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Noraien Mansor Mohd. Jalani Hasan

Penerbit UMT Universiti Malaysia Terengganu 21030 Kuala Terengganu Terengganu 2014

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill Š 2014 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from Director, Penerbit UMT, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia. Hak Cipta Terpelihara Š 2014. Tidak dibenarkan mengeluar ulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan isi kandungan buku ini dalam apa juga bentuk dan dengan apa cara sekalipun sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat izin bertulis daripada Pengarah, Penerbit UMT, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia. Diterbitkan oleh / Published in Malaysia Penerbit UMT, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia. http://penerbit.umt.edu.my E-mel: penerbitumt@umt.edu.my Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia

Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Noraien Mansor, 1960The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill / Noraien Mansor, Mohd Jalani Hasan. Bibliography: pages 37 ISBN 978-967-0524-74-0 1. English language--Spoken Engliash. 2. Engliah language--Usage. I. Mohd. Jalani Hasan, II. Title. 428.3 Set in Arial Design: Penerbit UMT Layout by: Penerbit UMT

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CONTENTS Contents Preface Abstract

v vii ix

Introduction to Communicative Approach Literature Review in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Research Methodology Effects of Communicative Approach Recommendations Conclusion Bibliography

1 5 11 13 31 33 35

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PREFACE The challenge of producing quality manpower among Malaysians as to achieve the target of Vision 2020 had brought an impact towards the teaching of English language throughout Malaysia. Although the communicative approach (CA) had been implemented for more than twenty years in our Malaysian educational policy, it was revealed that there is still a gap between the teaching processes and the achievement of the students’ oral performance. It is being identified that the marks do not reflect students’ actual acquisition level in speaking where students still faced problems in having conversations although they managed to score A in their SPM examination. Thus, this study had discovered the importance of maintaining the communicative approach (CA) in the teaching of speaking skill among Malaysians’ students. This monograph will help the reader to have a clear view on what the authors had done, the implications towards the body of knowledge and the suggestions to upgrade the standard of teaching speaking skill among students. Therefore, hopefully this monograph will contribute to lead other researchers in studying more wide area in the field of education especially in the teaching and learning processes.

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ABSTRACT English language communication is crucial to develop the community’s interest in learning English as a second language especially in achieving the target of Vision 2020 of being fully developed country based on our own moulding and in producing quality human capital as the main manpower. Thus, various methods and approaches have been implemented to teach the language effectively. One of the approaches is Communicative Approach which is based on the idea that learning language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning. When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language. The aim of communicative approach is communicative competence. Therefore, this study is carried out due to the problems faced by the teacher trainees who are still lacking of communicative competence although they have learnt English for at least 11 years in schools and scored good marks in their Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) examination. Thus, it intends to identify the effects of practicing the communicative approach in the teaching of speaking skill among ESL teacher trainees, the effect of motivation factors, the effect of English practices in the classroom and the effect of language learning strategies on speaking performance. The quasi-experimental design is to analyse the students’ speaking performance through the use of the speaking module, ‘Diagnose, Run and Assess’ (DRA) based on Communicative Approach (CA) principles. 60 students of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL) Degree Programme were selected for this research. Various instruments were used namely the oral diagnostic test, pre-test and post-test based on Malaysian University English Test (MUET) components, questionnaires, DRA Module Evaluation form to evaluate the use of the module and semi-structured interviews. The findings revealed that all the subjects in the experimental groups had achieved better performance for the post-test after 15 weeks compared to the control group, thus enhanced their speaking skills. It was found that the respondents like to have the pairwork activities due to less-tense situation and enjoy the conversation sessions among themselves based on the responses on the interviews. Therefore, this approach is still practical and relevant to be used as the teaching approach in Malaysian English classes and hoped to improve the English language communication amongst the community members.

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INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH

The Communicative Approach (CA) or Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is the name which was given to a set of beliefs which included not only a re-examination of what aspects of language to teach, but also a shift in emphasis in how to teach (Hymes, 1967). Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) or Communicative Approach (CA) is a language teaching approach that emphasizes the communication of meaning rather than the practice of grammatical forms in isolation (Canale & Swain, 1980). It aims at developing among language learners the knowledge and skills needed for appropriate interpretation and use of a language in different communicative settings (Ngoc & Iwashita, 2012). Within the last quarter of century, communicative language teaching (CLT) has been put forth around the world as the ‘new’ or ‘innovative’ way to teach English. CLT has been a real landmark in the history of language teaching profession (Bastanfar & Hashemi, 2012). Since the primary aim of the approach is to prepare learners for meaningful communication, errors are tolerated. The range of exercise types and activities compatible with a communicative approach is unlimited. It is not assumed in this approach that the teacher is the centre of all classroom activities (Mutawa & Kailani, 1989). Thus, teachers can develop multiple unlimited activities in order to provide sufficient situations or contexts to help the students to practice the target language. The communicative approach is being chosen because our Malaysian educational policy which had implemented the CA for more than twenty years had revealed that there is still a gap between the teaching processes and the achievement of the students’ oral or speaking performances. Moreover, it is being identified that marks do not reflect students’ actual acquisition level in speaking. Some students were found to be reserved in the classroom, mumbling, stuttering and even struggling to speak in English (Mohd Hasrul Kamarulzaman, Noraniza Ibrahim, Melor Md Yunus & Noriah Mohd Ishak, 2013). In Malaysia, the Communicative Approach had been introduced to the education curriculum through English subject since 1989 in which all the four skills are being integrated to achieve the target of producing the manpower who are compatible with the knowledge and also mastery of the communication

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

skill. With the introduction of the Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School (KBSM) in 1988, the three areas of language are integrated with the four main skills of reading, listening, speaking and writing under a communicative framework: “The new English Language Curriculum was implemented in schools beginning 1988, based on a communicative model of language teaching and learning�. (Pillay & North, 1997) Hence, after more than twenty years of its implementation, the achievement of students for English in paper qualification is quite satisfied but the performance in speaking or communication is quite doubtful and questionable by many especially the private sectors who will employ them (Nurita Juhdi, Ainon Jauhariah & Shaharudin Yunus, 2007). Thus, the chosen of this approach to be studied is relevant with the development of English in Malaysian education system as to improve the communication skills amongst the community members. Thus, eventhough the students scored good marks in their SPM examination especially in English language, but they still cannot perform well in communication due to certain factors. This revealed that the paper qualification do not reflect the exact oral performance of each candidate (Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin, 2009). Therefore, this study intends to identify the problems faced by the students in performing their communication skills as well as to look at the effect of the communicative approach (CA) in the teaching of speaking skills for teacher trainees after they had attended the English lessons for at least 11 years in schools (Noreiny Maarof, 2003). The low English proficiency among Malays can be attributed to a number of factors, some of which relate to a lack of exposure to quality English teaching, teaching materials, and English speaking environments and media, while others relate to attitudes and personality traits that hinder the effective study of English. Poor motivation and the lack of English usage and exposure among learners are some of the essential causes of low English language communication and proficiency (Pillay, 1995; Chee & Troudi, 2006). Thus, this study only focused on the effects of practicing communicative approach in the teaching of speaking skill among ESL teacher trainees in order

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Introduction to Communicative Approach

to shed light on developing activities based on Diagnose, Run and Assess (DRA) module in the teaching speaking in the Institute of Teachers’ Education (ITE) throughout Malaysia. Students in schools generally find it difficult to maintain their interest in English language learning as English is not seen as important for their immediate needs other than to pass their examination. Teachers also are unable to sustain students’ genuine interest in continuing to learn English and to use the language once the examination is over (Supyan Hussin, 2002). In normal classroom teaching in Malaysia, much time is spent in teaching reading comprehension and writing. Activities for development of oral skills are still lacking. The results of a study conducted by Fauziah Hasan & Nita Fauzee Selamat (2002) shown that teaching and testing, both in schools and in the national examinations, focused mainly on two language skills: writing and reading. Listening and speaking have been found to be much neglected in the classroom. The neglect of oral communication practice in the classroom will hinder such an important language learning foundation to emerge and severely obstruct the development of other aspects of language skills (Zhang & Kortner, 1995). Thus, we need to realign the focus of our students by providing sufficient comprehensible inputs to help the students to have more chances in practicing the target language in the classroom which reflects the real life situations. The current study aimed to identify the effects of practicing the CA principles through module on speaking components and also identify the effects of English practice, motivation factors and language learning strategies on speaking module implementation. Additionally, the study aimed to see the differences in the means of the pre- and post-tests of the experimental group and the controlled group; examine the relationships between the English practices, motivation and language learning strategies towards speaking performance and finally identify the contribution of speaking components towards the overall speaking performance. It is hoped that the findings were be able to add to the body of knowledge on the area of speaking, thus assisting in the effort of enforcing the appropriate teaching and learning strategies that would help the learners to gain better speaking skill in English.

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

In conjunction with all the problems identified earlier, this present study is to fill up the gap in the research field in which there is a few experimental researches on communicative approach that had been done in Malaysian setting to measure the effect towards the speaking performance especially for ESL teacher trainees and lacking of practical speaking handbook based on Malaysian setting to be used by teacher trainees. It is hoped that the use of this suggested speaking module (DRA) will be a useful teacher trainees handbook to be used in class to develop their confident level in conducting speaking activities in their future classrooms and it also helps to provide some ways of enhancing the students speaking skills which in long term will help in improving the English language communication of the community members as a whole.

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LITERATURE REVIEW IN COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT) Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) or Communicative Approach (CA) is a language teaching approach that emphasizes the communication of meaning rather than the practice of grammatical forms in isolation. It aims at developing among language learners the knowledge and skills needed for appropriate interpretation and use of a language in different communicative settings (Ngoc & Iwashita, 2012). Within the last quarter of century, communicative language teaching (CLT) has been put forth around the world as the ‘new’ or ‘innovative’ way to teach English. CLT has been a real landmark in the history of language teaching profession (Bastanfar & Hashemi, 2012). Thus, the ideas discussed in various studies conducted by many researchers around the world had given some insights towards the present study. CLT is a multi-perspectival approach that builds on several disciplines including linguistics, psychology, philosophy, sociology and education. It focuses on carrying out and implementing methodologies that are capable of enhancing the learner’s functional language ability through active involvement in authentic communicative (Savignon, 2002). One important distinctive feature of CLT is its emphasis on meaning-oriented instruction (MOI), a term that emerged in response to language teaching methods that emphasized the mastery of language forms (Hong-Nam & Leavell, 2006). Educators’ increasing awareness that learners acquire a foreign language best when their attention is focused on the meaning communicated rather than on linguistic form led to a lack of interest in such methods as grammar translation and audiolingualism. Today, meaning-oriented communicative language teaching methodology has the overarching principles of focus on real communication, providing learners with opportunities to try out what they know, tolerance of learners’ errors as a healthy sign of progress in developing the communicative competence, integrating the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), and allowing students to discover grammar rules by themselves (Richards, 1989). Meaning-oriented instruction, therefore, aims at developing the language learners’ communicative competence through paying close attention to authentic language use, encouraging learner-learner and peer-peer negotiation of meaning, encouraging learners’ risk taking, focus on fluency, which entails emphasis on language production rather than correctness, and assigning importance to learners’ autonomy (Walsh, 2006). 5

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

Generally, findings from empirical research on EFL learners’ attitudes toward language proficiency in different EFL contexts have reported some contradictory findings (Han & Rensberg, 2014; Dina & Ghadeer, 2014; Khaghaninezhad & Jafarzadeh, 2014; Likitrattanaporn, 2014; Zhang, Su & Liu, 2013; Emiko, 2013). Likitrattanaporn (2014) revealed that although the Thai students have studied English language through primary and secondary school for ten years, most of them still cannot use English for communication efficiently. Likitrattanaporn (2014) had similar view with Wiriyachhitra (2002) who explained that English pronunciation is difficult for Thai students due to interference from Thai sound system which is quite different from English. Furthermore, Likitrattanaporn (2014) findings supported Surarin (2013) who stated that since Thais learn English more from reading and writing, not listening and speaking, they do not employ natural language learning. Although they are good at grammar, yet they cannot use English for communication. Thus, Likitrattanaporn (2014) had identified some problems regarding this phenomenon namely the limited opportunities received by Thai students to use English outside the classroom, the examination system which focuses on vocabulary, grammar and reading comprehension, familiarization of memorizing the meaning of English vocabulary in Thai and teachers tend to focus more on teaching and explaining grammar and reading comprehension. Therefore, Likitrattanaporn (2014) suggested that the Thai teachers who teach English language should have positive attitudes towards teaching phonological accuracy and also communicative fluency activities more often. In addition, Dina & Ghadeer (2014) had revealed that a perceived failure of EFL Jordanian students in learning the speaking skill in English was due to the poor English conversation skill, classes which are so large that speaking cannot be demonstrated, students were demotivated towards speaking and limited exposure to English spoken in class. Dina & Ghadeer (2014) view paralleled with Al-Sobh & Al-Abed (2012) who stated that the delivery of teaching speaking skill in class is challenging in Jordan. Moreover, Han & Rensburg (2014) had discovered that the students do not feel interested and motivated to learn English because the conversations and talks sessions are somehow long and above their capability of understanding. Han & Rensburg (2014) had supported the findings of Seong & Klemsen (2005) who revealed that the performance of students’ listening and speaking tests

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Literature Review in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

showed no increment after 15 weeks due to students’ demotivation of learning those skills. Hence, the students’ involvement in class activities is switched off due to their teachers’ lack of the specialist knowledge in teaching English speaking and listening skills as those teachers still use traditional method which seems less effective and fails to meet the students’ needs. On the other hand, Aburizaizah (2014) had found out that the English programme provided to foundation year students in Saudi is failing to equip the learners with the desired level of English language. Aburizaizah (2014) findings paralleled with Waters (2012) and Case (2008) who had discovered that the textbooks provided in the Saudi’s college for foundation programme were mostly given emphasis on grammar. Thus, Aburizaizah (2014) proposed a new framework to help the teachers improve their lesson delivery and encouraged them to use new teaching techniques such as problem solving and a studentcentred approach. However, Aburizaizah (2014) results had indicated that there was a need for teacher training courses to help the teachers to understand the principles behind the different teaching methodology. Likewise, Zhang, Su & Liu (2013) had identified that the majority of the students were reported to be moderately motivated to learn English. Zhang, Su & Liu (2013) findings were contradicted with Liu (2007) who found out that the motivation was positively correlated with the students’ English proficiency. Thus, the findings revealed by Zhang, Su & Liu (2013) meant that the learners did not work very hard at English lessons and they were just instrumentally motivated or interested in foreign languages and cultures to a certain degree which was well above the average but still not strong enough. Consequently, the research done by Likitrattanaporn (2014) and Dina & Ghadeer (2014) had discovered that the students faced problems in achieving the aim of communicate efficiently outside the classroom mostly due to the limited exposure and input received in the classes. Moreover, Han & Rensburg (2014) and Zhang et al., (2013) had mentioned that the students’ motivation level is degraded due to the application of traditional method by teachers in teaching speaking and listening skills while Aburizaizah (2014) had found that the teachers’ lesson delivery were lacking due to inappropriate teaching materials being provided. Therefore, the gap revealed is mostly related to the failure of the teachers to provide sufficient inputs and appropriate activities to fulfil the needs of the students in learning speaking skill.

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

The contradicted opinion highlighted by Emiko (2013) which revealed that many Japanese students are less confident about their speaking abilities due to the belief that the native western speakers’ English is the only correct and authentic form of English. Thus, they tend to lose confidence in their own Japanese English accent. It was also discovered by Khaghaninezhad & Jafarzadeh (2014) that the teachers put much less emphasis on oral drills, pronunciation, listening and speaking abilities than on reading, writing, grammar and vocabulary due to the Iranian prescribed EFL textbooks which given less emphasized on students’ aural and oral skills. Thus, the Iranian students face difficulties in using English language for communicative purposes. Hence, the role of teachers seems to be a barrier of achieving the aim of producing competent English speaking students. In short, teachers need to raise students’ awareness of the significance of communicative competence in English and also increase their motivation in learning the target language. The realization of teachers’ role in shaping the processes of transmitting the knowledge through effective methods will enable the students to receive sufficient inputs and practice the target language in more conducive environment. Yet, some studies had revealed the contradictory of this principle (Wang, 2014; Kumar, 2013; Sabina, 2011; Chen & Goh, 2011). Kumar (2013) had found out that the method of ELT used in Ethiopia showed the absence of effective methods and also unfamiliarity with the important methods such as communicative approach. Kumar (2013) findings were paralleled with Eshetie (2010) who revealed that the depressing of English language teaching was never improved although Ethiopia’s need for English language is more intensified as globalization agenda during that time. Kumar (2013) elaborated that the situation falsifies the claim of practicing learner centred approach because neither the teachers encourage the learners in a quest for self learning acts nor the course components favour autonomous learning. Thus, communicative approach is not fully implemented in Ethiopia. The result of Kumar’s (2013) findings was contradicted with the findings of Sabina (2011) who revealed that when EFL teachers adapt the Westernbased Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) model to Asian contexts, the tensions between beliefs about different traditions of language teaching begin to surface and influence their perceptions and practice of new teaching methodologies. Sabina (2011) findings were also similar to Walsh (2006) who discovered that in the second language classroom, it is common for the teacher

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Literature Review in Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)

to control both the content and the procedure of the learning-process; thus, teachers tend to talk more than the students. Sabina (2011) also found that most teachers tend to survive and adapt English lessons to the local teaching cultures and based their teaching on their past learning experiences. Another barriers that Sabina (2011) identified were the amount of preparation time for adapting activities to cater for appropriate students’ level and class size, the pressure of preparing students for public examinations and students’ belief in ‘games’ or ‘role playing’ being useless for examinations. Therefore, the main problem detected is the culture barrier where the teachers had certain beliefs on conducting the lessons based on local contexts and also their past learning experiences. Meanwhile, Chen & Goh (2011) had discovered that the teachers in China encounter many obstacles in their attempt to develop students’ speaking competence. Chen & Goh (2011) had agreed with Tschannen-Moran & Hoy (2007) who discovered that the teachers’ self-efficacy affects the effort they invest in teaching, the goals they set and their level of aspiration. Thus, apart from the external constraints from the students and the contexts, such as students’ resistance to oral participation, lack of authentic language environment, limited teaching resources, large class size and insufficient instructional time, the biggest barrier appears to be the teachers themselves. In short, Chen & Goh (2011) found that most teachers were reported of having low self-efficacy about their oral English proficiency and inadequate pedagogical knowledge for teaching oral skills. Therefore, there is a need for teacher training programme especially in Institute of Teachers’ Education (ITE) to prepare the future teachers with adequate pedagogical knowledge and also language competence to embark on their teaching career especially in raising the awareness about varieties of English used around the world and also help the teachers to enhance the learners’ motivation for oral English learning. Furthermore, Chen & Goh (2011) suggested that the teachers should be facilitated with many ways to move beyond these constraints by exploring and creating opportunities for their students to improve speaking in the best way possible. With regard to teachers’ barriers, Wei (2010) had identified some obstacles. Some Chinese teachers are not able to answer spontaneous questions about the target language (English), sociolinguistics or culture as they arise from interaction in the classroom. It shows that they are lacking of English

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

proficiency where they manage to teach English only to some extent. Wei’s (2010) findings were similar to the findings of Ting’s (1987) who revealed that most teachers still practice traditional method which stressed much on reading and thus, students learnt English through memorization and reciting as much as possible after attending lectures in class. Furthermore, Wei (2010) found out that the teachers’ authority and students’ passive role were considered other obstacles in improving classroom interaction. Students have been trained to be obedient ever since kindergarten where they are not in habit of arguing for their own point of view even if the teachers accidentally make mistakes and students passively taking part in simulated interactions. Therefore, these obstacles had prevent the students in China to further develop their English speaking skill and the teachers had to adapt the communicative approach to suit with the Chinese classroom contexts rather than directly copied from the West (Wei, 2010). In conclusion, a study of CA based on different contexts and situations should be conducted to identify the constraints and resistances in implementing the CA in the teaching and learning processes especially in Malaysian setting.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This research employed a quasi-experimental design where the students’ performances of two classes were compared in which one class was the controlled group and the other one was the experimental group. It is one of the experimental procedures where the researchers used the controlled and experimental groups that are not assigning students randomly (McMillan & Schumacher, 2006; Creswell, 2003; Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2000; Chua, 2006; O’Brien, 2007). It is a popular approach in which the experimental group A and the controlled group B were selected without random assignment (Creswell, 2003). Both groups took the pre-test and the post-test. Only the experimental group received the treatment while the controlled group used the traditional method. Then the students were being interviewed after conducting the experiment for one semester. For the purpose of this study, the researcher selected 60 TESL teacher trainees; all of them are almost of the same age and SPM leavers with almost the same grade for English from two classes of Semester 3 (Program Ijazah Sarjana Muda Perguruan-PISMP) TESL programme. The researcher chose the sample due to the respondents whose representing 60% of the total sample of 100 TESL Degree Programme teacher trainees of Semester 3 from four classes for the major study. Due to the impossibility of applying the random selection of the sample, thus, this study applied the quasi-experimental design (Wiersma, 2000) to meet the purpose of testing the DRA module to the TESL students.

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

The theoretical framework can be illustrated as follows:

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE

DEPENDENT VARIABLE Experimental Group (With) (Johnson & Christensen, 2004) Pre-test CA Principles Speaking (DRA Module), (NuPerformance nan, 1991, Johnson (Hymes, 1967, 1982) Krashen, 1983, Controlled Group Ellis, 1985, Harmer, Post-test (Without) (Johnson Controlled Variables 1991) & Christensen, 1. Almost same age 2004) 2. SPM leavers3. Same lesson's time 4. Same major Elements of subject speaking: 5. Same exposure 1. Content and background 2. Delivery (Hymes, 1967, 3. Grammar Ellis, 1985) 4. Vocabulary 5. Pronunciation 6. Fluency (Wilkinson, 1975; Richards, 1989; Hiser 2001) Figure 1: A theoretical framework for using DRA module

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EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH The results and discussion of this study were elaborated based on the following subtopics: 1. The means for pre-test of the experimental group and controlled group. 2. The means for post-test of the experimental group and controlled group. 3. The means of pre- and post-test for controlled group. 4. The means of pre- and post-tests for experimental group.

The Means for Pre-test of EG and CG The research question mentioned: ‘What are the means of the experimental group (EG) in the pre-test as compared to the means of the controlled group (CG)?’ and the hypothesis stated, ‘There will be no significant difference between the means of pre-test for the experimental group (EG) and the controlled group (CG). To evaluate both the question and the statement above, the researcher had conducted an independent sample t-test using SPSS version 21’. Table 1: Analysis of pre-tests (Group Statistics)

PREMARKS

IVDRAM1

N

Mean

Std.Deviation

Std. Error Mean

CG EG

30 30

62.1333 62.3333

3.70213 2.94001

.67591 .53677

Based on Table 1, it showed that there are 30 students in the controlled group with the mean pre-marks of 62.13 and the standard deviation of 3.702 marks. It also stated that there are 30 students in the experimental group with the mean pre-marks of 62.33 and the standard deviation of 2.940 marks. Next, check the independent sample test table to look at which row to read from, whether the statistics for equal or unequal variances and use the significant level that associated with the value under the heading, Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances. This is a test that determines if the two conditions have about the same or different amounts of variability between scores. Then, there are two smaller columns labelled F and Sig. and check the Sig. column with one value to determine which row to read from.

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

If the Sig. value is greater than .05; it means that the variability in the two conditions is about the same. It interprets that the scores in one condition do not vary too much more than the scores in the second condition. In other words, it means that the variability in the two conditions is not significantly different. Thus, the researcher must read the analysis from the top or first row. If the Sig. value is less than .05; it means that the variability in the two conditions is not the same. It interprets that the scores in one condition vary much more than the scores in the second condition. In other words, it means that the variability in the two conditions is significantly different. Thus, the researcher must read the results from the second or bottom row. For this pre-test, the independent sample test table is as follows: Table 2: Independent sample test (Pre-marks) Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances

F

Premarks

Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed

Sig.

t-test for Equality Means

t

Sig. (2-tailed)

df

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Diifference Lower

Upper

-1.92773

1.52773

1.562 -.232

58

.818

-.20000

.86312

55.170

.818

-.20000

.86312

.216 -.232

-1.92962 1.52962

*(p<0.05)

Based on Table 2, the Sig. value is .216 and it is greater than .05; thus, the results from the first row are to be examined. Next, the result for t statistic is equal to -.232, p equals to .216 at degree of freedom equals to 58. Then, the Sig. (2-tailed) value is found to be greater than .05 where it shows .818, thus, there is no statistically significant difference between the two conditions. It means that the means for the CG and the EG were almost the same; therefore, the students in both conditions were at the same level at the beginning of the experiment using the DRA module.

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Effects of Communicative Approach

Consequently, the final report can be illustrated as follows: Table 3: Analysis of pre-test for CG and EG Variables

N

Mean

SD

t-value(df)

Sig.(2-tailed)

Pre Controlled Pre Experimental

30 30

62.13 62.33

3.702 2.940

-.232 (58)

0.818

*(p<0.05)

As conclusion, based on Table 3 the independent-sample t-test which was conducted to compare the pre-marks for the CG and the EG conditions had revealed that there was no statistical significant difference in the scores or marks for the CG (M=62.13, SD=3.70) and the EG (M=62.33, SD=2.94) conditions; t (58)= -.232, p = 0.818. These results suggest that both the two groups (CG and EG) shared almost the same means of scores for the pretest because none of them received any treatment at the beginning of the experiment. Therefore, their levels of performance were merely the same based on this condition. Consequently, a study conducted by Alibakhshi & Padiz (2011) had revealed that the purpose of conducting the pretest was to confirm that there was no initial difference in the use of each communicative strategy by the participants of the study. They found out that there is no significant difference between frequencies of communicative strategies used in oral production by the participants of both groups (CG & EG). As for the present study, it was detected that the pretest scores for both groups (CG & EG) showed no significant difference. Thus, it shared the same result as Alibakhshi & Padiz (2011) findings. Therefore, the pretest scores for both groups are almost the same at the initial stage of the experiment. Based on Nunanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (1991), the learnerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own personal experiences can contribute to classroom learning and as a result the pre-tests marks were almost the same due to the same experiences gained before the intervention. Furthermore in understanding the breakdown of the three different parts of the pre-test, the following findings will closely discover the results. For Part A that is the prepared speech, the results determined that 64.7% of the students in the control and experimental groups scored 18 marks and below out of 30 marks while only 35.3% scored 19 marks and above for both groups. Thus, it was found that the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; overall speaking performances for prepared

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speech in the pre-test for both groups are almost the same where they shared the same percentages of distribution of marks allocation. It supported the third principle of Nunan’s (1991) CA principle which given emphasis on providing opportunities for learners to focus not only on language but also the learning process itself. The analysis for Part B that is the impromptu speech is as follows. The results for the control group determined that 76.5% of the students scored 18 marks and below while for the experimental group only 70.6% of the students scored the same marks. It is found that 23.5% of the students in the control group and 29.4% of the students in the experimental group scored the marks of 19 and above. Therefore, the percentages of both groups for the scores are not much differ and it shows that students of both groups were having almost the same level of speaking performance. The finding supported the Johnson’s (1982) first element of learning theory which mentioned that the communication principle had provided the real communication activities that promote learning. As for Part C that is the group discussion, the distributions of marks are as follows. Both groups shared the same results of the speaking scores. For those who scored 18 marks and below, 58.8% of the students managed to score that while only 41.2% of the students for both groups managed to score 19 marks and above. Thus, it determined that students of both groups are having almost the same level of speaking performances before the entered the treatment programme. As Vygotsky’s (1978) mentioned that the group discussion could enhance the students’ motivation, thus the speaking scores also increased. In addition, the findings from the interviews had revealed some important ideas on the pre-test session. Some of the respondents agreed that the pretest session should be applied before any speaking activities as to make them prepare and determine their own level of proficiency. The responses were listed as follows: R 2: “It helps me to prepare and drafting my ideas before speaking”. R 3: “It gives exposure of the general ideas of the session”. R 4:“Pre-test is one type of enrichment activities to help me speak confidently in class”. R 5: “I think a pre-test session will help us to determine our own level of proficiency before we can proceed with the speaking activities”. R 11: “From the pre-test, we actually can measure our ability and readiness”. 16

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Based on R 2, the respondent mentioned that the pre-test could help him to prepare and draft his ideas before he could perform his speech fluently especially when given the impromptu speech. The readiness of the mind could reduce his anxiety level to perform in front of others. This is parallel with Hymes’s speaking model (1967) where he stated that the setting and scene will reflect and determine the speaking performance of the speaker. Thus, pre-test could be a starting point for each speaker to know his or her level of proficiency before they can proceed with any new speaking activities that might enhance their speaking performance. This supported the Johnson’s (1982) meaningfulness principle of having activities that are meaningful to the learner to support the learning process. As for R 3, the pre-test could provide her with more exposure of the general ideas of the whole session. Although she managed to perform averagely in the pre-test, it does not mean she cannot perform the impromptu speech. The exposure she collected from the pre-test had helped her to set her mind to receive any meaningful ideas regarding the speaking activities openly. It fulfilled the meaningfulness principle as introduced by Johnson (1982) that stated language which is meaningful to the learner will support the learning process. Therefore, she found out that the pre-test had provided her with sufficient ideas in facing the speaking activities as planned in the module. Moreover, R 4 mentioned that the pre-test is one type of enrichment activities to help her to speak confidently in class. Enrichment activities in the classroom offer an opportunity for active learning, increase student interest and foster a love of learning (Alamin & Ahmed, 2013). It also confirmed with Johnson’s theory of learning (1982) who stated that the activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks should promote learning. Thus, enrichment activities could foster the development of oral communication skills. In this case, pre-test could give the students a platform to strategically and creatively present their ideas in order to achieve the purpose of public speaking presentation. On the other hand, R 5 stated that a pre-test session will help him to determine his own level of proficiency before he can proceed with the speaking activities. As Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad Ali & Segaran (2013) mentioned that knowing your students’ level of proficiency is the key to helping them succeed during the learning process of language teaching. Alberto, Nelly & Ruth

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(2013) also shared the same opinion that the teachers must know the level of proficiency in both the language and content areas of the students in order to equip them with sufficient knowledge and meet their unique needs. Thus, pre-test can ensure the level of students’ proficiency being identified earlier and various activities being planned may suit their level to achieve the aim of making them more proficient. This supported Nunan’s (1991) fifth principles in which the activities carried out are mostly to link the classroom language learning with the language activities outside the classroom. In addition, R 11 also agreed that the pre-test can actually measure his ability and readiness especially to learn the target language. Like others the achievement in the pre-test will determine the actual proficiency’s level of the students before any treatment being conducted. Thus, they can prepare themselves to learn the target language in more proper and full of concentration. As mentioned by Amir (2013), the readiness theories of learning lean heavily on the concept of maturation in stages of biological and mental development. It is assumed that a child passes through all stages of development in reaching maturity. As a result, the teacher should find out what a child is ready for and then devises appropriate materials and methods to achieve the aims of mastering the target language. It is also in line with Vygotsky theory (1978) where the development through different intellectual phases is necessarily coincident with relevant active experience; therefore readiness is actively promoted, not passively entered while the teacher must endeavour to be a step ahead of any particular level of readiness. In conclusion, pre-test plays a big role in preparing the students to be ready to get through all the learning processes in order to achieve success in learning and mastering the target language. The results of the independent samples t-test and the analysis of each section of the pre-test for both groups had discovered a great deal of students’ performances before the experiment where they shared almost the same marks and those findings had been supported by the interviews’ responses regarding the importance of having pre-test. In short, pre-test should be conducted in order to measure the level of students’ performances before conducting any new approaches or supplying any new materials to test the effectiveness of those chosen approach or material to be applied in the process of teaching and learning the target language.

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The Means for Post-test of EG and CG The research question stated: ‘What are the means of the experimental group (EG) in the post-test as compared to the means of the controlled group (CG)?’ and the hypothesis also stated, ‘There will be no significant differences between the means of the post-test for experimental group (EG) and the controlled group (CG)’. To evaluate both the question and the statement above, the researcher had conducted an independent sample t-test using SPSS version 21. Table 4: Analysis of post-tests (Group Statistics) IVDRAM2

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

CG EG

30 30

62.8000 77.2000

3.81829 7.27016

POSTMARKS

Std. Error Mean .69712 1.32734

Based on Table 4, it showed that there are 30 students in the controlled group with the mean post-marks of 62.80 and the standard deviation of 3.818 marks. It also stated that there are 30 students in the experimental group with the mean post-marks of 77.20 and the standard deviation of 7.270 marks. Next, check the independent sample test table to look at which row to read from, whether the statistics for equal or unequal variances and use the significant level that associated with the value under the heading, Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances. For this post-test, the independent sample t-test table is as follows: Table 5: Independent sample test (Post-marks) Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances

F

Postmarks

Equal variances assumed Equal variances not assumed

Sig.

t-test for Equality Means

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean Difference

Std. Error Difference

95% Confidence Interval of the Difference Lower

Upper

-16.40112

-10.39888

-16.42184

-10.37816

81.920 -8.938

58

.000

-13.40000

1.49927

43.867

.000

-13.40000

1.49927

.000 -8.938

*(p<0.05)

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Based on Table 5 it was found that the Sig. value is .000 and it is less than .05; thus, the results from the second row are to be examined. Next, the result for t statistic is equal to -8.938, p equals to .000 at degree of freedom equals to 43.867. Then, the Sig. (2-tailed) value is also found to be less than .05 where it shows .000; thus, there is a statistically significant difference between the two conditions. It means that the means for the CG and the EG were much differ for both groups. Therefore, the students in the EG scored better marks after the experiment of using the DRA module and it shows that the DRA module had given impact towards the achievement of the EG students. Next, the final report can be illustrated as follows: Table 6: Analysis of post-tests for CG and EG Variables Post Controlled Post Experimental

N 30 30

Mean 62.80 77.20

SD 3.818 7.270

t-value(df)

Sig.(2-tailed)

-8.938 (29)

0.000

*(p<0.05)

In conclusion, based on Table 6, the independent-sample t-test which was conducted to compare the post-marks for the CG and the EG conditions had revealed that there was a statistical significant difference in the scores or marks for the CG (M=62.80, SD=3.82) and the EG (M=77.20, SD=7.27) conditions; t (58) = -8.938 p = 0.000. These results demonstrated that the DRA module really does have an effect on the EG students because they had received the treatment for 15 weeks throughout the experiment. Thus, the results showed that when the students received treatment by using DRA module, the level of performance increases. Therefore, the DRA module is helping the students to achieve better marks for their speaking tests. The findings of the results are parallel with the findings of Noer Doddy Irmawati (2012) who agreed that the CA had given positive impact on studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; learning by providing sufficient activities. Consequently, the activities listed in the DRA module had fulfilled the three elements of Johnsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (1982) theory of learning that emphasise on communication principle in which the activities involve real communication that promote learning, task principle in which the language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks that promote learning and finally meaningfulness principle in which the language used is meaningful to the learner that supports the learning process. Therefore, the results of this

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study had brought an impact towards the achievement of the students as being supported by the theory and other researches. Consequently, in understanding the breakdown of the three different parts of the post-test, the following findings will closely discover the results. For Part A that is the prepared speech, the results determined that 58.8% of the students in the control group scored 18 marks and below while only 23.5% of the students in the experimental group scored 18 marks and below. Another 41.2% of the students in the control group scored 19 marks and above while for the experimental group, 76.5% managed to score 19 marks and above. Thus, it was found that there was an increment on the number of students who scored higher marks for the experimental group. Particularly it shows that the students in the experimental group had improved a lot after they had gone through the 15 weeks of treatment sessions especially for developing their individual speaking competence. It supported the third principle of Nunanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (1991) CA principle which given emphasis on providing opportunities for learners to focus not only on language but also the learning process itself. The analysis for Part B that is the impromptu speech is as follows. The results for the control group determined that 76.5% of the students scored 18 marks and below while for the experimental group only 23.5% of the students scored the same marks. It is found that 23.5% of the students in the control group and 76.5% of the students in the experimental group scored the marks of 19 and above. Hence, it is found that the students in the experimental group tremendously scored more than 19 marks to outdid the control group. It was also found that nobody in the experimental group scored below 12 marks because the lowest mark was 15. The high speaking performance of the students are most likely due to the activation of the DRA module for 15 weeks especially in lowering the anxiety level and increasing the confident level of those students. Therefore, most of the students in the experimental group succeeded to score higher marks in the impromptu speech because they were prepared physically and mentally especially when given a topic of a speech, they tend to process the content of the speech instantly and without further delay they can just deliver the speech spontaneously. The finding supported the Johnsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (1982) first element of learning theory which mentioned that the communication principle had provided the real communication activities that promote learning.

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As for Part C that is the group discussion, the distributions of marks are as follows. The students of the control group managed to score 58.9% for the marks of 18 and below while for the experimental group only 23.5% of the students scored 18 marks and below and it is identified that the lowest score was 16 for the experimental group. The students of the control group showed 41.2% for those who scored 19 marks and above while for those in the experimental group, 76.5% of the students managed to score 19 marks and above. Thus, it was found that there was an increment for those who scored higher marks for the experimental group compared to the control group. Particularly, the students in the experimental group showed improvement after they had gone through the 15 weeks treatment sessions especially in developing their confidence level in groupwork discussions. As Vygotsky’s (1978) mentioned that the group discussion could enhance the students’ motivation, thus the speaking scores also increased. In conclusion, the post-test marks for the experimental group had shown tremendous achievement compared to the achievement of the control group due to the implementation of the DRA speaking module. The students were found to improve themselves in communicating with others especially when they were assigned to discuss in groups, they tend to talk and discuss in a proper manner where exchanges and turn-taking happened simultaneously so as they could share ideas and opinions without feeling hesitation to throw out those ideas to reach consensus decision. Therefore, it can be concluded that after 15 weeks of treatment, it shows that the students had performed much better than previously due to their high degree of confident level especially in performing and delivering speeches in front of others.

The Means for Pre- and Post-tests of the Controlled Group The research question stated: ‘What are the means in the pre-test as compared to the means of the post-test for the controlled group (CG)?’ and the hypothesis also stated, ‘There will be no significant differences between the means of the pre- and post-tests for the controlled group (CG)’. To evaluate both the question and the statement above, the researcher had conducted a pairedsample t-test using SPSS version 21.

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Table 7: Analysis of pre- and post-tests for controlled group Variables Pair 1

Pre Controlled Post Controlled

Mean 62.13 62.80

SD 3.702 3.818

t-value (df) 0.942 (29)

Sig. (2-tailed) 0.335

*(p<0.05)

Based on Table 7, the paired-sample t-test was used to compare the mean of the pre-test and the mean of the post-test for the controlled group. The t-test results determined no significant difference (t=0.942, df=29, p>0.05). Based on the findings, it answered the research question 5 that there is no significant difference between the pre-test mean and the post-test mean of the controlled group. Therefore, the null hypothesis, (Ho5) is accepted. In conclusion, a paired-sample t-test was conducted to compare the pre- and post-tests of the controlled group for their speaking performance. It was found that there was no significant difference in the scores for pretest (M=62.13, SD=3.70) and the post-test (M=62.80, SD=3.818); t (29)=0.94, p=0.335. These results suggest that the scores of the pre-test and the posttest are almost similar after 15 weeks. Specifically, the results suggest that there is no change in most of the marks of the students’ speaking performance. The findings are similar to the findings of a research conducted by Shrestha (2013) in Bangladesh where the researcher identified that some teachers still persisted in speaking Bangla instead of English in the English classrooms, thus the students preferred more drilling and memorizing. Therefore, the aim of increasing the students’ speaking performance was not achieved. The findings were related to Krashen’s (1983) monitor model of the input hypothesis in which the students in the controlled group does not get sufficient input to perform better in the post-test.

The Means of the Pre-and Post-Test for Experimental Group The research question stated: ‘What are the means in the pre-test as compared to the means of the post-test for the experimental group (CG)?’ and the hypothesis also stated, ‘There will be no significant differences between the means of the pre- and post-test for the experimental group (CG)’. To evaluate

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both the question and the statement above, the researcher had conducted a paired-sample t-test using SPSS version 21. Table 8: Analysis of the means of the pre-and post-test for EG Variables

Mean

SD

t-value(df)

Sig.(2-tailed)

Pair 1

62.33 77.20

2.94 7.27

-15.829 (29)

0.00

Pre Experimental Post Experimental

*(p<0.05)

Based on Table 8, the paired-sample t-test was used to compare the mean of the pre-test and the mean of post-test for the experimental group. The t-test results determined a significant difference (t=-15.829, df=29, p<0.05). Based on the findings, it answered the research question 6 that there is a significant difference between the pre-test mean and post-test of the experimental group. Thus, the null hypothesis, (Ho6) is rejected. In conclusion, a paired-sample t-test was conducted to compare the preand post-tests of the experimental group for their speaking performance. It was found that there was a significant difference in the scores for pre-test (M=62.33, SD=2.94) and the post-test (M=77.20, SD=7.27; t (29)=-15.83, p=0.000. These results suggest that the scores of the pre-test and the post-test for the experimental group had shown increment after 15 weeks. Specifically, the results suggest that there is a big change in most of the marks of the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; speaking performance due to the activation of the DRA module as the treatment for the experimental group. Thus, the DRA module has helped to increase the speaking performance of the students. The findings are similar to the findings of a research conducted by Fahmi Nurhakim (2009) who revealed that the application of CA had contributed to the improvement of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; speaking skill and makes English lesson more lively. Furthermore, these findings are fulfilling the input hypothesis by Krashen (1983) who stated that the acquisition takes place as a result of the learner having understood the input that is a little beyond the current level of his competence. With the introduction of the DRA module, the input gathered by the students being increased because they had the chance to practice all the activities listed on their own (learner-centred).

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In understanding clearly the means scores for each sections or parts of the post-test for the experimental group in the major study, the researcher had conducted the analysis of ANOVA for each section namely Part A for the Prepared Speech, Part B for the Impromptu Speech and Part C for the Focus Group Discussion. Firstly, the analysis of ANOVA had shown that the mean for Part A is significant with the overall speaking performance. The following is the details: Table 9: ANOVA for mean A Overall speaking performance

Between Groups Within Groups Total

Sum of Squares 847.709 281.758 1129.467

df

Mean Square

F

3 26 29

282.570 10.837

26.075

Sig. .000

*(p<0.05)

Based on Table 9, it shows that F=26.075 and Sig. value=0.00. Thus, the researcher can conclude based on Sig.Ë&#x201A;0.05 that there is a significant difference between the mean of Part A (Prepared Speech) with the overall speaking performance. In order to decide which statement is high and low, the second table (Tukey HSD) is being observed for Mean part A. The analysis is as follows:

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

Table 10: Multiple comparisons for mean A Dependent Variable: Overall speaking performance Tukey HSD Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

-1.01923 -8.16923 -15.01923

1.47926 1.73233 1.88224

Need improvement Unsatisfactorily Fairly Good Good

1.01923 -7.15000 -14.00000

Fairly Good

Unsatisfactorily Need improvement Good

Good

Unsatisfactorily Need improvement Fairly Good

(I)Mean A

Unsatisfactorily

(J) Mean A

Need improvement Fairly Good Good

95% Confidence Level Lower Bound

Upper Bound

.900 .000 .000

-5.0773 -12.9216 -20.1828

3.0388 -3.4169 -9.8557

1.47926 1.87669 2.01589

.900 .004 .000

-3.0388 -12.2984 -19.5302

5.0773 -2.0016 -8.4698

8.16923 7.15000 -6.85000

1.73233 1.87669 2.20830

.000 .004 .022

3.4169 2.0016 -12.9081

12.9216 12.2984 -.7919

15.01923 14.00000 6.85000

1.88224 2.01589 2.20830

.000 .000 .022

9.8557 8.4698 .7919

20.1828 19.5302 12.9081

*The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level

Based on Table 10, it can be concluded that the highest mean difference is “good” compared to “unsatisfactorily” (mean diff.= 15.01923, sig.= 0.00) and the mean difference between “good” and “need improvement” (mean diff.= 14.00000, sig.=0.00) is the second highest while “good” is also higher than “fairly good” (mean diff.= 6.85000, sig.=0.022). Therefore, it is clearly stated that most of the students achieved “good” for mean Part A compared to overall speaking performance. Secondly, the analysis of ANOVA for Mean Part B had shown significant with the overall speaking performance. The following is the details: Table 11: ANOVA for mean B Overall speaking performance

Between Groups Within Groups Total

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

638.360 491.107 1129.467

3 26 29

212.787 18.889

F

Sig. .000

11.265

*(p<0.05)

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Based on Table 11, it shows that F=11.265 and Sig. value=0.00. Thus, the researcher can conclude based on Sig.˂0.05 that there is a significant difference between the mean of Part B (Impromptu Speech) with the overall speaking performance. In order to decide which statement is high and low, the second table (Tukey HSD) is being observed for Mean Part B as follows: Table 12: Multiple comparisons for mean B Dependent Variable: Overall speaking performance Tukey HSD

(J) Mean B

Mean Difference (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

Need improvement Fairly Good Good

-2.25000 -4.10714 -12.50000

2.53759 2.72407 2.66144

2.25000 -1.85714 -10.25000

(I)Mean B

Unsatisfactorily

Need improvement

Unsatisfactorily Fairly Good Good

95% Confidence Level Lower Bound

Upper Bound

.812 .447 .000

-9.2114 -11.5801 -19.8012

4.7114 3.3659 -5.1988

2.53759 2.10132 2.01947

.812 .813 .000

-4.7114 -7.6217 -15.7900

9.2114 3.9075 -4.7100

Fairly Good

Unsatisfactorily Need improvement Good

4.10714 1.85714 -8.39286

2.72407 2.10132 2.24933

.447 .813 .005

-3.3659 -3.9075 -14.5635

11.5801 7.6217 -2.2222

Good

Unsatisfactorily Need improvement Fairly Good

12.50000 10.25000 8.39286

2.66144 2.01947 2.24933

.000 .000 .005

5.1988 4.7100 2.2222

19.8012 15.7900 14.5635

*The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level

Based on Table 12, it can be concluded that the highest mean difference is “good” compared to “unsatisfactorily” (mean diff.= 12.50000, sig.= 0.00) and the mean difference between “good” and “need improvement” (mean diff.= 10.25000, sig.=0.00) is the second highest while “good” is higher than “fairly good” (mean diff.= 8.39286, sig.=0.005). Therefore, it is clearly stated that most of the students achieved “good” for mean Part B compared to overall speaking performance. Thirdly, the analysis of ANOVA had shown that the Mean for Part C is significant with the overall speaking performance. The following is the details:

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

Table 13: ANOVA for mean C Overall speaking performance

Between Groups Within Groups Total

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

611.050 518.417 1129.467

3 26 29

203.683 19.939

10.215

Sig. .000

*(p<0.05)

Based on Table 13, it shows that F= 10.215 and Sig. value= 0.00. Thus, the researcher can make conclusion based on Sig.Ë&#x201A;0.05 that there is a significant difference between the mean of Part C (Focus Group Discussion) with the overall speaking performance. In order to decide which statement is high and low, the second table (Tukey HSD) is being observed for Mean Part C as follows: Table 14: Multiple comparisons for mean C Dependent Variable: Overall speaking performance Tukey HSD

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Level Upper Lower Bound Bound

(I)Mean B

(J) Mean B

Mean Difference (I-J)

Unsatisfactorily improvement

Need Fairly Good Good

-4.29167 -10.00000 -18.66667

2.80937 2.97688 4.07626

.436 .012 .001

-11.9987 -18.1665 -29.8492

3.4153 -1.8335 -7.4842

Need improvement

Unsatisfactorily Fairly Good Good

4.29167 -5.70833 -14.37500

2.80937 1.86055 3.34899

.436 .024 .001

-3.4153 -10.8124 -23.5624

11.9987 -.6042 -5.1876

Fairly Good

Unsatisfactorily Need improvement Good

10.00000

2.97688 1.86055 3.49070

.012 .024 .086

1.8335 .6042 -18.2428

18.1665 10.8124 .9094

Unsatisfactorily Need improvement Fairly Good

18.66667

4.07626 3.34899 3.49070

.001 .001 .086

7.4842 5.1876 -.9094

29.8492 23.5624 18.2428

Good

5.70833 -8.66667

14.37500 8.66667

*The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level

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Based on Table 14, it can be concluded that the highest mean difference is “good” compared to “unsatisfactorily” (mean diff.= 18.66667, sig.= 0.01) and the mean difference for “good” is higher than “need improvement” (mean diff.= 14.37500, sig.=0.01). Therefore, it is clearly stated that most of the students achieved “good” for mean Part C compared to overall speaking performance. Based on the analysis of the three parts (Part A, Part B and Part C) through ANOVA, it can be concluded that there were increments for all the parts of the post-test for the experimental group. Thus, it revealed that the students have improved themselves in communicating with others during the focus group discussion and they also improved tremendously for their prepared and impromptu speeches. Therefore, this DRA module is really a helpful instructional material for the instructor and the students to conduct appropriate speaking activities in the classroom. The finding supported the Harmer’s (1991) input and output theory and also the input hypothesis of Krashen’s (1983) monitor model in which much inputs had been given to the treatment group, thus they have the chance to practice more and finally performed better in the post-test. Some researchers had identified the effects of applying various activities in the conversation classes (Kim, 2013; Liu, 2013; Wei, 2010; Shrestha, 2013; Oradee, 2012; Noor Eka Chandra, 2008). Oradee (2012) had found out that teaching English speaking skill using three communicative activities (discussion, problem-solving and role-playing) had encouraged interaction among the students in the language classroom which afford opportunities for language practice and focused on the learner-centredness. Oradee (2012) discovered that the pretest mean score was 60.80% and the posttest mean score was 85.63%. Thus, the students’ English speaking abilities after using the three communicative activities were significantly higher than the prior to their use. Furthermore, a study conducted by Kim (2013) also revealed that the students’ English speaking skill were significantly higher after using two communicative activities (information-gap and role-playing). Therefore, the current study had shared the similar findings where the students’ English speaking performance were increased after 15 weeks of using DRA speaking module as the treatment of various speaking activities. The analysis of data of quantitative approach by using the SPSS version 21 had revealed that the DRA module prepared by the researcher had brought

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

a big impact towards the achievement of the TESL teacher trainees in speaking performance. The analysis of the score marks of the pre-test and post-tests had shown that the experimental group outdid the controlled group after fifteen weeks of treatment by using the DRA module. The module evaluation revealed that most of the students agreed that the DRA module had brought an impact towards their achievement in speaking performance. Thus, the quantitative analysis supported by the qualitative findings (interview) had proven that students should be given sufficient activities in order to achieve better results in speaking performance.

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RECOMMENDATIONS The study recommended some suggestions to provide clear view of the future undertaking regarding the communicative approach especially the speaking skill. DRA Speaking Module It is suggested that this DRA speaking module should be used as an alternative way to overcome speaking problems among students especially in focusing on the fully speaking activities in the classroom. This module could be a practical handbook for trainers and also teacher trainees because as for trainers, they can use it to help them conduct the lesson of teaching speaking and as for teacher trainees they can use it to adapt some ideas to be used during their practicum session and also for their future teaching. Thus, this DRA speaking module will be published as a handbook for the use of trainers and also teacher trainees all over Malaysia. The need to have such handbook is quite impressed and forcing because most of the books in the market are westernbased compared to Malaysian setting of this handbook. Therefore, it is highly recommended to have such handbook in the Malaysian market. Institutes of Teachers’ Education (ITE) The TESL lecturers should plan more challenging activities in activating the speaking skill among teacher trainees. One of the suggested activity is “Language Outreach” where the TESL teacher trainees should find a remote area and stay there for instance a week and conduct activities mostly on English speaking. The participants of the programme should include the primary school children and the secondary school children as well as the youth of the area. The objective of conducting such programme is to enable the community in that area to feel the ‘more authentic English speaking environment’. Thus, it may increase their motivation. Schools The administrative of the schools can plan activities that promote conducive English surroundings. One of the suggested activity is building up an English Theme Park in the school compound. The school can provide a suitable place

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The Effects of Practicing Communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

whether it is under a big tree or just an open area; the important thing is that the theme park should be utilized to conduct the teaching and learning process. The teachers may put some word cords or pictures and some self-access materials to be used by the students who come to the park. When the teacher brings the students to the park, he or she must conduct any speaking activities to promote the speaking skill. CPD (Continuous Professional Development) The in-service teachers should be given ample inputs regarding the teaching of speaking skill. The State Education Department should plan more training on speaking for TESL teachers due to the lack of sufficient inputs gained by the teachers. One of the activity is conducting weekly English forum in an open hall and each TESL teacher should take turns to involve in this programme. Let’s Talk and Let’s Go Global LET’S TALK AND LET’S GO GLOBAL (Noraien, 2014) is a unique and interesting programme initiated by Assoc. Prof. Dr. Noraien Mansor to enhance English language speaking and communication skills and help students to think on a higher plane. The implementation of this programme is parallel with the aims listed by the Malaysian Ministry of Education to produce valuable students who can communicate effectively in English, locally and globally. This programme covers a range of learning activities through various learning medium and various themes focusing on inculcating moral values, unity, patriotism, culture, entertainment, social media, career and current issues. Let’s Talk with Terengganu FM Another suggested programme to enhance speaking skill is by participating in a live telecast programme. LET’S TALK (Noraien, 2013) is a live programme in Terengganu FM conducted weekly every Saturday for the duration of fortyfive minutes. The aim of this programme is to allow the listeners to give their opinions and to talk briefly as well as bravely on air with the invited celebrity who conducted the programme weekly. The host or invited celebrity for this programme is Associate Professor Dr. Noraien Mansor from Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. During the live telecast, the listeners can call the invited celebrity to share or talk on the topic discussed. This is a very effective speaking skill activity for all levels of listeners to enhance their communication skill. 32

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CONCLUSION This study had revealed some insights of practicing and maintaining the communicative approach especially in teaching the speaking skill where the focus in more on teacher trainees due to the upmost need of producing English competent speakers among the ESL teachers. Consequently, the use of the DRA module as the comprehensible input had provided a better pathway in helping the students to achieve better performance in speaking. Instead of learning the speaking skill formally, the learners could also acquire the target language unconsciously through informal activities that relates to the real life situations. Thus, the implications and the suggestions of the study also give impacts towards the reform of the Malaysian Educational Policy as mentioned in the Malaysian Educational Blueprint 2013-2025. Consequently, the future research will explore more on a larger scale to get more definite results on applying and maintaining the communicative approach in our classroom English language teaching all over the country. In short, it is proven that the DRA speaking module can function as a good media in activating the speaking activities in English lessons. It is also found that the DRA speaking module had given help in increasing the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; speaking performance where they managed to increase their confidence level in themselves and there should be no more stage-fright or high anxiety in delivering a speech in public. In conclusion, balanced activities which emphasise on communicative approach and sees the balance between the components of input and output should maintain the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; continuing interest in the language programme or lesson which is essential ingredient of whatever methodology being chosen (Harmer, 1991). Ultimately, it is hoped that the findings and recommendations suggested in this study will benefit the interest of the researchers, curriculum developer, administrators and educators to maintain communicative approach in enhancing studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; speaking skill.

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The Effects of practicing communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill  

The Effects of practicing communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill

The Effects of practicing communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill  

The Effects of practicing communicative Approach in the Teaching of Speaking Skill