

FILM CITY AGRICULTURAL AREA

NATIONAL PARK BRIDGE

RESIDENCE INDIRA GHANDIS INSTITUTE OF DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH

STRUCTURE OF COLONY UNIT OSHIWARA RIVER FLOWER MARKET

FOREST

FODDER

colony units

entrance of the arrey milk colony

FODDER

FOREST

western express highway

oshiwara river


SITE 1_CULTIVATING TWO LIFE CYCLE STRATEGY 1_GARDENING

PLANTING

RAISING HARVESTING CUTTING

STRATEGY 2_ IMPOUNDING

FOLDING

MARKET ORNAMENT FESTIVAL

“Tota is an open, dynamic and working terrain for cultivation but also a web of activity including nurseries, markets and importantly, keres(when water recede)”

Some part of Arrey milk colony is losing its function. I propose an adaptation of the traditional Indian flower garden and market in Arrey milk colony. With new water circulation system, flower cultivation will signify an extraordinary landscape.

aster

kankambra

Chirsanthemum

Jasmine

Tuberose

Marigold

“ Arrey colony does not municipal water, so people are dependent on open wells. These open wells are not cleaned for many years thus likely to get contaminated. Open defecation is in practice due to lack of access to toilet facility. Drainage (sewage) is passing near by the open wells, hence no clean water for drinking and other purpose”

New water system starts from Oshiwara river and circulate through garden will provide clean water and new waterscape and also program.

impouding existing market

flow

starting point of water circulation

impouding irrigating

irrigating purifying

purifying

impounding irrigating

activate flower market

purifying

market under the western express highway

flow

extend edge of colony unit

making flower bed along the extended strips

starting point of water circulation

34


SITE 2_CULTIVATING TERRACE STRATEGY 1_GABION The territory, stretched out national park, has a lot of potential because of its sloped surface and diverse neighborhood condition. The great view to the east side which includes other part of Aarey milk Colony film city etc, the development area at the west side and Institute at the south side are the potential neighborhoods. Here I am suggesting the terracing the slope. Increase accessibility from the city and give the area to the neighbors will be way to cultivating the new park entrance.

CONSTRUCTION DEBRIS GARBAGE THROWN INTO THE RIVER

transport debris and garbage

collecting

making gabion

use as construction units

SLOPE WAKING BOARD STABLIZATION

SITTING

CHANNEL

EMBANKMENT

STRATEGY 2_WATER HARVESTING rain water harvesting WATER TANK

OBSERVATORY

+ collected water by embankent RESORVOIR WATER GARDEN

biological purification

DISTRIBUTION

BOATING

POOL


STRATEGY 3_TERRACING

1.BUILDING TERRACE OBSERVATORY + WATER TANK NATIONAL PARK RESEARCH INSTITUTE 2. WALK BOARD connect the buildings entrance to the park and residential walking observatory

3. WATER FALL AND RESERVOIR water holding pond water garden water fall

4. GABION STRUCTURE extend to the territory : main structure for terracing wall for pond retaining wall sitting, walking place embankment

5. AGRICULTURAL LAND terraced area irrigated by impounding water

6. IMPOUNDING WATER gabion embankment

7. EXISTING MIADAN destination of terraccing program plate

36


CITY | IN-BETWEEN | PARK


Ho Ling Chang

04

38


CITY | IN-BETWEEN | PARK

Ridge of Mont. Kanheri

Western Express High Way

Lokhandwala Complex Kandivali West

Film City Aarey Colony Property line of Sanjay Gandhi National Park

WATER / MUMBAI Water management is an essential issue in Mumbai. In monsoon season, floods in the city cause huge harm to both lives and economy. The project is situated between Sanjay Gandhi National Park and Kandivali West. Instead of channels and leveled lands in developments, this project focus on three intentions: 1] Water- holding and water- levelling, 2] extension of strategic development toward the forest, and 3] extend the program of forestry from national park to the city. N

N

W

?

E

W

E

S

S Surface / Section W-E

Surface / Section N-S


Existing Conditions

Undeveloped

Levelled-Land

Surface

Excavated

Surface

Collage/ Existing channels

National Park

DMZ(Demilitarize Zone)

City

Edge of City

Blocks / Viewing Cracks

40


Existing Flooding Plan

Level the Water

00

Developing From City

Existing Conditions

Drainage

Up Stream

Leveled

Slope Topography

Development

Nature

01

02

01

02


03

Maidan

03

04

03

04

Pedestrian system

04

05

06

05

42


City Edge

National Park Property Line

Ridge

Water

Maidan

Master Plan

Forestry


City

DMZ(Demilitarize Zone)

Maidan

National Park

Ridge

New Forestry Contour Trench

Contour Trench

44


FILTER | COLLECTOR: recovering the Talao in Mumbai’s Maidans


Nicholas Pevzner

05

46



FILTER/COLLECTOR

Recovering the Talao in Mumbai’s Maidans Tanks and ponds used to supply the city with water--not pipes running down from dams far away. The network of tanks and talaos gathered fresh water from the aquifer and from the monsoon rains in a distributed and localized supply system. Over time as piped water became the norm, tanks and talaos fell into disrepair, and many were built over. Many more, however, remain as traces in the city, now converted into sandy maidans that do not show any traces of their watery past.

At the same time that water shortages force Mumbai to look further and further for water in new dam-and-reservoir projects, groundwater depletion in the city is resulting in saltwater intrusion into the underground aquifer, making old wells unusable. A different culture of public water use is possible, based around capturing the monsoon rainfall and adding to the aquifer’s capacity, while growing a sense of public participation and stewardship around the water supply of the neighborhood. This project proposes a new water supply system for Mumbai, based on the old, now dry, talaos, seeing them as new centers for communal social life in the city. 48



ANCHORING THE EDGES Interventions along the maidans’ edges act as anchors, pinning the surface of the maidan into the conceptual edge between the maidan’s ground and the city. The edges gather people and gather water, activating the maidans’ peripheries. Water collects in the edge structures like the settling tanks, water filter, injection wells, rainy- and drymonths tanks, draw wells, and hand washing stations; people collect around the public toilets, the bazaars and canopy extensions, the low bench-walls, and the outdoor cinema screens.

50



EXTENDING THE SURFACE The usually flat surface of the maidan is pulled upwards and downwards, extending the section into new possibilities of occupation. Benches rise from the flat ground, while trenches push into it. Benches provide a place for sitting and socializing, and swell into other edge programs, like the water filters and toilet units. Trenches gather moisture, hosting palm tree oarts and rows of shady trees, or becoming more engineered and gathering the wastes from the toilet units. Trenches provide places for moisture to soak, while benches provide surfaces for people to travel along. Moving east, in the larger maidans closer to the Park edge, where apartment buildings give way to informal settlements and hutments, blue monsoon tents take on the rainwater-harvesting role formerly provided by the rooftops and terraces. Even further east, where maidans sit in old quarries, the vocabulary of benching and trenching takes on a new scale, with benches becoming pathways and extending through the Park, while trenches host palm plantations and climb the quarry face as tunnels, water collectors, and verdant filtration channels in the rock.

In both plan and section, the maidan extends out into the city, breaking through the hard line of its former identity and encompassing nearby streets, nearby buildings, roofs, facades, and alleyways. Not just a single place, the maidan joins the network of other similarly activated grounds in a new conception of Mumbai’s public space. 52



56


MUMBAI GROUNDS


MUMBAI GROUNDS Bret Betner

06

58


Site Conditions : Existing

In Mumbai, both sides of the Sanjay Gandhi National Park are under increased pressure from both legal and illegal settlements. On the western edge of the park, running nearly almost its entirety are informal settlements spreading up the hillsides into the parkland. The functioning of the city as a whole is dependent upon the resilient people who call this territory home, yet their access to the services of the city – water, sewer, education and economy is remarkably limited. The proposal for the Appapada Quarry in the northern Mumbai suburb of Malad East begins to address these important issues and suggests a possible manner in which those living in this peri-urban zone may create a space which is neither pure village nor pure city, but a hybrid manifestation – an edge as ‘non-edge’. The quarry wall itself separates an established neighborhood and a hillside of informal settlements. In the middle of the quarry is the large Appapada Maidan, used by children and adults from varying parts of northern Mumbai. Several areas in and around the quarry environs are used for toileting by the local populace. Apart from contaminating ground water in an adjacent stream, it also represents a missed resource opportunity for this same population.

1

2 Composite with Strips

Composite with Strips

97’

The vision for a landscape intervention at Appapada Quarry is one which takes advantage of this resource by recovering the ‘soil’ from the settlements while extracting the essence of the forest, in the form of beneficial flora, and utilizes both as a generator for a new and evolving landscape.

103’ 103’

108’

178’

Elevation Points Elevation Points

Topography - 5’ Contours Topography - 5’ Contours

Vertical Vertical DropsDrops

Existing Toileting Areas Existing Toileting Areas

Existing Pedestrian Networks Existing Pedestrian Networks


Site Location : Appapada Quarry

Site Location: Appapada Quarry Sanjay Gandhi National Park Borivali Kandivali Malad

1

t Settlemen

: Soil For e

st : M

2

ons

oon

Chhatrapati Shivaji Airport

Dharavi

Mumbai City

2

1

60


Insertion : Site Evolution

Site : Evolution Water Tanks HIgh Point

High Water Level Medium Water Level Low Water Level

Irrigation/Pathways *See Irrigation Typology

Water Tanks Above Quarry

Linking Pathway Run-o Swale

Forest : Monsoon

Quarry Wall Water Tanks Below Quarry Wall

Dhobi Ghats

Wetland Walls

Humus Moved to Field Prepare ďŹ elds before Monsoon

Compost Curing Zone Ready one year after Thermophillic

Compost Toilet

Monsoon Toilet Breakdown occurs in toilet pit (2yrs)

Settlement : Soil

Quarry Wall

Compost Toilet Monsoon Toilet

Breakdown occurs in toilet pit (2yrs)

Timeline Autumn/Winter Spring/Summer Monsoon


Insertion : Site Evolution

Site : Evolution

3 yr. Transplant to Forest 1/2 of Trees to Remain

Ayur-Trees Medium Larrge

Ayur-shrubs Sun Shade

Forest Trees Timber & Reforestation

Forest : Monsoon

Quarry Wall

Special Cultivations Family Plots Banana Coconut Bamboo

Compost Toilet

Settlement : Soil

Quarry Wall

Compost Toilet

Timeline Autumn/Winter Spring/Summer Monsoon

62


Site Conditions : Proposed

The project seeks to enable the local community participation in the making, processing and profits of this landscape. In order to do this, three major introductory insertions are proposed; constructed trench-like composting toilets, a stone pathway traversing the quarry wall and stone ‘tanks’ for the retention of water. Over time the toilets and curing process will produce a rotation of nutrient rich composted manure (humus). At this time humus can be added to the existing soil and create new areas for the planting of produce, native Ayurvedic plants and timber products. These urban villagers will have access to water from their own decentralized ‘tanks’ also constructed from a combination of concrete and local stone. From there, the community will be able to filter water through a slow-sand filter for their drinking water. The remaining water can be managed and utilized for the agricultural enterprises.

Timber & Reforestation Ayurvedic Trees (Medium) Ayurvedic Trees (Large) Ayurvedic Herbs (Sun) Ayurvedic Herbs (Shade) Bananas Coconuts Bamboo Family Plots

Insertion : Evolution Composite

2

2

Fo re

st

Fo re

st

:M

on

:M

on

so

on

so

on

Settlement : Soil 1

Settlement : Soil 1

Insertion : Pedestrian Circulation

Insertion : Hydrologic Circulation

With water, improved soil, food supplies and the resiliency of the local population, this landscape can evolve throughout time. Additions to the water and toilet systems can be made as required by the local community. Within the plan there are provisions for collection, irrigation and other water management necessities. If this landscape is to be a success, it will need not only the inputs from the community, but their ingenuity in adapting the plan to their own uses. As such, it is hoped that this landscape could be maintained through multi-family networks, much like a village system.


2

Fo res t:

M

on

+Sl

so

on

Malad Neighborhood

Intersections

I

III

Bamboo Decking

III

Bamboo Decking

Ground

CC

III

Dhobi Ghats

II

Proposed Stone Pathway

+Sl

Potable Water Tanks

Rain Water CollectionTanks

Existing Stream Composting Toilets

Effluent CSP

Ground

CC

Bamboo Decking

IV

CSP

Stone Pathway

SS

CC

Proposed Stone Pathway Monsoon Toilets

Slow Sand Filter

Composting Toilets

+Sl

Settlement : Soil 1

SS

Curing Terraces

CC SS

III SS

Quarry Wall

IV

CC

II CC

IV Potable Water Tanks Slow Sand Filter Rain Water CollectionTanks

SS

Step Down

CSP CSP

Sl+

Monsoon Toilets

Insertion: Infrastructure Typologies

Existing Pathways

Appapada Maidan Trellis

W

Proposed Connection to Neighborhood

Insertion : Infrastructure Typologies

Quarry Wall

Trellis

Stone Swale

Sl

Sluice

CC

SS +Sl

North

CSP CC

Existing Pathway

CSP Contour Swale/Path

*

with Fencing

W

50

100

150

Scale : 1” - 50’

II

CSP*

SS*

CC

I Wetland

0

SS*

I

Concrete Channel

II

CSP* CC*

+Sl

I Rain Water CollectionTanks

CC*

+Sl

64


Forest : Monsoon

Settlement : Soil


Musa spp.

Phyllanthus emblica

‘Amla’

Azaderachta indica

Dalbergia sissoo

Quarry Wall

Proposed Stone Pathway

Teak Tectona grandis

Indian Rosewood

Proposed Connection to Neighborhood

Bombax ceiba

Appapada Maidan

Red Silk Cotton

Trellis

Flame of the Forest Butea monosperma/frondoa

Neem

Withania somnifera

Dhobi Ghats

‘Haritaki’ Terminalia chebula

‘Vibhitaki’ Terminalia belerica

Terminalia arjuna

Arjuna

Tulsi, Holy Basil Ocimum sanctum

Ashurangandha, Indian Ginseng

so

Black Pepper Piper nigrum

on

Cardamom Elettaria cardamomum

M

Turmuric Curcuma longa

Fo res t:

Bamboo Bambusa spp.

Banana

Coconut Cocus nucifera

2 Trellis Existing Pathways

Monsoon Toilets

Extraction : Planting Scheme Extraction: Planting Scheme

on

Malad Neighborhood Proposed Stone Pathway

Composting Toilets

Settlement : Soil 1

Existing Stream Composting Toilets Curing Terraces

Monsoon Toilets

Quarry Wall

0 50

North

Scale : 1” - 50’

100 150

66


REUSE + RECLAIM + REGENERATE


Vivian Hu

07

68


DAHISAR

GORAI LANDFILL

BORIVALI

SANJAY GANDHI NATIONAL PARK

KANDIVALI

TULSI LAKE

MULUND LANDFILL

GOREGAON

PLASTIC RECYCLING PROCESS

PARK CONDITIONS

LANDFILL

NATIONAL PARK

VIHAR LAKE

ATION OF PLASTIC RECYLCIN

G IN D UST RY

MALAD

TRANSFER STATION

RELOC

ARABIAN SEA

POWAI LAKE

TRANSFER STATION

THANE CREEK

DEONAR LANDFILL 10 KM / 6 MILE WALK DHARAVI

MUMBAI • PRODUCTIVE LANDSCAPES


EC EL LIN E

PARK TO CITY STRATEGY

ICAL

PARK TRAIL

PA RK BO UN DA

RN

EX

PH

W Y

RY

PARK

TR

CITY

W ES TE

0.5 MILE

1.5 MILE

1 MILE

EC

EL ICAL

TR E LIN

CITY TO PARK STRATEGY

PARK TRAIL RK

PA RY

DA

UN

BO

RN EXP WESTE HWY

0.5 MILE

1 MILE

1.5 MILE

PARK

CITY

70


BIOFUEL RESEARCH

PARK RIDGE CLEARING

PARK RIDGE

PARK WALL

THAKUR QUARRY

HUTMENTS

OPEN FIELD

INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

CITY

NATIONAL PARK

0.0 MILE

REFORESTATION 2.5 MILE

2.0 MILE

1.5 MILE

EMBANKMENT

WASH PLASTICS

DRY PLASTICS

SORT PLASTICS SHRED PLASTICS

1.0 MILE

TRANSPORT PLASTICS

SORT WASTE

0.5 MILE

TRANSPORT PLASTICS

COMPOST WASTE

0.0 MILE

COLLECT WASTE SORT WASTE

COLLECT PLASTICS

Productive Landscapes • Urban Wastes One man’s junk is another’s fortune in Dharavi, the largest slum in India. With the economy and consumption soaring, recycling is a source of jobs for thousands, from scavengers to sorters to manufacturers. Due to Dharavi’s prime location at the heart of Mumbai, it is experiencing tremendous pressure from the city for redevelopment. In order to preserve this vital industry of recycling− informal network of human waste management, the residents of Dharavi can be given the opportunity to be relocated to an area that is between the edge of national park in the township of Kandivali East. It is here where they can live/work the land that they occupy without a fear of being relocated elsewhere. The new dwellers are the agents for this productive landscape.


STEWARD AGNETS

INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

SCHOOL + MAIDAN

INFORM SETTLEMENTS + OPEN FIELD

SCHOOL + MAIDAN

SCHOOL +MAIDAN

SCHOOLS

MAIDAN

VACANT LOT

HUTMENTS

SMALL CLEARINGS

PARK RIDGE CLEARING

CITY

3.0 MILE

SEED NURSERY

SEED NURSERY 2.5 MILE

2.0 MILE

SEED NURSERY

SEED NURSERY

STEWARD AGNETS

SEED NURSERY

SEED NURSERY

INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

1.5 MILE

SEED NURSERY 1.0 MILE

SCHOOL + VACANT LOT

SEED NURSERIES

0.5 MILE

0.0 MILE

AGROFORESTRY

TIMBER CULTIVATION

Productive Landscapes • Urban Forestry The Sanjay Gandhi National Park is an ecological island in the suburbs of Mumbai. The park has faced a number of problems involving conflicts between natural and human interests. Over the years, the park’s edge has been greatly encroached upon by informal settlements and high-rise residential developments. The Urban Forestry strategy seeks to use the large clearings in the park as seeds/agents for generating a hybrid of diverse ecological environments within the park. The seed nurseries inside the park are operated by hutment dwellers. The seedlings then get transplanted in the park clearings and also at nurseries within the city, with the stewardship from local schools and neighboring informal settlements.

72


PARK TO CITY STRATEGY URBAN FORESTRY • EXISTING

URBAN FORESTRY • 1-5 years

URBAN FORESTRY • 5-15 years

URBAN FORESTRY • 15-30 years

S1

S2

S3

S4


URBAN FORESTRY AGRO FORESTRY Sorghum japonicum (Sorghum) Azadirachta indica (Neem)

Pongamia pinnata (Karanja)

Forestry Research

REFORESTATION

ELEVATED PATH

S1

PARK TRAIL

Jatropha curcus (Physic Nut)

BIOFUEL RESEARCH

BIOFUEL RESEARCH

REFORESTATION

AGRO FORESTRY

TIMBER CULTIVATION

ELEVATED PATH

S2 PARK TRAIL

Butea monosperma (Flame of the Forest)

TIMBER CULTIVATION

Acacia nilotica indica (Babul)

Nursery Cultivation

Tectona grandis (Teak)

R+T

A+B+R+T

S3

BIOFUEL RESEARCH

B+T

RESEARCH LAB

BIOFUEL RESEARCH (B)

ELEVATED PATH

A+B+R

PARK TRAIL

A+R

TIMBER CULTIVATION

A+B

SEED NURSERY

AGROFORESTRY (A)

SEED NURSERY

Dalbergia latifolia (Rosewood)

Embankment Dams

A+T

R+B+T

A+B+R+T

S4 REFORESTATION

TIMBER CULTIVATION (T)

ELEVATED PATH

A+B+R+T

TIMBER CULT.

A+B+T

PARK TRAIL

B+R

SIDE TRAIL

REFORESTATION (R)

74


CITY TO PARK STRATEGY RECYCLING LANDSCAPE • EXISTING

RECYCLING LANDSCAPE • 1-2 years

RECYCLING LANDSCAPE • 2-5 years

RECYCLING LANDSCAPE • 5-10 years


RECYCLING LANDSCAPE

PLASTIC STORAGE FIELD

PLASTIC WASHING + DRYING

PLASTIC COLLECTION WALL

76