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TOWARDS 2057 Setting the

A

N TIONAL GENDA

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Towards 2057 : Setting the National Agenda First Printing 2009 / Cetakan Pertama 2009 Š 2009 All right reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from Ketua Penerbit UMT, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia. Hak Cipta Terpelihara Š 2009. Tidak dibenarkan mengeluar ulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan isi kandungan buku ini dalam apa juga bentuk dan dengan apa cara sekalipun sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman, atau cara lain sebelum mendapat izin bertulis daripada Ketua Penerbit UMT, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia. Published in Malaysia by / Diterbitkan oleh Penerbit UMT Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu. http://www.umt.edu.my/penerbitumt E-mail: penerbitumt@umt.edu.my

Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia

Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Towards 2057 : setting the national agenda : dimensional for change. ISBN 978-983-2888-97-0 1. Education--Aims and objectives--Malaysia. 2. Education and state--Malaysia. 370.595

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YAB Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia Prime Minister’s Department PUTRAJAYA

Assalamualaikum YAB Dato’ Sri, LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL May YAB Dato’ Sri always be in the grace of Allah SWT as YAB Dato’ Sri continue to lead Malaysia into a greater future. Following to a request by the National Feedback Council, a select group of scholars and experts from Malaysia’s public universities have formulated a document intended to be a source of ideas for inclusion into YAB Dato Sri’s plan and vision of a ONE MALAYSIA onwards to 2057. I feel greatly honoured to submit for YAB Dato Sri’s attention the document entitled “Towards 2057: Setting the National Agenda” and an accompanying report of original inputs and ideas from the different universities and public institutions of higher learning. We are hopeful that the document shall be a useful resource for YAB Dato Sri’s consideration. Thank you. Yours sincerely,

(MOHAMED KHALED NORDIN) Minister of Higher Education Malaysia

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The Main Committee would like to acknowledge the contributions of all the public universities in the formulation of this document as a response to the request of the National Feedback Council. Within a short span of time, the various universities contributed their expertise and sound idea for five specific dimension, Economics and Finance led by UPM, Social and Welfare led by UIAM, Human Security led by UKM, Defence led by UPNM, Sabah and Sarawak Affairs led by UMS/UNIMAS and these committees had worked diligently to produce this document. Special thanks are also due to Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, responsible for putting together all the inputs and coming up with the final coherent document for submission to Y.A.B. Dato’ Sri Mohd. Najib Tun Abdul Razak. We are indebted to all who had contributed in one way or another.

Prof. Dato’ Ir. Dr. Radin Umar Radin Sohadi Director General Department of Higher Education Ministry of Higher Education

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Contents •

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

3

INTRODUCTION

9

ASPIRATIONS FOR ONE MALAYSIA

13

PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES

19

DIMENSIONS FOR CHANGE

27

Dimension 1: Economics and Finance

31

Dimension 2: Social and Welfare

41

Dimension 3: Human Security

53

Dimension 4: National Defence

65

Dimension 5: Sabah and Sarawak Affairs

75

A CALL FOR ACTION

91

New Master Plan for Countryside Development (Pekan Baru)

92

New Socio-Economic Action Plan (NSEAP)

92

Islamic Banking

93

One School System

93

Total Defence

93

Special Attention for Sabah and Sarawak

93

CONCLUSION

94

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY pave way for equal opportunities and accessibility 1. ‘Towards 2057 – Setting the National Agenda’ generates to income generation and wealth accumulation for insights and input from the academic community to ALL. Only then the idea of Malaysians as one nation be forwarded to the new leadership in charting the becomes a reality. position of Malaysia by the year 2057. The focus is on Economics and Finance, Social and Welfare, Human Security, National Defense, and Sabah and Sarawak 6. A stable economy calls for a stable growth in Gross Domestic Product. An increase in output volatility Affairs. would jeopardize the long-term economic prospects. Malaysia must secure market access for exports 2. The wish-list, hopes and expectations on the new through bilateral trade arrangements in order to leadership are genuine expression of Malaysians. reduce GDP volatility and its negative effect on the For someone who will assume his premiership from overall economy. a challenging position and with more baggage than any other new leader, changes cannot be small and 7. The issue of foreign labour needs a quick remedy. incremental. They have to be brave and bold. The government must take stringent measures to curb the free flow of foreign labour. Employment 3. Malaysia aspires that one day all communities will of unskilled foreign workers in many sectors would become ONE MALAYSIA with shared values and erode the competitiveness of the economy and norms, and with a common purpose. It is a nation displace domestic labour. that develops based on balanced and sustainable principles, and strives for broad-based improvement 8. Achieving sovereignty in food is a must for a in the quality of life. developed nation. In order to achieve food security, Malaysia will be self-sufficient in the staple food, rice; 4. We have been less successful in creating ONE and increase production and productivity of fisheries, MALAYSIA. One Malaysia is a citizenry with shared livestock and vegetables. values, norms, and living in relatively close proximity, sharing a common sense of interaction and is concerned with the well-being of all members 9. The issues of race, language, religion, and culture are serious. A new nation demands spectacular of the community. Look around and we will feel educational achievement, social stability, racial the unpleasant atmosphere of divides in many harmony, good cultural practices and righteous dimensions - race relations, politics, religion, culture, religious freedom. and language. The challenge here is to remove the divides and move as one entity, Bangsa Malaysia. 10. Education is a catalyst and leverage for the socio5. The economic imbalances with respect to regions, cultural and economic development and leads to ethnic groups, and sectors should be eliminated to national integration and unity. Education satisfies

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

human needs and enriches their cultural, social, 15. The environment is the casing of the community. economic and political development. Racial Without a sustainable environment, a community polarization and declining status of the Bahasa will not survive. There are many threats and risks Melayu are worrisome. Therefore, Malaysia will have associated with the management of the environment. to develop a single national school system where Management of natural resources is best entrusted primary school students can study under the same to those who make a living from those resources. roof. Communities should be made responsible in the management of adjacent resources. 11. A new vision for 21st century education is needed — we will re­cruit, retain, and reward good teachers; 16. Human security places human beings as the focal parents are responsible for their children’s success; point. It includes safety from threats such as hunger, our schools and universities are accountable for disease and repression, and protection from sudden results; students are excited to learn because they’re and harmful disruptions in daily life. Economic, attending schools and universities of the future. We community, health and environmental securities expect all our chil­dren to finish schooling and graduate are also considered. The goal is the sustainability of from universities and get good paying jobs. human well-being. 12. Our children must be provided with good education 17. The rural areas in Malaysia must be given a new in academic and human skills so that they are able to face. New kinds of activities must be carried out. The stand tall amongst citizens of developed nations and countryside communities must be empowered to the world community. chart their own future. Active community participation is the key in building an empowered community. 13. Public safety relates to the most fundamental Complacency is a sin. human rights—the right to life. Citizens must be protected from danger, injury, harm, or damage. 18. Malaysia is a confederation of 13 states with Policies, laws and regulations need to be strengthened centralized power in education, military, health, and reinforced. Public safety must be guaranteed and immigration and state authority over religion, so that Malaysia will become a peaceful country, land and natural resources. The current concept of complies with human right principles, imbibed with federation is not a perfect union of the states with civic consciousness and free from serious social, overlaps of power. A new, fair, and better concept of economic, environmental and business crimes. Federalism is needed. 14. Democratization has arrived. The majority is no more 19. New and diverse security challenges of the 21st century concerned about who governs this country. All they call for a Total Defense Concept with the military being want is a government who believe in the ideals that incorporated as one of the key national institutions for the founders of this nation thought were a solid basis nation building. The adoption of this concept enables for a better future for all. They want leaders who get the nation to formulate a more comprehensive and on with what needs to be done as a government of coordinated defense and security policy, and create a the people, by the people, and for the people. more resilient nation.

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Executive Summary

20. A call for action implores for drastic changes; impactis maximized; many problems are solved simultaneously; synergism is high; and benefits a large number of beneficiaries. The rural areas should be revitalized; a new NEP is envisioned, flexible one-school system supported, Islamic economic finance expanded, and food security achieved. 21. The situation in Sabah and Sarawak is unique compared to the states in Peninsular Malaysia. The historical culture of Sabah and Sarawak has to be taken into consideration in preparing for the future of Malaysia as we move towards 2057. The issues related to security, poverty and federalism should be resolved.

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INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

T

he National Feedback Council has initiated ‘Towards 2057 – Setting the National Agenda’ project, which is a study on the wish-list, hopes and expectations of Malaysians on the new leadership. This project is undertaken in conjunction with the upcoming ascendancy of Dato’ Seri Mohd. Najib Tun Abdul Razak as the new Prime Minister of Malaysia in March 2009. The main purpose of the project is to generate insights and input from Malaysians of various backgrounds to be forwarded to the new leadership for consideration in charting the future direction of the country. The Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) is responsible for generating feedback from the academics. A series of meetings were held among the Vice Chancellors and other parties, which form

the main Task Force to outline the approach and strategy in undertaking this task. The Task Force consisted five sub-committees, which were responsible for generating insights on five respective areas namely Economics and Finance (UPM), Social and Welfare (IIUM), Human Security (UKM), National Defence (UPNM), and Sabah and Sarawak Affairs (Unimas and UMS). Consequently, UMT was given the challenging task to collate, edit and pull together a coherent final document for submission to the Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE). The outcome of this project, which is a document consisting of a wish-list, hopes and expectations of Malaysians on the new leadership, will be presented to Y.A.B. Dato’ Seri Mohd. Najib bin Tun Abdul Razak.

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ASPIRATIONS FOR

ONE MALAYSIA

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ASPIRATIONS FOR ONE MALAYSIA

I

n the year 2057, all Malaysians will hopefully celebrate the centennial independence of the country in a vibrant mood. What kind of a scenario might the country be in? This section depicts a scenario about the future of Malaysia in the next fifty years or up to 2057.

habitat, preserving the ecosystems, creating a green Malaysia, practicing sustainable agriculture, reducing the harmful gas emission and, finally, inculcating what we call a strategic knowledge platform for preventing global warming.

The government will ensure that rural areas will be fully After 100 years of independence, we aspire to witness developed by the year 2057. The whole country will Malaysia as an independent nation, which is truly free have proper infrastructure and public amenities that from the dominance of other countries. We ought are comparable with other developed nations. Dynamic to strive to rely on our own innovations and be less rural development strategies and programmes will be in dependent on American technology, Japanese work place and the Government will give top priority to capital culture, British administrative system or any other foreign funding for farmers to create value-added enterprises. influences. Our political system is stable and we practice Farmers will establish small businesses and this will at the matured democracy. Our vision will enable our children same time eradicate poverty in rural areas. Consequently, to compete and be able to stand tall amongst citizens of the nation will have the highest level of indicators of developed nations and the world community. human development in the region, such as literacy and education rates, maternal and infant mortality rates, life The new Malaysia will be built on the nation’s strength expectancy and other health indicators. to trigger a development process, which ensures broadbased improvement in the quality of life of the populace. In While rural development will focus on economic growth, order to avoid negative impact of development, projects the aspect of non-formal education to change the will be planned based on the concept of a balanced and attitude and behaviour of rural populations will also be sustainable development. The country will look for other emphasised. The rural sector will be modernised, rural sources of energy, other than hydrocarbon. The country families will be strengthened and adequate amenities will calls for improved energy efficiency and expansion of be provided till they are on par with the urban dwellers. renewable and nuclear energy sources. Development The hallmark of a modernised rural area is a situation in Malaysia will promote growth and conservation when the population would prefer to stay in their villages, which includes conserving water, creating a sustainable thus reducing the rural-urban migration.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

In the urban areas, small towns and traditional villages, communities will have an integrated plan for building a resilient society. This plan will provide a systematic layout of areas allocated for work, living and recreation. Public money will be spent on efficient public utilities, goods and services. Workers will be technically educated and have a say in the management. No one will drop out of the society and there will be an easy mobility of classes because the opportunities are abundant. Variety and differences will be encouraged and there is pride in the nation. Racial integration will be achieved and, at the same time, there will be racial equality under the law. These communities will represent a model of a matured democratic society where democracy is practiced at all levels, starting from the JKKK or Jawatankuasa Taman Perumahan, up to City Councils and State Assemblies. A person will seek public office only because he or she desires to serve for the good of the rakyat. Ultimately, all communities in Malaysia will become one community or one Malaysia. One Malaysia constitutes a group of people with shared values, norms, and lives in relatively-close proximity, shares a common sense of interaction and concerned with the well-being of all members of the community. We need to take the best from each culture. One should emulate the spiritual strength of the Malays, follow the work ethics of the Chinese, inculcate the articulate skills of the Indians, and marvel at the high religious and cultural tolerance of the communities in Sabah and Sarawak. These are the desirable traits required as ingredients for a respected Malaysia. The focus here is to maximise on cumulative

strength. In so doing, the weaknesses will be minimised. Moreover, one cannot impose one’s culture onto another ethnic group. All these aspirations can only be achieved if the government remains strong and maintains an efficient delivery system. The nation must have a transparent delivery system so that the public can understand how the government governs and has trust that the tax dollars are well spent. Our nation will have clean government at all levels, wasteful spending will be cut, and excellent services without inefficient bureaucracy will be provided at all levels. Those who manage public dollars will have to be accountable. Therefore, the politicians and government servants will have to fulfill the needs of the public. The government will also listen to the unusual and unpopular opinions. The government will also encourage the NGOs, including those foreign based, to become partners in development. The NGO will complement the government machineries, and also, with the help of volunteers, deliver services to the public in a more effective manner. Malaysia is a confederation of 13 states with parliamentary democracy. The federal government holds considerable power in areas of national concern, such as education, the military, health, and immigration. State Governments have authority over matters such as religion, land and natural resources. Our concept of federation is not a perfect union of the states. There are many overlaps of power between the state and local authorities with the Federal Government. As we progress towards the

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Aspirations for One Malaysia

year 2057, state authority and federal power will be reorganised and coordinated so that a new, fair, and better concept of Federalism emerges. Education will act as a catalyst and leverage for the sociocultural and economic development and for achieving the goal of national integration and unity. Therefore, Malaysia will have to develop a single national school system where primary school students can study under the same roof, unlike the present system. This can only be done by devoting certain portions of the school hours to the national curriculum in the national language and other portions to subjects from children’s culture, mother tongue (other than the Malay language) and traditions. This would require a single school session. For a start, the idea will be piloted first with the existing Vision schools. Public safety relates to the most fundamental aspect of human right that is the right to life. In addressing public safety issue, the government will maintain its focus to restore public confidence in the police force, to revitalise Rukun Tetangga, reactivates Rakan Cop, reinforces drug prevention, and gives attention to the marginalised groups such as Indians, Orang Asli and others. Hence, Malaysia will be a peaceful country, complying with human right principles, imbibed with civic consciousness and free from serious social, economic, environmental and business crimes. As Malaysia progresses towards the year 2057, Economics and Finance remains as the most important component that will shape the health of the country. We aspire that

Malaysia will have fair-trading arrangements with other countries and will open the gate for the free flow of goods and services from outside. Malaysia should secure market access for exports through bilateral trade arrangements in order to reduce GDP volatility. Malaysia will be in the top 10 largest-trading nations in the world. To realise this long-term goal, our manufacturers must be efficient and able to compete at the global level. Consequently, Malaysian companies will be allocated enough funds to conduct research and develop new technology and innovations. Many developed nations spend more than 3% of their GDP for R&D to develop strong manufacturing and agriculture-based (high value added) products and to enhance global competition. Malaysia should also target the same portion of its GDP for R&D. Malaysia will lead the world in creating new advanced products related to wood, rubber, oil palm, tin, electronic chips, home accessories, biotech products, certain food products such as tropical fruits, aquaculture and maritime products. To promote local industry in these areas, the Government will offer guarantee-backed loans to potentially viable small and medium-size enterprises. Malaysia will adopt the Islamic economic model, Islamic Banking System and create an ethical economy with rapid growth to ensure prosperity to every sector in our society. All institutions backstopping the Islamic finance like security markets, investment banks and equity agencies will perform those functions in accordance with the Syariah requirements comprehensively and interactively. The country will become the international centre for Gold dinar, Islamic bonds and halal products.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

The government will also liberalize the service sector under the AFTA, allowing up to 70 % (foreign) equity in the year 2015.

As a sovereign nation, Malaysia places premium emphasis on having a credible and solid National Defense Policy. It will continue to be a peace-loving nation that believes in promoting global and regional peace and stability. Achieving sovereignty in food is a must for a developed Our defense policy will be closely linked with our foreign nation. In order to achieve food security, Malaysia will policy and diplomacy. Our armed forces will be seen as be self-sufficient in the staple food, rice, and increase a credible force, capable of defending the nation and production and productivity of other food products. acting as a credible deterrent to would-be aggressors. Strategically we will continue our military cooperation The economic gap or income inequality among the races with our neighbors and other relevant parties to shall be eliminated by the year 2057. The income growth address common security issues and as part of regional for the Malays needs to be at an annual rate of 11% (with confidence-building measure. others remaining at 8%) for them to be able to catch up with other races by the year 2020. After year 2020, the The above scenario is possible to achieve within the income amongst the races should be the same. Therefore, next 50 years. The achievement however will depend the NEP needs to be continued or an improved version of on the steps taken now by the present government. NEP be put in place to ensure income disparities between Why is this so? Malaysia is now 51 years old and has races is eliminated. achieved an enviable growth; from an agriculture-based economy to an industry-based society. Malaysia has As the nation moves toward achieving the developed entered the 9th Malaysia Plan period (2005-2010) and has nation status, it will not neglect Human Security. Human achieved impressive record of growth in every sector of security encompasses three dimensions: economic, development. Malaysia can now grow and develop as a community, and environmental. Community security will nation using its own strengths and create its own model be achieved through the creation of “One Malaysia.� The of successful development as depicted in the above environment is the casing of the community. Without a scenario. Thus, it is timely for Malaysia to measure the sustainable environment, a community will not survive. pulse of the country, and take necessary steps towards Therefore, Malaysia will preserve its environment using creating pragmatic goals in order to ensure the wellthe concept of sustainable development. Healthcare is being of the country by 2057. fast becoming a priority public issue. Malaysians must be healthy in order to be productive. The long-term solution to the high cost for healthcare financing lies in the provision of personalised healthcare for all.

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PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES

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PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES INTRODUCTION

M

alaysia is facing many problems in all aspects of life. Suffice it is to say that if the problems of the last 5 years are lumped together they surpass those of the previous 50 years. Discussion of higher order may not reflect the reality. So let us hear what the grassroots have to say: • “I wish Malaysia to be a place where we can live and prosper in a manner that is economically secure, environmentally sound, and personally fulfilling”. • “We need a Government that looks out for its people. One that listens and doesn’t simply bulldoze its way using the punitive powers of the state to get its way. A leadership class that can put forward a progressive and inclusive agenda rather than resorting to stirring up communal sentiments when the going gets tough”. • “In 2008 the price of rice tripled within 2 months. My monthly budget on food went haywire. At the same time the price of petrol increased by 40% followed by the increase in prices of almost all commodities. How can I survive on RM 1, 500 per month with five mouths to be fed?”

• An elderly Orang Asli man in Pekan – who, year by year, realises that he has to go farther and farther in the mangrove forest to look for crabs. His back aches but his heart aches even more from the fear that failure will expose himself and his children to hunger, thirst and disease. “What has happened to our environment?” • “We are afraid that our traditional livelihood will very soon come to an end,” said a member of a fishermen community in Kemaman. The community has become so marginalised that they are not even visible. These days, harvest volume is small due to the seas being so polluted. “Fishermen are a neglected community. We are marginalised politically, socially and economically, and are treated like scheduled castes”. • “I am a senior citizen and my pension is only RM700 per month. I am already old and too tired to do any job. My children are all married and earn just enough to take care of their families. I worked for 30 years in the government but I could save only a little”. • “My family is moving from our current home as we cannot stand the noise made by the “Mat Rempits” who conduct their motorcycling stunts every

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night from 1a.m. till dawn. These young kids are a nuisance to the public. Even the police have given up hope. Development has led many youths to have unrealisable aspirations, which are unachievable, compelling them to take on criminal activities to accomplish their objectives”.

The above statements came from the hearts of wide segments of the Malaysian population – the ordinary family head, the marginalised communities, the senior citizens, the fresh graduates, the fearful potential crime victims, the educated and successful urban dwellers, and many others. Some are just concerned about getting on with their daily lives but some are more concerned about • “I fear for the safety of my daughters with the the environment, future race relations and governance. increasing cases of lunatics and psychopaths who What do we do about these voices? pounce on their helpless victims. How much longer can a civil society tolerate this phenomenon?” CRITICAL ISSUES • “I am a parent and also a teacher. I don’t even know The following discussion addresses the problems and where to send my children – the Chinese school or challenges facing the country in several important the single national school system”. dimensions – economics, social, political, environmental, human security, and national defense. More importantly, • “Our horizon is littered by countless non-beneficial the discussion of issues and challenges are cast in projects across the country - projects that may have meeting the aspirations for One Malaysia as deliberated seemed like a good idea at the time only to languish in the previous topic. and fade over the years as the initial enthusiasm for their construction disappeared. Some remain as 1. Economics white elephants”. • “Race relations are something that comes naturally and cannot be forced. Cultivating mutual understanding and genuine respect is the best way to achieve enduring relations between Malaysians of different ethnic descent. This can only be achieved if Malaysians see each other primarily as individuals and discard the racial stereotypes”.

The economic imbalance should be addressed. Economic imbalances refer broadly to unequal distribution of the nation’s wealth between regions (regional imbalance), ethnics (racial imbalance) and sectors (rural-urban imbalance, and agriculture, manufacturing and service imbalances). The existence of gaps between developed and less-developed regions, Malays and non-Malays, agriculture and the modern sectors gives rise to differences in economic growth, opportunities and accessibility to income generation and wealth accumulation. Differences

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Problems and Challenges

would breed dissatisfaction, mistrust, conflict and other negative threats that are totally in disagreement with the idea of Malaysia as one nation. The existing regional growth centre; Northern Corridor, the East Coast Economic Region and the Iskandar Development Region are the architects for this purpose.

many dimensions - race relations, religion, culture, and language. The challenge here is to remove the divides and move as one entity, Bangsa Malaysia.

As far as social and welfare considerations of the Malaysian population are concerned, two issues stand out. One is the lack of a sense of belonging, which is important in creating ONE MALAYSIA. The other is the lacklustre economy of the rural areas, which in turn make poverty a sore point in our otherwise successful story.

At the grass roots level, rural communities themselves need to develop a vision for their future. Leadership within the rural communities must be enhanced to mobilise the rural community (with low human, social, financial, and physical capitals) to prepare themselves for a better future. How do we reinforce leadership within the rural community and ensure that the leaders are part of the decision-making processes (bottom up approach)? What mechanisms need to be in place to ensure the development of leadership within and among rural communities? What changes are needed? What are the obstacles and challenges to effecting change? What are the enablers of change?

The rural population would continue to move out if there is lack of economic opportunities. The challenge is to create a vibrant rural environment. How do we create Another economic issue of glaring importance is the opportunities in the rural areas so that the economically issue of foreign labour. The Malaysian government has active and youth want to remain intact and be able to taken stringent standard measures to curb foreign labour pursue a sustainable livelihood? How do we preserve the especially with the approach of recession. The issue existing rural communities and promote diversification held by economists is that the employment of unskilled and growth? Of course the government has invested foreign workers in the construction, home service, small immensely in developing the rural areas but the increase enterprises, small businesses and agriculture sector in income has not been significant. This means that erodes the competitiveness of the industries and thus the basic ingredients (asset holding and influence, the economy. limited economic and social opportunities, limited communication, and lack of innovation and risk taking) are still prevalent in causing poverty in rural areas. 2. Social and Welfare

We have been less successful in creating ONE MALAYSIA. One Malaysia is a group of people with shared values, norms, and living in relatively close proximity, sharing a common sense of interaction and concerned with the well-being of all members of the community. Look around and we will feel the unpleasant atmosphere of divides in

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Lastly, we must admit that complacency syndrome is rampant among the Malays, especially in the rural setting.

3. Politics Leaders often fail to perceive the real needs of the masses. They also fail to admit reality and often demonstrate a denial syndrome. The major complain revolves around the lack of good governance; and weaknesses in administering proper checks and balance through the Monarchy, Legislature, Judiciary and the Executive systems. Communal-based politics has become active with the rhetoric of politicians that has certainly created racial tension. With the democratisation that took root since the 1999 general election, the majority is no more concerned about who governs this country. All they want is a government who believes in the ideals that the founders of this nation thought were a solid basis for a better future for all Malaysians. They want leaders who get on with what needs to be done as a government of the people, by the people, and for the people. They want the respect that each and every one of them is entitled to as a citizen. After five decades of independence, the fighting spirit of the population has been derailed and blurred. After 50 years of independence, communal politics has taken over the novel spirit of achieving freedom from foreign dominance. In the next 50 years, Malaysia should not continue to grapple with its inter-religious and interethnic cooperation (and conflict).

4. Environment The Climate Change Performance Index ranked Malaysia in the bottom 10 of the list alongside big greenhouse gas polluters (USA, Australia, Canada and Saudi Arabia). As we look deeply into the question of how to make a better Malaysia, every direction leads to one essential fact: most of our current activities are not sustainable. In spite of some efforts for resource conservation including recycling, the end result falls far short of sustainability. In our current market dynamics and resource utilisation, we are in danger. The fish population has sharply declined, freshwater scarcity has already occurred, climate change has intensified, and the loss of biodiversity has been recorded. This planet earth is very old. In the beginning, there were abundant natural resources and an extremely small human population. Today, in Malaysia the natural resources are dwindling in quantity and quality but the human population is increasing. The tendency of humans to be deeply anthropocentric in treating nature is creating a big problem to the planet earth today. And that includes Malaysia. Damages to the environment are on all fronts – the sea, land, atmosphere, and underground. The fundamental base of sustainability for any society is the economy, environment and social. Sustainability is only achieved if the three elements are fully integrated - sustainable and equitable economy; sustainable and liveable environment; and equitable and liveable society. Poverty eradication is important as the poor tends

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Problems and Challenges

to destroy the environment out of desperation; high quality of life may not necessarily lead to sustainability if the carrying capacity is exceeded; and environment continues to degrade and conservation fails if legitimacy and community participation and support are weak.

fronts, mainly the defence of the country where the military will play the leading role, and the maintenance of internal security where the military will play a very prominent and crucial supporting role.

Globally, the threat of armed conflicts - whether interExperience elsewhere has shown that management of state or intra-state, will continue to feature prominently natural resources is best entrusted to those who make in the world’s security scenario. The scenario will become a living from those resources. How do we increase more muddled with the emergence of new security public awareness towards the environment? What is the trends that will further complicate the process of appropriate role of communities in the management of resolving these problems. The increasing involvement of adjacent resources? non-state actors in conflicts and the prominent role that technology plays in warfare are among such trends that need to be carefully monitored. Regionally, we need to 5. Human Security continually monitor all the existing potential flash points Human security is concerned with the protection of that could undermine the security of the country and the individuals and places human beings as the focal point region. of security considerations. It includes safety from chronic threats such as hunger, disease, and repression as well as At global level most of the conflicts in question, due to protection from sudden and harmful disruptions in the their distant geographical location may not have direct pattern of daily life. The concept also includes economic, and immediate effect on Malaysia. At regional level, health and environmental concerns, and physical security Malaysia is confident that the spirit of ASEAN will see to of the individual. Ultimately, the goal is the sustainability it that all these issues will be amicably resolved through of human well-being (Kesejahteraan Insan). The three diplomatic and other channels. dimensions that need critical attention for the next 50 The close and almost inter-twining relation between years are Community, Environment, and Health. defence and security prompts us to take a look at the handling of the various non-traditional security issues 6. National Defence that affect the country particularly those that could The primary role of the military is to defend the nation potentially deteriorate and become traditional security and its strategic interests from external threats. National problems. A holistic and coordinated approach towards security in its traditional sense focuses on two major security may be needed towards this end.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

T CONCLUSION

he problems and challenges faced by Malaysians as depicted above would pose a major hindrance to the realisation of the national aspirations as described earlier. The only hope is that a mix of common traits will emerge within the population – a desire to remain united, peace-loving, close race relations, and political maturity - failing which our aspirations will not be achieved. The present realities clearly indicate that Malaysia faces threats in various forms, resulting from divisiveness among Malaysians, state of the environment, population increase, political changes and globalisation. The present realities require us to think seriously about the state of our people’s future well-being. Despite the opportunities for development, there are risks, threats and challenges that must be addressed. At the same time, there are opportunities to be seized in shaping the future towards 2057.

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DIMENSIONS FOR CHANGE

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DIMENSIONS FOR CHANGE

B INTRODUCTION

ased on the perceived gap that exist between what is aspired and the situation that we are in, we have to change. We have to think hard on the dimensions for change. Dimensions mean options, opportunities, the means, the routes, and depth of change that are possible and realistic. As Malaysia progresses towards the year 2057, five dimensions for change are considered – Economics and Finance; Social and Welfare, Human Security; National Defence; and Sabah and Sarawak Affairs.

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DIMENSION 1

ECONOMICS AND FINANCE

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DIMENSION 1: ECONOMICS AND FINANCE ISSUES 1. THE 2008 FINANCIAL CRISIS

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he financial turmoil which started in an advanced economy is stipulated to be at risk to Malaysia due to the current economic instability. A sharp fall in the stock market has mounted investors’ concern about the medium-term future recession. A drop of about 40% in portfolio value from its peak in 2007 is expected to slow down the economy and it will only pick up by 2010. Inflation will be at its lowest level of 2.4% in 2010. • A large current account surplus is forecasted for the near future although some concern of the budget deficits is escalating in the coming years. The impact of the crisis on macroeconomic variables is discussed below: •

Aggregate Output. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth is one of the primary indicators used to gauge the economic recession. Malaysia has experienced an above-average GDP growth rate for over three decades. The annual average GDP growth rate was between 6.5% and 8.8% in the 1960s, averaging 8% in the 1970s, and has been among the fastest-growing world economies in the mid-1980. Between the period 2002 to 2008, growth rates averaged about 5.5%, compared • to that of the world economy which was around

3-4% for the same period. The concern aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis is the expected increase in output volatility. Securing market access for exports through bilateral trade arrangements can reduce GDP volatility and its negative effect on the economy. Current Account. A persistent current account deficit of 5% or more of the GDP is usually regarded as a signal for an approaching crisis. Malaysia’s current account had been in deficit since 1987, and increased markedly during the early and mid-1990s due to foreign borrowing. The external deficits for Malaysia widened to 10% of GDP (1995) and 8% of GDP (1997). A surplus current account equivalent to about 14% of GDP was recorded in 1998. The surpluses of 1999 to 2008 were brought about directly by a reduction in foreign investments. Malaysia had little difficulty in the past in smoothing consumption through borrowing and lending during events involving exogenous shocks. Budget Deficit. A large and growing deficit could worsen the current account and appreciate real

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

exchange rate. A fiscal balance budget is one of the core requirements for a stable macroeconomic environment. Malaysia enters the current crisis with a sizable fiscal deficit (5-6% of GDP). Given the sound public debt position (10% GDP in 2009) and the current condition, there is some scope for additional fiscal stimulus to jump start the Malaysian economy. •

more efforts would be needed to encourage private investment once the economy turns around. •

Inflation and Unemployment. Inflation growth nexus is detrimental to economic condition. Policy measures aimed at lowering inflation tend to reduce the negative consequence on real economic activities because high inflation is associated with slower growth. Malaysia experienced low inflation rate (<4% over the past 18 years) except for, 199192, in 1998 during the Asian financial crisis and in 2008 during the recent oil price shocks. Layoff and • wage cuts have started to take place in the labor market. Unemployment record shows that more than 10,000 Malaysians have lost their jobs during the first month of 2009. The figure is stipulated to rise in months ahead, particularly in the manufacturing sector. Investment. Malaysia, like the other East Asian countries, is characterized by very high rates of investment in the past three decades. The impact of public investment is larger than private investment for the case of Malaysia. Public investments will be an important variable in stimulating investment in light of the current economic downturn. However,

Trade Flows. Malaysia’s economic growth has been widely attributed to rapid growth in the international trade. The net export has increased substantially since 1990s. Bank Nagara Malaysia reported a current account surplus of 15.8% of GNI in 2000 that was supported by a substantially large trade surplus for the year (BNM Annual Report 2007). There is no evidence of declining exports and imports. In fact, trade surplus is growing. As the crisis is on-going the current trend may discontinue in the future. Malaysia is more resilient compared to the other emerging markets but the situation may change if the global economies worsen. Stock Market. The crisis in the 1990s led to the sharp fall in the KLSE index to 400 points lower than the current crisis (>800 points). Most observers are unsure how long the market will recover from the recent shocks as the world economy has no sign of recovery. Malaysia enters the current global financial crisis with much strength. Debt is better managed than at the time of the Asian crisis and the current exchange rate regime makes it easier to partially absorb shocks through exchange rate adjustments.

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Dimension 1 Economics and Finance

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Islamic finance industry has evolved from being faith-based to a business driven. Islamic finance as a demand driven industry which does not only steer clears of usury but also emphasising on ethical values. Given the recent development of financial world crisis, Islamic finance has continued to be viable and competitive. The future looks bright for the Islamic finance with greater participation of conventional player globally that provides security, liquidity and diversity needed for a globally accepted financial system which would be a genuine alternative to the present international financial system. Islamic finance is envisaged to contribute towards unlocking new potentials that would bring mutual benefits, and in doing so, enhance our overall prospects. However the industry needs to improve transparency and foster credibility by harmonising standards and practicesâ&#x20AC;?. Mohd. Najib Tun Abdul Razak

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

2. THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP) The NEP was designed to be a long-term solution to the problem at hand. Its mission was to correct the racial imbalance. Its philosophy was wealth redistribution in an expanding economy. Its objectives were to eradicate poverty and to restructure society so that race identification by jobs will be erased and income disparity will be narrowed. The strategies were to provide assistance, privileges and preferences to the Malays and Bumiputeras to be at par with other races in economic and social well-being.

promoting profit and loss sharing (PLS) as an alternative. An Islamic bank conducts its operations in accordance with Syariah principles and earns revenues and incurs expenses through PLS. A Syariah Committee is required to be set up in the bank to provide advice on Syariah related issues. In addition, the Syariah Advisory Council set up at Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) is the highest Syariah authority to provide advice on the Syariah matters pertaining to Islamic banking in Malaysia. Recognized as an Islamic banking hub for the East, Malaysia becomes the leader in Islamic financial institutions which operate in more than 75 countries worldwide. To ensure its sustainability Islamic banking faces several challenges. Three major issues are addressed in Islamic banking before its system can be fully operational and globally accepted across countries.

The issue of income disparity among the major ethnic groups is largely unsolved. The NEP needs to be continued or the improved version of a similar policy should be substituted to ensure long-term stability and national unity. A drastic change in income growth • of the Malays, Indians and the poor Chinese cannot be disregarded as it will contribute in no small measure to the political, economic and social stability. Improvement in racial imbalance in the economy is partly responsible for the inter-ethnic peace that Malaysia has enjoyed since the NEP. It remains one of the few countries in the world whereby affirmative action as a policy has succeeded to a certain degree that contributes to the functioning of democracy in Malaysia. 3. ISLAMIC BANKING The most important departure of Islamic banking from conventional banking is the prohibition of ‘riba’ and

Operating Commercial Banking in Islamic Framework. First, losses incurred on mudarabah deposits due to the absence of guaranteed positive return on deposit might diminish voluntary depositors.

Second, murabahah financing uses fixed rate that could lead to excessive loan default. Murabahah loan financing permits a higher sales price than cash sales, and a high risk asset of murabahah loans. Banks cannot charge extra profit in case of default since it is regarded as ‘riba’. Third, offering consumer credit is very costly and risky and Islamic banks may have difficulty to cover the cost of operations. Fourth, government borrowing remains a problem since Islamic banks could not find the sources of fund and the high cost of this type of loan.

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Dimension 1 Economics and Finance

Challenges of Practicing Equity-based Financing. universal standard regarding this issue are urgently The future of Islamic banks depends heavily on its needed for the long term survival of Malaysian ability to find a viable alternative to interest-based Islamic banks in the global market. financing. The ability of Islamic banking to present a viable alternative to the interest-based banking 4. FOOD SECURITY has been only partial and they have to go beyond conventional banking framework. Agriculture can be one of the future engines of economic growth for the vast opportunities of biotechnology are Challenges of Sustaining Islamic Financial yet to be tapped. A revolution of retailing agriculture Institutions in the Global Market. First, building products provides opportunities for retooling old farming proper institutional set-up is the most serious techniques to new and sustainable methods. Developing challenge for Islamic finance. Islamic banks alone agriculture entails human resource development, poverty cannot accommodate all requirements of financial eradication and economic growth. A fraction of the institutions. There is an urgent need for a few Malaysian population comprises the unemployed and mutual supporting institutions like security markets, unskilled income earners. Financial crisis is mostly felt by investments banks and equity institutions (mutual these segments of the population. Their incomes during fund, pension fund etc.) to perform those functions the crisis might fall below the poverty line. They are most in an Islamic way efficiently. Second, increasing the vulnerable to a rise in food prices and if a prolong crisis bank’s operational size to obtain optimal mix and were to persist their consumption would be diminished. scale of outputs is a challenge. A larger capital base Issues in Malaysian Agriculture are presented as follows: could have positive credit rating as it represents the shareholders’ obligation. Larger banks are • Decline of Agriculture. Under the 9thMP, the more capable to minimize risk through portfolio targeted growth for the agriculture sector was 5% diversification. This becomes crucial when a bank but as of 2007, the achieved rate was 3.8%. The target wishes to raise additional capital to finance its of making agriculture as the third engine of growth excessive demand for loan. Hence, it is desirable that did not materialize. The slow growth of agriculture the size of Islamic banks be substantially increased was not avertable as economic forces were at work, either by merging or forming strategic alliances. to direct resources to sectors that give higher returns. Third, the acceptance of Malaysian Islamic banking Shrinking arable lands, stiff competition with other products is a problem in other Muslim countries sectors and a lapse of government commitment especially in the Middle East due to different views (in late 1990s) made agriculture less favorable. The and schools of thought. Steps to standardize the public development expenditure on agriculture

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

had declined significantly from 17% (1990) to 3.8% ACTION PLAN FOR ECONOMICS AND (2007). Progress made in the agriculture productivity FINANCE and R&D has been relatively slow partly due to less successful research in post harvest losses. The average yield of paddy has not improved beyond 4 tonnes 1. THE 2008 FINANCIAL CRISIS per hectare; rubber tapping and palm oil harvesting • Collusion between the commercial banks, the are still manual and phyto-sanitary requirements on investment banks and the insurance companies some of the local fruit exports are not met. Agriculture should be regulated so as to safeguard the interest R&D has emphasized more on production rather than of market participants and investors. post-production and global marketing. • Capital regulations, accounting rules and other regulatory regimes should be checked to ensure • Food Self-sufficiency and Food Security. Selfthat they do not induce excessive pro-cyclicality sufficiency in rice reached its peak in 1975 when in the financial system and the real economy. Malaysia was able to secure 95% of its domestic Financial firms whose failure would pose a production. By 2005 onwards it had been reduced to systematic risk must accept close regulatory 72%. Besides rice Malaysia has to import substantially scrutiny. for dairy products, beef and mutton and to some • Government should guarantee loans to finance extent fishery products. A Food Security Plan has been promising investment projects, especially to small drawn to increase food production and productivity and medium enterprises that otherwise may have in order to achieve food self sufficiency. Four major envisaged very limited access to bank credit. The commodities that are considered strategic to food dynamic income effect generated by additional security are rice, fisheries, livestock and vegetables. investments should be investigated. • Strong and growing domestic demand in China • Balance of Trade Plan for Food. Malaysia has been and India provides cushion for the regional a net importer of food including rice in the last four exports. More efforts to increase regional financial decades. The deficit of food trade has widened from integration would also foster cooperation in terms RM 1 billion (1990) to RM9.7 billion (2007). of crisis prevention and management. • ASEAN member countries should cooperate in order to strengthen the economic policy measures.

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Dimension 1 Economics and Finance

2. THE NEW ECONOMIC POLICY • The Bumiputera income has to increase drastically to achieve income equality including the poorest income earners of major ethnic groups. Strategies that have been proven effective under the NEP must to be continued. • As a leader of integrity the Prime Minister should be indifferent to all races but with a special preference to the Bumiputras. • A minimum wage should be introduced to synchronize private and public sector remunerations. Foreign labor has to be reduced drastically over the next few years. If Malaysians were to be employed in their places they have to be paid much better wages. • Encourage the formation of the Bumiputera Commercial and Industrial Community (BCIC) with greater vigor. Promote the establishment of Bumiputera-Chinese businesses partnerships and provide tax incentives or the like for genuine cooperation. • A general lack of performance and “competitive culture” among Bumiputera students should be alleviated.

3. ISLAMIC BANKING SYSTEM • Syariah counselors are needed in Islamic Banking who must be competent in both fiqh muamalat and conventional banking. There is a pressing need for a systematic training to produce competent Syariah scholars to accommodate the industry. • Syariah laws vary across different countries, notably between the Middle East and Malaysia. The Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) should introduce fatwa to eliminate the existing discrepancy. With experience in Islamic banking, Malaysian scholars should play a dominant role in IFSB. • It is prudent for smaller Islamic banks, including the Malaysian Islamic banks to begin consider consolidation in order to strengthen their operation and become more competitive in multinational arena. • Money market instruments that comply with Syariah are required for short-term money market investments and tools for liquidity management. Most available conventional banking instruments for liquidity management are interest based and therefore not Syariah compliant. • The need for product innovation is of paramount importance. There is currently a lacking of Syariahcompliant banking products that are acceptable by all Islamic banks in different countries.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

• Building proper institutional set-up is the most serious challenge for Islamic finance since Islamic banks alone cannot cater for all institutional requirements such as providing alternative ways of fulfilling the needs of venture capital, consumer finance, short term capital, long term capital, etc. 4. FOOD SELF-SUFFICIENCY AND FOOD SECURITY • Malaysia is too dependent on imported food such as rice, beef, dairy products and food and beverages. Import substitution should be implemented to reduce dependence. Increase food productivity and efficiency to achieve selfsufficiency with efficient technology with optimal allocation of inputs. • Opportunities for biotechnology and advanced technology application should be the main R&D agenda. Mechanization is the solution to high wages and limited land availability. Relying on foreign labor in agriculture may impede agricultural modernization. • Ensure food safety and quality to consumers. Four major commodities are considered strategic to food security and safety: rice, fisheries, livestock and vegetables.

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DIMENSION 2

SOCIAL AND WELFARE

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DIMENSION 2: SOCIAL AND WELFARE

“The true measure of a nation is not found in such cold facts as its size, wealth or population, but in the warmth of the service which its citizens give of their own free will to their fellow men”.

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here are many issues to be considered in the social and welfare sector. The issues are complex given the mix of the population with regard to race, language, religion, and culture. However serious attention must be given to solve these issues in order to build a new nation with spectacular educational achievement, social stability, racial harmony, good cultural practices and righteous religious freedom. The discussion here relates to the more important social and welfare issues that require immediate and effective actions. The social and welfare issues that have been considered in this report are (1) Education, (2) Public safety, (3) Race, religion, culture and values, and (4) Socio-economics. This summary report on social and welfare issues consists of three parts: (1) Introduction, (2) Specific issues discussed in brief and (3) Action plan. The policy recommendations suggested that the Action Plan may not be new to the upcoming leadership, but they will certainly provide new far-reaching objectives and goals. We expect that the implementation of the Action Plan suggested in this report will project the achievement of Vision 2020 and

Tun Abdul Razak Hussein pave the way for the upcoming leadership to evolve greatly as a leader both nationally and internationally.

ISSUES 1. EDUCATION Education is considered as one of the major vehicles for national, socio-cultural and economic development of Malaysia. It is the means for achieving the goal of national integration and unity. Education has been proven to satisfy human needs and enrich their cultural, social, economic and political development. Therefore, the education sector must be given a priority in budget allocation and policy formulation. In Malaysia, educational issues are as follows: • Racial Polarisation in Educational Institutions Racial polarization is common in educational institutions. The enrolment of the national and national-type primary schools in 2006 was not healthy with 98% of the Malay

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

cohort attended the National schools, 94% of the Chinese cohort attended the National-type Chinese Schools and 51% of the Indian cohort attended the National Type Tamil Schools. The number of Chinese Independent High Schools increased from 14 when the Education Act 1961 came in force to 60 today. At the tertiary level, the Chinese forms almost 90% of enrolment in private colleges and universities, Malay and Bumiputra students are dominant in the public universities. Racial polarisation will results in very little interaction and communication between the ethnic groups. The result is poor understanding, respect and unity among the three main ethnic groups. Hence, the root problem or gap has originated due to the persistent absence of heterogeneous primary schools for all the ethnic groups.

• Status of Bahasa Melayu as the National Language The status of the Malay Language as the national language is being threatened with educational policies developed to meet the challenges of globalisation such as English for the Teaching of Mathematics and Science (ETeMS), and English for Science and Technology in the universities.

• Inability of the Core National Primary Schools to Attract Non-Malays The core national primary Malay medium schools have failed to become the premier national school in the country especially at the primary level when parents have a choice of schools for their children. This trend is also happening in the secondary schools and the tertiary • Quality of the National Education System and level where there are also more choices than previously. This does not promise well for the country’s future racial Higher Education The lack of quality among students in schools – whether relationship because it means segregation by choice. perceived or real - is affecting the universities, which The reasons that cause the lack of interest in national and are now also expected to provide them with skills they public educational institutions must be investigated. are supposed to have acquired in basic schooling. The situation is worse for the rural students. Consequently, 2. PUBLIC SAFETY our university students are unreceptive and cannot communicate well. The mentality of studying for the Public safety relates to the most fundamental human examinations instead of exploring talents and potentials rights—the right to life. It involves the prevention of and is prevalent. The university faculty members are also protection from events that could endanger the safety of not competitive and some do not reach the level of the general public from significant danger, injury/harm, competency demanded of academics. Many fail to or damage, such as crimes or disasters (natural or manbecome a model of diligence, communication fluency, made). In the Malaysian Quality of Life 2004, published creativity, analytical and critical ability and innovativeness by the Economic Planning Unit of the Prime Minister’s to the students. Department, the public safety index is measured by

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Dimension 2 Social and Welfare

crimes per thousand population and road accidents per thousand vehicles. While the Malaysian quality of life has increased, there is also a worrying trend of rising crime rate, increase in traffic accidents and also casualties from natural disaster. Generally policies, laws and regulations are adequate to address these issues. Nevertheless, their implementation needs to be strengthened and reinforced. It is therefore a challenge for the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leadership, especially the incoming one, to guarantee public safety to the citizens. The major issues under public security are as follows: â&#x20AC;˘ Crime The crime rate is rising. Incidences of index crime were 121,176 in 1997, and it has increased to 156,455 in 2004. There is also a correlation between economic slowdown and crime rate as the statistics in 1998 and 1999 recorded the highest incidences of crime in the said period (19972004). In the first 10 months of 2008, the rate of crime was 772 per 100,000 populations. Although the number is low compared to other countries, e.g., 1,166 per 10,000 in Hong Kong or 1,569 per 10,000 in Japan, it is a cause of concern. â&#x20AC;˘ Traffic Accidents Malaysian fatal accident rate is comparatively high. Traffic accidents have always been a major problem, especially during the festive seasons. For example, during Ops Sikap XVII between 24/09/2008 and 08/10/2008, there were 15,996 traffic accidents, of which 186 were fatal ones, with 208 deaths. Nevertheless, fatalities due to road accidents reduced considerably from 7.4 per 10,000

registered vehicles in 1990 to 4.9 in 2002 despite the rapid increase in vehicle and driver population, and volumes of traffic. There is also a serious concern regarding the phenomenon of Mat Rempits who pose a danger to the other road users. 3. RACE, RELIGION, CULTURE AND VALUES Religion, race, values and culture together play a paramount role in national unity and progress of the nation. Proper orientation of the issues of religion, race, values and culture would result in strong national unity and create the environment for better understanding, race relations and contribute to the overall development of Malaysia. The government of Malaysia has always been mindful of the importance of these elements in national unity and nation building. The initiation of national culture policy (1971), inculcation of Islamic values into administration policy (IIV 1981/1986), introduction of Islam Hadhari approach (2004) and others, bear witness of the importance of religion, values and culture in national unity. The government under the leadership of Tun Abdul Razak bin Hussein, the 2nd Prime Minister of Malaysia (1969-1976), introduced the (NEP) to cater, among other things, for the eradication of poverty and enhance racial unity through economic function and wealth distribution. Furthermore, with the adoption of Rukunegara, national education policy and national language policy, the government has clearly advanced the cause of national unity, development and progress.

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The inculcation of Islamic Values (IIV) policy initiated under the leadership of Tun Dr. Mahathir aspired towards instilling Islamic values in government administration to ensure that moral values become part and parcel of work environment and culture. This policy emphasised values such as trustworthiness, responsibility, sincerity, dedication, moderation, diligence, cleanliness, discipline, cooperation, integrity and thankfulness.

• Culture and Value-related Issues Greater space for cultural expression and opportunity for cultural relations among the various races are needed. There are also diminishing role values in enhancing development of the moral fabric of the community. Concerns over the cultural rights of various ethnic groups are also growing.

The major issues under race, religion, culture and values are as follows:

• HIV/AIDS The recent and available data published by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia reveal that HIV/AIDS-related diseases and deaths have increased significantly since 1986. While only 3 HIV-infected persons were found to be reported in 1986, the number has significantly increased to 4,549 in 2007. The highest number of HIV-infected persons was reported to be 6,978 in 2002. The interesting and most alarming fact is that more than 80% HIV-infected persons are reported to be male. However, the AIDS and related death cases also follow the similar trend to that of HIV for both male and female.

• Race and Ethnic-related Issues There are increasing trends of politicisation of the Malay status and rights enshrined in the constitution and implied in the NEP. There are challenges of negative impact of Westernisation on Malay identity and heritage (Challenge of detachment from the Malay tradition in favour of Westernisation). Malaysia also faces the challenges of strengthening Bahasa Melayu vis-a-vis other languages (English, Mandarin, Arabic, Tamil). • Religion-related Issues In Malaysia, there are limits to religious freedom as proclaimed by certain groups. Politicisation of religion and undermining of religious co-existence and tolerance are increasing. The lack of proper presentation and teaching of religion leads to tension and discontent. There is also lack of the social impact of the common religious values in disseminating values and dealing with social ills and problems.

4. SOCIO-ECONOMICS

• Incest The rate of incest in Malaysia has been on a continuous rise since 2000. The recent and available data reveal that while 213 incest cases were reported in 2000, the number has significantly increased to 360 in 2007. The issue of incest has to be handled carefully.

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Dimension 2 Social and Welfare

• Domestic Violence The rate of domestic violence in Malaysia has been rising since 2002. In 2002 1,242 domestic violence cases were reported and the number increased to 2,289 in 2007. The issue of domestic violence has to be handled eminently and efficiently. • Rape Cases The rate of rape cases in Malaysia has been on a continuous rise since 2000. A total of 1,217 rape cases were reported in 2000 and the number has significantly increased to 3,098 in 2007. In 2007 the highest number of rape cases was reported in Selangor (562) followed by 473 cases in Johor. The issue of rape cases also deserves an eminent and efficient action from the upcoming government of Malaysia. • Outrage of Modesty Cases The outrage of modesty cases in Malaysia has also been increasing since 2000. The recent and available data reveal that while 1,234 outrage of modesty cases were reported in 2000, the number has significantly increased to 2,243 in 2007. • Increase in Social Ills among Youths There has been an increase in social ills plaguing Malaysian youth today, in particular the Malay masses, the most serious being an increase in juvenile delinquency, drug addiction leading to HIVs and AIDs, and premarital sex. Recent studies revealed that many teenagers are sexually active. There are many factors leading to this social problem and the whole society should play their role in solving this problem.

ACTION PLAN FOR SOCIAL AND WELFARE 1. EDUCATION • Single School National System Develop a single national school system where primary school students study under the same roof unlike the present system. Introduce a component of the religious and cultural traditions of major ethnic groups in the existing school subjects either civics education and moral or Islamic education that emphasizes common, universal values and dispel ethnic prejudices and stereotypes, foster mutual respect and public interest. • Improve Quality of the National Education System o Raise awareness among lecturers and teachers about the changing world especially the impact of globalization on global education system. o Incorporate the 21st Century skills into the curriculum and design the best pedagogy for developing them in all levels of education. Get a panel of experts to revise the curriculum for this purpose. o Recruit some good or reputable foreign professors and teachers to teach in our local universities and schools respectively to provide the model of good academic teaching and research as well as competitiveness and to improve ranking. o Stop the practice of sending our best students

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abroad for their basic degree. We could use the fund for recruiting good instructors from abroad to teach in our universities. Besides, they will help improve our local universities. o Create more technical, vocational, trades, arts and sports schools, polytechnic, and institutions to cater for students with varying interests and talents. The university is not the place for all, but it should provide the degrees demanded by both local and international industries. o Make the selection of teachers and lecturers more competitive. o Invest more in rural education and education of ‘orang asli’ with respect to concept (for example residential secondary school), policy, teachers, infrastructure, facilities and ICT to bring it at par with urban education. • Maintain Bahasa Melayu as the National Language o Increase available materials in the internet in our national language through more efforts and investments by the government (especially through higher education institutions, industry and organizations) o Work with Google or Yahoo to have translator from English to Malay and vice-versa to assist students in schools as young researchers. o Revive Bulan Bahasa Kebangsaan. o Provide materials that reflect Malaysians from all walks of life in Malay TV programmes.

o Study how other advanced countries such as in the Scandinavia and East Asia do it – modernized and yet retain their language and cultures. • Attract Non-Malays to Core Primary Schools o Transform the national schools to accommodate all Malaysians that could provide cultural spaces and facilities for them but with Islamic values as the basis or thrust – not to infringe upon others but to enable Muslims to live by their faith where Islamic values permeate their life. o Translate the common universal values in KBSM to reality rather than studying for examination. o Improve the quality of national schools as suggested in 1.2 o Introduce a component that deals with the culture, religion and traditions of Malaysians as suggested in 1.1 o Provide space for cultural expressions of all ethnic groups using provision of National Cultural Policy. 2. PUBLIC SAFETY • Reducing Crime Public safety issues in Malaysia are serious. In addressing such problems, the government should maintain its focus in strengthening national unity. It may consider the following general policy directions:

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Dimension 2 Social and Welfare

o To restore public confidence in the police force in order to improve perception on public safety. o To increase the number of the police force. The government has announced in January 2008 that it would increase the police force by 60,000 more personnel. This policy shall continue, with the emphasis on enrolment of more non-Malays into the police force. o To revitalize “Rukun Tetangga” in order to promote closer relationship between the “Rukun Tetangga” and the police force. o To support local initiatives at combating crime. Some housing areas hire security services from private firms. The government should support the local initiatives as manifestation of people’s participation in public safety. o To support and consider the advocacy works of the Malaysia Crime Prevention Foundation (MCPF). o To encourage “Rakan Cop” members to actively participate in reducing crimes. o To specifically address the issues of crime among the Indians. One of the contributing factors is urban poverty. o To educate the youth to undertake healthy activities and abstain from criminal activities. o To address economic issues (root causes) and their impacts of urbanization, displacement, and dislocation. o Drug prevention as assumption is that drug problems lead to other crimes.

o To address the issues of marginalization, e.g. Indian, Orang Asli and other indigenous groups in Sabah and Sarawak. o To improve public perception on the legal process. • Reducing Traffic Accidents o While the laws of the country are sufficient to help reduce the number of traffic accidents, the major grievance is the lack of enforcement. The police and JPJ need to be tough in enforcing the traffic laws. o Systematic education for road users. o Enforcers need to be visible to deter dangerous drivers from harming other road users. The enforcers need to show that they are regulating the traffic laws in person. o The government should provide safe roads for the public. It should also expedite repairs on damaged roads. o Continuous monitoring of the traffic conditions. o Provide motorcycle lanes. o Paving of road shoulders. o Improvement of dangerous curves. o Pedestrian crossing. o Street lighting. o Constant road maintenance, etc. • Dealing with Disasters o The government should be strict on the enforcement of prohibition of hillside development.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

o The enforcement of EIA, in addition to SIA, for all new development projects. o Monitoring of existing hillside housing areas, and projects still under development. o Efficient rescue operations. o Severe punishment to errant developers. 3. RACE, RELIGION, CULTURE AND VALUES • Enhancing Race and Ethnic Related Relation o Enhancing Malay status and rights as stipulated in the constitution and NEP but expand the opportunities and benefits to other ethnicities and races. o Balancing traditionalism and modernity in Malaysian society and protection of Malay identity and language. o Strengthening the awareness of new generation with regarded to historical and heritage facts. o Maintaining and strengthening Bahasa Melayu as a national Language and providing more opportunities for proficiency in other languages. o Enhancing ethnic relations and harmony so as to shape and sustain the “Malaysian identity”. o Revisiting some aspects of the NEP. o Strengthening Bahasa Melayu and encourage the learning of other languages such as English, Mandarin, Tamil, and others. o Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage should consider establishing a national body involving

all races to focus on devising policies and policy recommendations on enhancing the “Malaysian Identity” agenda. • Dealing with Religious Issues o Enhancing freedom of religious expression without contradicting the position of Islam as stipulated in the constitution. o Enhancing the social role and impact of religion rather than its politicisation. o Enhancing common religious values and practices for the purpose of enhancing national unity and religious relations among all races and religions. o Proper packaging, presentation and teaching of religion and common religious values to various walks of society. o Enhancing the role of religious values related to development, unity and combating of social ills and crimes. o Enhancing the role of education and family in disseminating common religious values. o Establishment of central (coordinating) authority to be in-charge of the religious matters. o Introducing subjects to teach common religious values starting from primary education. o Providing more space in the mainstream media for the presentation of common religious values and religious relations. o Enhancing the concept of “Religion for Development and National Unity”.

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Dimension 2 Social and Welfare

o Introducing a national index on religious 4. SOCIO-ECONOMICS tolerance and relations. • Strengthening Marriage • Conserving Culture and Values o Extend and expand pre marriage courses o Enhancing the rights of cultural and ethnic including parenting course. groups. o Compulsory marriage counselling after 5 years o Preservation and sharing of common cultural marriage. values and heritage for the purpose of national unity and development. • HIV/AIDS Education o Revitalising the role of values in enhancing o Education – at secondary school level. development environment and national unity o Create awareness through campaign at both agenda. local and national. o Revisit the IIV policy (1986) in order to o Religious education should be increased in enhance its practical impact and revitalise the school. role of values in administration and combat of o Continuous public education on HIV and AIDS corruption. through media, exhibition etc. o Revisit the national culture policy (1971) to enhance the cultural relations and common • Incest Related Issues cultural values. o Religious study at all levels and for all o Teach common values and cultural norms to disciplines. Malaysians through introducing news subjects o Campaign through mass media. in lower and higher education institutions. o TV programmes for children to be controlled o Establish a national council (which include strictly. experts from all cultures) to develop strategies and action plans in order to enhance “Common • Dealing with Domestic Violence Cultural and Civilisational Values and Heritage” o Campaign through the media. for the purpose of national unity. o Set up a special bureau for the victim. o Introduce a national index on “Role of Values o Counselling. in Work Environment and Administration”. o Courses on marriage be offered and This would assist in revitalising the role of encouraged even after marriage. value. o Cost of such course could be given tax o Creating a national common data base on exemption. culture and common values.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

o Proper policy needed to honour relationship and mutual respect of gender through direct communication between parties. o Counselling by the trained professionals. o More time and attention for the children by the family. • Rape Cases o Provide religious education. o Counselling. o Parenting Course. o Capital punishment must be imposed on offenders as deterrence. o Control of illegal VCDs is also important. • Sexual Harassment o Severe punishment should be imposed on offenders.

o

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Form Three and again in Form Five. Provide students with activities during school holidays which include soft skills, vocational or recreational activities, spiced with religious values. Penalize parents who do not take care of their children e.g. latchkey children (leaving schoolgoing primary school children by themselves). They must be able to provide means of full supervision of their children if they work. Solve the drug addiction problem by nipping its bud i.e. arrest and punish drug pushers and distributors and its sources. Eliminate pornographic materials available in all sources. Solve the problem of premarital pregnancy through prevention.

• Addressing Social Ills of the Youth o Conduct study on the total need of our youth and provide for holistic and healthy development. o Conduct study on family problems especially when both parents work. o Provide social, recreational and aesthetic spaces that are community based. Revive the traditional arts for the youth to express their potentials and energy such as gamelan, wayang kulit, joget, lion dance and makyong. o Make marriage and parenting courses compulsory with appropriate objectives in

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DIMENSION 3

HUMAN SECURITY

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DIMENSION 3: HUMAN SECURITY

“We have built prosperity for Malaysia and Malaysians because we have a Government which is stable, united, liberal and pro-business. This predictability, stability and certainty in our system of governance must be restored”. Mohd. Najib Tun Abdul Razak

S

ecurity in the traditional sense focuses on the issues of inter-border conflicts, defense management, and internal peace. Human Security emphasize on the people with elements of protection and empowerment.   It is about “freedom from fear, and freedom from want”. Human security  has a direct link with development.  Freedom from want is maximized through empowerment, and freedom from threat is minimized through protection. Human security has seven dimensions: Environment, Health, Economy, Food, Personal, Community, and Politics. Ultimately, the goal is the sustainability of human wellbeing (Kesejahteraan Insan).

can make or break the nation, the environment is the space and holds the resources to sustain or eliminate the community, and health of the community and the environment is the prerequisite for the longevity towards the creation of ONE MALAYSIA. There are three goals to be achieved- (1) The creation of ONE MALAYSIA; (2) Environmental Sustainability and (3) Personalizsed Health Care.

ISSUES 1. COMMUNITY SECURITY

Three dimensions of human security that need critical A community is a group of people with shared values and attention for the next 50 years are the Community, norms living in relatively close proximity, sharing common Environment, and Health. Community is the unit that areas of interaction and is concerned with the well-

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

being of all community members. Based on the present realities, two issues related to Community security have been identified - the lack of a sense of belonging, and the persistence of poverty. A lack of a sense of belonging can be attributed to religious resurgence, ambiguous attitude towards language, persistence of communal politics and the influence of internet/media. The issue relating to the lack of respect lies in the feeling of superiority among members of different ethnic groups. For example, the Malays believe that special consideration should be given to them since they are the â&#x20AC;&#x153;sons of the soilâ&#x20AC;?. The Chinese on the other hand are associated with success in the economic sector and thus they claimed to keep the economy strong and intact. Thus there is a lack of respect among the people toward one another. In the creation of ONE MALAYSIA the ultimate goal is to create a Bangsa Malaysia with citizens formed from a composite of multi-ethnicity, religious plurality, political understandings, and socio-economic variations. The creation of Bangsa Malaysia is only possible when all citizens respect one another for the strength of one, and help to minimise the weaknesses that exist in another. Thus, the goal is to create a respected Malaysian - a person who is knowledgeable, self-confident and has good work ethics, and possesses a towering personality.

communities in Sabah and Sarawak. Religious resurgence (Islamic revivalism) is regarded as a response towards globalisation. The problem with religious resurgence is that it is ethnic bias which has the potential of increasing ethnic polarisation. The role played by religion, especially Islam is seen by Non Muslims as constraining rather than liberating. The ambiguous attitude toward language can also lead to ethnic polarisation. The problem worsens with the act of unscrupulous politicians who use rhetoric related to religion and ethnicity to attract voters. Finally, the influence of the internet and media can erode a sense of national identity as Malaysians; especially the youth who assume a more globalise identity at the expense of building oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own national identity.

The second issue is the persistence of poverty especially the existence of hard core poor. Malaysia has an outstanding track record in poverty eradication. However urbanisation and modernisation have not wiped out poverty. The poor can be grouped as urban and rural poor Malays, the Indian plantation workers, the natives of Sabah and Sarawak and the Orang Asli community. These communities occupy the bottom 30% of Malaysian society with low income jobs, low educational achievements and In creating ONE MALAYSIA, this issue must the addressed they often feel a sense of alienation and marginalization carefully. We need to take the best from each culture. from the mainstream communities. Although the Federal For example, one should emulate the spiritual strength Government has implemented many programmes in of the Malays, and follow the work ethics of the Chinese, order to raise their socio-economic status, this group and marvel at the religious/cultural tolerance of the feels excluded from mainstream development. The

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Dimension 3 Human Security

major area of concern is access to services provided. Many of these groups feel that there is weakness in the delivery system due to ineffective targeting or lack of coordination among the agencies or leakages to non target groups. Lack of consultation with the grassroots is also evident. The existence of migrants which compete for scarce resources can also aggravate poverty among the local populace.

Malaysia moves from an agriculture based industry to a manufacturing based industry. The success of the industrial development does not come without some negative consequences. The building of factories, the unchecked development in mountainous areas, and increased number of motor vehicles contribute towards global warming that will have negative consequences on the health of the people and the loss of land by the sea. In Sabah, it is argued that land management has become 2. ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY more profit driven rather than empowerment driven for the community. Furthermore, the low level of environmental The environment is the casing of the community. consciousness among most Malaysians does not help in Without a sustainable environment, a community will the promotion sustainable development. not survive. There are many threats and risks associated with the management of the environment. Three issues The problem of cross border environmental management related to environment security are unchecked industrial is an issue that has implications of global governance development, low level of environmental consciousness, and state sovereignty. Vague regulations in handling and limited cross border environmental management. transborder issues compound the problems of haze and water management. Communities living near the In environmental sustainability the focus is on borders of Malaysia can be seen as threats or challenges conservation of the environment especially within the for local border governance. The lesser attention paid context of climate change and the need for fresh water. to border communities can lead towards unsustainable The current usage of resources must not endanger access development at the border areas. of future generations. More importantly, environmental sustainability must be in line with sustainable The coastal zone in Malaysia houses a majority of development. Additionally, Malaysia as a sovereign population and industrial activities and represents a state within the international system lives in a state of unique environment, which requires special attention interdependence. Malaysia is linked with immediate in its planning, development and management. There neighboring countries through shared borders and flows is growing evidence that global warming is contributing of citizens. Despite the interdependency, we must strive to overall sea level rise and impacting the coastal areas. to become a nation where the interdependency does not Malaysia undertook a vulnerability assessment of the make us vulnerable. impacts of sea-level rise on coastal resources and reported

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

the results in the INC. The biophysical impacts expectable under different sea-level rise scenarios (20cm, 50cm and 100cm by 2100) were tidal inundation, shoreline erosion, increased wave action and saline intrusion. It is projected that there will be the socio-economic impacts of the loss of agricultural production from eroded/inundated lands, displacements and relocation of flood victims with associated disruption of business/economic activities resulting from increased flooding, loss of fisheries production due to mangrove loss, and interruption of port operation. A number of adaptation measures for mitigating these impacts were considered, which included: defense, accommodation, retreat, counter attacking, coastal land buy back and integrated coastal zone management. Malaysia is a maritime nation, surrounded by large oceans and regional seas. Changes in the ocean modulate our climate, occurrences of extreme events such as droughts, floods, haze episodes etc which in turn affect our agriculture outputs, our economy, safety etc. Hence, we must understand the ocean and make better decision. 3. HEALTH SECURITY Healthcare is important. While short-term solution is the improvement of efficiency in spending, the longterm solution is personalised healthcare for all. Every Malaysian should be entitled to access to public or private health facilities. Outbreak of major diseases can severely strain the available health facilities and even threaten national security. A system for managing such crises

must therefore put in place. In order to have a productive Malaysia, the population must be healthy. Four issues related to health security are the escalating cost of healthcare due to technology and tertiary care, the lack of empowerment of people to be responsible for their own health, the increased number of the ageing population, the possible presence of epidemics of new and yet to be discovered diseases.

ACTION PLAN FOR HUMAN SECURITY 1. COMMUNITY SECURITY â&#x20AC;˘ Education o Every child in a school must have a feeling of ONE MALAYSIA. This can be done by ensuring that all schools (public, private and vernacular schools) adhere to the Rukun Negara and uphold the Constitution of the country. Children in school must celebrate diversity while maintaining identity and ethnic heritage. o Trilingualism: All respected Malaysian must be trilingual by 2057. Developed countries encourage their youths to be multilingual. o Pluriliteracy: The education curriculum must be revamped and be based on pluriliteracy where the goal is to increase the understanding and respect of culture, religion and beliefs among all ethnic groups.

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Dimension 3 Human Security

• Good Governance belonging among people of different faiths. o The practice of GOOD GOVERNANCE by the In these dialogues, the stress must be on the ruling government will gain the trust of the universally good values of all religions. people and the international community. o The rulers through the Council of Rulers The implementation of the National Integrity should continue to play a determining role in Plan (PIN) in 2004 is an example in creating resolving sensitive issues relating to religion good governance. Since programs affect the and status of the Malays. grassroots, local governments must solicit o Preparation for an evolving matured input from the community. If they feel the democracy; with democratisation and the sense of belonging and ownership of a development towards developed STATE, the program, the chances of success will increase. leadership of ONE MALAYSIA must go above o The future development plan of Malaysia partisan politics in preparing the country for a should emphasize on human security. The matured democracy. participatory approach taken in development o Pursuance of Shared Goals rather than planning in Malaysia through the technical Communal interest. The focus must be on the working groups that include both firms, pursuance of shared goals for ONE MALAYSIA ministries, consumers, academia as well as rather than communal interest. NGOs and civil society should be continued and enhanced to ensure social inclusion and 2. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY representation in the development plans of the country. The use of the “bottom-up” • Climate Change Plan: The first step is to approach should be enhanced to ensure that invite government agencies, the private the development goals and objectives meet sector and civil society to provide their views the needs of the local community. and recommendations on the country’s climate change plan. The Climate Change • Preparation for Political Change Plan will address the issues of Energy and o By the year 2057 the possibility of the existence Climate Change; Climate Change and Food of a two party system or a coalition system Security; Climate Change and Public Health; is high. Thus preparation for an evolving Climate Change and Water Resources; Global matured democracy is needed. Among Warming and Sea Level Rise; Climate Change others an increase in Interfaith Dialogues and Natural Disasters; and Future Climate is encouraged as it may evoke the sense of Change Scenarios.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

Climate change is a cross-sectoral problem that has wide implications and localized impacts. It requires cooperation from all relevant ministries, state governments and local authorities particularly in the planning and implementation of national development programs and projects. The Cabinet Committee on Climate Change formed in January 2008 must be activated. The Prime Ministerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Department should establish a Climate Change Unit to support the Cabinet Committee on Climate Change. In addition, a Climate Change Policy and Action Plan should be formulated to ensure climate-resilient development that fulfils national aspirations for sustainability. â&#x20AC;˘

Clean Renewable Energy Plan o Technology Information Services, Awareness and Capacity Building will enhance the level of understanding and awareness in an extensive education campaign and capacity building program. The level of awareness for the public in general and especially policy makers will be raised to the point that they understand the technology, are aware of its true benefits and ecological significances, understand the purpose and appreciate the functions of the technology. Policy makers shall further appreciate the possibilities for the market and the industry and are able to introduce suitable policy, regulatory initiatives and special electricity tariff for grid interconnection. Activities such as establishing information services, seminars, workshops

and capacity building program will improve the level of competency and quality of work of the service providers, architects, engineers and developers. In addition, establishment of the information resource centre, database and website will provide the end users the required information for installing Renewable and Clean Energy technologies. o Technology Market Enhancement and Infrastructure Development will address the technical feasibility and economic viability of BIPV technology via implementation of demonstration projects. These projects will further provide a wider level of acceptance and better understanding of the technology and its benefits. The demonstration projects (500 kWp) and a national kick-off roof-top program (>1 MWp) similar to many programs implemented in Japan and Germany will provide adequate knowledge and experience to architects, engineers, project developers, policy makers and other stakeholders for Malaysiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s future sustainable implementation of subsequent follow-up program. Relevant standards must be updated and new guidelines must be drafted providing technical assistance to the industry. o Technology Policies and Financing will facilitate the development of a conducive business environment for Renewable and

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Dimension 3 Human Security

Clean Energy technology and thus reduce cost of technology. A compilation of policy, legal, institutional, financial and fiscal measures will be proposed to the government of Malaysia. These frameworks will enable the formulation of a national Renewable and Clean Energy technology target in the 10th Malaysian Plan (10MP) (2010-2015), supported with suitable and customized mechanisms for the local condition. â&#x20AC;˘

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Water Resource Management

In order to adapt to or minimize the potential implications on water resources under varying climate conditions, several measures can be considered: o Mitigate increased flooding by constructing flood control dams, river improvements, levees, diversions, detention storage and pumping installations. o Upgrade existing infrastructure for water storage where climate change reduces rainfall in parts of the country. o Review the water resources plan of affected basins for improving effective use of water resources in order to sustain economic growth and human well being. o Adopt improved water management practices in water supply, irrigation and hydropower generation. o Undertake flood zoning and flood risk mapping, identify options for flood proofing

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and prepare plan for resettlement of affected population. Employ risk management approach in dealing water shortages due to droughts via the development of drought plans. Develop rules and guidelines to account for climate change impacts in the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s infrastructure. Sensitize the public to the problems of water wastage and to introduce policies or taxes that would cut waste, constrain demand and encourage recycling. Install Rainwater Harvesting System in buildings to collect rainwaters. Climate change studies should be enhanced and its impact on national water resources and other sectors (agriculture, forestry, biodiversity, coastal resources, public health & energy). Expected changes in water availability by year 2050 require a review of demand for water resources by the various sub-sectors. The performance of water supply systems and irrigation systems based on future water demands and hydrologic regime should be studied.

â&#x20AC;˘ Ocean Behavior/ Sea Level Rise The Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID) applies several short and long term strategies in the management and protection of the shoreline area.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

The former solution includes the hard approach, comprising coastal bund to protect agricultural area and coastal structure to protect beach area. Whereas the long term strategies encompass coastal development guidelines, coastal law, Integrated Shoreline Management Plan (ISMP), Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) and National Coastal Vulnerability Index Study. The following strategies should be adopted: o Minimizing Impacts Using Guidelines and Regulations The guideline on coastal management aims to minimize impacts of development on the coastal zone. Those factors include population expansion; conversion of coastal land into urban, housing, recreation and other areas; conflicts in use of available coastal resources; conflicts in the need for immediate consumption and to ensure the long term supply for future generations; and various problems and issues due to impacts of coastal development. Suitable laws or by-laws will be drafted to ensure that all proposed developments in the coastal zone adhere to the requirements laid down in Department of Irrigation and Drainage Guideline No.1/97 as well as the Integrated Shoreline Management Plan developed. This will help to ensure an effective management of the shoreline that will alleviate the financial burden on the government to continue funding expensive coastal erosion problem and ensure preservation of coastal habitat.

o Implementing Integrated Shoreline Management Plan The Integrated Shoreline Management Plan (ISMP) program carried out by the Department of Irrigation and Drainage is tailored along the principles of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) to address the major issues and problems facing the shoreline. It is an integrated approach that takes into account all the sectoral activities that affect the coastal area and gives due consideration to economic, social, environmental and ecological issues. The goal is to develop a management tool to harmonise all activities in the coastal area to support a broader set of management objectives for the coastal area. By implementing the recommendations made under the ISMP, it will be possible to maximize the benefits to be derived from the coastal area and its resources while at the same time minimizing the harmful impacts on the coastal resources and the environment. In addition, it will also help in reducing the conflicts between different users in the coastal area and the harmful effects of human activities upon each other. Department of Irrigation and Drainage is currently progressing with its ISMP to cover the entire coastline of Malaysia in stages. These studies do include some element of the Coastal Vulnerability Index study but do not produce form of classification index. Therefore the index in the Coastal Vulnerability Index study will be used in the preparation of the ISMP in this country, and help as an assessment tool to the ISMP.

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Dimension 3 Human Security

o Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)

significant impact on overall health care cost. o Community health insurance includes microinsurance, community health funds, mutual health organizations, rural health insurance, and revolving drug funds.

The ICZM is an integrative, holistic approach and an interactive planning process in addressing issues in the coastal areas. Various activities and industries compete for the same shoreline and marine space.  Conflicts arise when the activities of one sector • Management of Health Care Crises interferes or limits that of another. Hence, the management of the coastal resource must be guided Create a National Health Command center devoted to and coordinated. The ICZM is aimed at resolving these health crisis management. The center would respond conflicts and optimizing resource use. and prevent major epidemics. When the scale of a disaster warrants action, the center will set up a crisis 3. HEALTH SECURITY command center. The job of the chief commander is to form task forces and decide on the level of government • Creative Healthcare Financing Plan involvement. Information exchange collects and o The Japanese and Korean national health integrates information. Setting up of command center insurance system has been shown to infrastructure with cutting edge technology equipment be effective in addressing the health and an advanced communications network would financing problem. Under this system, large increase the effectiveness of managing epidemic. corporations and government departments are mandated to provide health insurance • Personalized Healthcare to their employees. Less financially able o Individuals and families must be made more individuals obtain coverage from the Central responsible to take care of their own health. Federation of Medical Insurance Societies The Lifetime Health Care Plan is intended to with contributions from health insurance facilitate lifetime care, captures health data; companies and government. maintains Lifetime Health Record, provide o Incentives can be created to maintain healthy information and educate individuals to take life style, hence reducing the need for hospital care of their health as well as early treatment. treatments and overcome the “long waiting o Empower individuals to take care of their list” problems. health with the school curriculum that include o Conduct research and development that will a subject on personal health care. improve preventive medicine since it has a o Tax incentives can be provided for people

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

o

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to maintain healthy life style (e.g. exercising and eating well) and penalized people for choosing unhealthy life style (e.g. smoking and sedentary living). Provide an institutional framework to ensure that genetic tests are accurate and valid to ensure the integrity of test results in determining the relationship between genetic elements, effective treatment, susceptibilities to diseases and health outcome. Reward invention and innovation since the returns on investment in research cannot be secured by the owners. Establish an electronic health records for every Malaysian citizen to facilitate research in genetics. Genomics require efficient, accurate and effective data storage and retrieval system for information access. Develop health information technology so that researchers can continue to discover scientific knowledge and make the new knowledge available for patient care.

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and affordable to them. Reduce risk factors for major diseases and increase factors that protect health. Control the marketing and use of tobacco, promote healthy eating, and support improved diets and healthy weights in older age. Increase affordable access to safe medications for the elders. Provide training and education to caregivers. Provide education and learning opportunities to the aged, by providing programs that support lifelong learning. Addressing the social, financial and physical security rights of elders. Support the provision of a social safety net for older people who are poor and alone.

â&#x20AC;˘ Active Ageing Policy o Prevent and reduce the burden of disabilities, health problems and premature mortality by setting measurable targets for improvements in health status of elders. The health of the low income and marginalized groups should be given attention to mitigate sickness in later life because of poverty and low literacy. Screening services should be made available

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DIMENSION 4

NATIONAL DEFENCE

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DIMENSION 4: NATIONAL DEFENCE

â&#x20AC;&#x153;For a major trading nation like Malaysia whose continuous prosperity is dependent on global trade and investment a judicious equilibrium needs to be achieved between the requirement for border protection and the efficient flow of goods and people. We cannot afford to have a fortress mentality nor can we afford to have a lackadaisical attitude towards border security. It is in this crucial aspect where technology can play a pivotal role making security a less intrusive endeavourâ&#x20AC;?. Mohd. Najib Tun Abdul Razak

M

alaysia as a peace-loving nation believes in promoting global and regional peace and stability. Our defence policy has always been closely linked with our foreign policy and diplomacy. The organisation of our armed forces is aimed at establishing balanced, flexible and self-reliant armed forces. It should be seen as a credible force, capable in defending the nation and at the same time able to act as a credible deterrent to would be aggressors. Regionally, we should actively continue our military cooperation with our neighbours and other relevant parties to address common

security issues and as part of regional confidence building measure. Globally, we should continue to participate in global peacekeeping and disaster relief operations as means of enhancing our international profile. The formulation of our defence policy and the organization of our defence posture will be determined by our threat perception. The characteristic of our defence policy will continue to be flexible, to be based on our prediction of the likely outcome of the current global, regional and domestic political, economic and social

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

development. Currently, in the context of conventional security there is no specific, clear or imminent threat to the security of the country. However, the developments in the recent past appear to point to certain areas of security, which may require closer attention and possibly more serious in-depth analysis.

deterioration in any non-traditional security area could easily transform into a traditional security threat if it is not properly handled. 2. GLOBAL AND REGIONAL TRADITIONAL SECURITY THREATS

We also have to prepare for the unpredictable and think In the area of traditional security, the world will generally of the unthinkable. continue to be beleaguered by regional conflicts which could potentially escalate into full scale wars and domestic conflicts that could potentially have spill over effects that ISSUES could adversely affect the neighbouring countries. 1. THE LINK BETWEEN DEFENCE AND SECURITY The security situation in the Middle East, particularly the In discussing security, one cannot escape but realise that Israeli – Palestinian conflict will continue to dominate the the current notion of security has now gone beyond world’s attention. The situation in Afghanistan and Iraq the scope of military or traditional security. Traditional will also be closely monitored as the world is keen to see security issues such threat from external aggression or how Bush’s “war on terror” is going to be brought to its internal unrest which are characterised by violence and conclusion by President Obama. The threat of terrorism armed conflict; both from state actors and non-state actors will also likely to continue to exist. Whether the there will are security issues that could be handled by the military, be an escalation or a reduction in the number of terrorist either on its own or working with other national security attacks world-wide will partly be determined by Obama agencies. The issue of non-traditional security however Administration’s approach in dealing with the threat. is more complex given the diversity of its dimensions - such as economic security, environmental security, Closer to home, at regional level Malaysia will have to energy security, and a host of other concerns. Given their continue to closely monitor the various conflicts taking importance, they may need to be addressed in the same place in the region particularly intra-state conflicts manner that traditional security is being handled by the occurring in the neighbouring countries as these may military. The military, in certain cases may be called upon potentially create spill-over effects that might affect to provide assistance to the relevant civilian agencies Malaysia’s security. It will also have to continue to whenever their expertise is required. Traditional security monitor the already existing regional security potential and non-traditional security issues are inter-connected as flash points that could potentially undermine the security

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Dimension 4 National Defence

of the region such as overlapping territorial claims are, the current economic down-turn, the effects of between Malaysia and its neighbours as well as among global warming and environmental degradation, and the its neighbours. depleting global oil reserve that threatens the world’s energy security. Generally, the traditional global security scenario is likely to see the world that is facing a security environment One of the repercussions of global economic downturn that is swept by the following trends; 1) the increase is the increase of unemployment rate worldwide. This participation of non-state actors, such as terrorist in turn will create a host of social problems in individual organizations and private military companies in conflicts countries such as rising crime rates and other social and violent; 2) the inter-twining of traditional security unrest. The problem might spill over in the form of rising problems with non-traditional security problems, such cross-border migration into neighbouring countries thus as the Darfur crisis in Sudan creating more complex and expanding the dimension of the problem from domestic formidable challenges for the world community to solve; into a regional one. and 3) the increase victimization of civilian populations in warfare such as what is happening in the Palestine, The effect of global warming is believed to have created Iraq and Afghanistan. an erratic meteorological pattern causing environmental disasters such as the tsunami and flooding at the scale In conventional conflicts, improvements in technology and frequency unheard of before. The cost of disaster will see continuing arms race (nuclear and non-nuclear) relief and post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation both in terms of sophistication and number among efforts may cause severe strain in the economies of the the belligerent states. In non-conventional conflicts affected countries as well as potential donors. Social and asymmetrical warfare will likely be the order of the day. economic problems that surface in the aftermath of the Increasing use and dependent of the cyber technology disaster will also likely to impact the affected countries will also see the emergence of cyber warfare as the fourth and will have indirect repercussions on traditional dimension in warfare. security. 3.GLOBAL AND REGIONAL NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY THREATS

The recent “energy conflict” between Russia and its immediate neighbours may provide us with a sneak preview of what the scenario would be in the world where As pointed out by Kofi Annan, the former United Nations energy resources are scarce and countries are desperate Secretary General, three major non-traditional security for energy. This is another form of non-traditional conflict concerns that the world will have to come to terms with that could potentially escalate into an armed conflict.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

The world will also likely to be besieged by other existing social and related problems such as the spread of HIV/ AIDS, increasing drug abuse and other crimes, human rights violations and the spread of infectious diseases and epidemics that could as a result of globalization be triggered, spread and cause catastrophe in the proportion that has never been seen before. 4. THE IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL AND REGIONAL SECURITY THREATS TO MALAYSIA Malaysia may not be directly affected by the conflicts that currently are taking place in the Middle East. However constant bombardment of news depicting violations of humanitarian principles by the Israeli government and the apparent tolerant shown to them by the US government may encourage certain faction of its population to adopt a more hostile and radical attitude towards the US and the West. This may potentially play into the hands of terrorist organizations that thrive in exploiting anti-American sentiment and the idea of “clash of civilizations” between Islam and the West in their recruitment effort. As for the regional security situation, Malaysia will be guided by ASEAN’s policy of non-interference with the domestic affairs of its member countries and ASEAN’s aspiration of the region being a Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality. It will however continue to monitor the developments of all identified security potential flash points within the region and pre-empt any negative developments through diplomatic and other channels.

5. THE IMPLICATIONS OF CURRENT DOMESTIC SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS TO SECURITY On the domestic front, some non-traditional security issues may need to be carefully monitored. The current state of ethnic relations, the effects of global economic downturn, and the influx of illegal immigrants are some of the priority issues that have to be addressed. All these issues are potentially explosive and could turn into serious traditional security problems if they cannot be satisfactorily resolved. To nip these potential problems at the bud, close and systematic coordination between the military and the relevant civilian agencies may be required.

ACTION PLAN FOR NATIONAL DEFENCE 1. THE CONTINUING ROLE OF THE MAF It is envisaged that the MAF will continue well into the 21st century in its existing role as the main pillar of national defense. In its primary role it will be the main agency in defending the nation’s land, air and sea territories from external aggression and to protect the nation’s strategic interests both at home and overseas. In its secondary role, it will continue to assist the police and other government agencies in internal security efforts and in disaster relief and other similar operations. In support of Malaysia’s foreign policy objectives it will continue to participate in overseas peacekeeping and in disaster relief operations under the banner of the United Nations or other regional organisations.

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Dimension 4 National Defence

2.THE ADOPTION OF TOTAL DEFENCE CONCEPT The diversity of security issues the country has to contend with points to the fact that Malaysia’s security concern is multi-dimensional and not restricted to traditional security issues alone. These issues may overlap, interconnected or even in conflict with one another. They also may have long-term and short-term implications. As a result a properly planned and coordinated approach may be needed for the nation to effectively and efficiently deal with these issues. As defense and security is too serious and multifaceted an issue to be left to the military alone the adoption of the Total Defence concept may be a solution worth considering.

defence and resilience is known to all agencies concerned thus avoiding redundancies in efforts and resources, or conflicting efforts or agendas which may result in inefficiency and waste. Total Defense is not a new concept. It has been successfully adopted by Singapore since the mid 1980’s. As for Malaysia, the concept was successfully applied in our effort to defeat the Communist insurgents since the first emergency in 1948 - but it was not openly declared and designated as such. The adoption of Total Defence concept by Malaysia will only involve the rejuvenation of the existing mechanisms which are already in place and the education of the Malaysian public on the need to adopt a positive and coordinated approach towards security.

As a concept, Total Defense adopts a total and comprehensive approach to security. It deals with traditional military as well as non-traditional security 3. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TOTAL DEFENCE issues, approached with a holistic view and handled in an CONCEPT even and objective manner. For Malaysia the suggested five main “pillars” of security that will support the concept • The Armed Forces as the Main Pillar of of Total Defence will be the pillars of Military Defence, Defence Civil Defence, Economic Defence, Social Defence and In Total Defence, the armed forces will continue Cultural Defence. with its currently identified traditional roles, anticipating potential threats and challenges As Total Defence concept involves the strengthening and be prepared for them. It will be the of the five identified pillars of defense, it requires the nation’s main pillar of defense focusing on involvement of other government ministries that national defence and traditional security. will support the pillars relevant to their functions. All these efforts will be complementary to each other and • The Active Participation of Other coordinated at the highest level. This will ensure that Government Agencies every effort made in the strengthening of national Other government departments will be

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specifically identified as the main agencies supporting pillars of defense relevant to their respective roles. The Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of International Trade, and the Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs for example will be tasked to be the main agencies involved in supporting Economic Security pillar. They will be given specific tasks and functions and will have their efforts coordinated at national level. To ensure that every strategy adopted is understood and accurately carried out, similar but smaller duplicate coordinating bodies should also be established at state and district levels. This will create an organisation with a clear “chain of command”, efficiently coordinated and mutually supportive of one another. • The Rejuvenation of the National Security Council To achieve this is it believed that the National Security Council (NSC) needs to be rejuvenated and be given a fresh lease of life. NSC has proven itself to be a successful organization in that it was instrumental in the coordination of nation’s effort in the defeat of Communist insurgency. Headed by the Prime Minister himself it was “a cabinet within a cabinet” but with a much more focused approach. It did not see a problem as just a problem to be solved but as security issue that needs to be effectively resolved, as it may affect the

nation’s well-being and survival. This “warlike” approach in dealing with key issues and the fact that it was personally headed by the Prime Minister may have contributed to its efficiency and success. • The Employment of the Military as an Instrument of Nation Building Total Defence requires understanding, broad participation and support from the general public. Toward this end the incorporation of some educational process may be necessary as part of the overall implementation of Total Defence. The military in this respect could be entrusted with this task. Exploiting the resources available to the military, the armed forces can be employed as an institution of nation building. The role of the military in nation building has been tested and proven in the past. The British prior to granting Malaya its independence had correctly identified the potential that the military has in this area. Believing that military education and training could help mould a united and resilient multiethnic Malaya with leadership skills that would enable its graduates to lead the nation, the Royal Military College was established in 1952. Other efforts undertaken by the British include the formation of the multi-racial Federation Regiment and the selection of twelve multi-racial candidates for military training at Sandhurst as part of the plan to lay

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Dimension 4 National Defence

the foundation of leadership development in the post-independent Malayan Army. The employment of the military as an institution of nation building should not be seen as an effort to militarize the country but rather as an effort towards the fostering of national unity, instilling discipline and patriotism and on the broader term, in the strengthening of national resilience. The military could also play a major role in the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leadership training and professional development program given the fact that a large number of military personnel are trained and equipped with skills and knowledge that could be applied in the civil sector. In facing new and diverse security challenges of the 21st Century it is suggested that the Total Defense Concept be adopted as a broad and comprehensive defence and security policy with the military being incorporated as one of the key national institutions for nation building. The adoption of this concept will not in any way requires changes in the existing government structure save for the need to revive and re-strengthening of the already existing National Security Council. It is hoped that this approach will enable the nation to formulate a more comprehensive and coordinated defense and security policy, and create a more resilient nation that is focused and dynamic in its approach in ensuring its survivality and development well into the future.

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DIMENSION 5

SABAH AND SARAWAK AFFAIRS

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DIMENSION 5: SABAH AND SARAWAK AFFAIRS

T

he situation in Sabah and Sarawak is quite unique 1. Security compared to the states in Peninsular Malaysia. This is largely due to the historical background â&#x20AC;˘ Maritime Security in the East Coast of of Sabah and Sarawak. Thus, the historical culture of Sabah Sabah and Sarawak has to be taken into consideration in preparing for the future of Malaysia as we move towards Maritime security is becoming the most vital part 2057. This section outlines the priority issues of Sabah of national security. In the case of Sabah, security and Sarawak. threats mainly came through its east coast, rather

STATE OF SABAH ISSUES The unique features of Sabah and its rich historical and cultural facets have naturally generated many issues of interest. The major ones are concerning: 1. The growing security threat in maritime security, overlapping claims, migration. 2. The persistent (chronic) poverty in incidence of poverty, sustainable tourism, accessibility, basic infrastructure, rural education. 3. The never-ending federalism polemic and state governance in political autonomy, unity and integration, downstream industry, natural resources, land matters, outdated law, heritage management, naming of local entities, reinterpretation of history.

than from within the mainland. Between 2000 and 2005, a number of kidnappings and other trans-border crimes (i.e. piracy, smuggling and illegal immigrants) were recorded. Such incidents did not only pose security threat to our country and people, but also to foreign nationals. Hence, several countries have issued travel advisories to their citizens not to visit the east coast of Sabah. Although the number of cases have dropped due to tight security measures undertaken by various agencies such as the army, police, navy and Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency (MMEA), the perceived threats remains and such perception should not be taken for granted. â&#x20AC;˘ Overlapping Claims The Spratlys Islands have become a disputed region where six governments (China, the Philippines, Vietnam, Taiwan, Malaysia and Brunei)

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

strive to occupy the areas which are believed 2. Poverty to be surrounded by rich fishing grounds and hydrocarbons. Malaysia’s claim is based on the • Incidence of Poverty fact that the islands are part of its continental shelf (which is stipulated in UNCLOS III 1982). Poverty that has long been a major issue in Sabah Nevertheless, the strength of Malaysia’s claim, if it needs to be addressed urgently. Poverty and is based on the continental shelf principle alone, hardcore poverty incidence in Sabah were 23% is viewed to be unconvincing. Hence, efforts need and 6.5% respectively in 2004. The incidence of to be done to strengthen Malaysia’s argument poverty and hardcore poverty has successfully before the overlapping claims be brought by the been reduced to 16% and 3.7% respectively in ICJ. 2007. However, this level of poverty is still far above the national average. • Migration Rate of Poverty in Malaysia The number of foreign workers and illegal immigrants in Sabah is estimated to be more than one million, which exceeds one-third of its population. Their imminent presence has been associated with various socio-cultural problems and non-conventional crime such as forgery of identification cards and birth certificates. In addition, there are also some allegation of corruption and abuse of power of ‘Penghulus’ and ‘Ketua Kampung’ who supported their citizenship application. As the presence of illegal immigrants had led to various inter-related concerns, the issue at hand needs to be urgently addressed.

Overall Poverty (%)

Hardcore Poverty (%)

2004

2007

2004

2007

Malaysia

5.7

3.6

1.2

0.7

Peninsular Malaysia

3.6

2.3

0.7

0.3

Sabah

23.0

16.0

6.5

3.7

Sarawak

7.5

4.2

1.1

0.7

• Sustainable Tourism Sabah’s tourism industry has undergone tremendous growth over the last decade. The industry is largely driven by the private sector. It is therefore necessary that key supporting services be upgraded, particularly the availability of sound infrastructure, skilled human resources and public security in order to attract private sector investment.

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Dimension 5 Sabah and Sarawak Affairs

• Accessibility

and basic facilities, implementation of Teaching Mathematics and Science in English, limited knowledge, awareness in nutrition and poverty.

Sabah’s development depends on the ability to enhance its hard infrastructure (roads, ports, electricity, water and data connectivity), and 3. Federalism soft infrastructure (human capital). Transport infrastructure need to be upgraded in order • Political Autonomy to enable good transportation services for the tourism, agriculture and manufacturing The relations between Sabah and Kuala Lumpur industries. To further develop the interior region, (especially in the governance-administrative road networks linking East to West and North to aspect) are often masked with political tussle. It South must be developed and improved. is clouded by various issues: ranging from the • Basic Infrastructure Sabah’s current electricity coverage is 67% of the population (SDC, 2007). As it is, Sabah’s electricity network is not as reliable as that in other parts of Malaysia since current distribution network is not strong and requires reinforcement. Other than that, land access is an additional hindrance to implementation of unitary power stations. Water supply to rural areas remains a major issue. Owing to lack of infrastructure and water sources, building water pipes and treatment plants in remote rural areas is prohibitively expensive. • Rural Education The main concerns of rural education in Sabah are as follows; teaching professionalism to improve the management of the schools, infrastructure

dissatisfaction among Sabahans of the state of the Sabah’s socioeconomy, to the disagreement in terms of political autonomy. More often than not, this situation develops tension and unhealthy relations between state-federal governments. The question is: how to unlock this so-called cul-de-sac political polemic between Sabah-Kuala Lumpur, without jeopardising the spirit of Malaysia Federation as a united political entity? • Unity and National Integration These national issues are too often understood from the perspective that mainly focuses on the problem of ethnic relations between the Malays and the non-Malays, rooted in the sociopolitical history of Peninsular Malaysia. This trend continues even after the formation of Malaysia, and therefore fails to clearly understand the complexity and the nature of ethnic relations in

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Sabah. Ethnic relations in Sabah are mainly about the relations among the indigenous native groups, and as such are very different from the nature of ethnic relations in Peninsular Malaysia.

• Land Matters

Oil palm currently takes up to almost 90% of all agricultural land. This makes Sabah the single largest contributor to the Malaysian palm oil industry with 29.8% of all Malaysian oil palm plantations located here. About 30% of the national CPO (crude palm oil) production is produced in Sabah, nonetheless, there is minimal palm oil downstream activities in the state. Private sector involvement is crucial to ensure the development of manufacturing industries particularly downstream activities such as oleochemicals.

Land matters in Sabah are largely governed by The Sabah Land Ordinance (Cap.68) 1930 and Land (Subsidiary Title) Enactment 1972. Under The Sabah Land Ordinance 1930 (SLO), land is registered under various categories, NT for Native Titles, FR for Field Register, CL for Country Lease and PR for Provisional Lease. Such categorization is deemed to protect the interest of Sabah natives as NT and FR can only be solely owned by them whereas CL or PL can be owned by other than Sabah natives such as non-Sabah native but Malaysian, foreigners, government agencies and others for a maximum period of 99 years. However, the rights of Sabah Natives over NT and FR are not absolute as those titles can be acquired by the government in lieu of cash based on government’s valuation of the land and crops on the land.

• Natural Resources

• Outdated Laws

Forest resources in Sabah have been depleted through uncontrolled timber exploitation over the last 30 years, and more recently through large scale conversion to other uses particularly oil palm plantations. It is pertinent to address this problem in order to sustain domestic woodbased processing industries as well as to balance the outflow of foreign exchange from the state.

Sijil Anak Negeri: It is high time to revamp the procedures in relation to the issuance of the Sijil Anak Negeri. Leaving the verification of native status on children from mixed marriages to officials under the Local Government and Housing Ministry, instead of a committee, will invite bribery, malpractice and abuse as happened previously (forgeries and fake Sijil Anak Negeri).

• Downstream Industry

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Dimension 5 Sabah and Sarawak Affairs

Sabah Labour Ordinance (Cap 67): The recent 2005 amendment has overlooked the needs to protect employees who are being terminated.

Kampung Tamparuli, Kampung Serusop). This could be one of the means to promote tourism based on sociocultural and historical values.

• National Heritage Management

• Reinterpretation of Sabah History

Sabah heritage management is facing numerous The writing of Sabah history should be based on obstacles in preserving, protecting and conserving local-centric rather than western-biased and other the state archaeological and historical features. influences such as sources for Sulu and Brunei. This This situation leads to a phenomenon what is task deems as a priority because it would help to known as heritage vandalism. Wreck site raiding, increase the number of local historical writings as looting artifacts, treasure hunting and illiciting an academic source by using local sources without antique trade have caused Sabah to lose millions relying entirely on foreign sources. This would of Ringgit, and have affected its tourism industry. help to instill the spirit of nationalism among the Lacked of serious enforcement to counter illicit society. activities and short of research or rescue funding are the major causes that perpetuate unethical ACTION PLAN FOR SABAH AFFAIRS conduct of heritage vandalism. • Naming of Local Entities

1. Security

• The government must expedite its declaration of the The process of naming places, buildings, halls, country’s maritime basepoint (which is not indicated roads, islands, historical places and others has to in the 1979 Peta Baru) and submit it to the United reflect local images and identity. The naming of Nations. The government must also continue and such places, that are based on western influence intensify its exercise of authority in those claimed should therefore be avoided. Meanwhile, the islands. Intensive historical research must be initiated existing local names should be retained. This to discover evidences about the area in order to move is important to instill the spirit of nationalism strengthen and support the country’s claim, rather amongst the society so as to familiarize them with than relying much on the continental shelf principle. the names that refer to the local and national • The government needs to beef up Sabah’s maritime iconic identities (e.g. Pak Musa Hall in Beaufort, security, especially the waters off Sabah’s east coast Taman Tunku Abdul Rahman, Pantai Tanjung Aru, as the coastal security of the State is becoming more

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important. It is therefore necessary to increase the number of highspeed motorboats and sophisticated facilities in order to equip the security forces to contain such threats. • It is necessary to speed up the installation of radar system (announced by the government in 2008), which would enable the security forces in Sabah to act faster and efficiently in cases of untoward incidents. • It also demands political will by the government to tackle the issue of illegal migrants once and for all. An initiative must be taken to clarify their status, whether to maintain or send them back to their (parent) country of origin. Jabatan Pendaftaran Negara should also work (extra) in order to get all locals having proper documentation. • The regional cooperation of BIMP-EAGA could be used as an alternative to resolve the problems of human resources, as well as to smoothen and legalize labour mobility within the region (Borneo-Mindanao).

2. Unity and National Integration • Measures taken to safeguard the inherited unity and tolerance among the various ethnic groups in Sabah, by prohibiting any political process that may create prejudice, discrimination and unequal treatment among the natives (e.g. between native Muslims and native Christians). • Just treatment among all natives in the Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak – i.e. appropriate recognition given to the local cultural traditions and their contribution in forming Malaysia.

3. Poverty and Education • Effort to address the problem of poverty in Sabah should deal with the relevant variables related to poverty in specific areas. Strategies and policies to uplift the living standard of the poor should be oriented towards the root causes of poverty, not just its symptoms. Strategies should be specifically directed at expanding economic and commercial activities, and facilitating access to the opportunities (by improving basic amenities and infrastructures). • The allocation of RM9 billion for rural education needs to be evenly distributed in a transparent manner to ensure basic facilities and infrastructure is upgraded to the desired level. • Sabah Development Corridor and the implementation of Ninth Malaysia Plan should be carried in the manner that would contribute to the improvement of education in the rural areas of Sabah. • The implementation of Teaching Mathematics and Science in English (PPSMI) at the school in rural areas should be reassessed particularly on competency of the teachers and the readiness of the pupils. • The content of the syllabus, the teaching aids and examination questions should be designed to incorporate ‘local content’ as the environment of the rural and urban areas are completely different. And, it also important to carry out awareness programs on food nutrition.

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Dimension 5 Sabah and Sarawak Affairs

4. Laws and Local Rights • There is a crucial need to observe strict procedure in the issuance of Sijil Anak Negeri where the applicant has to undergo strict verification process to determine that he or she has Anak Negeri blood inherited from his or her forefathers. • The content of the law with regards to termination benefits in the Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah need to be synchronized. • Cut down the delay in processing application of land title. • The practice of community mapping should be considered as an alternative. In the absence of necessary documentation District Office or the Land Survey department should conduct an open Inquiry to verify claims made by the natives or whenever overlapping claims were to arise.

5. Natural Resources and Forestry • Since forestry being a land matter under the jurisdiction of the state it should be best left for the locals to manage it. Issues associated with land, financing, incentives and technical issues need to be addressed by relevant authorities. Special consideration for low rent and premium on land for forest plantation would encourage further participation of private sectors, and intensify forest resource development. • Besides managing the forest area, the companies appointed by Sabah Forestry Department should

be allowed to extract, and trade the logs. SFMLA holders must invest in building the capacity to manage existing forest resources sustainably, while incorporating the environmental and social needs of local communities.

6.

National Heritage

• State enactment should be the only legal instrument to be utilized in regulating matters relating to activities in preserving, protecting and conserving the state archaeological and historical features. • The Sabah State Museum should be given jurisdiction and prerogative to collaborate with other national securities agencies to confront illegal activities. • Federal funding should be increased for the research and rescue projects particularly for valuable wreck sites without concession policy on any recovered artifacts; • Ethical heritage commercialization practices would lead to sustainable management of ‘archaeological and historical based tourism’, which in turn would promote the significance of heritage through education and public campaign. • Legislate a set of law that regulates the naming procedures of any entities deemed as national heritage, and to enhance awareness on the significance of national heritage through seminars and conferences and prolific history/cultural writing.

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Malaysia stands at a crossroads. We have been an independent country for just over 50 years. We are a multi-racial, multi-religious society that has a unique, and constitutionalised, method of accommodating the diverse economic and ethnic demographics of our country. We are Malay, Chinese, Indian, Orang Asli, Iban and Kadazan. We are Muslim, Christian, and Hindu. A youthful, middle income developing nation Malaysia has been a model for many of our friends around the world. Individually, we pursue our beliefs, our passions, and the dream of a better tomorrow. Together, we share several decades long history of tolerance and mutual.â&#x20AC;? Mohd. Najib Tun Abdul Razak

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Dimension 5 Sabah and Sarawak Affairs

STATE OF SARAWAK ISSUES

2. Incidence of Poverty

In Sarawak, the incidence of poverty is still high among This section provides the needs and benefits of enhancing its Bumiputra communities, particularly the Pribumi the infrastructure development for Sarawak thus request Minorities. The incidence of poverty in terms of average this enhancement as a top priority where as: income of the rural communities in Sarawak is higher than 1. To eradicate poverty; that of the urban population. As such, efforts to upgrade 2. To ensure a balanced development between the human capital particularly among the needy (poor urban and rural areas; families) will be hampered unless relevant and specific 3. To improve the equality of life of the rural strategies are developed to deal with the situation. population; and 4. To establish and strengthen the rural urban 3. Transportation and Communication linkages between the rural locality and the In terms of transportation and communication, many parts neighboring towns; of rural Sarawak are still inaccessible by roads. The cost of transportation is higher in these areas, because airplane and boats have to be as the mode of transportation. As such, students who intend to pursue their higher 1. Low Productivity of Agriculture education may face a lot of financial difficulties as they Agriculture is the sector with the most urgent need for have to pay more, and given the fact that many of the modernization in Sabah as majority of its population rural families are poor, some of these potential students depends on agriculture production. Majority of this group may decide to forgo higher education. Such a situation of population are categorized as poor people and they will continue unless actions are taken to address it. are faced with many constraints that keep them poor. Most of them lack of knowledge and skills for modern 4. National Integration farming; lack of financial support and information on Sarawak alone has many tribes and ethnic groups financial support; lack of knowledge of agriculture that need to be bonded. Similarly, in terms of heroic commercialization processes and not using the right contributions and sacrifice made to this nation, not many method. Therefore the productivity is very low. Malaysians are aware about the local warriors/patriots of Further, the main important issues in Sarawak are:

Sarawak and their invaluable contributions towards the development of enhancing the stability of this nation.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

5. Political Inclination of Youth

education among the rural poor will help to alleviate We have so far witnessed the power of youths in poverty. Besides, it is imperative that the government determining political climate of a country. Therefore, comes up with a special scholarship scheme to assist our youths particularly, those who are eligible to vote, poor families from poverty stricken rural areas of Sarawak if not given adequate understanding and continuous to have the opportunity for their children to further their reminders of all efforts taken, will always end up making studies. This scholarship scheme is considered one of the wrong decision in determining what is right and what is efforts by the government to bridge the socio-economic not, due to their inability in understanding the struggle gap between East and West Malaysia. and hardship set-forth by our forefathers. This is because to some of them, voting is just another game to play 3. Improving Transportation System without really understanding the consequences to Economic activities in rural areas in Sarawak demand whatever decision they have made. better transportation infrastructures for accessibility and mobility. These include transportation network ACTION PLAN FOR whereby airports, seaports, highways and roads that SARAWAK AFFAIRS helps to form vital social and economic connections. New transportation network in the newly developed 1. Modernization of Agriculture corridors such as SCORE are really required to attract more The only way to improve the current situation is through multinational companies to set up their business within modernization of agriculture in this region and to the Corridors. The availability of extensive transportation encourage commercialization. The government can help network within the newly developed corridors will to encourage more agricultural research and technology improve accessibility and mobility within the region and development especially focusing on the subsistence thus help those in rural areas to get direct benefits from farmers and improve the marketing network and physical such developments. Infrastructure that will support the efforts to modernize agriculture. The availability of extensive transportation infrastructures will improve economic potentials of rural areas and improve 2. Educational Opportunities environmental effect of urban areas. Other potential To improve the quality of life in the rural areas of Sarawak, benefits include reductions in travel time for motorists, efforts must be made to assist the students from the lower vehicle operating costs, safety and environmental rural schools to pursue higher education, be it in public gains, and cost savings for local consumers as goods and or private higher institutions. Improving the level of services become more competitively priced. Another important economic development can benefit from the

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Dimension 5 Sabah and Sarawak Affairs

transportation infrastructure development is supporting Among others are: tourism development. In summary, the improvement of 1. Existing film documentaries from the archives about transportation network will certainly generate significant Malaysia and its political struggle can be aired local economic benefits. repeatedly. 2. Cultural performances/traditions/ethics and values 3. Enhancing Patriotism and National from various ethnic groups. Integration 3. Talk shows on various topics relating to human The time has come for us to find ways and means to development and nation building. inculcate and instill the value and the importance of 4. Excerpts of speeches from former and current leaders political stability of a country. Being patriotic politically which help to inspire youths. is very important as this will stabilize our nation but 5. Popular patriotic songs and patriotic songs retrieved it is equally important on the other hand to instill the from various competitions. understanding of multiple cultures in a complex setting 6. Patriotic based films and dramas. of multiracial nation such as Malaysia as this will help to 7. Sit coms and comedies with patriotic content. strengthen the mutual respect and high tolerance among 8. Documentaries on the process of traditional crafts the different races and beliefs. We must emphasize on and its relationship to various ethnic groups such as a program that recognizes values such as peace, love, the symbolic meaning of Keris to the Malays. respect, tolerance, cooperation and freedom and a 9. Biography of Malaysian great leaders/patriots. program where these values are cherished, as these 10. Documentaries on the evolution of Malaya and are the sustaining force of human society and progress. Malaysia. What children and youths learn is later woven into the 11. Pronouncement on the meaning of Rukun Negara fabric of society. Therefore, this proposed program and the understanding of Federal Constitutions and must have positive values at its heart and the resulting their implication towards the building of Malaysia. expression of them as its aim if we are to seek to create 12. Documentaries on the roles of Parliament and Dewan a united Malaysia for all. It is essential to provide guiding Negara. principles and tools for the development of Malaysia and 13. Documentaries on the transformation of Malaysia Malaysian youths in particular through the establishment and the transmigration of its citizens. of one specific channel called “Your Patriotic Channel” 14. Live interviews with Malaysian prominent figures. @ RTM 3. 15. National Service Activities – documentaries and live interviews/talk shows. Based on these facts, many existing or new materials can 16. PERMATA activities – documentaries and live easily be accommodated into this proposed channel. interviews/talk shows.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

With vast choices of subject matters, this channel will serve as a value-based atmosphere in providing a philosophy of living in a multiracial society, facilitating on the youths’ overall growth development and choices so they may integrate themselves into the community with respect, confidence and purpose.

4.

Enhancing Physical Infrastructure

Although the cost of developing infrastructure in rural areas is expensive, the Government should make it their top priority for the benefits of rural communities thus contribute to balance development between the rural and urban areas. • Electricity In Sarawak, the regional electricity grid allows distribution of electricity only in some part of rural areas in the states. Therefore, the Government should extend the grid electricity to achieve the target of 80% of the rural areas to have the benefits of electricity. These infrastructure developments will bring a new era of better schools, ICT facilities and health services thus improved quality of life in the rural areas. • Clean and Treated Water Supply The lack of clean and treated water for domestic and personal hygiene leads to increase number of illness due to diseases such as diseases of the eyes, skin and intestine. Therefore, the sanitation facilities or sanitation programs should be implemented in these areas in order to reduce the

incidence of water related diseases or intoxication associated with poor water quality and poor sanitation. • Health, Safety and Environment The rural communities depend greatly on government health services and klinik desa. However, most of the rural areas in Sarawak still do not have these medical facilities and also disease control unit. Therefore, the communities have to take boat rides or use land access to the nearest health services to seek for medical treatments. The Government should also explore the “Medical Informatics Centers” approach to facilitate availability of logistics during emergency situations and a better management of rural healthcare. This has been a major factor contributing to our favorable health indices, which are almost at par with those of richer industrialized nations. • Telecommunication The higher costs of telecommunications infrastructure implementation in rural areas using cable network or lease line such as copper, fiber and cable will slow the development. To achieve high quality of services (QoS) in telecommunication in such areas requires special treatment in order to reduce the service deterioration. The expansion and development of telecommunications services are important for the growth of the industrial and service sectors.

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Dimension 5 Sabah and Sarawak Affairs

5. Enhancing ICT Infrastructure Development for Sarawak Rural Areas The development of ICT infrastructures for rural areas in Malaysia are the initiatives from Malaysian Government (Ministry, Department and Agencies) and private sectors to bridge the digital divide among rural and urban communities. The rural communities must be IT literate and understand the functions of the technology, which will enable them to apply the technology to improve their livelihood. Even though, there are initiatives from the ministry, department and agencies on development of ICT in rural areas but the distribution of the development are not equally implemented as a result of low in number of ICT infrastructure in Sarawak with 376 i.e. 19.3% out of total 1, 945 ICT projects. Therefore, ICT infrastructures should be given as top priority in the future development of Sarawak. • Quality and Access to Education ICT infrastructure development in schools or telecenters can enhance the quality and effectiveness of education in rural areas by enabling accesses to online instructional materials and educational resources. Through the available technologies and programs such as digital television, video conferencing, educational websites and distance learning can be of efficient and cost-effective approaches to reach remote students. This development hopefully will increase the education level or knowledge among the communities in Sarawak rural areas.

• Agricultural Development ICT is able to assist farmers in rural areas in implementing modern farming techniques and increase their exposure to competition outside their markets. • E-Governance (Paradigm Shifter) The federal and state Government agencies can make use of ICT to deliver services to rural communities. • Health and Wellness ICT is commonly used to disseminate public health messages and techniques for prevention of diseases, such as HIV. This is also to facilitate remote medical consultation, diagnosis and treatment. • Disaster Mitigation and Response ICT can help the Government, international agencies and NGOs to monitor and respond to natural disasters, thereby able of reducing casualties from these events. • Environmental Monitoring and Resource Management ICT can be used to collect, process and disseminate information between distributed locations. This

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

can enable a better understanding of complex cross-border issues such as climate change and biodiversity, and help to monitor ecological conditions so that prevention and mitigation measures can be activated. â&#x20AC;˘ Preservation of Cultural and Indigenous Knowledge ICT can be a tool for recording and preserving indigenous populationsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; culture and traditions, and for educating the rest of the world about the importance of protecting indigenous values and ways of life.

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A CALL FOR ACTION

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A CALL FOR ACTION

â&#x20AC;&#x153;By the year 2057, it has thus become our rational aspiration to see Malaysia as a truly independent country in terms of social development, economic growth, environmental protection, national security and political stability. In materializing the above aspirations, may I suggest that we shall pay attention to several important aspects of our society. These include, among others, the pursuit to address the quality of life of every citizen, knowledge accumulation and scientific discovery, parallel and balanced economic development between rural and urban areas, real socio-economic development of the poor and marginalized groups, building of a resilient society, minimization of social and economic differences among the ethnic groups including those in Sabah and Sarawak, the realization of transparent government and efficient leadership at every level, participation of NGOs in social and developmental processes and maintenance of strong democratic governance systemâ&#x20AC;?. Mohd. Najib Tun Abdul Razak

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

A

call for action is akin to a wake up call. It is an urgent call. What else is urgent if the nation that one is going to lead is the most polarised and divided in history? So one’s actions should be immediate and aimed at generating the greatest impact on the maximum number of the target groups. Actions are synergistic in nature and capable of solving many problems simultaneously. It creates wealth or reduces costs significantly. Actions involve active participation of potential beneficiaries, reduce dependence on others and are self-fulfilling.

linked to the Prime Minister’s office and has the authority to coordinate policy and programmes of revitalizing the rural areas, with a clear line of command over other rural development agencies, and complemented with senior officers assigned at the frontline.

NEW MASTER PLAN FOR COUNTRYSIDE DEVELOPMENT (PEKAN BARU)

NEW SOCIO-ECONOMIC ACTION PLAN (NSEAP)

The new master plan calls for the revival of the present set up. The long established JKKK has to be rebranded and renamed as Jawatankuasa Keselamatan dan Pembangunan Komuniti (JKPK). To ensure effective and uniform understanding of the plan at all levels and different kinds of agencies, a manual containing the Several important agendas have been identified and philosophy, operating procedure, bottom up planning should be implemented immediately by the next Prime processes, development program and activities and Minister. Monitoring and Evaluation would be prepared.

The rural areas in Malaysia must be given a new face. We should formulate a master plan for rural countryside encompassing the elements of “gotong royong”, volunteerism, and empowerment. The thrust of this plan is on community leadership and bottom-up planning which is based on the felt needs of the beneficiary groups. The goal of this plan is to revitalise the rural economy, promote balanced social-economic-environment growth, and ensure political commitment and patronage of citizens.

To a large extent, the New Economic Policy has achieved its objective in terms of increasing the equity participation of Bumiputeras. A new version of NEP should be implemented urgently to address the poverty of all Malaysian citizens irrespective of their demographic backgrounds. This is an affirmative action for the poor Malaysians. A new agency with a similar status of GLC should be established and be made responsible to plan, monitor, and assess the achievement of the set goals. This highly elevated agency will have full executive power, professional skills, transparent work culture, free from In order to ensure successful implementation of this political interference, and report directly to the cabinet. plan, one agency should be established which is directly

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A Call for Action

ISLAMIC BANKING

Consultation and collective participation is crucial in moving towards that direction. The various potentials It is proposed that the current conventional banking of the Malaysian population should be utilized and should be replaced with the Islamic banking system developed in a balanced and integrated manner with which is resilient to recession. Islamic banking has gained particular focus on the humane and humanistic aspect of acceptance and thrust of the world economy. However, individual and societal development. In this light, family its operation needs to comply fully with the Syariah law. development and education stands out in terms of need Enlargement of Islamic Banking is a must in order to take and priority. advantage of the future growing trend. However, various cost minimizing investments must be introduced to gain TOTAL DEFENCE peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s confidence and public thrust. More scholars with knowledge of both Islamic banking and conventional In facing new and diverse security challenges of the 21st system should be trained to advise future Islamic banking Century it is suggested that the Total Defence Concept operation. As a progressive Islamic country, Malaysia be adopted as a broad and comprehensive defence and should strive to be a leading center of Islamic banking in security policy with the military being incorporated as the world. one of the key national institutions for nation building. The adoption of this concept will not in any way require changes in the existing government structure save for the ONE SCHOOL SYSTEM need to revive and re-strengthen the existing National Education has a big influence in national unity, public Security Council. It is hoped that this approach will safety, socio-economic life, religion and culture. In this enable the nation to formulate a more comprehensive respect one school system with high degree of flexibility and coordinated defence and security policy. The end should be set up. This system will accommodate the result is a more resilient nation. interest of all races. National schools would also serve the communities of different races, thus strengthening SPECIAL ATTENTION FOR SABAH AND national unity. More importantly, one school system SARAWAK would promote public safety, strengthen ethnic relations, and enrich the use of Bahasa Melayu as the national Currently, there are external threats in East Malaysian language. In addition the students are encouraged to states of Sabah and Sarawak. The major threat is the master at least two United Nations languages. Thus increase in the influx of illegal immigrants. Due to the the system and contents of education at all levels must close proximity of the two states to Indonesia and the be seriously and comprehensively studied in order to Philippines, a strong security force must be in place. The achieve the ideal objective of ONE MALAYSIA.

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Towards 2057 Setting the National Agenda

security level can be stepped up by military presence and the use of high technology security devices such as satellites to monitor the activities at the border of the three countries. Enforcement agencies responsible to screen trespassers and border crossing will be strengthened.

Relationship, jurisdiction, the separation of power and authority between Sabah and Sarawak with the Federal Government must be revisited and the new one should be drawn through discussions and negotiations.

CONCLUSION The problem of poverty and also backwardness of the society in Sabah and Sarawak requires an effective affirmative action. The East Malaysia states require education assistance, reorganization, relocating and restructuring of society so that they can be developed and progress in line with the national development agenda. Affirmative action should be formulated to ensure that economically deprived Bumiputera should benefit from state resources such as land, oil and gas, timber and etc in a legal manner. The ownership of state resources by the locals will give them economic advantages and at the same time improve their quality of life. The Federal Government should form a Special Permanent Committee to look into the long-term development plan for East Malaysia. For national unity, the people of Sabah and Sarawak must be developed together with the current development in West Malaysia. The development aspects that must be given urgent attention are provision of adequate infrastructures, integration programs amongst ethnic groups, commercialization of agriculture and education, including non-formal education for rural poor.

The products that we see today will remain as it is if we do not change when change is necessary. A change from the status quo comes in many forms. But changes will not occur if the entire Malaysian population fails to understand why changes are needed, if participation is not forthcoming, if the means are not available, and worse still if the political will is weak and tainted with other motives. We believe that leaders must be open and forward-looking with the Malaysian population about the policy decisions facing our nation. This booklet brings together our proposals to bring significant changes to the livelihood of ALL Malaysian citizens irrespective of race, religious belief, age groups, culture, and place where they reside. Malaysia has been successful in many aspects but we have also been less successful in many respects. We must believe that failures can be turned into opportunities and better place is around the corner. Although that corner may look far away, the year 2057 will come if the planet earth still exists at that point in time. We have a chance to bring the country together â&#x20AC;&#x201D; to finally tackle problems that we might has overlooked or totally ignored.

For the long-term stability, the concept of Federalism in Sabah and Sarawak must be strengthened and improved.

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A Call for Action

The action plan as proposed here is aimed at solving the many problems that we are experiencing – economic, social, religious intolerance, moral decadence, security, and many others. This is a defining moment in our history. The dream that so many Malaysian generations fought for feels as if it’s slowly slipping away. We are worried of failing to pay the groceries and the utility bills, payment for health care or child-care or university education. It’s harder to save and retire peacefully. Above all we might be losing faith in the ability of leaders to unite all citizens and let them live in harmony, eat and sleep well, and give our future generations a Malaysian part of the planet that’s cleaner and safer than we found it. But we have faith in this carefully laid out plan because it addresses the needs, the hopes, and aspirations all Malaysians.

“Each of us is one Malaysian, together we are one Malaysia, and together, we can make Malaysia a better place for ALL”.

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COMMITTEE MEMBERS

MAIN COMMITTEE Chairman:

Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Ir. Dr. Radin Umar bin Radin Sohadi Director General, Department of Higher Education

Members:

Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Sharifah Hapsah Syed Hassan Shahabudin (Vice Chancellor - UKM) Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Sulaiman bin Md. Yassin (Vice Chancellor -UMT) Y.Bhg. Prof. Datuk Dr. Nik Mustapha Raja Abdullah (Vice Chancellor - UPM) Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Seri Dr. Syed Arabi Idid (Rector - UIAM) Y.Bhg. Prof. Dr. Khairuddin Ab Hamid (Vice Chancellor - Unimas) Y.Bhg. Prof. Datuk Dr. Kamaruzzaman Ampon (Vice Chancellor - UMS) Y.Bhg. Lt. Jen. Dato’ Pahlawan Hj Zulkifli bin Zainal Abidin (Vice Chancellor - UPNM) Y.Bhg. Prof. Dr. Che Wan Ahmad Zawawi Ibrahim (Representative - UM) Y.Bhg. Prof. Dr. Omar bin Osman (Representative - USM) Y.Bhg. Dato’ Seri Prof. Dr. Ibrahim Abu Shah (Vice Chancellor - UiTM) Y.Bhg. Prof. Ir. Dr. Mohd Azraai Kasim (Representative - UTM)

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Tan Sri Dato’ Dr. Nordin Kardi (Vice Chancellor - UUM) Y.Bhg. Prof. Dr. Aminah binti Ayob (Vice Chancellor - UPSI) Y.Bhg. Prof. Datuk Dr. Mohd Noh bin Dalimin (Vice Chancellor - UTHM) Y.Bhg. Brig. Jen. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Kamarudin bin Husin (Vice Chancellor - Unimap) Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Daing Mohd Nasir bin Daing Ibrahim (Vice Chancellor - UMP) Y.Bhg. Dato’ Prof. Dr. Abdul Shukor b. Hj. Husin (Vice Chancellor - USIM) Y.Bhg. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Yusoff bin Hassan (Vice Chancellor - UTeM) Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Alias bin Daud (Vice Chancellor - UDM) Y.Bhg. Prof. Dr. Zainai bin Mohamed (Vice Chancellor - UMK) MINISTRY OF HIGHER EDUCATION Members:

Dr. Siti Aishah bt Baharum Puan Noor Khalidah bt Md. Khalid En. Baharuddin bin Tahir En. Jamalulail bin Abu Bakar Puan Rosma Wati bt Tahir

Secretariat:

Cik Noorahayu bt Yahya Puan Norfarah bt Ghazali DRAFTING COMMITTEE: UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA TERENGGANU

Chairman:

Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Sulaiman bin Md Yassin

Members:

Prof. Dr. Shukery bin Mohamed

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Prof. Dr. Nik Hashim bin Nik Mustapha Prof. Dr. Ibrahim bin Mamat Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nik Fuad bin Nik Mohd Kamil Dr. Noraien bt Mansor Secretariat:

To’ Puan Wan Hafsah bt Wan Mohamad Puan Wan Sarimah bt Wan Razak Puan Noor Suhaila bt Mat Hassan Puan Mazlina bt Abd Aziz En. Mohd Fadli bin Abdullah HUMAN SECURITY: UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA

Chairman:

Y.Bhg. Prof. Dato’ Dr. Sharifah Hapsah Syed Hassan Shahabudin

Members:

Prof. Dr. Nor Ghani Md Nor Prof. Madya Dr. Rashila Ramli Dr. Sharifah Munirah Syed Hussein Alatas

Researchers:

Prof. Ir. Dr. Hassan Basri Prof. Dr. Saran Kaur Gill Prof. Dr. Mohd. Fauzi Mohd. Jani Prof. Dr. Sharifah Mastura Syed Abdullah Prof. Dr. Zakaria Stapa Prof. Dr. Abdul Latif Samian Prof. Dr. Mazlin Mokhtar Prof. Dr. Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis Prof. Dr. A. Rahman A. Jamal Prof. Dr. Normah Mohd. Noor Prof. Ir. Dr. Riza Atiq Abdullah O.K Rahmat Prof. Dr. Rahmah Mohamed Prof. Dato’ Dr. Mohd. Yusof Hj. Othman Prof. Tham Siew Yean Prof. Dato’ Dr. Abdul Rahman Embong Datin Paduka Halimahton Saadiah Hashim

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Prof. Dato’ Dr. Md. Ikram Mohd. Said Prof. Dato’ Dr. Sharifah Zaleha Syed Hassan Prof. Dato’ Dr. Denison Jayasooria Prof. Dr. Mansor Mohd. Noor Prof. Dr. Joy Jacqueline Pereira Prof. Dr. Rozhan Othman Prof. Dr. Muhammad Fauzi Hj. Mohd. Zain Prof. Dr. Salmaan Hussain Inayat-Hussain Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kalaivani Nadarajah Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hazita Azman Dr. Ismail Mohd. Saibon Prof. Dr. Tajudin Fredolin Tanggang Prof. Dr. Kamaruzzaman Sopian Secretariat:

Pn. Padlon Hj. Yahya ECONOMICS AND FINANCE: UNIVERSITI PUTRA MALAYSIA

Chairman:

Y.Bhg. Prof. Datuk Dr. Nik Mustapha Raja Abdullah

Members:

Prof. Dr. Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah Prof. Dato’ Dr. Mansor Md. Isa Prof. Dr. Fatimah Mohamed Arshad Prof. Dr. Abdul Ghafar Ismail Prof. Dr. Chandra Muzaffar Prof. Dr. Annuar Md Nassir Prof. Dr. Shamsher Mohamad Prof. Dr. Nik Hashim Nik Mustapha SOCIAL AND WELFARE: UNIVERSITI ISLAM ANTARABANGSA MALAYSIA

Chairman:

Prof. Dato’ Seri Dr. Syed Arabi Idid

Coordinator:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hazizan bin Md. Noon

Group Heads:

Prof. Dr. Rosnani Hashim (Education) Prof. Dr. Abdel Aziz Berghout (Race, Religion, Culture & Values)

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Assoc. Prof. Dr. Khaliq Ahmad (Socio-economics) Dr. Tunku Mohar Tunku Mokhtar (Public Safety) Members:

Prof. Dr. Siti Normala Sheikh Obid (Economics) Prof. Mohamad Sahari Nordin (Education) Prof. Dr. Noraini Mohd. Noor (Psychology) Prof. Dr. Ahmad Ibrahim Abu Shouk (History & Civilization) Prof. Dr. Ahamed Kameel Mydin Meera (Economics)

External Consultants:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. M. Ariff Zakaullah (Economics) Prof. Dr. Shukery bin Mohamed (UMT) Prof. Dr. Che Wan Ahmad Zawawi Ibrahim (UM) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sity Daud (UKM) Prof. Dr. Ahmad Farhan Sadullah (MIROS)

NATIONAL DEFENCE: UNIVERSITI PERTAHANAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA Chairman:

Y.Bhg. Lt. Jen. Datoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Pahlawan Hj Zulkifli bin Zainal Abidin

Members:

Assoc. Prof. Lt.Kol (B) Ahmad Ghazali bin Abu Hassan

SABAH AND SARAWAK AFFAIRS: UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH & UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK Chairman:

Y.Bhg. Prof. Dr. Khairuddin Ab Hamid

Members:

Prof. Dr. Peter Songan Prof. Dr. Fatimah Abang Assoc. Prof. Mohamad Fadzil Abdul Rahman Prof. Dr. Wan Hashim Wan Ibrahim Assoc. Prof. Dr. Spencer Empading Sanggin Dr. Sharen Ahmad Zaidi Adruce Dr. Mohd Ibrahim Safawi Mohd Zain Prof. Dr. Wang Yin Chai

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SABAH: UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH Chairman:

Y.Bhg. Prof. Datuk Dr. Kamaruzzaman Ampon

Members:

Prof. Dr. Amran Ahmed Prof. Dr. Rosnah Ismail Prof. Dr. Sabihah Osman Assoc. Prof. Dr. Asmady Idris

Researchers:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Kasim Mansur Assoc. Prof. Dr. Naâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;imah Yusoff Assoc. Prof. Dr. Roszehan Mohd Idrus Assoc. Prof. Dr. Remali Yusof Dr. Ramzah Dambul Dr. Mohammad Tahir Mapa Dr. Kntayya Mariappan Dr. Pg. Hassanal Pg. Bagul Marja Azlima Omar Paul Porodong Zaini Othman Baszley Bee Basrah Bee Wan Shawaluddin Wan Hassan Mohd Shaukhi Md. Radzi Rizal Zamani Idris Syahruddin Awg Ahmad Mori Kogid Sharija Che Shaari Ida Shafinaz Mohd Kamil Aliakbar Gulasan Christina Ligadu

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Profile for Penerbit UMT

Towards 2057  

Setting the National Agenda

Towards 2057  

Setting the National Agenda