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Lenny Chiah | Prof Dr Zulkifli Abdul Hamid | Prof Dr Faidz bin Abd Rahman | Kabilan Muniandy

Postgraduate Studies MBA Edge

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TM

PP17103/10/2011 (02804) 2011 Issue 5 Oct/Nov/Dec 2011 RM6.00

Special

innovation

issue

The light bulb was a radical innovation by Thomas Edison that greatly influenced and shaped life around the world

KLIUC: Unique Courses 34 UTAR: A Research University 28 FACON EDUCATION FAIR: Dec 10-11 18 WINNING MAGNITUDE: Exclusive Interview KASPERSKY: ‘No Worries Plan’ 54 INNOVATION: Incremental vs Radical 6

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EDITOR’S NOTE F

ar from winding down to the end of the year, our fifth issue has the exciting theme of innovation, bringing you a debate on whether “Incremental Innovation is Better than Disruptive Radical Innovation”, with Dr Seloamoney Palaniandy suggesting that incremental innovation is more practical while Rodney Toh views disruptive innovation as being superior.

Information on writing that tedious dissertation is always useful for postgraduate students – we include an article on how to cite sources so you can have an easy reference to how to avoid plagiarism and format your work properly. We also have Marshall and Kelly Goldsmith who write about why coaching clients give up and how to make sure they remain focused on their goal. Lenny Chiah explains the organisational culture of ethical politics – like it or not, there will be politics in the workplace and the right way to handle it is with ethical leadership. In the same vein, Julie Donley talks about why it is important for us to lead with our values, prioritising what is important to us in order to maintain our integrity and to be true to ourselves.

If you haven’t noticed, it has been a year since our first issue in October 2010! To readers who have been supporting us up till our first birthday, we thank you for your support and hope you will continue to enjoy the articles in this magazine as and find them useful in your business and everyday lives. In addition, we have revamped the magazine as the bi-monthly MBA Edge Postgraduate Studies, in order to Also focusing on postgraduate education, we speak provide you with more up-to-date information on current to Mr Kabilan Muniandy about the unique benefits of malaysiaeducation.com.my, where students and parents alike happenings in the business and MBA world. can use online tools to apply for and track applications. If you have any suggestions on what you would like to see in this magazine in relation to the MBA, or any comments We also interview Professor Dr Zulkifli Abdul Hamid, on our current issues, please email us at: penerbitwawasan@ President of KLIUC, who tells us about KLIUC and why gmail.com. deans should act like CEOs when running a university. Professor Dr Faidz bin Abdul Rahman, Director for the Happy reading! Institute of Postgraduate Studies and Research, UTAR provides us with information about research programmes in UTAR and details that will be useful for prospective students.

Janet Tay

CORPORATE Managing Director Steven Shim Office Manager Vicky Shim Key Accounts Manager Aniki Chen Finance Manager Bonnie Bang EDITORIAL TEAM Senior Editor Janet Tay Writers Nurraihana, Mohd Amil Contributors Lenny Chiah, Flora Sim, Dr. Seloamoney Palaniandy, Dr. Faidz Abd Rahman, Marshall Goldsmith, Kelly Goldsmith, Julie Donley Photographer Tang Weng Kit Graphic Designer Tony Lam PUBLISHER Penerbit Wawasan Nusa (M) Sdn Bhd (866716-P)

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CONTENT 6 SPECIAL FEATURE Innovation: Incremental Innovation Versus Disruptive Radical Innovation

40 “Our differentiation factor is simple: it is in the circumnavigation of customers’ needs. Quill Automobiles puts customers’ priorities on the forefront of everything it does.” Roland Ooi, Director of Quill Automobiles Sdn Bhd

18 The largest and longest education road show in Malaysia, Facon Education Fair, provides a venue for Malaysians to gather information on further education opportunities.

54 Kaspersky launched the ‘No Worries Plan’ to offer home network users and small business networks the choice of Kaspersky PURE or Kaspersky Small Office Security (KSOS) solutions.

28 EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW: Dr Faidz Abd Rahman Professor at the Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR).

59 How to Write Literature Review: What exactly is a literature review article, and how to avoid the most common pitfall on the road to writing one? Other Articles: 23 How to Cite Soruces 48 Why Coaching Clients Give Up

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34 EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW: KLIUC, the only infrastructure university in Malaysia, probably in the region as well, offers unique programmes.

64 EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW with the Managing Director of Winning Magnitude Sdn Bhd and Educature Sdn Bhd on the unique one-stop centre for higher education and placement for local and foreign students


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BREMONTspecial

Live Ejection testing of the Bremont MB watch prototype

About Bremont:

MARTIN BAKER II

Bremont is the creation of brothers Nicholas and Giles English, who have a shared passion for aviation. The English brothers passion for aviation began at an early age through their father who would take them into their workshop where he would build everything from aircraft, to musical instruments, to clocks. Their father was an RAF aerobatic champion and a world known display pilot of WWII aircrafts. Sadly he tragically died in a plane crash in 1995 whilst practising for an air display in North America. Nick English was in the plane at the time and was lucky to survive.

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This is the only watch ever to have been subjected to a live ejection testing program.Tested and designed in conjunction with the iconic British aviation company ‘Martin-Baker’, who are responsible for supplying 70% of the world’s air-forces with fighter ejection seat technology. Bremont’s unique rubberised anti-vibration mount absorbs extreme shocks and the Faraday cage protects the movement against magnetic forces.

A year after the death of their father, while flying to meet friends in France, the brothers had to make a forced landing in their 60-year old plane, due to bad weather. They landed in a pea-field in the Champagne region of France. The landing was an exciting one, and the man who came to their help that evening was an old farmer, and - as it unfolded – a WWII pilot and a man with a passion for flying and timepieces. His house was full of clocks, most of them restored by him personally. The old man still wore his father’s Swiss watch. Nicholas and Giles still wore their father’s. The man’s name? BREMONT. His name, Antoine Bremont, was therefore chosen because his passions in life exactly matched those of the brothers and also as a tribute to their father Euan. Each watch is manufactured and assembled by hand in the Bremont workshop in Switzerland, with several parts being finished in the UK. Every watch released from the Bremont atelier is chronometer tested. Bremont had the honour of being awarded the Walpole Award for Best Emerging British Luxury Brand at the 2008 Walpole award for British excellence. The initial Bremont watch family comprises three models: The ALT1-C, ALT1-Z and the ALT1-P. As would be expected, each should be regarded as a professional quality timepiece which is sufficiently accurate and durable to be used for activities ranging from flying to yachting to mountaineering. In addition to laboratory testing, each model has been tried and quantified 'in the field' by professional adventurers, including mountaineer Bear Grylls, round-the-world yachtsman Mike Golding, Everest climber Jake Meyer, Sara Campbell, world champion free diver, and, of course, aviators Nick and Giles English and their fellow, professional pilots, such as the elite at the Empire Test Pilot’s School. The ALT1-C contains a specially Soprod modified Valjoux 7750 self-winding movement inside a 43 mm case. It has a classic chronograph layout with sub-dials at the three and nine o'clock positions and has been designed to have exceptional visual clarity with all data available at a glance.

SUPERMARINE 500 This is the first marine watch – the Supermarine 500 from Bremont, still classical in design and aviation roots but very effective diving watch. The design of the Supermarine has been built using Bremont’s unique Trip-Tick three piece case construction which gives it a water resistance depth of 500m or 1660ft, For clarity the bezel is being made of sapphire which covers the Superluminova C5 numbers. TM

Bremont watches are crafted on three principles: Individuality, Precision and Durability. Bremont is available exclusively at Swiss Watch Gallery Boutiques in Malaysia and Singapore Tel: +603 2142 9977 Email: swg.pavilion@valiramgroup.com www.valiramgroup.com


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Special Feature

innovation

“Incremental Innovation is Better Than Disruptive Radical Innovation” “Innovation is creativity with a job to do” - John Emmerling

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definition of incremental innovation is the continuous small improvements to existing products and services to meet the expectations of existing customers. Often the idea is to incorporate existing products or services with new technology to make them faster, better, or easier. Automotive giants like Toyota and Nissan made significant inroads into America’s market by being more reliable and by delivering better quality cars at lower prices. “Effective incremental innovations and dramatic improvements in operating efficiency were the two keys to the success of these Asian firms,” says Richard Leifer, co-author of the book Radical Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, 2000). Radical innovation involves a drastic shift from existing knowledge to a new level playing field with vast advancement in performance exceeding the current customer’s expectations, often rendering existing competitive stronghold by the incumbent market leader obsolete. “Radical innovation transforms the

relationship between customers and suppliers, restructures marketplace economics, displaces current products, and often creates entirely new product categories. Radical innovation provides a platform for the long-term growth that corporate leaders desperately seek,” says Richard Leifer. A clear example we can observe today is the abundance of mobile phones produced in the market. Each model purports to offer faster processing power, bigger storage capacity, higher picture pixel density, etc. On a closer look, you will notice that all these models offer similar texting, calling, photography and social media functions. Since the introduction of the iPhone, there has been no radical departure from the existing playing field. In this Special Feature, we asked esteemed contributors to take a position to argue for or against the debate motion that “Incremental Innovation is Better than Disruptive Radical Innovation” and flesh out their thoughts in a persuasive manner in order to offer our readers a polemics that will further encourage discourse on this topic to hopefully provide practical benefits and value relevant to the workplace.


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“Incremental Innovation is Better Than Disruptive Radical Innovation” AGREE

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DISAGREE

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Disruptive Innovation is Superior By Flora Sim

he term disruptive innovation was coined by Clayton Christen in his book The Innovator’s Dilemma. Christensen differentiates sustaining innovation from disruptive innovation. Sustaining innovation improves the performance of existing products within the expectations of the customer’s demand whereas disruptive innovation offers more than what customers expect or did not know they valued. Christensen’s study was based on the disk drive industry, transitioning from 14” disk to 5.25” disk and the consequential disruption creating new markets and destroying established companies strongholds. He described how the incumbent companies although technologically capable but were not able to adopt the new disruptive ideas due to legacy strategies, structures, and systems. Incumbents have their existing customers to satisfy and a forecasted bottom line to protect. As a result, new ideas to serve “marginal markets” are not priorities. This is where new entrants to the market take advantage. New entrants are not in the context of serving existing customers with existing products. Rather, they use the new technologies or innovations to capture the “marginal markets” which later grow to become the main market. This is how established firms eventually disappear and new entrants capture market leadership. In Christensen’s book, the dilemma he found is that the new market leaders then settle down to service their clients thus creating inertia to further innovate disruptively. These new market leaders are trapped in the value network of its customer bases, preventing it to innovate further – a situation exactly the same as

the previous market leaders. Christensen’s proposed solution was to set up separate business units to explore disruptive technologies before new entrants take over. In this pattern of innovation described by Christensen, it is obvious that sustaining (incremental) innovation only serves to maintain an existing pool of clientele resulting in incremental sales and profits. Within the industry, there will be a few competitors jostling for the leadership position using existing technology incrementally to compete. On the other hand, it is the disruptive technologies or innovations that eventually take the firms to new performance levels and new markets, creating new spaces for competition and leadership. Usually these new innovations will destabilise the incumbent market leaders and sometimes even cause their demise, in extreme cases. In conclusion, incremental (sustaining) innovation is not better than radical (disruptive) innovation. The contrary is true. Some examples of successful disruptive innovations in recent times are shown in the next page.


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iPhone – extremely user-friendly interface and an integrated platform for entertainment/ information never experienced before by mobile phone users Digital camera – the phenomenal growth of this market has replaced almost entirely the celluloid film camera market, pushing it to collector’s item category

AirAsia – low cost air travel, although not new, but in Malaysia it has effectively destabilised the full service national carrier from what used to be a monopoly situation Portable USB flash drive – we may forget that the ‘pendrive’ was invented just ten years ago. We cannot imagine how we can function without this today

Disruptive Radical Innovations That Have Changed How We Live


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“Incremental Innovation is Better Than Disruptive Radical Innovation� AGREE DISAGREE

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Incremental Innovation offers more practical values By Dr. Seloamoney Palaniandy (KLIUC)

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ncremental innovation, also known as sustaining innovation, no doubt has more practical values and implications compared to disruptive radical innovation. Incremental innovation generally relates to enhancements or small improvements in the existing products or services, whereas radical innovation brings a drastic or significant improvement in the product or the service. Innovation activities immaterial of its nature improve existing products or create new products through the combination of market opportunities and technological capabilities. Basically there are two dimensions of distinctive advantage for firms that favour incremental innovations. Incremental innovation is built upon existing knowledge and resources, and it is competence-enhancing. Radical innovation, by virtue of its requirement of completely new knowledge or resources, is deemed competencedestroying. As incremental innovation involves modest technological changes, existing products on the market will remain competitive. On the contrary, radical innovation involves large technological advancements and therefore renders existing products noncompetitive and obsolete. According to research statistics, it is estimated that about 90 per cent of innovations practised across the globe are incremental in nature. The reasons might be obvious and self-explanatory. Incremental innovation is

relatively easy to obtain compared to the unpredictable radical one. They are significantly less risky, relatively cheaper and based on a proven product or a process, and above all are more likely to produce results in a shorter time frame. A firm’s competitive advantage, in the traditional pattern of corporate success, is providing the best value for the lowest cost in the least amount of time. Hence, the speed of product or service development is often deemed the key to success in business operations. A good exponent of this claim is Nokia. Over the years, it has demonstrated numerous incremental innovation techniques that have paved its way to introduce new cell phones. The ability to incorporate new designs rapidly into the market has helped Nokia maintain its position as market leader. Radical innovations usually take a longer time to develop and might not meet the demands of our technologically fast growing society. Radical innovations follow after several or even many incremental innovations. They are also significantly risky and it is usually more expensive to harness their potential. So we relate to the fact that the radical innovation is characterised by a long period of incremental innovations before and after it. It usually takes several years before we can actually see results in radical innovation projects. Firms may start a project when times tend to be favourable for at least a couple of years. However, good times may come to an


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end when the business hits a crisis. Thus, despite the heavy investments, time spent, and needless to say, the frustration on the part of employees concerned, the entire ordeal may turn out to be futile at times. Big firms with sophisticated technology and those with enormous funds and resources at their disposal may resort to both radical and incremental innovations simultaneously. This is akin to firms indulging in both immediate and long-term goals. However, only the latter may ensure the continuous survival of the firm as incremental techniques are designed to meet the immediate market requirements. Many firms, especially the SMEs, cannot afford to depend on radical innovations to reap the rewards of their efforts. The long wait may bring the progress of such firms to a halt or threaten their entire existence. Firms that boast of having achieved significant success with their radical innovation are relatively few compared to firms that that have resorted to incremental innovations. In this respect, small consistent innovative practices provide the experience and expertise that enable firms to sustain them in the industry against the challenges of the ‘S-Curve’, the determinant of a product’s shelf life. Some firms, especially the newcomers to the market, may approach innovations on a trial and error basis. As such, it might be easier for incrementally inclined firms to make ‘switches’ or rectifications of mistakes, when their products or services are no longer in demand. As no innovation can take place in a vacuum, firms must first practise incremental innovations before establishing themselves in the industry. Radical innovations may have the potential to change the basis of competition in favour of the innovation. In this respect, some firms that may attribute their success to radical innovations. However, they might need a ‘starting point’ to initiate their radical innovations. For example, IBM’s introduction of the electric typewriter signalled the end for all manual typewriter manufacturers in the office market. This no doubt gave the IT giant a commanding share of the office market for several decades. Likewise, Henry Ford’s innovations in automobile design and assembly changed the

Special Feature

nature of the emerging auto industry and gave the company a hold on the market that no one would break for 15 years. The irony is that these so-called radical innovations cannot be accepted or viewed as totally radical. As such, to brand the activities of the firms purely radical is only one part of the Gemini configuration. Both radical and incremental innovations need to go hand in hand in the success of a business. They were in a way ‘incremental’ as both IBM’s electric typewriter and Ford’s new car design had their ‘origins’ before they were proclaimed as breakthrough innovations. The respective innovative technologies of the two industrial giants were regarded as radical because one of the characteristics stipulated for radical innovation is that the product or service concerned must have a long lasting impact in the market, before it is challenged. Many well-known organisations may attribute their success stories to consistent incremental innovations. Toyota, for example, claims to have made over 20 million small innovative improvements during the last 40 years using its Kaizen process. Thus, continuous innovation, typical of incremental innovations, has become the hallmark and a way of life for Toyota employees. In the context of management, it is also easy to lead and manage if the innovation processes are incremental. This is because it might take a total change of management structure to lead and manage radical innovations. Radical innovations, especially in the context of technological innovations, may have the potential to change the fate of the company overnight. Thus, firms may need to consider a total revamp or organisational restructure in many aspects including its management styles and operational techniques. Workers may need retraining and marketing strategies may require alterations as well. Despite the advantages, radical innovation presents firms with several serious challenges. Projects dedicated to radical innovations tend to be risky, expensive, and usually take many years to produce tangible results – if at all they produce results.


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Research suggests that around 80 per cent of these inventions fail in the market and in some instances, radical innovations are not recognised or treated as innovations in its real sense. To be successful, companies must have the patience and the budget to support these long timelines. The problem associated with risk, expense and long timelines encourage most established companies to pursue incremental innovation. Incremental innovation is a favoured choice because it is safer, cheaper and more likely to produce results within a reasonable time.

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improved and varied products. As such, it might be no exaggeration to say that incremental innovation provides firms with competitive advantage. As in the case of radical innovation, incremental innovation does not necessarily envisage the future technology but attempts to provide a bridge between current and future technologies. Faced with the threats of an economic slowdown, inflation and rising protectionism, the industrial world needs incremental innovation for sustainability.

Incremental innovation handled systematically provides business units with steady streams of new,

J

ack Welch once said, “Someone, somewhere has a better idea.” In this myth-busting book, the authors reveal that great business ideas do not spring from innate creativity, or necessarily from the brilliant minds of people. Rather, great ideas come to those who are in the habit of looking for great ideas all around them, all the time. Too often, people fall into the trap of thinking that the only worthwhile idea is a thoroughly original one. Idea Hunters know better. They understand that valuable ideas are already out there, waiting to be found - and not just in the usual places. The book is filled with illustrative accounts of successful Idea Hunters and stories from thriving “idea” companies.

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nnovating Strategy Process presents a series of reflective essays by established and emerging scholars on the subject of innovation, considering it both as an outcome of strategy and as a process in itself. • Contains new ideas and rich case descriptions that will trigger creative thinking about how to design a more innovative strategy process. • Offers new conceptual frameworks for analyzing and designing strategy process. • Addresses cutting-edge topics, such as play as the means and art as the impetus for strategymaking; the role of emotion in new venture decision-making; and science and entrepreneurship as a source of innovative strategies.

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framework for overcoming the six types of innovation killers. Everybody wants innovation—or do they? Creative People Must Be Stopped shows how individuals and organizations sabotage their own best intentions to encourage “outside the box” thinking. It shows that the antidote to this self-defeating behavior is to identify which of the six major types of constraints are hindering innovation: individual, group, organizational, industrywide, societal, or technological. Once innovators and other leaders understand exactly which constraints are working against them and how to overcome them, they can create conditions that foster innovation instead of stopping it in its tracks.

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he major focus of this book is to provide new strategic management approaches and tools to enable capabilities for rapid, discontinuous organizational innovation and change. For both advanced students and business managers, it presents a well-balanced combination of leading-edge theory supported by published articles of prominent scholars, and case studies & examples, all designed to substantiate a new strategic mindset, innovative tools, and practical applications for significantly increased innovative capabilities. Among the topics covered in the book are innovative business models, open-sourcing, mobile enterprise, industry-inflection, systemic strategy approaches, and R&D structures outside the organization.


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Special Feature

MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

“Incremental Innovation is Better Than Disruptive Radical Innovation” AGREE

Transformative Power of Radical Innovation By Dr. Faidz Abd Rahman (UTAR)

DISAGREE

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nnovation is a word normally associated with invention and technology. Before debating on the issue of incremental and disruptive innovation, I wish to touch on the definition of “innovation”. Innovation originates from the Latin word innovatus which means “to re-new” or “change”. Innovation in the broader sense means the creation of a better system, process, product, business model etc. that can be accepted by the society and market for substantial improvement in the quality of life or businesses. Innovation should generally have a positive impact on society and the community. Innovation is the realisation of an invention or idea involving usage or support of existing products, technologies and processes to allow the transformation of an idea into reality. Invention is necessary for any innovation to come to fruition but not all inventions lead to innovation. Some inventions can also lead to negative values or impact – these are not innovations. These inventions are brought about by people who see the opportunity to gain profits without looking into the short- and long-term negative impact towards the society. Innovation itself can be divided into two types, namely sustaining/incremental innovation and radical/disruptive innovation. Incremental innovation does not involve the creation of a new market but instead an evolution or transformation of an existing market with better

values. As technologies improve, better products can be produced but these products may not necessarily change the market segment or have a significant impact on society. A good example is the introduction of the first mobile phones. The earlier devices were bulky and with limited functions, then gradually transformed into the current mobile phones which are smaller, lighter and compact, with far superior functions. This happens because of the incremental innovation that is occurring in the mobile phone industry. Another good example is the automobile industry, where advances in technology have allowed more features to be incorporated into the vehicles which are value-added aspects for the consumer, e.g., more comfortable, longer distance travelling, etc., compared to its predecessors. Unlike incremental innovation, radical or disruptive innovations are breakthroughs that have significant impact on society and the way we do business. It creates a new market segment that disrupts the present market. If we look into the example given above, the creation of mobile phones is actually a disruptive innovation because it slowly killed


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longer journeys in a shorter time and travelling is made more comfortable. This greatly changed society and thus began the domination of the automobile industry as a new market segment. There are many more examples of incremental and radical innovations – the list goes on and on. But one thing to take note is the inter-relationship between the two. Radical innovations are the breakthroughs society and the market look forward to for significant positive changes and the creation of new market segments. This is followed by incremental innovations which improve the value of the products, or processes, produced initially by radical innovations. In other words, there will be no incremental innovation without radical innovation.

off the market for wired phones or telephones. It radically changed how society communicates and revolutionised how businesses are being conducted. Before the introduction of automobiles, horse carriages were used as means of travelling. The introduction of automobiles disrupted the market for the carriages. With automobiles, people can travel

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nnovation is a key source of competitive advantage, but it remains frustratingly elusive for many organizations. Too many

organizations try to improve innovation by focusing on one element at a time, particularly in the area of new products and services. They train individuals, hire more creative people, or create specialized innovation departments. Yet, for most organizations, these investments yield only disappointing results. They have not had sustainable solutions-practical and reliable programs that deliver long-term, predictable results. Instead, they have had an endless array of partial answers. They are left with

From the arguments put forth, it is obvious that the purpose of innovation is actually to “change” or “re-new”. The transformation of a society, business or nation will depend on how much an innovation radically and positively changes the way we do things. Incremental innovation is only sustainable up to a point, after which it is limited by the technologies or models supporting it. To go to the next level, radical innovation is needed. Hence, I have to go against the motion that “Incremental Innovation Is Far Better Than Disruptive Radical Innovation.”

an alarming innovation gap. Innovative Intelligence answers the question: How can we close the innovation gap by making individuals and organizations systematically and sustainably innovative? The key to systematic success is to ensure that organizational practices and culture genuinely foster innovative thinking. Innovative Intelligence presents the case for a new focus for leaders centered on innovative thinking, and demonstrates how leaders can

maximize the innovative capacity of their employees and teams. It shows how to embrace a culture of innovation and have it permeate throughout the organization, at every level. Innovative Intelligence gives readers a clear roadmap and practical tools to make their cultures more supportive of innovation, identify and tap into the innovative intelligence in their workplace and develop leaders who can close the innovation gap for greater business success.


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“Incremental Innovation is Better Than Disruptive Radical Innovation� AGREE

Radical Innovation and Survivability By Dr. Ahmed Razman Adbul Latiffis (UPM)

DISAGREE

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e are creatures of habit. We tend to eat our breakfast in the same place every morning, sit in the same seat during our weekly lectures and shop at our favourite stores every weekend. We do that because we are comfortable with these chores and we do not want to have to make decisions for every action that we make. However, not all habits are good or beneficial to us or to the people around us. Some habits like smoking or driving in a petrol-guzzling car can be detrimental to our health and hazardous to the environment. And yet we continue with our habits because habits are difficult to change. Only when it becomes severely threatening to us that we get rid of our old habits and adopt new ones. And sometimes it takes a disruptive radical innovation to pry us away from this comfort zone and resort to an alternative option. At the beginning of the 20th century, an estimate of 200,000 horses lived and worked in New York City, a ratio of 1 for every 17 persons who lived there. The average horse produced about 11 kilogrammes of manure a day and that meant more than two million kilogrammes of house manure was produced daily in New York City. That poses a health hazard due to its potential breeding ground for flies and rats that spread diseases, not to mention the smell and logistical nightmare of storing or dumping it in suitable locations. When all hopes seemed lost, a radical technological solution appeared: an automobile. When the first affordable Ford Model T car was mass produced in 1908, all problems associated with horses simply disappeared . In 1970, when the Apollo 13 space shuttle was facing problems to ensure a safe landing back to earth, it required a considerable ingenuity under extreme

pressure from the crew, flight controllers and support personnel. They succeeded in improvising the joint connection of cube-shaped Command Module canisters with cylindrical-shaped Lunar Module canister-sockets using the tools available to them, as well as inventing a new protocol of powering up the craft using a very limited power supply and time constraint. The two examples mentioned above illustrate the need to have a radical innovation due to a sudden threat to the survivability of human beings. They responded to a situation that was plain for everyone to see. If they had not change or responded to it, they would have suffered. But what if there are habits that are not so obvious to us, yet in essence, carry a serious threat to our well-being and survivability in this world? How are we going to react to something that is not obvious to us? One fine example is our response, or lack of it, towards global warming. People in Siberia might not regard the problem of rising sea levels as urgently as people who live in Bangladesh. Thankfully, this kind of threat can be sustained or managed through a series of gradual innovations such as alternative fuels, forest management and infrastructure upgrade, among others. There are also other habits that seem normal to us, but carry hidden danger and underlying threats that are not obvious. They need greater and immediate solutions, something that only a disruptive radical innovation seems capable of mitigating. From a business point of view, one habit that fits into this description is the firm’s comfortable routine of depending on bank credit facility to fund its existing business operations or expansion into new ventures. Even in most business schools, the finance course for MBA students places too


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much emphasis on equity and debt financing whenever it talks about financing a business. At the same time, we hear in the news about various financial crises and banking scandals happening all around the world. So many established banks collapsed and so many people suffered due to the acts of few rogue individuals. Whenever the bank is lending money to its customer, the money supply will increase, and banks are said to “create money.” The quantity theory of money explains that such an increase will lead to more money “chasing” the same amount of goods, which leads to inflation. There is also a situation called a bank run, where the bank cannot not raise enough funds when their depositors lose faith in the ability of the bank to return their investments. Recent examples include Northern Rock crisis of 2007 in the UK and Washington Mutual Bank in 2008. Richard Florida mentioned in his book, The Great Reset, that there is a need to overhaul our education system due to the erroneous path it has taken. He asserts that the financial crisis is actually a symptom of a much more serious underlying economic malady. Voices are heard imploring for the reintroduction of transcendental and spiritual essentials into the curriculum. The students should not be led to believe that these two financing methods are the most optimum choices and worse still, the only ones available for the business whenever they are short of funds. This is of course not true and there are lots of other alternatives that might be proven more economically and practically better than these two types of financing. Examples of these alternatives are venture capitalists and angel investors. But these so-called alternatives feature only briefly during the discussion in the classroom. Unfortunately, they also have shortcomings and this is reflected in real life where applications of these alternatives centre mostly on small start-up businesses. Therefore, there is still a gap or unidentified alternatives to the bank credit system, which needs to be applicable to all type of businesses, and it is definitely going to be a disruptive radical innovation, not unlike the automobile in the early 1900s.

MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

Dr. Seloamoney Palaniandy Presently working as a Senior lecturer with School of Business Infrastructure (SOBI), KLIUC, lecturing research methods and management subjects for PhD and Masters, and Bachelors level Students. Have travelled extensively, not less than 100 countries across globe, which includes school, college and university visits, cultural exchange programs, motivational talks, independent research, etc. Attended numerous educational and management conferences, seminars and forums both locally as well as abroad. (Doctorate in Education (EdD) University of Leicester, UK., Master of Arts in Professional Studies in Education, (MAPSE) University of Leicester, UK, Bachelor of Arts (Hons.) Language Studies, University Malaya, Bachelor of Business Administration, University of Philippines) Dr Faidz bin Abd Rahman is a Professor at the Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) and is currently the Director for the Institute of Postgraduate Studies and Research, UTAR. He holds a Bachelor and Master of Science degrees in Physics and a PhD in the area of Optical Engineering. Dr. Ahmed Razman Abdul Latiffis a lecturer at the Graduate School of Management, UPM. He holds a Bachelor Degree of Accounting and Finance (Honours) from Lancaster University, UK, a Master Degree of Accounting from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore and a Master Research Degree in Accounting and Financial Management from Lancaster University, UK, and a PhD in Corporate Governance from Liverpool John Moores University, UK. Flora Sim is a regular contributor to the MBA Edge magazine with many years experience in the workplace.

Dr Ahmed

Dr Faidz

Dr Seloamoney

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Announcement

MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

POSTGRADUATE STUDIES WITH

P

FACON

ostgraduate studies are in demand as testified by the variety of Master’s and research PhD programmes offered at public and private universities. It is important to consider postgraduate studies when you want to reposition your career. Make your way to the Facon Education Fair and you will be inspired by more than 800 globally recognised and award-winning institutions of higher learning from Malaysia and overseas. As the largest and longest education road show in Malaysia, its objectives are to provide a venue for Malaysians to gather information on further education opportunities and to reinforce Malaysia as the centre for excellence in higher education. Kicking off one of the largest and longest education road shows in Malaysia on 10 December 2011 at the Putra World Trade Centre, the fair will occupy two exhibition halls with over 400 booths. The fair will then move to another 11 cities in Peninsular and East Malaysia where school leavers and working adults will have a unique opportunity to meet with representatives from renowned institutions. Since its inception in 1990, this prestigious event has been attended by millions of visitors, illustrating its popularity and public recognition for its success and contributions to human resources development and the education industry.

Those who are interested to complete their higher education locally will not be disappointed as all major local institutions of higher learning will be at the fair. This event will provide visitors a superb opportunity to meet all these big boys all under one roof. They include the Advance Tertiary College (ATC), APIIT/UCTI, Berjaya University College of Hospitality, Brickfields Asia College, IACT College, INTI University College, KLMU, MAHSA University College, MSU/PTPL, Nilai University College, SEGi University College, Sunway University College, Taylor's University, University Of Nottingham, UCSI University, UTAR, UNIRAZAK, Universiti Malaya, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Visitors to the fair will also get a unique chance to meet representatives from internationally renowned institutions from other countries such as Australia, Germany, India, Indonesia, Russia, Singapore, Ukraine, UK and USA. The comprehensive information gathered at this fair will help those who are wondering about their future education path make an informed decision. For those hoping to complete their higher education at a nearby country like Singapore, they will not be disappointed as there will be a Singapore group at the fair consisting of distinguished institutions such as At-Sunrice GlobalChef Academy, German Institute of Science & Technology, Nanyang Polytechnic, National University of Singapore(NUS), Nanyang Technological


Announcement

MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

Education Fair DECEMBER 2011

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Peninsular Malaysia 12noon to 6pm

Kuala Lumpur 10-11 December PWTC Alor Setar 13 December Holiday Villa Hotel Penang 14 December Traders Hotel Ipoh 15 December Syuen Hotel Malacca 16 December Hotel Equatorial Melaka Johor Bahru 17-18 December Persada Johor International Convention Centre

University, SIM University and the Singapore Institute of Management (SIM) With thousands of programmes being offered, visitors will be spoilt for choice as the options range from Design to IT, Business to Law, Medicine to Mass Communications, Engineering to Sciences, Accounting to Finance to Healthcare, and the list goes on. Scholarship information booths will be specially set up at the Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru venues to assist visitors with information on scholarships offered by participating institutions. At the Kuala Lumpur and Johor Bahru venues, visitors are invited to attend a series of academic presentations to have a better understanding of the programmes, institutions and their facilities conducted by the respective exhibitors. Admission is free and seats are limited. The opening hours are from 12pm to 6pm for Peninsular Malaysia and 12pm to 4pm for East Malaysia. Admission is free. For more information on the Facon Education Fair – December 2011, please visit www.faconex. com and follow us on Facebook at www.facebook. com/faconeducationfair

East Malaysia 12noon to 4pm

Sibu 10 December RH Hotel Kuching 11 December Riverside Majestic Hotel Miri 12 December Grand Palace Hotel Sandakan 16 December Sandakan Hotel K.Kinabalu 17 December Promenade Hotel Tawau 18 December MB Hotel


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MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

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Article

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HOW DO I CITE

SOURCES?

Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed, and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source, is usually enough to prevent plagiarism.

Article Source: http://www. plagiarism.org/ plag_article_how_ do_i_cite_sources. html

T

his depends on what type of work you are writing, how you are using the borrowed material, and the expectations of your instructor. First, you have to think about how you want to identify your sources. If your sources are very important to your ideas, you should mention the author and work in a sentence that introduces your citation. If, however, you are only citing the source to make a minor point, you may consider using parenthetical references, footnotes, or endnotes. There are also different forms of citation for different disciplines. For example, when you cite sources in a psychology paper you would probably use a different form of citation than you might in a paper

for an English class. Finally, you should always consult your instructor to determine the form of citation appropriate for your paper. You can save a lot of time and energy simply by asking "How should I cite my sources," or "What style of citation should I use?" before you begin writing. In the following sections, we will take you step-by-step through some general guidelines for citing sources. Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author(s), title, and genre (book, article, or web page, etc.). If the source is central to your


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MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

work, you may want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas. But often you can just tag this information onto the beginning or end of a sentence. For example, the following sentence puts information about the author and work before the quotation: Milan Kundera, in his book The Art of the Novel, suggests that “if the novel should really disappear, it will do so not because it has exhausted its powers but because it exists in a world grown alien to it.”

You may also want to describe the author(s) if they are not famous, or if you have reason to believe your reader does not know them. You should say whether they are economic analysts, artists, physicists, etc. If you do not know anything about the author, and cannot find any information, it is best to say where you found the source and why you believe it is credible and worth citing. For example,

Article

You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make.

How do I incorporate quotations in my paper? Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming

than one by this author) to avoid confusion. Quoting Material What is quoting?

Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. You should quote material when you believe the way the original In an essay presented at an Asian author expresses an idea is the most Studies conference held at Duke University, Sheldon Geron analyzes effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If the relation of state, labor-unions, you want to borrow an idea from and small businesses in Japan an author, but do not need his or between 1950s and 1980s. her exact words, you should try If you have already introduced the paraphrasing instead of quoting. author and work from which you How often should I quote? are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you Most of the time, paraphrasing probably don't need to mention and summarizing your sources is them again. However, if you have sufficient (but remember that you cited other sources and then go still have to cite them!). If you think back to one you had cited earlier, it’s important to quote something, it is a good idea to mention at least an excellent rule of thumb is that the author's name again (and the for every line you quote, you should work if you have referred to more have at least two lines analyzing it.

the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to change too many words! You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation, and falsely claim the author said something they did not. For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg: The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to.


MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

Article

When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible. Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative last sentence. However, just skipping it would not work -the final sentence would not make sense without it. So, you have to change the wording a little bit. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. Your quotation might end up looking like this: In his essay, “United Shareholders of America,” Jacob Weisberg insists that “The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly... by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to.”

to “He tends to serve himself badly...by focusing his pursuit of happiness on [money].”

The brackets around the word [money] indicate that you have substituted that word for other words the author used. To make a substitution this important, however, you had better be sure that [money] is what the final phrase meant -- if the author intentionally

As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. left it ambiguous, you would be significantly altering his meaning. That would make you guilty of fraudulent attribution. In this case, however, the paragraph following the one quoted explains that the author is referring to money, so it is okay. As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content.

25

Quoting Within Quotes When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks ("") to single quotation marks ('') to show the difference. For example, if an original passage by John Archer reads: The Mountain Coyote has been described as a “wily” and “singleminded” predator by zoologist Lma Warner.

your quotation might look like this: As John Archer explains, “The Mountain Coyote has been described as a 'wily' and 'single-minded' predator by zoologist Lma Warner.”

How do I include long quotes in my paper? The exact formatting requirements for long quotations differ depending on the citation style. In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following: 1. Change the font to one noticeably smaller (in a document that is mostly 12 point font, you should use a 10 point font, for example) 2. Double indent the quotation -that means adjusting the left and right margins so that they are about one inch smaller than the main body of your paper. 3. If you have this option in your word-processor, "left-justify" the text. That means make it so that each line begins in the same place, creating a straight line on the left side of the quotation, while the right side is jagged.


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MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

4. Do NOT use quotation marks for the entire quotation -- the graphic changes you have made already (changing the font, double indenting, etc.) are enough to indicate that the material is quoted. For quotations within that quotation, use normal quotation marks, not single ones. 5. You might want to skip 1.5 times the line-spacing you are using in the document before you begin

Article

Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. sense of pride and skepticism... After finishing “A Fool's Life,” he accidentally discovered a suffered swan in a used goods store. Although it stood with its head raised, even its yellowed wings had been eaten by insects. He thought of his entire life and felt tears and cruel laughter welling up inside. All that remained for him was madness or suicide.

include: 1. The authors' names 2. The titles of the works 3. The names and locations of the companies that published your copies of the sources 4. The dates your copies were published 5. The page numbers of your sources (if they are part of multisource volumes) Ok, so what's an Annotated Bibliography? An annotated bibliography is the same as a bibliography with one important difference: in an annotated bibliography, the bibliographic information is followed by a brief description of the content, quality, and usefulness of the source. What are Footnotes?

Footnotes are notes placed at the bottom of a page. They cite references or comment on a designated part of the text above it. For example, say you want to For example, a properly-formatted With this gesture Akutagawa ironizes long quotation in a document might the impossibility of truly writing the self add an interesting comment to a sentence you have written, but the look like this: by emphasizing the inevitable split that comment is not directly related to must occur between writing and written Akutagawa complicates the picture of the argument of your paragraph. In “self,” the Akutagawa still writing “A picture of himself as mere “reader on this case, you could add the symbol Fool's Life” cannot possibly be identical the verge of writing his own text,” by for a footnote. Then, at the bottom with the narrated persona which has having his narrated persona actually of the page you could reprint the finished the work. finish authoring the work in wich he symbol and insert your comment. appears. In the forty-ninth segment of Listing References Here is an example: the quotation and after it. This is optional and depends on the style preferred by your instructor.

the text, entitled “A Stuffed Swan,” he writes:

Using all of his remaining strength, he tried to write his autobiography. Yet it was not an easy task for him. This was due to his still lingering

What's a Bibliography? A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have used in the process of researching your work. In general, a bibliography should

This is an illustration of a footnote.1 The number “1” at the end of the previous sentence corresponds with the note below. See how it fits in the body of the text?


MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

Article

At the bottom of the page you can insert your comments about the sentence preceding the footnote.

1

When your reader comes across the footnote in the main text of your paper, he or she could look down at your comments right away, or else continue reading the paragraph and read your comments at the end. Because this makes it convenient for your reader, most citation styles require that you use either footnotes or endnotes in your paper. Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references (author, date) in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information.

you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote (try to avoid this!), try to put it at the end of the most relevant phrase, after a comma or other punctuation mark. Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word. If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it. What's the difference between Footnotes and Endnotes?

The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, Footnotes are not just for interesting while endnotes all appear at the comments, however. Sometimes end of your document. If you want they simply refer to relevant sources your reader to read your notes right -- they let your away, footnotes reader know where are more certain material likely to get came from, or your reader's where they can look attention. for other sources Endnotes, on the subject. To on the other decide whether hand, are you should cite less intrusive your sources in and will not footnotes or in the interrupt the body of your paper, flow of your you should ask paper. your instructor or If I cite see our section on sources in citation styles. the Footnotes (or Endnotes), Where does the little footnote how's that different from a mark go? Bibliography? Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before

Sometimes you may be asked to include these -- especially if you have used a parenthetical style of citation. A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material.

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Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from which you drew your material. A "works consulted" page is a complement to a "works cited" page, listing all of the works you used, whether they were useful or not. Isn't a "works consulted" page the same as a "bibliography," then? Well, yes. The title is different because "works consulted" pages are meant to complement "works cited" pages, and bibliographies may list other relevant sources in addition to those mentioned in footnotes or endnotes. Choosing to title your bibliography "Works Consulted" or "Selected Bibliography" may help specify the relevance of the sources listed. For more information on documenting sources, see Purdue University's Online Writing Lab: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/ handouts/research/index.html


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Exclusive Interview

EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH

Prof Dr Faidz bin Abd Rahman Director for the Institute of Postgraduate Studies and Research, UTAR Dr Faidz bin Abd Rahman is a Professor at the Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR) and is currently the Director for the Institute of Postgraduate Studies and Research, UTAR. He holds a Bachelor and Master of Science degrees in Physics and a PhD in the area of Optical Engineering.

H

ow many Master’s and PhD programmes does UTAR have?

UTAR currently offers 30 postgraduate programmes, of which 19 are at Master’s level and 11 are at Doctorate level. Students can pursue our Master’s programmes via full research (structure A), or full coursework (structure C), or a combination of both (structure B). All UTAR PhD programmes are research-based (structure A). How does UTAR fund research programmes? The University has the UTAR Research Fund, an internal funding with an annual allocation of RM5 million

which is used as seed money for research projects. The internal funding has thus far accumulated to over RM11 million, sponsoring 218 research projects at the moment. UTAR has also been acquiring research funds from external parties such as government agencies, NGOs and business corporations. In 2011, we received a RM1.9 million R&D grant from the Ministry of Energy for a pre-commercialisation project on Grid Connected Dense Array Photovoltaic Concentrator. To date, we have secured a total of RM15.4 million external funding for the execution of more than 130 research projects.


Exclusive Interview

Professor Faidz Abd Rahman Director, Institute of Postgraduate Studies & Research, UTAR

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What are UTAR’s areas of research expertise? UTAR has progressed steadily to be a comprehensive university providing a diverse portfolio of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes with a niche in research and consultancy. Currently we have 23 research centres such as the Centre for Computing and Intelligent Systems, the Centre for Cancer Research, the Centre for Environment and Green Technology Research and the Centre for Stem Cell Research and 25 multidisciplinary research groups actively engaged in various research areas such as brain science, biodiversity, communication systems and networks, computing and intelligent systems, technology, games and design, photonics, social change and trends, sustainable development and corporate social responsibility in business, vehicular technology and green technology. Why does UTAR aspire to be a research university? A university is a beacon of knowledge. It is a place that fosters the creation, preservation, dissemination and application of knowledge. UTAR began as a university offering quality undergraduate studies and emphasising teaching excellence. The focus then was on imparting knowledge. Today, UTAR’s core mission encompasses a virtuous circle of creating, preserving, imparting and applying knowledge.

Exclusive Interview

More specifically, the University is creating knowledge through research, preserving knowledge through publication of books and journals, imparting knowledge through

teaching, seminars and workshops and applying knowledge through the commercialisation of research output. In short, UTAR is transforming itself. Progressing from a credible teaching institution, UTAR is now moving towards an internationally recognised University, emphasising teaching and research excellence. What’s the long-term plan or roadmap for UTAR? UTAR is advancing towards a new frontier, that is, to be an excellent creator of knowledge, or in other words, an excellent research university. Towards achieving this end, the University has initiated the UTAR

Research Roadmap 2010-2014 that has defined clear and measurable Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to steer the entire University community to achieve the benchmarks set by the Ministry of Higher Education of Malaysia and subsequently challenge ourselves to achieve higher benchmarks set by the World Research University. This roadmap has served the University well, as evident from the various successes that attest to how a culture of excellence has taken root in our UTAR community.

UTAR is advancing towards a new frontier, that is, to be an excellent creator of knowledge, or in other words, an excellent research university. Do you collaborate with other agencies or bodies? UTAR has established solid collaborations with industry through its Industry Advisory Panel who together with the faculty, regularly review, update and develop the curriculum. At the same time, UTAR has continued to actively collaborate with universities and industry, both local and abroad, to synergise on the each other’s strengths. To date, we have signed MoUs with 44 foreign


MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

Exclusive Interview

partners and 44 local partners. Some of our foreign MoU partners are Xiamen University, China, Dongseo University, Korea. Academia Sinica, Taiwan, University of Strathclyde, UK and University of Ottawa, Canada. Our local partners include ACCA, CIMA, Eu Yan Sang Sdn Bhd, Jobstreet.com Sdn Bhd, MAICSA, MIMOS Berhad, The Institution of Surveyors Malaysia and Tung Shin Hospital. What, in your opinion, are the traits of a good researcher? a. You have to be brave to take risks and try new things and ideas. b. You must be diligent in your work. If in the beginning your ideas do not work, try again and be persistent.

T

he recent economic crisis was not just caused by a failure of regulation or economic policy; it was a story of the failure of management in a fundamental sense—a deeply flawed approach to management that encouraged bankers to pursue opportunities without regard for their long-term consequences, and to put their own interests ahead of those of their employers and their shareholders. And looking more widely, there is a creeping

Are researchers required to teach and/or publish their findings? A university should not only serve to create and enhance knowledge. At the same time, it should also serve to disseminate and preserve knowledge for the benefit of coming generations. In this sense, our researchers are strongly encouraged to publish their findings for the benefit of the community, society and humanity. It is worth noting that publications by UTAR staff accepted by Scopus, the largest abstract and citation database of peerreviewed literature and quality web sources, have continued to increase significantly since 2008. In addition, great improvements can also be seen in the number of publications indexed in Thomson Reuters (ISI) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI). UTAR

disenchantment with management as a profession: surveys show that managers generate less respect than lawyers and bankers in the eyes of the general public, and there are few if any positive role models for management. “Change isn’t just for the rank-and-file anymore; it’s coming for you. Instant access to information and global resources have changed the world we live and work in. Julian Birkinshaw shows that 19th century industrial management won’t work in a 21st century fluid workplace. Read this, or prepare to be ‘gamechanged’ by someone who has.”

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is listed in the top ten universities in Malaysia in terms of number of publications indexed in ISI Web of Science and Scopus. Where can our readers find more information about research opportunities with UTAR? For more information about research opportunities at UTAR, please visit http://research.utar.edu.my/index.jsp

and on the way companies are managed. In this book, Julian Birkinshaw provides a roadmap for making sense of how the world of management is changing, and he provides useful advice for companies who want to harness the potential that Web 2.0 has to offer.” —PV Kannan, CEO, 24/7 Customer

—Jack Hughes, CEO, TopCoder

“Julian Birkinshaw helps us look beyond our legacy management practices, and imagine bold new ways of leading, managing and organizing. Filled with mind-expanding examples, Reinventing Management is a must read for managers who want to build an organization that’s truly fit for the future.”

“Technological and social changes are having an enormous impact on the world of business,

—Gary Hamel, bestselling author of The Future of Management


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Exclusive Interview

MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

Conversation with

Prof Dr Zulkifli Abdul Hamid President of KLIUC

include new auditoriums, a new library building, new academic blocks and other infrastructures. This includes ensuring that we sustain high academic quality standards by recruiting qualified lecturers, offering relevant programmes and enrolling good students. 3. To adopt new marketing strategies to face our competitors. We have to be creative and innovative, to try new approaches. Professor Dr Zulkifli was a Senior Vice President of KLIUC before his appointment as the third President of KLIUC on 1 April 2010. He brings with him 34 years of diverse experience in tertiary education, including his prior roles as Provost (Deputy ViceChancellor) at UNITEN and 15 years at UTM. Professor Zulkifli was the Dean of the Centre for Humanities Studies at UTM from 1985 to 1986 while heading the Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development at UTM from 1991 to 1992. Professor Dr Zulkifli was also conferred two major academic awards, Professional Associate and Research Associate, by the East West Centre, Hawaii. What are the top three challenges in your professional capacity as President of KLIUC? 1. To achieve a mindset change among the academic deans to act as CEO. They are responsible for attracting students to KLIUC and they are responsible for their department’s bottom line. These are not to be assigned to the marketing department. 2. To improve the facilities which

How does KLIUC differentiate itself? We are the only infrastructure university in Malaysia, probably in the region as well. We offer unique programmes like the Bachelor of Technology degree. There are not many private universities in Malaysia like KLIUC offering architecture programmes. What are some future projects by KLIUC? Among other developments, we have a roadmap due for completion by 2015 to build new academic blocks, a mosque, sports facilities, condominiums for students, a new library and franchise our programmes to other institutions. What are some KLIUC’s plans to ensure it can supply the appropriate workforce for the future? In line with our government initiatives, we have adopted an Outcome-Based Education approach in our requirements in terms of specific outcomes for learning, for programmes and for the courses we offer. This is a very good approach to ensure we produce graduates relevant to the workplace.

What do you foresee as some of the most important subjects to study today that have potential in the next ten years? Briefly, I believe subjects that centre around biotechnology, water and waste water management, and agriculture will begin to see increasingly stronger relevance in the marketplace and society. I think topics like innovation, creativity and design will also be important as well. Other than academic knowledge, what soft skills do you think our graduates need to acquire in the university to ensure they do well in the work place today? Communication is still the most important soft skill to acquire – both verbal and non-verbal. In the business world, knowing how to present well is vital. Building good rapport with bosses and subordinates should also be emphasised. Having an acute mind and sound business acumen is important. I am glad that in KLIUC we have the facilities and courses in place to ensure that our students are well equipped in these areas. What is your advice to fresh graduates entering the marketplace? Don’t be choosy in your job hunt. Focus on gaining experience first in diverse fields during the early part of your career. Be patient and build up a good career portfolio before stabilising and taking root in a chosen area.


MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

Professor Dr Zulkifli Abdul Hamid, President of KLIUC

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Exclusive Interview

MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

Conversation with

Dr Goi Mei Teh

Dean, School of Business Infrastructure, KLIUC

Dr Goi Mei Teh has a PhD in marketing

postgraduate programmes? KLIUC

and assess the programme annually. 3.

[UPM (2005-2009)], an MBA [UUM (1999-

is well known for its engineering background

Compliance with MQA requirements.

2001)] and a BSc (Hons) HRD [UNIMAS]

and also the only institution that offers an MBA

(1995-1998). She has 10 years of experience

in Project Management. Many engineers

with KLIUC, serving as a lecturer from

who are interested in management and

2001 to 2009, as Programme Coordinator

business knowledge enrol in the KLIUC MBA

from 2003 to 2004 and as Dean from 2010

programme. The class is conducted with

onwards. Her research interests are service

theory and problem-based learning.

branding, rebranding and brand equity. What

postgraduate

Who should pursue a postgraduate

programmes

degree at KLIUC? Individuals who want

does KLIUC offer? MBA in Management,

to network and also broaden their career

Marketing, Finance and Banking, and Project

options.

Management. In 2012, two new majors will be offered, namely Human Resource Management Business

and Accounting.

Administration

PhD

in

(organisation

behaviour, marketing, accounting, finance) What

is

the

specialisation

strength of

and

KLIUC’s

of the postgraduate programmes at KLIUC? 1. Qualified and experienced lecturers: KLIUC recruits PhD holders as fulltime lecturers and experienced practitioners part-time

that

support

the

postgraduate

programmes? Special study areas only for postgraduate students, discussion rooms, resource rooms, computer rooms, online databases, professors’ offices are near the centre. Does KLIUC have any collaboration with

other

institutions

around

the world? Yes, the University of Curtin

How do you maintain the quality

as

What are some KLIUC facilities

lecturers.

2.

Moderation

from international universities to evaluate

University in Australia When is your next intake? Where can prospective students find more information?

Every

February,

May,

September, and November. Please visit our website at www.kliuc.edu.my for more information.


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Professionals with MBAs

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LIM WUN PEI November 2010 to focus on pursuing my MBA as I believe if something is worth doing, it’s worth doing well. Why made you want to study an MBA? I had been thinking of doing a postgraduate degree for a few years to improve my knowledge and skills. I believe very strongly that learning should never stop and had been attending seminars and short courses throughout my working life, sometimes at my own expense if my employer didn’t want to sponsor it.

Name Lim Wun Pei Email limwpei@gmail.com Occupation Currently taking a break from fulltime work to pursue an MBA at UTAR. Last job was as Manager of the Programme Management Office (PMO) with an IT company. University Graduated with Diploma in Commerce (Cost and Management Accounting) and CIMA from Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman in 1984. Now pursuing an MBA at UTAR. Email limwpei@gmail.com Brief Job Description Began my career in finance and management accounting functions. After about 10 years, I moved to managing IT projects, implementing financial software applications for another nine years. For the next four years, I was serving in the IT department of a government agency, MARA, managing the operations and applications development units. After leaving MARA in 2007, I joined a Century Software (M) Sdn Bhd as Manager of the PMO. My responsibilities were to oversee the delivery of projects to clients by the project teams and overall management and administration of the Programme Management Office. I resigned in

In 2010, as I turned 50, I decided that it was right time to ‘reward’ myself. I chose to do an MBA because it offers a well-rounded scope and is more practical and relevant for me personally. After working in industry for more than 26 years, I wanted a change, and an MBA degree will open more career options for me. I also think MBA is a good complement to the technical skills and knowledge I have acquired from my work life in the IT industry. What inspires you? I think life should be forward-looking and we should always seek out new challenges and keep interested in learning new things. I also admire the tenacity and will of people to rise above adversity – just like the legendary bird, the phoenix rising from its ashes. Life throws us challenges, some more than others, but at the end of the day it is our attitude and fortitude that will carry us through. Favourite Quote “Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away.” Another one is not so elegant, but profoundly true – “Life is like a roll of toilet paper, the closer it gets to the end, the faster it goes”.


Professionals with MBAs

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CAY KUIJPERS

Name Cay Kuijpers Email cay.wendt@gmail.com Occupation Model/Host/emcee University HELP University Brief job description I do everything in the modelling industry including runway shows, TV commercials and print advertisements. I also host a travel show called trulyasia.tv. As an emcee, I host functions and events upon request. What made you want to study for an MBA? As much as I love to venture into many things in this industry, I know that my career now won’t last forever as there are always lots of new faces coming into the industry, and I’m not getting any younger. I graduated with a bachelor’s degree in Business Management majoring in Logistics, and I figured that studying an MBA will allow me to get better jobs in the future. In any case, it’s always good to have something to fall back on if all else fails.

What inspires you? What inspires me most is that the world is such a big place and there are so many things to do, which is why I never stop doing things. I always venture into new things, because I like learning. I like to do well in everything I do and once I’m satisfied, I move on to something new or continue doing the things that capture my interest the most. Favorite quote? I’ve got three favourite quotes from three different people who are very influential. These quotes motivate me to do the things I do. 1. You can do anything, but not everything. David Allen 2. Try a thing you haven’t done three times. Once, to get over the fear of doing it. Twice, to learn how to do it. And a third time, to figure out whether you like it or not. Virgil Garnett Thomson 3. Courage is not the absence of fear, but rather the judgement that something else is more important than fear. Ambrose Redmoon


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Professionals with MBAs

Roland Ooi itself from its competitors? Our differentiation factor is simple: it is in the circumnavigation of customers’ needs. Quill Automobiles puts customers’ priorities on the forefront of everything it does. We invest well into our relationships with customers and often go the extra mile in ensuring that they are accorded the experience that is in tandem with the value of their investments in our products and services, if not more. What do you look for when you are hiring? I look for experience, maturity and confidence. These three factors are important to my company if we are to remain competitive and innovative. Potential employees must also be customer-centric.

Name Roland Ooi University Preston University, USA (MBA) Brief job description Director, Quill Automobiles Sdn Bhd. I oversee all operations, sales, marketing and finance functions for the Company. Describe your style of leadership I would like to think that I practise inclusion in my leadership style. I am firm but not inflexible. I appreciate the views of my subordinates and colleagues although I may feel strongly about my aspirations for the business. As I am ambitious, outspoken and practical, I focus greatly on tangible deliverables. How does your company differentiate

What is your advice to fresh MBA graduates? You need to continuously improve. The Kaizen concept would be a great place to start. You need at least three trusted confidantes in your life to keep you grounded, inspired and help you. Similarly, practise generosity and give back where and when you can. To get where you are, you need people to put you there. Pay it forward by helping others achieve their aspirations. Success is truly earned when you give as much as you receive. What do you foresee the directions and plans of your company to be in the next three years? We may expand into other territories within Malaysia. As we are a fairly young company, we are currently focused on ensuring that the present projects become autonomous before we embark on other areas of expansion. Is your company involved in any CSR projects? Quill Automobiles is part of the Quill


Professionals with MBAs

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Construction Group of Companies. The QC Group of Companies regularly involves itself in CSR initiatives, be it in support of causes or direct funding. CSR for Quill Automobiles is important as we aspire to achieve greater relevance and sustainability for the community of which we are a part. At this moment, we are still establishing ourselves in the market and as such are in the process of further defining our core business values. From there we will be able to develop and execute meaningful CSR initiatives and programmes. What inspires you? Ambition inspires me. I believe in cutting through the clutter and keeping my eyes on the prize. I am driven by the euphoria that comes with success or achieving my aspirations. To me, great things can be achieved with a lot of hard work and a little bit of luck. We create our own realities in this world and as such, taking ownership for what we do is imperative. To some degree, failure is not an option for me. There is a way to be the leader in your field, whatever that may be, and you just need to keep plugging away. Find the best strategy, incorporate the right tactics and fly with that. You can’t go wrong if you have the best intentions at heart and the objectives emblazoned in your mind.

Quill Automobiles showcasing the BMW collection


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Senerath Name Senerath de Silva

Professionals with MBAs

Gavin

Name Gavin Cheah Tse Hsien

Email desilva.sen@gmail.com

Email gavincheah@yahoo.com.sg

Occupation Consultant

Occupation Business Analyst

University Victoria University, Australia

University Victoria University, Australia

Brief Job Description Working on projects that provide waste water treatment solutions. Main focus: Treating palm oil mill effluent (POME). Looking for interesting projects related to improving the environment such as reducing pollution or waste. What made you want to study for an MBA? After completing my B. Eng. (Chemical), I was asked by my faculty to continue with the Masters programme as a tutor. However, I decided to go into the “real world”. In retrospect, I wish I had done my Masters then. Over the last five years, I have been working on projects where there were various inactive stages of the projects so I finally decided to try an MBA to soak up the excess time on my hands. In hindsight, it was a good decision as I have found the course very interesting. My existing knowledge base has gone through a major upgrading. As the rate of change in knowledge is increasing in tandem with the rate of change in technology, I think it may become important to periodically ‘overhaul’ one’s knowledge through a formal programme like the VU MBA. I also feel that I have gained two side benefits: One, a lot of rust that has been accumulating in my brain over the years seems to have been cleared (probably a lot more to go), and two, my handwriting has improved (I feel sorry for the lecturer who had to mark my first exam paper). What inspires you? The pursuit and application of knowledge. Favourite Quote I have many favourite quotes, and one of them is by General MacArthur who said that ‘The history of failure in war could be summarised in two words: “too late”’. I believe this is also applicable in business and everyday life. Another is from Aristotle: ‘We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, therefore, is not an act, but a habit’.

Brief Job Description Support the management’s decisions through scientific analysis of data and information. What made you want to study for an MBA? I have always had this curiosity about management in an organisation long before I started my career. This is also why I have chosen business analysis as my career as it enables me to see things across the organisation even though I mainly focus on the accounting and finance side of an organisation. The MBA offers me an opportunity to have a broad understanding of all functional areas in an organisation and greatly enhance my knowledge in decision-making processes. It also allows me to know more like-minded people (who are interested in management) and learn about different management styles in various organisations across different industries. What inspires you? I’m always inspired by people I meet. Everyone has something special about them or the things they do which I can learn to become a better person.


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Shen Wai San Brief Job Description Marketer for a Healthcare Diagnostics Company

Name Shen Wai San Email shenws26@gmail. com Occupation Marketer University Victoria University, Australia

Professionals with MBAs

my elder brother’s influence, to pursue my MBA. I like meeting new people, and during the MBA programme, What made you want I got the chance to interact, to study for an MBA? exchange ideas and share Holding an MBA does not knowledge with people mean that you hold the world. from all walks of life, which An MBA degree is a good has broadened my social tool for facilitating a career network. The MBA is not an path. Due to my technical easy course, but definitely a background, an MBA is worthwhile journey. useful for further developing my skills in business What inspires you? My functions, acquiring valuable father inspired me when I soft skills and developing was younger. He always an entrepreneurial mindset. believed that knowledge It has also been my dream enables a person to succeed. since I was young, due to As I grew up, there were

lots of people I met who encouraged me never to stop learning, and to focus on and achieve my dream. I was told that the “MBA degree is just a credential if you do not have experience. You must make use of the right tools and experience to be successful in your career”. Favorite Quote “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.” Charles Darwin

Sunway University Main Campus


News

MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

MBA Edge Magazine TM

at the 15th PostGraduate Education Fair 16-18 September 2011, MidValley Exhibition Hall

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News

PostGraduate Education Fair, 16-18 September 2011, MidValley Exhibition Hall


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Article

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Why Coaching Clients Give Up

And How Effective Goal Setting Can Make a Positive Difference by Marshall Goldsmith and Kelly Goldsmith

A

review of research on goalsetting has helped us better understand two key areas of concern for leadership coaches: 1) Why people give up on goals and 2) How effective goal-setting can help ensure long-term goal achievement. An understanding of the dynamics of goal-setting and goal achievement may help coaches understand why their clients sometimes lose motivation and how they, as advisors in goal-setting, can increase the odds that their clients will "stick with the plan" and reach desired targets. Why do people so frequently give up in their quest for personal improvement? Most of us understand that "New Year's resolutions" seldom last through January - much less for the entire year! What goes wrong? Six of the most important reasons that people give up on goals are

listed below. Following each reason will be a discussion of implications for leadership coaches and ideas for "preventative medicine" in planning - so that clients will ultimately be more likely to achieve their change objectives. Ownership I wasn't sure that this coaching idea would work in the first place. I tried it out - it didn't do that much good. As I guessed, this was kind of a waste of time! One of the biggest mistakes in all of leadership development is the roll-out of programs and initiatives with the promise that "this will make you better". A classic example is the performance appraisal process. Many companies change their performance appraisal forms

on a regular basis. How much good does this usually do? None! These appraisal form changes just confuse leaders and are seen as annual exercises in futility. What companies don't want to face is the real problem - it is seldom the form - the real problem is the managers who lack either the courage or the discipline to make the appraisal process work. The problem with the "this will make you better" approach is that the emphasis is on the "this" and not the "you". Coaching clients need to understand that ultimately only you can make you better. Successful people tend to have a high need for self-determination. In other words, the more that leaders


Article

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commit to coaching and behavior change because they believe in the process, the more the process is likely to work. The more they feel that the process is being imposed upon them or that they are just casually "trying it out" - the less likely the coaching process is to work. Coaches and companies that have the greatest success in helping leaders achieve long-term change have learned a great lesson don't work with leaders who don't "buy in" to the process. As coaches, we need to have the courage to test our client's commitment to change. If clients are just "playing a game" with no clear commitment, we need Time to be willing to stop the process for the good of the company and for I had no idea that this process the good of the coaching profession. would take so long. I am not sure that it is worth it! In goal-setting coaches need to ensure that the change objectives come from "inside" the person being coached and are not just externally imposed with no clear internal commitment. Coaches need to let clients know that they are ultimately responsible for their own lives. As coaches we need to make it clear that we are there to help our clients do the work - not to do the work for our clients.

Marshall Goldsmith

While the "optimism bias" about time is true of goal-setters in general, it may be even more of a factor for leaders who are trying to change the perceptions of Goal-setters have a co-workers. In natural tendency to general, our underestimate the time behavior changes needed to reach targets. long before the Everything seems to perception of this take longer than we change by our cothink that it should! workers . We all When the time elapsed tend to see people in working toward our in a manner that is consistent goal starts exceeding expectations, with our previous stereotype we are tempted to just give up on the goal. Busy, impatient leaders can and we "look" for behavior that proves our stereotype is correct. be even more time-sensitive than Co-workers are no different than the general population.


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anyone else. Recent research shows that the long-term follow-up and involvement of co-workers tends to be highly correlated with changed perceptions of leaders . This is not something that is accomplished overnight. Harried executives often want to "check the box" and assume that once they understand what to do - and communicate this understanding to others - their problems are solved. If only the real world were that simple. In setting goals with leaders it is important to be realistic about the time needed for them to produce a positive, long-term change in behavior. Habits that have taken 48 years to develop will not go away in a week. Let them know that others' perceptions may seem "unfair" and that as they change behavior - others may not fully recognize this change for months. In this way when they face time challenges they will not feel like there is something "wrong" with them or with their co-workers. They will realize that this is a normal part of the change process. Ultimately, as the research shows, perceptions will begin to change and co-workers will begin to appreciate changed leadership behavior. Difficulty This is a lot harder than I thought it would be. It sounded so simple when we were starting out! The optimism bias of goal-setters applies to difficulty as well as time. Not only does everything take longer than we think it will - it requires more hard work! Leaders often confuse two terms that appear to be synonymous - but are actually quite different - simple and easy.

Habits that have taken 48 years to develop will not go away in a week. We want to believe that once we understand a simple concept, it will be easy to execute a plan and achieve results. If this were true everyone who understood that they should eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly would be in shape. Diet books are almost always at the top of the best seller lists. Our challenge for getting in shape - as well as for changing leadership behavior is not understanding, it is doing! Long-term change in leadership effectiveness requires real effort. For example, it can be challenging for busy, opinionated leaders to have the discipline to stop, breathe and listen patiently

while others say things that they may not want to hear. While the leader may understand the need to change - and even have a great desire to change - it is still hard to have the discipline to change. In setting goals it is important that leaders realize that real change will take real work. Making client's feel good in the short-term with statements like "this will be easy" and "this will be no problem for you" can backfire in the long-term when they realize that change is not easy and that they will invariably face some problems in their journey toward improvement. Letting leaders clearly understand the price for success in the beginning of the change process will help prevent disappointment that can occur when challenges arise later in the change process. Distractions I would really like to work toward my goal, but my company is facing a unique challenge right now. It might be better if I just stopped and did this at a time when things weren't so crazy. Goal setters have a tendency to underestimate the distractions and competing goals that will invariably appear throughout the year. One good counsel that a coach can give an executive is, "I am not sure what crisis will appear - but I am almost positive that some crisis will appear!" In some cases, the distraction or crisis may result from a problem


Article

- in other cases it may result from an opportunity. For example, mad cow disease was an unexpected problem that produced a crisis for executives in the meat packing industry. It is hard to focus on longterm leadership development when the company is going through an immediate financial crisis! On the positive side, "Cabbage Patch Kids" became a craze and the company started selling far more dolls than anyone imagined. It is hard to focus on long-term leadership development when your toy company has a "once-inlifetime" short-term profit opportunity! In planning for the future, coaches need to help executives assume that unexpected distractions and competing goals will occur. Build in time in change projections to "expect the unexpected". By planning for distractions in advance, leaders can set realistic expectations for change and be less likely to give up on the change process - when either special problems or special opportunities emerge. Rewards Why am I working so hard at becoming a more effective leader? After all of my effort - we still didn't make any more money this year! Goal setters tend to become disappointed when the achievement of one goal doesn't immediately translate into the achievement of other goals. For example, a dieter who loses weight may give up on his weight loss effort when women don't immediately begin to love

MBA EdgeTM & Postgraduate Studies

him. Hewitt Associates has done some fascinating research that documents the positive, long-term relationship between investment in leadership development and long-term financial success . Their research shows that companies who invest in developing leaders tend to have greater long-term profits. There is no research that shows investment in developing leaders produces greater short-term profits. Increasing leadership effectiveness is only one factor in an organization's overall success. For example, a company may have the wrong strategy or be selling the wrong product. If someone is going down the wrong road - increasing people management skills will only help them get there faster! Leaders need to personally "buy in" to the value of a longterm investment in their own development. If coaching clients think that improving leadership skills will quickly lead to short-term profits, promotions or recognition they may be disappointed and may give up when these benefits don't immediately happen. If coaching clients see the change process as a long-term investment in own development - and something that will help them become more effective over the course of their careers - they will be much more

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likely to "pay the price" needed to achieve success. Maintenance I think that I did actually get better when I had a coach, but I have let it slide since then. What am I supposed to do - work on this stuff the rest of my life? Once a goal-setter has put in all of the effort needed to achieve a goal, it can be tough to face the reality of maintaining changed behavior. One of the first reactions of many dieters upon reaching their weight goal is to think, "This is great! Now I can start eating again. Let's celebrate with some pizza and beer!" Of course this mind-set leads to future weight gain and the "yo-yo" effect that is unfortunately so common in dieters. Coaching clients need to clearly understand - leadership is a process - not a state. Leaders can never "get there". Leaders are always "getting there". The only way that exercise helps people stay in shape is when they face the reality that "I have to work on this stuff for the rest of my life!" Leaders need to accept that leadership development is an ongoing process that never stops. Leadership involves relationships - relationships change and people change - maintaining any positive relationship requires ongoing effort over a long period of time. It doesn't occur because someone "got better" and stayed in this state of "betterness" forever. In Summary Coaches can either help leaders set goals that increase their probability of long-term change, or help


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leaders set goals that may feel good in the short-term - but lead to disillusionment and "giving up" in the long-term. The typical advertisement or "infomercial" - designed to help people "get in shape" - provides a great example of what not to do in goal-setting. The message is almost always the same, "For an 'incredibly small' amount of money - you can buy a 'revolutionary' product - that is 'unbelievably easy' and 'fun to use'. This product will produce 'amazing results' 'in almost no time' and you will 'have the body that you always wanted'." Most infomercials imply that you will not have to continue exercising and diet for years - that you will continue to look young - and that you will have frequent, wonderful sex for the rest of your life. In reality there is no "easy answer" real change requires real effort. The "quick fix" is seldom a "meaningful fix". Distractions and competing

P

responses are going to happen - and the higher level the executive - the more likely that they will happen. Improving leadership skills - like getting in shape - won't solve all of life's problems. And finally great leadership is something that leaders need to commit to for the rest of their careers - at least if they really want to be great! All of these messages may sound "tough", but at least they are real. Successful people are not afraid of challenging goals. In fact - clear, specific goals that produce a lot of challenge - tend to produce the best results! Coaches that have the courage to tell the truth "up-front" and challenge leaders in goal-setting can go beyond being "highly paid friends". Honest, challenging coaches can help leaders make a real difference - both in their organizations and in the lives of the people they lead.

ositive Psychology at Work brings the fields of positive psychology and appreciative inquiry together for the first time to provide leaders and change agents with a powerful new approach to achieving organizational excellence.

• Presents academically rigorous and referenced material in a jargon-free, accessible manner

• Draws together positive psychology and appreciative inquiry in the context of leadership organizational challenges for the first time

“Positive Psychology at Work is a much needed book that lifts the lid on how a more appreciative, strengths-focused approach

• Arranged with chapters focused on specific organizational challenges to allow readers to quickly find ideas relevant to their unique situation • Features short contributions from experienced practitioners of positive psychology and Appreciative Inquiry, and includes case studies from the UK, Europe, Australia and the USA

Marshall Goldsmith has recently been named by the American Management Association as one of the 50 great thinkers and leaders who have impacted the field of management over the past 80 years. Dr. Goldsmith has a Ph.D. from UCLA. He has been asked to teach in the executive education programs at Dartmouth, Michigan, MIT, Wharton, Oxford and Cambridge Universities. Marshall is the co-author or editor of 19 books including: The Leader of the Future (a Business Week best seller), Global Leadership: The Next Generation and The Art and Practice of Leadership Coaching.

Kelly Goldsmith obtained her Ph.D. in Marketing from Yale University (2009). She begins her career as a marketing professor at the Kellogg School of Business at Northwestern. Her research focuses on how consumers’ goals affect their choices and behaviors. Specifically, her dissertation research focuses on how consumers make decisions under goal conflict.

can transform organisations for the better. When organisations and their leaders focus on enhancing the best of what their people have to offer, they enable them to achieve the goals for which they strive, at the same time building the resilience they will need to cope with the changes and challenges of the modern world. I strongly recommend this book for organisational leaders and those who strive to support them”. —Alex Linley, Founding Director, Capp, UK


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Feature

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KASPERSKY LAB LAUNCHES ‘NO WORRIES PLAN’

etaling Jaya, June 3, 2011 – Kaspersky Lab, a leading developer of secure content management solutions, will be offering a worry-free, innovative and affordable plan aimed at making its awardwinning security solutions with added services available to home users as well as SME/SMBs. Aptly named the ‘No Worries Plan’, it will offer home network users and small business networks the choice of Kaspersky PURE or Kaspersky Small Office Security (KSOS) solutions with the addition of support services that include installation and set up of the security network as well as training for those who are new to network security. The brand is believed to be the first to offer security service solutions to home users in Malaysia. With the rise in cybercrime in Malaysia, the Kaspersky ‘No Worries Plan’ is both timely and highly relevant. The plan was launched by Kaspersky Lab’s Malaysian Brand Ambassador, World No. 1 Badminton Men’s Singles Champion Dato’ Lee Chong Wei, here today. Among the services offered to home and business network users are free installation and on-site training and free on-site support for both urban and rural areas. ‘No Worries’ Home Plan subscribers

need pay only RM30 per month to enjoy better computer protection and worry-free technical services with Kaspersky PURE premium protection for three users. The plan also offers worry-free security solution services to Small and Medium Businesses (SMB) with Kaspersky Lab Small Office Security (KSOS) at only RM200 per month for 10 users or less through its Small Office Plan 1, while the Small Office Plan 2 offers KSOS’ world-class protection to larger organisations with 20 users or less at only RM500 per month. According to Mr Jimmy Fong, Channel Sales Director, SEA, Kaspersky Lab, the plan is timely as a recent dipstick survey by the brand revealed that security-related issues ranked first as an area of concern among Malaysian small business and home users who have a company or home network of more than two computers, ahead of hardware maintenance. “Survey results from 215 small business owners and 267 home users across the Klang Valley, Penang and Johor show that approximately 38 per cent of home users have home networks that connect two or more computers, while the average number of workstations among small business owners we surveyed was eight units. While these figures are for businesses and homes users in urban areas, it could extend to semi-urban

areas as well,” said Mr Fong. Mr Fong added that 78 per cent of respondents from home users and business users of the survey collectively agreed that they would subscribe to a security service that could remove their worries when it comes to the security aspect of computing and that costs about 10 to 15 per cent more than what they would play for the software itself. “We identified a genuine need among a significant number of home users and small business owners, established what they were willing to pay to have this need fulfilled and developed a plan that exceeds their minimum requirement – this is why we are introducing the Kaspersky Lab ‘No Worries Plan’ today,” Mr Fong explained. Aside from affordability and privilege services, the No Worries Plan gives subscribers an added bonus in that it will extend its technical supports to semi-urban and rural users through free monthly visitation to selected outskirt areas. According to Ms Gun Suk Ling, Corporate Sales Director, APAC, Kaspersky Lab, the brand decided to extend technical supports to rural areas since the majority of support services for software and hardware is based in urban centres. “Many computer users in rural areas


Feature

are facing difficulties in obtaining technical support for their security software products as there are few software professional around to assist. As a brand that champions cyber security awareness, we saw a need that could be filled for an important segment of Malaysian society and stepped in with a solutions that meets that need more effectively,” said Ms Gun. To allow more users to enjoy the protection of Kaspersky PURE, the ‘No Worries’ Plan is running a promotion by giving two boxes of Kaspersky PURE to Home Plan subscribers for as low as RM360 per year for six users to take pleasure in cyber environment with the ultimate PC security. Likewise, in bringing safer working environment without any worries on cyber threats, No Worries Plan will automatically upgrade its Small Office Plan 1 subscribers to Small Office Plan 2 for first six months at only RM300 per month to protect 20 or less users

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(From L-R) Mr Jimmy Fong, Channel Sales Director, SEA, Kaspersky Lab, Dato’ Lee Chong Wei, Kaspersky Lab’s Malaysian Brand Ambassador, World No.1 Badminton Men’s Singles Champion, Ms Gun Suk Ling, Corporate Sales Director, APAC, Kaspersky Lab and Mr Tan Chee Hui, Director, TechLane Resources Sdn Bhd at the launch of Kasperky No Worries Plan

with Kaspersky Small Office Security (KSOS) at workplace.

» Home Plan – RM30 per month with Kaspersky PURE for three users

“As the cost of living and the cost of running businesses increase, there may be a temptation to cut corners on cyber security protection and allocate funds to other areas that may be deemed as more important to the home or business. Don’t give in to temptation as cyber threats are evolving to be more malicious and show no signs of slowing down or stopping. The ‘No Worries’ Plan offers home and business network users a cost effective alternative that puts their worries at rest including installation, training and support,” said Ms Gun in closing.

» Small Office Plan 1 – RM200 per month with Kaspersky Small Office Security for 10 or less users

Pricing and Availability Kaspersky Lab’s ‘No Worries’ Plan is available nationwide to subscribe at:

» Small Office Plan 2 – RM500 per month with Kaspersky Small Office Security for 20 or less users Promotion » Home Plan – RM360 per year with two boxes of Kaspersky PURE for six users (Normal price of Kaspersky PURE3 one box – RM330, two boxes – RM660) » Small Office Plan 2 is now at only RM3,600 per year (average RM300 per month) ‘No Worries’ Features


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Exclusive Feature

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company’s products and technologies are used by over 300 million people worldwide and its technology is licensed by leading security vendors globally. The Kaspersky Lab group of companies is headquartered in Moscow, has five regional divisions and numerous local offices throughout the world. You can learn more about Kaspersky Lab by visiting http://www. kaspersky.com. This press release is issued on behalf of Kaspersky Lab by About Communication Sdn Bhd. For media enquiry, kindly contact: (From R-L) Mr Jimmy Fong, Channel Sales Director, SEA, Kaspersky Lab and Dato’ Lee Chong Wei, Kaspersky Lab’s Malaysian Brand Ambassador, World No.1 Badminton Men’s Singles Champion launching Kaspersky No Worries Plan with protection of Kaspersky PURE for home users and Kaspersky Small Office Security for small offices.

Home Plan ‘No Worries’ End-user Package – RM30 per month

Small Office Plan 2 – RM500 per month » For 20 or fewer users

» Free ‘No Worries’ membership

» Free Kaspersky Small Office Security

» Free Kaspersky Pure 3-User

» Free one protection for file server

» Free one-time on-site support*

» Free Network Firewall with Gateway Protection

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Retna Vijayan, Tel: 03.8075.6000 Mobile: 012.639.8443 retna.vijayan@ aboutcom.com.my Samuel Tan, Tel: 03.8075.6000 Mobile: 012.635.8443 samuel.tan@ aboutcom.com.my


Exclusive Feature

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THE MBA EDGE™

BuSInESS

coMPEtItIon 2011 (Season 2) toPIc:

What Are The Top 10 Soft Skills For Middle Managers To Move To C-Level?

IntroductIon

The essence of the topic expresses the trend that in general most middle level management careerists move up the corporate ladder not as a result of the purely hard skills like technical know-how, academic qualifications, or amount of work experience but rather more as a result of exhibiting competency in applying soft skills like negotiating skills, conflict resolution, engaging employees, empathy in the workplace, etc. The MBA EdgeTM Business Competition 2011 hopes to engage current MBA Students from local institutions in small teams of 3 in a simple exercise of using the Web 2.0 medium to find out what people think are the top ten soft skills relevant to middle managers to effective move up the corporate ladder. Entryand forms canforms: be download from: www.pwn.com.my Please email us for the details entry info@pwn.com.my or penerbitwawasan@gmail.com

oBjEctIvES of thE coMPEtItIon To promote MBA studies as the preferred lifelong learning course for business, personal development, and career advancement

24 jul/aug/sep 2011

To recognise and showcase talent of MBA students

To develop confidence in business writing among MBA students

To showcase the quality of the MBA institutions in Malaysia

mba edgeTm

Quarterly


Article

thE taSk

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How to write a good literature review article?

The idea of this competition is to crowdsource from relevant parties for feedback on what they think are the top ten soft skills most critical for middle managers to possess to progress up the corporate ladder to Chief –level positions in big organisations. 1. Work in a team of 3 2. Creatively utilize Web 2.0 to get feedback to address the Topic of the competition 3. Feedback collected must consists of 3 main lists: a. Ranking of Top Ten Soft Skills b. Respondent’s info: i. Age of respondent ii. Gender of respondent iii. Marital status of respondent iv. No of years working experience c. Answer 2 relevant questions set by the Team 4. The data collected should be sorted and analysed 5. The must be at least 60 feedbacks 6. A conclusion should be derived from the data collected 7. The final form will be a Report with clear and informative presentation of the data, analysis of the data, and conclusion of the study 8. Total word count: 1,500 words maximum

dEfInItIonS CroWdSourCe: The term has become popular with businesses, authors, and journalists as shorthand for the trend of leveraging the mass collaboration enabled by Web 2.0 technologies to achieve business goals. SoFT SkiLLS: The cluster of personality traits, social graces, communication, language, personal habits, friendliness, and optimism that characterize relationships with other people.

MiddLe MAnAgerS: Middle management is a layer of management in an organisation whose primary job responsibility is to monitor activities of subordinates while reporting to upper management.

C-LeveL : The highest level executives are usually called “C-level” or part of the “C-suite”, PrIzES referring to the 3-letter initials a certain problem (American hen writing research starting with “C” and ending Grand PrIzE Psychological Association [APA], articles, most students with “O” (for “Chief __________ By Martin Faber-Castell PensVasilev worth rM 4,500 Officer”); the major traditional 2009). Although literature review feel confident enough First published in the + Cash prizes + Certificates such offices are Chief articles Executiveare somewhat less common to make a good paper out of the Officer (CEO), and Chief Journal of European in scientific journals compared research they have conducted. But (COO), Operations Officer Chief Psychology Students 1St PrIzE Financial Officer (CFO).toInresearch articles, they are when it comes to writing literature Bulletin. Subsequently Faber-Castell Pens worth rM2,400 technology companies,nonetheless at least as important. review articles, this confidence may (CTO)aisChief by the European Technology Officer also + Cash prizes + Certificatesquickly evaporate if They provide their central, and for companies with Federation of a strong IT capacity a Chief readers with a one doesn’t have much Psychology Students’ 2nd PrIzE Information Officer (CIO) is also comprehensive experience with them. Associations. Refer to: significant. Faber-Castell Pens worth rM1,500

W

and relatively concise résumé on a certain topic and are thus a good starting point if you want a quick introduction to it.

So, what exactly is a

http://jeps.efpsa.org/ + Cash prizes + Certificatesliterature review article, blog/ and how to avoid the

conSolatIon PrIzES most common pitfall 3 sets x 3 pens each + Certificates on the road to writing one?

In literature review articles, authors are organizing, integrating and critically evaluating already published material in an attempt to consider the progress of research toward clarifying mba edgeTm

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By the time you have decided to write a literature review on the topic of your interest, you have probably already acquired some knowledge in the area.

jul/aug/sep 2011

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Article

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You’re not writing to show them how many studies you have read, but to give them an informative and complete overview of the topic.

Writing a good literature review, however, requires more than just merely listing the main theoretical approaches to the problem and the research they have generated. It has to review the topic in a critical, unbiased and holistic way, which makes connections between the different lines of research, points out any inconsistencies and suggests directions for further research. Here are some more specific tips that will help you achieve the abovementioned. Choosing which sources to cite • The number of sources you will have to go through depends

mainly on how much interest your topic has generated among researchers. But even if it has just recently become popular among psychologists, chances are that you may have to read at least a few dozens of them. Although it might be tempting to cite every relevant source that you come across, try to choose only the most representative and informative ones. Of course, unlike research articles which often have severe space limitations, literature review articles naturally allow for a more in-depth theoretical and research review. However, you should make sure that the number of sources you choose to cite is reasonable for the total length of your article. When in doubt, always consider your readers – you’re not writing to show them how many studies you have read, but to give them an informative and complete overview of the topic. For example, if there are two sources that essentially cover the same content without offering different perspective, you can consider leaving out one of them. • When you are doing the literature research on your topic, always keep in mind that the sources you choose to cite should be as up-todate as possible. Your readers won’t get much insight of the problem if you’re summarizing the state in which the theories were two

decades ago. Of course, this doesn’t mean that you should completely ignore the older works altogether, but that you should try to focus on the more recent ones. • If you can’t go into much detail about some theoretical perspective or experimental approach, refer your readers to sources which will give them more information (e.g., other literature reviews or meta-analyses). Don’t just expect that they will figure out things just as easily as you do, because some of your readers may have little knowledge in the topic. The skillful and considerate writer is able to anticipate the questions of his readers and to answer them as they read along. Evaluating the literature critically When you are reading the literature on your topic, don’t just passively assimilate all the information. Try to analyze it critically and to detect any possible inconsistencies like theoretical issues, methodological flaws, sample size and generalizations. A good literature review will not only summarize the information, but also point out weaknesses in the experimental procedures as well as possible theoretical conflicts. It builds on the current knowledge by identifying gaps in the available literature and suggesting future directions for research. This will not only allow you to ask new questions about the problem, but also to put


Article

A good literature review will not only summarize the information, but also point out weaknesses in the experimental procedures as well as possible theoretical conflicts.

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the old questions in new context. Writing in an unbiased manner Your readers will not gain much from reading your literature review article if it fails to deliver a holistic and bias-free approach to the problem. Moreover, the reviewers of your work will not be all too happy to read a literature review that is clearly biased in favour of a single point of view, since the odds are that at least one of them will have views different from your own (Sternberg, 2003). It is natural that you may consider one theory as a better explanation of the problem compared to others, but you should also consider different theoretical perspectives. Make sure that you’re not leaving out works that are clearly relevant to your topic. Ask yourself questions like: Did I point out any weaknesses of my perspective? Did I discuss studies contrary to it? Did I allow for alternative explanations of the phenomenon being reviewed? Structuring your literature review article Unlike the distinct and consecutive sections of research articles that we are all familiar with, sometimes it can be difficult to decide on the structure of your literature review article. Before making any final decisions, it may be well worth the time to consider a few different options and then choose the one

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which presents your text in the most coherent and informative way. If your article turns out to be a longer one, you can also consider outlining its structure in the beginning of your text. By saying how you will present your review to the readers, they will know what to expect and will be better prepared to assimilate what you have to say. You may also find it useful to group different studies or theoretical approaches in a logical way (e.g., chronologically, according to the conclusion they make). But however you may decide to structure your article, try to make it as easy for the readers to understand as possible. References American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington DC: Author. Sternberg, R. J. (2003). The psychologist’s companion (4th ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.


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Exclusive Interview

EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH

Kabilan Muniandy

MANAGING DIRECTOR of WINNING MAGNITUDE SDN BHD and EDUCATURE SDN BHD

R

egistered in Malaysia with its head office based in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, Winning Magnitude Sdn Bhd is the premier gateway to Malaysian Education. An established onestop centre for higher education and placement for local and foreign students since July 2001, our main aim is to move towards our nation’s goal to develop Malaysia as the Centre of Education Excellence. Together, we aim to upkeep a trusting and lasting relationship between Malaysian higher educational institutions, students and the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia. With our policy of complimentary consultation on enrolment procedures, our primary goal is to ensure that all the needs and demands of the Malaysian higher educational institutions and students are met, thus further strengthening our customer service relationship. Our rapport and solid professional ties with all educational institutions ensure that they are regularly updated on current and future promotional opportunities at Malaysia Education Exhibition held around the world. As an endorsed partner with the Ministry of Higher Education, our organisation works hand-in-hand with the ministry to further develop Malaysia as the Centre of Education Excellence. This communication process is a crucial element within the organisation, with most universities and colleges conducting their queries on Malaysia Education Exhibition through this office


Exclusive Interview

INTERVIEW Please give us an overview of malaysiaeducation.com.my malaysiaeducation.com.my is a comprehensive Malaysian Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) web directory that provides information for Malaysian and international prospective students who are interested to study in Malaysia, as well as their parents. Users access information and use features available on malaysiaeducation.com.my for free. With our customised user-friendly interface and powerful features, prospective students can find the right institution and the right course easily. Course enquiry and application can also be submitted online through our web portal.

What are the objectives of the company? • To provide in-depth education information to all interested organisations and individuals. • To establish Malaysia as a Regional Centre of Education Excellence by creating promotional opportunities for public and private institutions in the international market through the organisation of Malaysia Education exhibitions.

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• To highlight the growth and development of public and private higher educational institutions in Malaysia, both locally as well as in foreign markets. • To be recognised in the international arena as the Premier Representative for international student recruitments in Malaysian higher educational institutions. • To assist and collaborate with public and private educational institutions to seek suitable foreign twinning partners. What is unique about malaysiaeducation.com.my? The online application tool is one of unique features that is not commonly found in other web directories. This powerful function allows applicants to apply to different institutions and courses at the same time. More importantly, applicant can track their application status within the same platform. The e-application tool will speed up the application process and response to applicant, and this ultimately saves the applicant’s time and cost of following up with individual institutions for their application status and admission

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Exclusive Interview

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advice. The website draws the key advantages of R.E.A.C.H for our users: • Resourceful • Enquiry and Advisory Services • Accessibility • Course Application and Status Tracking • Hassle-free What are some of the services provided by the portal to prospective students?

• Tracking of course and spplication hits rate How do you promote the portal? • Malaysia Education Exhibition abroad in over 20 high potential countries • Promotional initiatives at our representative offices in Bangladesh, Maldives, Mauritius, Mongolia and Sri Lanka • Social Media

- Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) - Asia Pacific University College of Technology and Innovation (UCTI) - MAHSA University College - SEGi University College

• Blog - http://blog. malaysiaeducation.com.my

Is the portal endorsed by any parties?

• Institutions and courses finder

• Selected local and international print advertisements

• Online Enquiry and Advisory Tool

Do you have any statistics on usage growth of the portal?

• Online Application Tool

After few months of revamping, the web was relaunched in early July 2011 and since then web hits and visitors rate have grown substantially. I am confident that the initiatives we are going to implement will boost the web traffic in next few months.

We are working on obtaining the endorsements of local Ministries and some foreign Ministries. It requires long-term efforts to gain endorsements and recognition but I am confident that we will achieve that in near future.

The prospective students are allowed to use the following web services for free:

• Events and articles finder • In addition, our offices also provide free assistance in any other application and admission related matters to prospective students. What are some of the services available to your clients (universities and colleges)? • Directory listing for our clients to post their institution profile and course information • Extensive marketing support through leveraging on the strength of Malaysia Education exhibitions organised by our partner organisation

What are some of the institutions listed? Some of our prominent Higher Education Institution (HEI) partners include: - The Nottingham University Malaysia Campus - INTI International University

What do you foresee in the next three to five years for malaysiaeducation.com.my? To become the premier Malaysian Higher Educational Institutions web directory provider for Malaysian and international prospective students and their parents.


Guest Column

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Organisational Culture of Ethical Politics by Lenny Chiah

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ike it or not, every organisation has its political environment. It may be invisible to all but those directly involved, or those who are its casualty. Organisation politics is all about defending and strengthening one own job, position, having recognition and respect either for self-interest or in the collective interest of the organisation. Over my 30 years of working with or for various organisations consisting of corporations and NGO leaders at various top, mid or lower management, I have heard, seen, observed and personally experienced a great amount of organisational politics. Whenever the word ‘politics’ is mentioned, there is a tendency to relate it to something that is evil, unethical, selfserving, manipulation, aggression and it is seemingly a taboo topic. Actually, there is nothing totally taboo about it and nobody is born a political player. We can only learn about it from trial and error along our career journey or from the experience of others. We can then use what we learn to our advantage by avoiding the blunders and by playing the game well. In general, organisation politics controlled by leaderships can be segmented into two types: ethical or unethical leadership. Ethical leadership leads in the most constructive ways, with integrity, honesty and righteousness for the good of others and the organisation. Unethical leadership

abuses positional power for personal interest and gain at the expense of others and therefore jeopardises organisational effectiveness and long-term sustainability.

Power of Ethical Leadership Focusing on building an organisation culture of ethical leadership as an integral part of the business strategies is critical to the growth and sustainability of the organisation. Ethical leadership is the most important competitive edge of an organisation, not just aspects like finance, operation, technology and fixed assets. What is the acid test of ethical leadership? Abraham Lincoln once said, “Nearly all men can stand adversity. But if you want to test a man’s character, give him the power.” It was less than two decades ago, when I was only a mid-level management employee in my current organisation, Sin Chew Daily, I had witnessed how ethical leadership with positional power and personal charisma had been used to accomplish the organisational goals as in the case of our incumbent Managing Director, Dato’ CC Liew. He was then the Chief Editor in the editorial department. At that time, there was a lot of politicking in the organisation, both ethical and unethical. Some business challenges were not met and the situation was not healthy for the continuous growth of the organisation. So Dato’, being an editorial expert though non-business related, decided to take on the role of Change

Champion in order to transform the culture into a healthier one with zero tolerance towards unethical behaviour. It was definitely a very difficult task due to the known fact that organisation change efforts were often long, laborious, emotional, painful, time-consuming and could be even more political than ever if not handled tactfully. But Dato’ felt strongly that there could be more serious repercussions if we did not change. Eventually, the change was successful, with his staunch advocacy for ethical leadership. This leadership style has also been applied to Sin Chew’s business positioning as we know deep in our hearts that every day, we influence at least 1.25 million readers and thousands of other stakeholders. Therefore, we have the responsibility of being an ethical leadership with positive influence on our readers through what we say in the newspaper editorial columns and what we do internally and externally at more than 300 ground events annually nationwide for the benefit of the community, society and the nation. The success of the organisation today and Dato’ CC Liew’s 40 years of leadership involving a huge range of critical situations exemplifies the fact that only the ethical leadership of ‘Integrity. Equity. Humanity’ stays on and lasts. Dato’ Liew was the proud recipient of the industry’s most honourable ‘Tokoh Wartawan Negara’ (National Eminent Journalist) 2009, as well


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Guest Column

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as the internally coveted ‘Master Hsing Yun Journalism Award’ in Taiwan 2010, for his lifetime achievement and contribution to Malaysian journalism and the community. The ethical leadership style is contagious. Another example is that of our Group Chief Editor, Ms NC Siew, who initiated a review of the benefits and safety guidelines for the employees, especially the frontliners like the reporting teams out in the battle zones. The initiative was all the more urgent in the recent incident of the Bernama TV news cameraman who was shot dead in the line of duty in Somalia on 2 September, 2011. As someone who has recently been presented with ‘The Most Caring Heart’ Award by the Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development, Ms Siew has always viewed employees as the most valuable asset of an organisation, unlike technologies, products, ideas, designs and structures which can be copied by the competition. Highly charged, motivated employees are critical and are everything to the organisation’s competitiveness and sustainability. During many senior management meetings, we are repeatedly reminded to be mindful of our daily doings and actions by asking a few questions ourselves in guarding our ethical leadership positioning: • Based on the absolute principle of integrity and righteousness, is it right to do so? • Based on the absolute principle of equity and justice, is it fair and just? • Based on the absolute principle of upholding the trust given by all our stakeholders, would we want our actions be made public in other channels by unethical factions to hurt the organisation’s image? Such guiding questions are all the more critical with the demise of the 168-yearold tabloid, News of the World, owned by the media magnate, Rupert Murdoch. At

the centrality of the demise is the CEO, Rebekah Brooks, described as a tough social climber, who resigned amidst formidable parliamentary and great public pressure after a phone-hacking scandal in July this year.

Unethical Leadership Now, let us ask ourselves honestly, from our earlier years of at middle-level management until today, how many times have we been on the receiving end of unethical politics and how many times have we been guilty of deploying them? As a reminder, the following are the ‘Don’ts’ for those who aspire to be ethical leaders to do more good for the organisation and the stakeholders. Do Not: 1. Form a coalition or alliances outside of your company. Some give excuses to meet regularly outside in the name of ‘Group Dynamic’ but in fact these meetings are political in nature which tends to cultivate like-mindedness, compliance and good feelings for the in-group with political motivations 2. Resort to coercive power or fear tactics by threatening, bullying, punishing or making things very difficult for employees, especially for those who have other viewpoints and are potential whistleblowers. As a junior employee in my early years of working, I had even encountered sexual harassment by the superiors, but was ignorant of my right to report the incident to the authorities. Instead, I left for a better organisation like Sin Chew which upholds respect for everyone, especially women and the underprivileged 3. Control and distribute rewards like special perks, incentive, bonuses, promotion and monetary rewards to favourite employees, and ignoring and marginalising others who may be more deserving. This is part of their politics game. o Create biased promotions based on

internal political agenda at the expense of other highly performing and more qualified employees. In addition, incentives, bonuses, and perks are not fairly based on performances or aligned with existing structure, positional grades and entitlements. o Allow certain departments or individuals to be underemployed or underutilised while others are overworked and overloaded. Departmental budgets are allocated based on favouritism and not on actual business operational needs, leading to inefficient use or wastage of organisation resources. 4. Do Not Develop Impression Management: o The middle-level leaders, especially those who are over-ambitious but are incompetent, resort to managing image instead of adding substance. o They use proximity to power as a strategy and manipulate relationships to gain favour. o Back stabbing is not unusually employed for moving up the corporate ladder, sidestepping the ‘dead bodies’ of the more deserving candidates or, in their eyes, competitors o Limit the accomplishments of capable employees. Many strategies can be deployed: - Not letting them to see key customers - Not letting them attend important social or office meetings - Refusing information - Refusing training and development or workshops that may enhance their professionalism even these workshops o Restrict resources manpower, space, material, information, budget, work assignments, peer cooperation, office tools and equipments to carry out functions effectively and efficiently. On the other hand, readily obliging their favourites all requests for resources, or intentionally elating the


Guest Column

favourites’ visibility via appointments to special task groups and mission critical assignments, regardless of their expertise, skills and experience, at the expense of the more competent non-favourites 5. Take advantage and manipulate people in situations of uncertainty especially when the situation does not have a solidified structure and policy, procedures, rules and regulations in order to put forward their personal agenda. 6. To gain compliance, respect or cooperation from the others by alienating or diluting the power of competing employees. 7. Empower favourites without due prior coaching, mentoring, value enlightening, and testing of their capability satisfactorily. This will result in incompetent or substandard or sub-optimised performance, and therefore wrong decisions are made at a huge financial cost and can be detrimental to the organisation’s image or reputation. Such politically motivated empowerment should not be condoned. 8. No one can be more haughty than a less competent employee rising on the corporate ladder without an acid test. Unfortunately, such empowerment is camouflaged by a noble mission called ‘Succession Planning’ and usually gets passed without any hint of malpractice. 9. Reframing existing policies and rules to their advantage. This includes unfairly implementing the policy and direction decided wisely by the top management to be biased against certain groups. 10. Set up others to fail through manipulation and misinformation. The resultant unsatisfactory performance will then be displayed exemplarily for the rest to avoid, thus discrediting the victims. 11. The victimised can also not be given enough resources and manpower to execute their work, thus making them fail in their job, or have no job satisfaction and automatically leave the organisation

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without a single cent or due compensation. 12. Fragment organisation efforts and resources by having duplicated activities, dubious responsibility, competing budgets and projects, thus wasting valuable organisation resources and investments without positive impact on the organisation’s business. Unethical politics should be avoided as far as possible. One of the main reasons for poor organisational performances is not the lack of business acumen, skills, money and other resources, but rather the unethical internal politics within the organisation itself, leading to performance risks, resulting in downfall of the organisation. As leaders, one must be aware of its causes and techniques in order to foresee and solve problems before they become serious.

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play politics” are actually being political ourselves. In my personal opinion, no one is absolutely powerless politically. To me, power can be in the following forms: a. Having the attitude that nothing matters more than being ethical, working very hard and delivering excellent performance. b. Having a personality, being humble and treating people with respect. c. Having expert knowledge and bountiful experience. d. Having an MBA, or other relevant academic and professional qualifications. e. Being kind and not inflict pain on others. f. Be a good mentor and coach to help others to be successful.

Advice to MBA graduates

g. Customer’s satisfaction as organisation’s top priority and accolades for the organisation.

Whether organisation politics are positive or negative depend on how we choose to be ethical or unethical leaders. Some of us who may doubt our own politicking power and deny having it, declaring, “I do not

Of course, the list of political powers can go on and on, whatever they are, but the game is always yours, so please play it ethically to benefit others and the organisation. Good luck!

Lenny Chiah has an MBA from Victoria University. Well versed in three languages, Chiah is currently the General Manager of a leading Chinese daily. She is partly in-charge of Corporate Social Responsibility, branding and business promotional activities. She has been in the media industry for over 23 years and in the advertising business for over seven years.


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Book

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GOOD STRATEGY BAD STRATEGY The Difference and Why it Matters

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any books on management and strategy are really a single argument—a twenty-page argument—stretched out to book length. Good Strategy/Bad Strategy is not one of these. Each chapter opens a window onto a different aspect of strategy. Good Strategy/ Bad Strategy is not a rehash of existing strategy doctrines and frameworks. It presents views on a range of issues that are fundamental yet which have not been given much daylight. This is a brief summary of some of what you will find here that is new and different: • Good strategy is rare. Many organizations which claim to have a strategy do not. Instead, they have a set of performance goals. Or, worse, a set of vague aspirations. It is rare because there are strong forces resisting the concentration of action and resources. Good strategy gathers power from its very rareness. [Ch. 1, “Good Strategy is Unexpected”] • A great deal of modern writing about strategy deals with the detailed economic logic of “competitive advantage.” Good

Strategy/Bad Strategy argues that a coherent strategy can be, by itself, a significant source of competitive advantage. The advantage flows from coordination and focus as well as from resolving the impossible ambiguity of reality into a problem that fits the organization’s resources and abilities, a problem on which the organization can actually go to work. This way of looking at things extends beyond business situations to non-for-profit and military contexts. [See Ch. 1, p. 99, and Ch, 9] • “Bad strategy” occurs when there is bad doctrine, when hard choices are avoided, and/or when leaders are unwilling or unable to define and explain the nature of the challenge. [Ch. 3, “Bad Strategy”] • Good strategy has a basic underlying logic: coherent action backed up by an argument, an effective mixture of thought and action. I call this basic underlying structure the kernel. A good strategy may consist of more than the kernel, but if the kernel is absent or misshapen, then there is a serious problem. The kernel of a strategy contains three elements: (1) a diagnosis that defines or

explains the nature of the challenge, (2) a guiding-policy for dealing with the challenge, and (3) a set of coherent-actions that are designed to carry out the guidingpolicy. [Ch. 5, “The Kernel”] • One of a leader’s most powerful tools is the creation of a proximate objective— one that is close enough at hand to be feasible. A proximate objective names an accomplishment that organization can reasonably be expected to achieve. [Ch. 7, Proximate Objectives”] • Competitive success is the joint outcome of the quality of an organization’s accumulated resources and the tight design of coordinated action. Very high quality resources can sometimes win the day almost by themselves. The poorer a firm’s resource base, the more it must depend upon adroit and clever coordination of actions. [Ch. 9, “Using Design”] • In formulating strategy, strategists engage in an internal quest for insight and an internal struggle against their own myopia. This book describes some practices which can help. [Ch. 17, “Using Your Head”] • Despite the strategy world’s emphasis on the importance of competitive advantage, you cannot expect to make money—to get wealthier—by simply having, owning,


Book

buying, or selling a competitive advantage. You get wealthier by actively strengthening a competitive advantage or by increasing the demand for the scarce resources supporting it. [Ch. 12, “Using Advantage”] • Competitors do not always respond quickly, nor do customers always see the value of an offering. Good strategy anticipates and exploits inertia. [Ch. 14, “Inertia and Entropy”] • Organizations experience significant entropy—the continual drift towards disorganization. Much of the useful work of managers and consultants is maintenance—the constant battle against entropy. Strategists must battle this never-ending drift towards disarray within their own organization. And they must try to exploit the disarray of their rivals. [Ch. 14, “Inertia and Entropy”] • Of course, an organization can shoot

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ahead of competitors by successful innovation or by re-inventing a whole industry. But, the most common path to success is not raw innovation, but skillfully riding a wave of change. Changes in technology, law, costs, and buyer tastes are normally beyond the control of any competitor, but they can be harnessed. Just as a good sailboat and a skillful captain can harness the wind to advantage, so can a leader use a wave of change to work ahead of competitors. [Ch. 13, “Using Dynamics”] In Good Strategy/Bad Strategy I have tried to write a book that is interesting, presenting fascinating stories and new ways of looking at things. In addition, I have tried to write

In addition to his academic work, he has been a consultant to numerous firms, non-profit organizations, the Department of Defense, and several governments.

Richard Rumelt is the Harry and Elsa

Kunin Professor of Business & Society at UCLA Anderson, a graduate school of business and management. His teaching, research, and consulting focus on competitive strategy and the nature of competitive advantage. He is the author of Good Strategy/Bad Strategy– The Difference and Why It Matters. He is also a co-author of Fundamental Issues in Strategy–A Research Agenda and the author of Strategy, Structure, and Economic Performance.

Richard Rumelt earned Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. During 196365 he worked as a systems engineer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratories. He studied decision sciences and corporate strategy at the Harvard Business School, receiving his doctorate in 1972. Between 1972 and 1976 he was on the faculty of the Harvard Business School, with two of those years spent on assignment in Tehran to found the Harvard-sponsored Iran Center for Management Studies. In 1976 he joined the UCLA faculty. During 1992-96 he was on long-term leave from UCLA, serving on the faculty at INSEAD, France. At INSEAD, he headed the Corporate Renewal Initiative, a research/intervention center devoted to the study and practice of corporate transformation.

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an honest book about strategy. In particular, I wanted to honor the fact that how a strategist discovers a decisive objective and creates advantage lies at the very edge of our understanding, something only glimpsed out of the corner of the mind. Thus, the book does not offer simplistic formulas for success. Instead, it explains the logic of good strategy and the sources of power that talented strategists have tapped. And, it highlights the pitfalls and fallacies one must avoid. In the process of writing Good Strategy/ Bad Strategy, I found that being honest meant being personal. That is, explaining how an idea was hard won from events and experience. And noticing that not everyone agrees with it. To that end, many parts of this book are written in the first-person, describing work with clients, students, and others. I have described how I came to discover certain things and how I have tried to convey them to others. I have described both failures and successes.

Richard Rumelt was a founding member of the Strategic Management Society and served as its president in 1995-98. He is married to Kate who was once a strategy professor but is today a prize-winning fabric artist specializing in three-dimensional geometric forms.


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LEAD WITH

VALUES

What is important to you in life? Do you know what your values are?

V By Julie Donley, RN. Success Expert & Author of Does Change have to be so H.A.R.D.?

alues are those things that are priorities. These can be anything from nature and beauty, adventure, learning, having fun, or honor and integrity. You know these things because when you see them in others, they bring you joy. When you experience them for yourself, they bring you joy. And when you don’t have enough of them in your life, you feel empty, like life has lost meaning. Too often, however, we live life without our values leading the way. Perhaps you never sat down to examine and clearly identify what you value most. Perhaps you are quite clear what you value but life’s challenges have gotten in the way and the choices you have made have led you further from what is important to you.

This happens when your needs are strong and seem so important that they trick you into focusing your attention on satisfying them in the moment and you stop making choices based on your values. Needs feel strong. Personal needs are feelings that you are lacking in some way and they make it seem like they have to be satisfied immediately or else. Because your self-worth cannot function with a void, you will go out of your way to fill that void and satisfy that need. The need can be for recognition or for attention; you might feel the need for power or to be in control. Whatever the need, if you make that need most important, then you put your values second and this costs you dearly. Real needs such as shelter, clothing


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and food are survival needs and they are essential for life. When you are in survival mode, it is easy to put emphasis and focus on meeting these basic needs first and putting values second. Beauty hardly seems important if you are starving. Although even in doing this, there is a chance you can lose yourself and lose that part of you that loves and trusts and has faith because your values are not being honored. The more you focus attention on something, the bigger it grows. So if you focus on getting needs met and not on fulfilling your values, then your needs seem to grow bigger and bigger. What you are truly focused on is the ‘lack’ or the ‘void’ and your attention goes toward filling that lack. Values, on the other hand, fill you up without much effort. If connection is important to you, for example, then focus your attention on finding ways to connect with people throughout your day. Do this instead of thinking about how lonely you are without a life partner. Look for the love you already have in your life and, the more you find it (it is everywhere!), the bigger it will grow and the more satisfied and fulfilled you will be even without a love partner. Susan put ‘survival’ over her values by staying at a job that did not fit her value structure. It was a cutthroat environment with bullying and backstabbing. Instead of leaving, she tolerated it for quite some time with the ‘excuse’ that

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she needed the job to survive; she needed money. While that may be true, she did need to make money to pay her bills; she didn’t honor herself. And when we don’t honor ourselves, we lose ourselves. The cost is high. Susan had succumbed to the environment and did not see that there were choices – the choice to leave. Once she decided she could no longer put up with it – the stress was impacting her health – she began to seek new employment. This created a shift in her where she reclaimed her power and rediscovered her values. She found a job whose culture more closely matched her values. She felt free – lighter and happier than she had in years. It was as if a huge weight had been lifted from her shoulders. All that time, she needed to shrink, to pretend, to ‘walk on egg shells’. She could not be herself for fear of verbal assault, of not fitting in, or of being ridiculed. This is no way to live! When your values lead the way, you never forget who you are. It is easier to stand up for yourself. You do what is ‘right’ which means you live in integrity. There is freedom here. When you live by needs – the need to impress or to gain something from others, you put your power in the hands of others and it hurts.

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Needs are illusions; you have all you need. There is always enough – more than enough – and you are complete. If you feel you need something, it is best to ask for someone to meet that need for you; own it, in other words, rather than being at the mercy of it. Living by your values ensures that you are free to be you and that you enjoy yourself. Leading by your needs, however, will feel as if you have to chase something and that you are not good enough without this thing that seems to be missing. It is not a relaxed feeling; it is a stressful feeling. What do you value? What is most important to you as you go about your daily life? First identify the value and then find ways to incorporate that value into your life each day. You will find over time that you spend less time worrying about whether there is enough or if you are good enough, and instead, you’ll enjoy life more. Julie Donley, MBA, BSN, RN is a psychiatric nurse, success expert and author of several empowering and motivating books including Does Change have to be so H.A.R.D.? and The Journey Called YOU: A Roadmap to Self-Discovery and Acceptance. Julie is named one of the top 100 thought leaders in personal development and is passionate about helping you be your best. For selfhelp resources and to learn more, visit www.JulieDonley.com. Media can access her online press kit at www. juliedonley.presskit247.com.


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MBA Edge & Postgraduate Studies Bi-Monthly  

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This magazine is positioned as the specialist one-stop magazine showcasing the best MBA and Postgraduate Programs in Malaysia.

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