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Architecture and climate change



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Waterfront: Tagus River Gateway

Architecture and Climate Change


Title

Publication date

Waterfront Tagus River Gateway

2018

Coordinator

internationaleventsdau.ulusofona.pt

Pedro Ressano Garcia Organizing committee

Isabel Barbas Luis Santiago Batista Maria Rita Pais Nuno Griff Rui Nogueira Simões Sofia Senos

Organizers

International Academic Partners

Permalink

Keywords

Waterfront Regeneration, Climate Change, Urban Design, Lisbon, Tagus River Impressão e Acabamento

Depósito Legal

Students committee

Antonio Francisco Iris Pedro João Pedro Maia João Pedro Serafim Luisa Miala Madalena Cabral Marcelo Rafael Miguel Bernardo Pedro Figueiras Ricardo Cabrita Rodolfo Lopes

ISBN

978-989-757-091-9

This publication contains the results of the European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design - Summer School ULHT 2017, and of the Joint Studio ULHT-UNSW 2017 Tagus Mouth Workshop

Editorial coordination

Pedro Ressano Garcia Editorial Assistants

Silvana Moreira Graphic Design

Itemzero Composition and Graphic Arrangement

Madalena Cabral Cover Design

Madalena Cabral

Todos os direitos reservados Edições Universitárias Lusófonas Campo Grande, 376 – 1749 – 024 Lisboa edições.lusofonas@ulusofona.pt

Institutional Partners


Acknowledgments

5

The production of this book is the result of a combined effort by many scholars and institutions whom we must thank. First, to the Oeiras and Almada municipalities, who were enthusiastic in their support. To them is owed the valuable knowledge and contributions of their experts, and the deeper understanding of the territory. To the participants of the two events organized by the ULHT in Lisbon, in 2017, which are gathered in this book: ULHT Summer School and Joint Studio ULHT + UNSW (University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia). Both events required the energy of a crowd, with nearly one hundred people travelling many miles to be in Lisbon, where they worked hard, had little sleep and produced extraordinary material that is now published in this book. To the MAAT – Museum for Art, Architecture and Technology, for hosting the opening conference of the ULHT Summer School, on the subject “Lisbon Waterfront, a Vision for Thirty Years: Climate Change and Strategy Horizon”, organized by the Department of Architecture and Urban Planning at ULHT. To the MCB-Museum Colecção Berardo, for hosting the final presentation of results of the ULHT Summer School in a public session at its Auditorium. To the guest professors and professionals, who raised the level of scientific expertise. Regarding the Summer School, we address our gratitude to Alessandra Tata, Alexander Gogl, Dimitra Babalis, Harald Gatermann, Karin Lehmann, Romolo Continenza and Spela Hudnik, together with the local faculty:

Hugo Nazareth, Isabel Barbas, Nuno Griff, Rui Nogueira Simões, Sofia Senos and myself. Regarding the Joint Studio ULHT-UNSW, we thank the supervision and coordination carried out by Brendan Randles, James Weirick, Karl Fischer and Kevin Hoffman, together with the ULHT tutor Marcelo Grilo Rafael, and the faculty members Luís Santiago Baptista, Maria Rita Pais, Rui Nogueira Simões and myself. They made the workshops possible and their ideas are expressed through design and text in this book. To Catarina Patrício and Fernando da Fonseca Cruz, for contributing with original research to this book. To the ULHT students António Francisco, Íris Pedro, João Pedro Serafim, Luísa Darlosa, Madalena Cabral, Marcelo Rafael, ,Miguel Bernardo, Pedro Figueiras, Rodolfo Paradella and Silvana Moreira, for their restless collaboration as workshop volunteers. Lastly and most importantly, to ULHT-Universidade Lusófona administrator, Manuel José Damásio, for supporting the project, carefully handling it and solving several difficulties that the project faced.

Pedro Ressano Garcia Coordinator of European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design 2016



Index

7

Introduction

9

Waterfront: Tagus River Gateway Pedro Ressano Garcia

11

Approach to coastal risks Fernando da Fonseca Cruz

25

Adaptation and resistance to the new climate regime Catarina Patricio

29

Alto da Barra, Oeiras - ULHT + Partners Studio 1

37

Porto Brandão, Porto Undergroundão Sofia Senos Alessandra Tata

Team Project

41

Paper

Porto Brandão - ULHT + Partners Studio 2

Paper

87

Towards a new work agenda Romolo Continenza

89

Lisbon : Space time and city Brendan Randles

95

Trafaria - ULHT + UNSW Studio 5

107

Oeiras - ULHT + UNSW Studio 6

113

Trafaria - ULHT + UNSW Studio 7

Paper

55

Addressing the issues of climate change in sustainable waterfront transformation Dimitra Babalis

Paper

Paper

Team Project Team Project

61

Trafaria - ULHT + Partners Studio 3

Team Project

Team Project Paper

75

Paper

Connecting the city and the waterfront (Oeiras Riverfront) Harald Gatermann Karin Lehmann Team Project

77

Praia de Fontainhas, Oeiras - ULHT + Partners Studio 4

Team Project


8

121

Team Project

Conclusion

Oeiras - ULHT + UNSW Studio 8

183

Team Project

133

Trafaria - ULHT + UNSW Studio 9

145

Oeiras - ULHT + UNSW Studio 10

Team Project

Team Project

159

Trafaria - ULHT + UNSW Studio 11 Team Project

169

Oeiras - WULHT + UNSW Studio 12

Paper

179

On opening window in Lisbon Karl Fischer

Impact of Climate Change Pedro Ressano Garcia


Introduction

9

Text

Prof. Pedro Ressano Garcia From

Universidade LusĂłfona de Humanidades e Tecnologias Portugal

Waterfront: Tagus River Gateway Architecture and Climate Change

One of the consequences of climate change is the stress put on vulnerable communities on the waterfront. The erosion of social and political organization as the climate swings disrupts the territory. In Lisbon, the estuary of the Tagus River is particularly vulnerable. Its largeness and diversity require the search for solutions, especially at the mouth of the river when joining the Atlantic Ocean. The necessity to upgrade the built environment and people’s livelihoods is in the centre of the proposals published in this book. In 2017, at the ULHT Summer School and Joint Studio ULHT + UNSW workshops, professors and graduate students gathered in international teams and shared their local expertise. Imaginative solutions inspired by the creativity natural to the academic environment are valuable to raise new questions and address the situation from different perspectives. In 2016, the previous publication of results of the European

Workshops on Waterfront Urban Design (EWWUD) highlighted the impact of climate change and its influence on migratory movements. Participants were asked to address direct climate change effects on specific waterfront sites. Considering that each year there is an increase of the potential for extreme climate events and of risk, the central question is how to adapt waterfront areas, buildings and public spaces. The methodology adopted in the ULHT Summer School and Joint Studio ULHT + UNSW workshops follows the EWWUD methodology started in 2010, meaning it brings to the discussion municipality representatives and high-profile professionals, authors of master plans and projects of architecture of significant relevance for the region. Graduate students and tutors from various countries come together to participate in the workshop and are divided into small working groups. Since


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Waterfront and the impact

there are different topics related to waterfront urban design each group holds participants from different cultural backgrounds. During the working sessions, they are able to share their own perception of the theme and individual knowledge of best practices. Together, they produce original ideas and proposals aiming to reach a holistic vision. The proposals presented in this publication merge historic, geographic, economic competitiveness, the environmental and local people’s necessities. The main goal is the improvement of the waterfront areas, which depend on creative and innovative solutions to contribute for the necessary adaptation to climate change, while searching to mitigate the risk by developing culturally rooted solutions. According to the methodology adopted, the definition of the chosen locations is sorted out in discussion with municipalities' architects and planners. Then, additional research is made prior to the workshop, aiming to create a body of knowledge that is free from political pressure. Participants are divided in groups working in studios, each organizing, selecting and editing the information required to identify problems and design solutions. The information covers a wide range of disciplines to understand the particularities of local culture, their vulnerabilities, and the risk affecting the complexity of natural systems.

the estuary, is the westernmost point of the Oeiras waterfront and next to Carcavelos beach, at present very popular for surfing activities. Therefore, the groups working on the site of Alto da Barra had to deal with a border site with a very strong identity, and average to low density. The other Oeiras site, Praia de Fontainhas is the opposite: the fortress is small and has been hidden from public sight and access till very recently, while overlooked by large and dense suburbs. On the south bank, in the Almada municipality, the two sites of Porto Brandão and Trafaria are located below a steep cliff, standing at the end of canyons that connect the hinterland to the riverfront. In past times, the production of the south riverfront was shipped from these small ports to the surrounding urban areas. In the 20th century, the industrialization of Trafaria changed its character, through the installation of vast industrial structures, some still operating. Today, in the postindustrial period, the question arises of what to do with these facilities. The port city of Lisbon has continuously been adapting to changes in port activities promoted by the maritime community. The incapacity to transform the port, and build the Trafaria Container Terminal in the 1990s compromised the community, in particular those working in maritime related activities. Yet from the environmental perspective, the planned but not built industrial landfills in the estuary, helped preserve the natural environment around it and add value to the region while keeping some of the local ecosystems balanced. The other Almada site, Porto Brandão, features a decommissioned gas tanks located around its settlement, which still presents the signs of a past life that thrived from its small beach – the ferry service is reduced nowadays, and Porto Brandão features a number of neglected houses and businesses. On the cliff, there is a unique site: the Lazareto, an abandoned medical facility, which was a city in itself. The dominant community is low-income, unemployment is high and illegal settlements sprawl. These settlements sit at a very low height and are immediately threatened by the rise in the water levels.

Two sites on each riverbank of the Tagus River were the object of study on both events: ULHT Summer School 2017 and Joint Studio with the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. In spite of being in direct view of one another, the two sites possess different characteristics and problems, covering a wide scope of opportunities: the north bank holds a higher-income community, and its riverfront space is more devoted to leisure activities; the south bank is industrial and in decay, but still featuring large operational industrial sites. On the north bank two sites of the Oeiras municipality were addressed: Alto da Barra and Praia de Fontainhas. Both waterfront sites feature obsolete military facilities involving large defence structures. At Alto da Barra, the fortress of São Julião da Barra, built to defend the city and control the entrance to

Introduction

Resilience of the built environment and the right balance between nature and human presence are valued among the design schemes. Waterfronts are among the most vulnerable areas in the process to adapt to climate change. To mitigate losses and enhance resilience, a holistic approach is required. Following the central question, each studio worked to find strategies to face the present challenges and develop opportunities for each site to face climate change. Within the present scenario, waterfronts need to re-invent their identities. Some of the ideas published in this book are capable to fire the imagination of the reader, change the present discussion and challenge the future of the region.


11

Paper

Text

Fernando da Fonseca Cruz i Pedro Silva Pereira ii From

Universidade Lusรณfona de Humanidades e Tecnologias Lisboa Universidade Aberta

Approach to coastal risks Key words: Littoral, coastal zone, hazards, territorial management instruments, coastal protection. Abstract This article intends to organize concepts about littoral and coastal geomorphology and to reflect on the main coastal hazards, in the context of climate change, and to present some examples of coastal zone intervention as a form of risk mitigation.

Introduction Climate change and coastal risks are closely associated and increasingly present in spatial planning concerns, unfortunately for the worst reasons. Changes in the regularity of the climate system have inevitable impacts on the territory and the way of life of people, whose consequences are still unknown. We are probably at the beginning of the process whose point of return is unknown. To address unwanted scenarios, there are three possible courses of action: to mitigate, to adapt, and to relocate (Santos et al, 2017). Mitigating means reducing impacts and possible risks. To adapt means accommodating or adjusting to the climate change scenario in a resilient perspective, that is, with the ability to overcome and recover from adversity or catastrophes. Relocation presupposes the abandonment of

coastal risk areas in favour of other safer areas. This article focuses on the approach to risks with a territorial impact on the coast. It emphasizes the importance of organizing the concepts of coastal and coastal geomorphology. It addresses the risks associated with the coast and the interventions in the coastal zone as a form of mitigation of the same, whose measures and actions are expressed in instruments of territorial management and in the works of coastal intervention. Finally, some case studies are presented, which are examples of mitigation of coastal risks in the Portuguese coast. Concepts about littoral and coastal geomorphology There is a vast set of concepts associated with the coast, not always consensual depending on the disciplinary domain that


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Approach to coastal risks

the land, from the LMPMAVE to 2km for land, and the sea, extending from the LMPMAVE to the 12 nautical miles that delimit the territorial sea. In this part of the territory, the sea and the earth exert mutual biophysical influence through the mechanical and chemical action of waves, tides, winds, temperature and salinity.

Figure 1 - Littoral and associated concepts (Adapted of ANPC, 2010).

studies them. When we look at the littoral we are referring to a portion of the territory, with a variable extension, between the land and the sea, being particularly influenced by the presence of this one. Therefore, it is a generic concept that encompasses others namely coastal zone, coastal rim and shoreline. According to the Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 82/2009, of August 20th, [1], based on the study "Bases for the Strategy of Integrated Management of the National Coastal Zone" (MAOTDR, 2007), the concepts of littoral, coastal zone, coastal rim and shoreline were defined. The shoreline coincides with the line of maximum seawater of equinoctial living waters (LMPMAVE) establishing the separation between the earth (lithosphere) and the sea (hydrosphere) (Fig.1). The coastal rim is a territorial band that extends between the land, up to 500m upstream, from the LMPMAVE, and the sea, to the depth of -30m. The coastal zone encompasses the entire shoreline and corresponds to an extensive territorial boundary between

The littoral is the largest territorial portion that stretches from hundreds of miles, from the land side, up to 200 nautical miles, towards the sea. The water resources law, defined by Law No. 54/2005, of November 15th, [2] establishes a set of concepts related to the public water domain, which is understood by the public domains of the sea, lakes and rivers and other waters. The maritime public domain belongs to the State and comprises coastal and territorial waters; the internal waters subject to the influence of the tides, in the rivers, lakes and lagoons; the riverbed of coastal and territorial waters and inland waters subject to tidal influence; the continuous seabed of the continental shelf, covering the exclusive economic zone; and the shores of coastal waters and inland waters subject to tidal

Figure 2 - Representation of the public water domain and associated concepts (Adapted of ANPC, 2010).

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influence (see Article No. 3 of Law No. 54/2005 and Fig. 2). The public domain of lakes and rivers and the public domain of other waters, which are complementary to the public maritime domain, constitute the water resources and their respective areas of protection to safeguard the public interest, whose definition is governed by that defined in articles No. 5 and No. 7 of the Law No. 54/2005. The continental platform comprises the seabed and part of the exclusive economic zone, to the outer limit of the territorial sea (Fig. 2). The concept of margin established by the water resources law (See article. No. 11, Law No. 54/2005), and by the water law (See article No. 4 of Law No. 58/2005, of December 29th [3]) comprises a strip of land contiguous with or bordering the line which limits the bed of waters whose width, measured from the boundary of the seabed or watercourse, is (Fig. 2): • 50m in the case of navigable or floating waters subject to the jurisdiction of the maritime or port authorities; • 30m, being navigable or floating waters (not subject to tidal influence); • 10m for non-navigable or floating waters. The National Ecological Reserve (REN) is a public utility constraint that conditions the occupation, use and transformation of the soil, identifying uses and actions compatible with it. The legal regime of REN, in force, defined by Decree-Law No. 166/2008, of August 22nd, [4], with new wording given by Decree-Law No. 239/2012 of November 2nd, [5], national and regional strategic plans defined by the Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 81/2012, of October 3rd, [6], with Declaration of Rectification No. 71/2012, of November 30th, [7], establishes and regulates some associated concepts to the topic under analysis, organizing them into three groups of typologies: coastal protection areas; areas relevant to the sustainability of the terrestrial hydrological cycle, and areas of natural risk prevention. With regard to the coastal protection areas, the following


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Approach to coastal risks

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typologies are defined (Article No 4 of Decree-Law No. 166/2008 and subsequent amendment by Decree-Law No. 239/2012) [4, 5]:

e) Saltmarsh Saltmarshes are sedimentary environments under tidal influence, being temporarily covered by sea water, constituting particular biotopes on the margins of marine environments, with the presence of halophytic plants and a huge variety of small marine fauna.

The riverbed is the land covered by the normal waters, that is, without the influence of extraordinary floods or storms. In the case of the sea or waters subject to tidal influence, the bed is delimited by the LMPMAVE.

a) Maritime band of coastal protection It is a strip along the coast line to the ocean side. It corresponds to the part of the neritic zone with the greatest biological richness, because in it there are natural habitats and species of marine flora and fauna considered of community interest under the terms of Decree-Law No 49/2005, of 24th February [8]. Upstream it is defined by the LMPMAVE or by the downstream limit of the transition waters and inferiorly by the bathymetric of the 30m. This coastal protection zone presents high productivity of biological resources and high hydrodynamism being responsible for the balance of sandy coasts. b) Beaches They are forms of accumulation of unconsolidated sediments, of sand or gravel. They comprise an emerged domain subject to tidal influence and to the activity of the waves' spreading or of the formation during periods of storm, as well as a submerged domain that extends to the depth of closure and that corresponds to the area where the coastal drift is processed and where significant morphological changes occur in the proximal seabed. c) Detritus barriers The detritus barriers are sandy or gravel strings, detached from land, with one end fixed to it and the other free, in the case of restingas, connected to land by both ends. They can be restingas, welded barriers and barrier islands. d) Tombolo A tombolo represents a protrusion of part of the territory by the sea as a result of the connection of an island to the continent by sediment accumulation.

f) Islet and cliffs in the sea They are detached rock formations from the coast. g) Coastal dunes and fossil dunes Dunes are forms of wind accumulation of marine sands that can constitute a barrier against erosion phenomena and sea overtopping.

b) Ponds and lakes and their protective beds, margins and protection ranges Ponds and lakes are inland surface lentic waterways. c) Dams that contributing to the connectivity and ecological coherence of REN, as well as the respective beds, margins and protection ranges. They represent the volume of water retained by a dam up to the maximum altimetric elevation.

h) Cliffs and their protection bands They constitute abrupt coastal slopes or with sharp slope, being cut by the combined action of marine, continental and biological agents. Their protection bands at the base and at the top have the function of guaranteeing the stability of the above and the prevention and safety of goods and people. i) Protective coastal land cover This protection range has the function of preventing flooding and sea overtopping, being delimited from the seabed to the interior, based on topographic, meteorological and oceanic criteria.

Figure 3 – Representation of the margin and the adjacent zone (Castelo Branco, 2011).

The relevant areas to the sustainability of the terrestrial hydrological cycle are constituted by the following typologies:

d) Strategic areas for aquifers protection and recharge. They are geographic areas, due to the nature of the soil, the underlying geological formations and the terrain morphology, that present favourable conditions for the infiltration and natural recharge of the aquifers and are of particular interest in safeguarding the quantity and quality of the water in order to prevent their scarcity or deterioration. They have the function of preventing the scarcity of water, avoiding the floods and regularizing the quantity and quality of the aquifers.

a) Watercourses and their beds and margins Watercourses are defined by their riverbeds and their margins.

The areas of prevention of natural risks are broken down according to the following typologies:

j) Transitional waters and their respective beds, protection margins The surface waters at the fluvial-maritime interface, between the river mouth of watercourses and the sea, partially salted, characterized by high biological productivity.


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Approach to coastal risks

a) Adjacent zone An adjacent zone is defined by its own diploma and corresponds to the adjacent area to the margin being threatened by the sea, by the 100-year return period flood or by the largest known flood. (See Fig. 3).

c) Flood-threatened areas Flood-threatened areas comprise the contiguous area at the edge of a watercourse that extends to the line reached by the 100-year return period flood or by the largest known flood, in the absence of data to identify the centennial flood.

b) Sea-threatened areas The sea-threatened areas are contiguous areas bordering sea waters that show high susceptibility to flooding by sea overtopping. As defined in Decree-Law No. 89/87, of February 26th, [19], they should be classified based on risk map and with coast monitoring.

d) Areas of high risk of soil erosion These are areas that, due to their soil and subsoil characteristics, slope and slope size, and other factors that can be altered, such as vegetation cover and cultural practices, are subject to soil loss, landslides or block breaks due to the characteristics of soil and slope. The objective is to conserve

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Figure 4 shows the coastal protection areas. Figure 6 – Typical dune ecosystems

(Source: http://www.coolgeography.co.uk/

GCSE/AQA/Coursework/Coasts/Sand%20dune%20succession.jpg).)

Figure 4 – Representation of coastal protection areas (ANPC, 2010). Legend: 1-Maritime band of coastal protection 2-Beach 3-Restinga, welded barriers and barrier islands 4–Marshland 5-Dune 6-Fossil dune 7-Cliff 8a-Protective coastal land cover 8b-Margin 9-Transitional waters and their respective beds, protection margins

Figure 5 – Representation of coastal geomorphology (Source:https://image. slidesharecdn.com/earthscience16-3-101215125109-phpapp02/95/earth-science-163-1-728. jpg?cb=1292417639).

the soil as a resource, reducing its loss and reducing the silting of the water bodies. e) Areas of slope instability Areas of slope instability are areas that, due to their soil and subsoil characteristics, slope, size and shape of the hillside or escarpment and hydrogeological conditions, are subject to the occurrence of slope movements, including landslides and rock falls.

In addition to the previously defined, we can also identify the bays, estuaries, valleys and sea and river terraces, as characteristic geomorphology of coastal regions (Fig. 5), whose conservation and valorisation contribute to a better balance between Man and the Environment. Coastal areas are also characterized by specific ecosystems and marginal habitats. We can identify two characteristic ecosystems: the dune systems and the saltmarshes and substrates of the transition waters. In these ecosystems coexist diverse habitats such as free waters, vegetated islands, banks of mud, saltmarshes, reeds, ditches, dunes, and cliffs, which shelter plant species (reed, sand-hay, morganheira-da-praia, reversal, weeping and various grasses, etc.) and animals (crustaceans, fish, molluscs, amphibians and reptiles, etc.), (Fig. 6). Shoreline and associated hazards According to the National Program for Land Management Policy (PNPOT) [9], currently under review, the most serious climate change scenario is realistic and has significant


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Approach to coastal risks

impacts on the environment, agriculture, economy and society, reinforcing the need for mitigation and reinforcement with adaptation measures. "The Global Risks Report 2017" (WEF, 2017) identifies extreme weather events as lack of water, major natural disasters and failures to mitigate and adapt to climate change as the major

precipitation. The variation of 1mb of pressure in an Atlantic depression centre may cause sea level rise or sub-elevation by 1cm. Winds acquire higher velocities in the SW, W and NW directions causing repeated episodes of sea agitation, sediment erosion, sea overtopping and flooding of the margins. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC, 2014) and the satellite observations of the European Space Agency1, the Earth could see a 30 cm rise in sea level at the end of this century, among other reasons, is associated with increased availability of water in the oceans caused by glacial melt due to global warming. In Portugal the average level of the sea is currently almost 20 cm above the position it occupied at the beginning of the 20th century. The elevation of the mean sea level in Portugal, based on the records of the tide gauge of Cascais, was 2.1 mm/year between 1992 and 2004 (Fig. 7).

Figure 7 - Secular series of NMM value in Cascais (red), moving averages curve and trend lines throughout the century. XX (blue colour) (Antunes, 2009).

global risks with a particular impact on human life and activity. In fact, the main coastal risks are closely associated with the climate system, whose extreme manifestations cause variations in sea level causing intensification of coastal erosion, flooding and coastal flooding and sea overtopping. Coastal erosion results from the combined action of various physical-chemical and anthropogenic agents. It has significant impacts on the work and coastal geomorphology, causing wear, transportation and deposition of materials in all structures and forms of coastal protection, thus shaping the geography of the coast. It is responsible for the decrease in the volume of sand on the beaches and dunes of the west coast of Portugal. The perturbations of the climatic system in the Iberian Peninsula have their origin in the disturbances of the Polar Front associated to the subpolar depressions, with special manifestation in the winter months, causing greater

The floods consist of the transhipment of the normal bed of the watercourses by extreme hydrological phenomenon causing the submergence of the margins and normally emergent terrains. They are distinguished from floods since this hydrological phenomenon also natural or man-induced, consists in the submersion of a usually emergent urban area. There are several environmental factors that amplify the risk of flood and coastal glaciation, highlighting the following: • Existence of blocking situations of depression centres dug off the Atlantic Ocean; • Severe precipitation combined with increased flows of the Iberian rivers and high tide of live tides; • Strong maritime ripple of W and SW. From a legal point of view, the concern with representing the risk of floods is ensured by the publication of Decree-Law No. 364/98, of November 2nd, [10], which establishes the obligation to draw up the letter of flood zones in municipalities 1 ESA, 2015, Monitoring Climate from Space, Online Course, in https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/climate-fromspace/2/register.

15

Figure 8 – Typologies of slope movements (ANPC, 2010, Adapted of T. Sunamura, 1992).

with agglomerations hit by floods. On the other hand, DecreeLaw No 115/2010 of October 22nd [11] establishes a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks, with the aim of reducing its harmful consequences, and transposes the Directive No. 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of October 23rd [12]. Tsunami flooding is the invasion of the coast or estuarine banks by long period waves caused by earthquakes with epicentre at sea (or volcanoes), whose impact on the territory can have a devastating effect, depending on the violence of the triggering earthquake. The assessment of this risk in Portuguese territory is a difficult task because there is no recent memory of tsunami episodes, since the last date of 1755. The forecast and impact of a risk of this nature should take into account the coastal areas


16

topography and geomorphology, with particular attention to the presence and provision of coastal barriers to mitigate the sea overtopping, and the exposed elements. Slope movements also referred to as slope instability areas include rock falls and landslides. They are usually triggered by intense and prolonged precipitation, earthquakes or anthropic action. The risk assessment of areas susceptible to instability of cliff slopes should take into account the systematic inventory of their safety conditions, the identification and cartographic recording of instability factors and their interpretation, using statistical prediction models and on the ground (ANPC, 2010). The cartographic delimitation of the protection margins should consider monitoring the evolution of the cliffs in the last century and calculating the average annual retreat rate (cf. Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 81/2012 [6, 7]), as well as typology of slope movement. The degree of potential risk should take into account the existence of slope deposits, slope accentuation, and recent signs of slope movements. The legal regime of territorial management instruments, established by Decree-Law No. 80/2015, of May 14th [13], contemplates the necessity of risk prevention by the mandatory inclusion of risk study in the municipal land planning plans. This cartography presupposes the calculation of vulnerability and hazard according to a scale of value and the identification of risk and exposed elements in critical areas. Coastal intervention as a way to mitigate risks The Portuguese continental west coast is characterized by a high energy sea agitation regime, with exceptionally high values of sediment transport along the coast from north to south. The combination of this transport with the decrease of the sedimentary supply to the coast, which began in the midnineteenth century resulting from several human activities in the river basins and in the coastal zone itself, is the origin of

Approach to coastal risks

most of the erosion problems affecting the sandy coasts of continental Portugal, which will be progressively aggravated by the effects of climate change and, in particular, by the rise in mean sea level (Santos et al., 2017). Legal, institutional, policy and planning instruments for coastal zone management Portugal has been following international and Community policies on integrated coastal zone management, developing in the last years an integrated coastal management policy and model based on various legal, institutional, policy and planning instruments (Carmo, 2009). The main legal and institutional instruments are the Water Law [3], approved in 2005, and the Working Group of the Littoral (GTL), nominated in 2014. The Water Law established the foundations and institutional framework to the sustainable management of the superficial (interior, transitional and coastal) waters, their beds and banks, as well as adjacent areas, maximum infiltration zones and protected areas, and subterranean waters. The Dispatch No. 6574/2014, of May 20th [14], created the GTL whose goal was to develop an in-depth reflection on coastal zones, leading to the definition of a set of measures that would allow, in the medium term, to modify the hazard exposure, including in that reflection the sustainable development in climate change scenarios. The policy instruments are the PNPOT [9], approved in 2007, and the National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ENGIZC), approved in 2009. The PNPOT, which describes the great options with relevance to the national territory organization, recognizes the high environmental sensitivity, the great attractiveness to the population and the significant weight to the national economy of the coastal zones. It assigns strategic importance to coastal zones and states that they should receive particular attention in land use management and planning and should be the target of policy measures to promote their sustainable use. The ENGIZC, created by the Resolution of the Council of

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Ministers No. 82/2009 [1] establishes a strategic frame of reference for the global, integrated and shared management of the coastal zone, in order to guarantee sustainability conditions for its development. It introduces the concept of “littoral asset� associated with the coastal zone, where the imperatives of protection are in line with the demands of the coastal zone and the principles of prevention/precaution are assumed, that should initially be ensured through existing territorial management instruments, which should predict the restriction of occupation on the coastal rim and its conditioning in the remaining area. The planning instruments concerning the coastal zone are the Coastal Rim Management Plans (POOC), the Estuary Land Use and Management Plans (POE), the Hydrographic Region Management Plans (PGRH), the Flood Risk Management Plans (PGRI) and the Municipal's Emergency Plans for Civil Protection (PMEPC). The POOC (Decree-Law No. 159/2012, of July 24th [15]) concern the coastal rims, comprising on the land side a 500 m wide "land protection zone", which can extend up to 1000 m when it is justified to defend coastal biophysical systems, and on the sea side a "maritime protection zone" extending to the 30 m bathymetric curve, including areas under port jurisdiction. According to Law No. 31/2014[16] and Decree-Law No. 80/2015[13], the POOC will be replaced by Coastal Rim Programmes (POC). These programmes maintain the intervention area of the POOC, but are more programmatic. The POC delimit safeguard bands which define protection regimes aimed at containing the exposure of people and property to erosion, coastal overtopping and flooding and cliff instability hazards, in order not only to ensure the territorial protection of current vulnerabilities, but also to ensure that changes in land use management are compatible with the probable climatic evolution and consequent aggravation of territorial vulnerability. The POE (Decree-Law No. 129/2008[17]) concern the estuaries, which are formed by the transitional waters and their beds and banks, and the estuarine rim, which corresponds to


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Approach to coastal risks

a terrestrial protection zone with a maximum width of 500 m counted from the banks. The POE aim to protect their waters, beds and banks and the ecosystems that inhabit them, in the perspective of their integrated management, as well as the environmental, social, economic and cultural valorisation of the estuarine rim. The PGRH, created by the Water Law [3], are formal instruments for water resources planning and aim at the environmental, social and economic management, protection and valorisation of waters at the level of hydrographic basins integrated within a given hydrographic region (composed by one or more hydrographic basins and its coastal waters). The Decree-Law No. 115/2010[11] established the preparation and implementation of the PGRI. These establish a national framework for the assessment and management of flood risks, in order to reduce the harmful consequences associated with this phenomenon to human health (including human losses), the environment, cultural heritage, infrastructures and economic activities. The PMEPC (Law No. 65/2007 of November 12nd [18]) are formal instruments that define how various agencies, services and structures engage in civil protection operations at the

municipal level. They should also provide an opportunity to anticipate scenarios likely to trigger a major accident or catastrophe by defining the organizational structure and procedures for preparing and increasing emergency response capacity. PMEPC include hazard identification and risk assessment, indication of preventive measures to be taken, identification of means and resources that can be mobilized, definition of the responsibilities of the involved structures, mobilization criteria and means and resource coordination mechanisms and operational response structure. In what concerns coastal zones, the hazards taken in account are coastal overtopping and flooding, tsunami and coastal erosion (destruction of beaches and dune systems and coastal cliff retreat and instability).

Figure 9 – Schematic diagram illustrating the effects of groynes on the shoreline (Adapted from Keller & Blodgett, 2007).

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Structures of coastal protection The protection of the shoreline can be divided into two categories: hard stabilization in which structures are built to reduce the action of the waves and currents and to protect the shore against erosion, and soft stabilization in which “natural” methods, such as adding sand, building dunes or planting vegetation to anchor sediment are used to combat erosion. Two types of hard stabilization structures are often used: shore-normal structures that interrupt the coastal drift (groynes and jetties) and shore-parallel structures that block the force of the waves (breakwaters, seawalls, seadikes and revetments). Groynes are long, narrow, rigid structures perpendicular or slightly oblique to the shoreline extending into the surf zone (generally slightly beyond the low water line). Their function is to retain, at least partially, the coastal drift, minimizing the problems of coastal erosion at the updrift side of the structure (but increasing coastal erosion on the down-drift side) (Fig. 9). A series of similar groynes (groyne field) may be constructed to protect a stretch of coast against erosion. The upper part of the structure (crest) may be emersed or submersed. They may also be permeable (allowing water and some sediment to pass through) or impermeable (enhancing the deflection of

Figure 10 – Schematic diagrams illustrating the effects of jetties (A), detachable breakwaters (B) and attachable breakwaters (C) on the shoreline (Adapted from Keller & Blodgett, 2007).

the flows). They can be constructed with different materials, depending on the intended permeability of the structure (concrete, rock mounds, tetrapods, gabions, sand or stone bags, wood, metal). Generally, groynes are straight, but they may also be T-, L-, or Y-shaped (Dias, 2007a; van Rijn, 2011). Jetties are impermeable structures, usually similar to groynes, and generally extending beyond the outer breaker line, whose purpose is to prevent the shoaling and meandering of inlet channels or navigation (approach) channels. Sand accumulation will occur on the updrift side and erosion on the downdrift side of the inlet (Fig. 10A) (Dias, 2007b; van Rijn, 2013). Breakwaters are coastal engineering impermeable structures


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that may be detached (constructed at some distance from the coast) (Fig. 10B), attached (with one end anchored on land, usually curved or L-shaped) (Fig. 10C) or adherent (corresponding in this case to seawalls). Detached breakwaters are roughly shore-parallel build to protect a section of the shoreline by forming a shield to the waves and thus blocking incident wave energy. Consequently, they end up creating new conditions in which diffraction of the wave at the breakwater tips provide, in the shadow zone, convergent sedimentary transport, resulting in the formation of a protruding beach. However, erosion will take place on the downdrift side of the structure (Figs 10B-C) (Dias, 2007c; van Rijn, 2011). Seawalls are adherent structures usually used as a last defence line against the waves. They can be constructed with different materials (concrete, wood, rock mounds, gabions, tetrapods, metal). Their shape can be very diverse: some are simple vertical walls, while others are tilted or present several steps, to dissipate wave energy, or have curved concave transversal profiles, to deflect the energy of the incident wave to the sea (Dias, 2007d). Seadikes are artificial sand dunes protected on both sides by armour and filter layers built along the shoreline to prevent sand erosion (van Rijn, 2013). Revetments are armour protection layers on slopes to protect the adjacent upland against wave scour. These structures (impermeable or permeable) are not so massive as seawalls, because they are designed to reduce scour and erosion during a storm event rather than to stop it. They serve to retain (preventing slides) and to stabilize (preventing or reducing toe erosion) bluffs, cliffs and dunes (van Rijn, 2013). The most common soft stabilization method is beach nourishment or beach fill which consists of pumping or trucking sand onto the beach. It is a protective and remedial measure that leaves a beach in a more natural state than hard stabilization structures and preserves its recreational value (Taborda et al., 2003). This method, that may be an alternative or a complement to hard stabilization structures, is mainly used to compensate local erosion in areas with relatively narrow and low dunes (in regions of critical coastal safety) or to increase

Approach to coastal risks

Figure 11 – Espinho coastal area (Source: Google Maps).

recreational beach areas (van Rijn, 2011). One type of beach fill projects is sand bypass. Sand bypass systems move sand past structures (commonly, jetties) that interrupt sand flow along the coast. Sand is dredged on the updrift side of the structures and then pumped onto their downdrift side. Portuguese examples of coastal protection interventions In this chapter are presented the coastal protection processes

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of three Portuguese localities over time. Espinho (Fig. 11) The coast of Espinho is the oldest case of recent coastal erosion in Portugal, and the area where the greatest destruction occurred – nowadays, an important part of the old locality is destroyed and submerged – and in which a greater number of coastal protection structures were built (Dias, 1993). The “invasions of the sea” in Espinho are well documented since 1869, being associated with storm episodes (Freitas & Dias, 2013). In the following four decades, there were so many coastal overtoppings and destruction that the population was forced to retreat landwards (Gomes et al., 2006). According to Perdigão (1931), between 1866 and 1912, the shoreline retreated 310m. In 1909, in order to protect the village from coastal erosion, a seawall (354m long and 3.5m high) partially founded on piles was built (Teixeira, 1980). This structure, the first coastal protection structure built in Portugal (Oliveira, 1990), was destroyed by the sea in the following two years (Dias, 1993). In 1911, after the good results obtained by two test wooden groynes, began the construction of a groyne field with some structures in stone (main groynes) and others in wood (secondary groynes) (Dias, 1993; Gomes et al., 2006). After the construction of three groynes, due to these structures and/or natural causes there was a beach width increase which led people to think that hazard had been removed and, therefore, the groyne construction was halted. For several years, the defences of Espinho beach were left to abandon (Dias, 1993). Unfortunately, contrary to the accretion trends seen in the previous years, at the beginning of the 1930s, the erosion phenomenon restarted (Dias, 1993; Gomes et al., 2006). In 1935, due to this new scenario, the two central groynes were rebuilt and the construction of a fourth one began. Nevertheless, the storms of 1935 and 1936 caused intense destruction in the village. In the following years there were several attempts to repair the coastal protection structures alternated with storms and destruction (Dias, 1993; Pedrosa & Freitas, 2008).


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In order to face with the worsening situation, the protection system (groyne field and seawall) became progressively enlarged and, in 1960, practically the entire urban front was protected (Dias, 1993). However, the beach in the adjacent strip was progressively thinning and eventually disappeared (Oliveira, 1980). In the 1970s, the continuous shoreline retreat and the increasingly smaller beach width continues to preoccupy local authorities and population. Thus, several groynes are constructed along the coast of Espinho parish. However, the construction of these structures did not diminish the shoreline retreat rate, on the contrary, it intensified it in the small sectors of beach between groynes (CME, 2013). At the beginning of the 80s the structures that currently provide adequate protection to this urban centre were built. These structures are two large curved groynes, one (350m long) in the north and other (400m) in the south, “connected” by a 400m long seawall (Gomes et al., 2006). However, the impacts that they induced on the downdrift shoreline were high, “forcing” the construction of several long groynes (in Silvalde, Paramos, Esmoriz, etc.) often complemented by seawalls. Although these structures were able to protect urban areas, they generally only intensified the cause, that is, the deficiency of the sand involved in coastal drift (Dias, 2005). The situation is far from being controlled (Dias, 2005). The growth trend observed after groyne reconstruction in 1997 has slowed down in recent years and the beach is showing signs of erosion, especially on the central area between the north and south groynes (Gomes et al., 2006). Cova do Vapor/Costa de Caparica (Fig. 12) News of erosion on south of Cova do Vapor are known since 1947, particularly reaching the village of Costa de Caparica in 1958. Since 1870, this area suffered an important physiographic transformation; the sand spit disappearance and the retreat of the coast line are strikingly evident (Gomes & Pinto, 2003). The first coastal defence structure (a groyne) was built in 1959,

Approach to coastal risks

Figure 12 – Cova do Vapor – Costa de Caparica coastal area. (Source: Google Maps).

followed by another two groynes and a seawall. In 1959 was built a seawall on the south side (between Cova do Vapor and Costa de Caparica). The main objective of this seawall was to avoid coastal overtopping and flooding (Gomes & Pinto, 2003). The situation became worse in 1964, with destructions in Costa de Caparica central area. The seawall was reinforced and a small groyne was constructed. It was evident that the groins built in Cova do Vapor were too small to originate sand accumulation on the southern beach, and reduce/finish the erosive process. Consequently, between 1968 and 1971 the three groins of Cova do Vapor were extended; the bigger one

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was executed with 600m length (Gomes & Pinto, 2003). With the progress of erosion to south, from Cova do Vapor to Costa de Caparica, the situation was progressively worsening. Two defence objectives were fixed: protection of the urban area against sea actions and beach restoration. This way the plan, executed between 1969 and 1971, included the construction of a 2.5km long seawall and a groyne field, with seven structures rooted in the seawall (Gomes & Pinto, 2003). Between 1971 and 1995, the situation remained relatively stable in the intervened segments, but with progressive loss of beach width and volumetry. From 1996 onwards, the winters became very severe, with numerous overtoppings and destruction and progressive retreat of the shoreline (Pinto et al., 2007). In the winter of 2003 the sea destroyed the crest of the frontal dune on São João da Caparica beach, putting at risk the camping sites and other constructions; emergency works were carried out to reinforce and consolidate the dune system (Ferreira, 2006). In 2006, the repair works of the Costa de Caparica and Cova do Vapor coastal defence structures, which consisted in the reprofiling of the groynes and of the seawall located on the urban front, were completed (INAG, 2006). Due to the continuous intense erosion and destruction three operations of beach nourishment in São João beach and Costa de Caparica were carried out in 2007, 2008 and 2009; 2.5hm3 of sand dredged from the port of Lisbon were spent (Pinto et al., 2018). In 2014, due to a particularly rigorous and violent Winter, which caused numerous overtoppings in Costa de Caparica area and the worrying shoreline retreat (Oliveira, 2015), the beach nourishment works were resumed with 1hm3 of sand dredged from the navigation channel of the port of Lisbon (Pinto et al., 2018). Portimão (Praia da Rocha and Arade River inlet – Fig. 13) Praia da Rocha, located south of Portimão, was Algarve’s first beach resort. At the end of the nineteenth century, it was just a small seaside village with half a dozen farm houses.


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Figure 13 – Praia da Rocha and Arade River´s inlet. (Source: Google Maps).

Nowadays, with the development of mass tourism, it has become a large urban centre that, during summer, attracts thousands of tourists (Freitas & Dias, 2012). Before Praia da Rocha became an internationally known seaside resort, Portimão was linked to the country and the world through its port. The economic life of this city depended, from remote times, on Arade River as its main artery trade (Freitas & Dias, 2012). In 1926 and 1927, the bad condition of the inlet and the damage caused to the fishing and the sardine canning industry led to the dredging of the inlet channel and river estuary, with the removal of about 360,000m³ of sediments (Gomes & Weinholtz, 1971). However, the sandbanks were quickly restored and the situation remained the same. To solve the problems of sedimentation and access constraints preventing the entry of larger ships it was decided the construction of two jetties. These would fix the inlet, directing the river water and preventing the entrance of the marine alluviums pushed into the estuary (Freitas &

Approach to coastal risks

Dias, 2012). The construction of the jetties began in 1946 but they would only be completed in 1959 (LNEC, 1973). However, as a result of the dredging of 1926 and 1927, Praia da Rocha became thinner and, in the 1930s, it showed signs of substantial decrease in sediment (Freitas & Dias, 2012). The situation improved significantly with the progression and completion of the jetties (particularly the west one), which allowed sand deposition up to about 500m to the west. But, despite the beach width recovery, during high tide the cliffs were hit by the waves, causing their erosion (Gomes & Weinholtz, 1971). In the late 1960s, cliff erosion became a serious problem. Additionally, the reduced extension of the beach did not allow the installation of the increasing number of tourists. Therefore, it became urgent to find a solution to protect the cliffs and to increase the beach recreational area (Freitas & Dias, 2012). In 1970, to solve this problem a beach fill operation was carried out with 800,000m3 of sand dredged from Arade river’s channel and port of Portimão. This operation increased beach width in about 100m (Gomes & Weinholtz, 1971). After this first beach fill operation, there was a progressive increase in beach width, due to the reinforcement carried out in 1983 and the successive interventions carried out on the updrift section (Vau and Três Castelos beaches) in 1996 and 1998, which resulted in an increase of mean beach width, from the initial 120m to the current 200m (Pinto et al., 2018). This success is due to low littoral drift transport, very moderate wave agitation compared with Portuguese west coast, and the beach being an almost closed system (between the tip of Três Castelos and the west jetty). The successful beach filling operations make Praia da Rocha a unique case in the country and a magnificent example of coastal anthropization (Freitas & Dias, 2012). 6. Conclusion The problem of coastal erosion and consequent shoreline retreat is known to affect continental Portuguese coastal areas for more than 150 years. This results mainly from several

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human activities in the river basins and in the coastal zone itself associated with a highly energetic wave climate in the west coast. In a scenario of climate change (global warming) and consequent mean sea level rise this problem can only become worse. Portugal has developed in the last years an integrated coastal management policy and model based on various legal, institutional, policy and planning instruments. However, the practical actions are only concerned with “protection”. Coastal zone protection structures are built in areas of dense human occupation and, commonly, the "protection" conferred by those structures leads to more urban development. These structures not only do not completely solve the problem locally but also transfer it downdrift forcing the construction of new protection structures. Although these structures may be able to protect urban areas, they generally only intensified the cause, that is, the shortage of sand involved in coastal drift. Considering the huge amount of money and resources spent on a coastal protection strategy, it is time to consider another type of strategies for this areas such as population planed retreat (rather than a forced one) and adaptation, or a combination of the three strategies allowing the best social, economic and environmental sustainable options. i- PhD, Geography and Regional Planning (UNL/FCSH); MSc Urban and Regional Planning (UTL/IST/FA/ISEG/ISA/ISCSP); BSc Environmental Sciences (UAb/FCT); BSc Geography and Regional Planning (UNL/FCSH). ii- PhD, Geology (Stratigraphy and Palaeontology); MSc, Dynamic Geology; BSc, Geology (UL/FCL).


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Approach to coastal risks

Dias, João Alveirinho, 1993, Estudo de Avaliação da Situação Ambiental e Proposta de Medidas de Salvaguarda para a Faixa Costeira Portuguesa (Geologia Costeira), Accessed on 25 June 2018, Retrieved from: http://w3.ualg.pt/~jdias/JAD/ eb_Ambicost.html. Dias, João Alveirinho, 2005, Evolução da Zona Costeira Portuguesa: Forçamentos Antrópicos e Naturais, Encontros Científicos – Turismo, Gestão, Fiscalidade, 1: 7-27. Dias, João Alverinho, 2007a, Esporão [Groyne]. In Coastal Zone Glossary, Retrieved from: http://www.aprh.pt/rgci/ glossario/index.html. Dias, João Alverinho, 2007b, Molhe [Jetty], In Coastal Zone Glossary, Retrieved from http://www.aprh.pt/rgci/glossario/ index.html.

References

Dias, João Alverinho, 2007c, Quebra-mar [Breakwater], In Coastal Zone Glossary, Retrieved from http://www.aprh.pt/rgci/ glossario/index.html.

ANPC, 2010, Riscos Costeiros – Estratégias de Prevenção, Mitigação e Proteção, no âmbito do Planeamento de emergência e do Ordenamento do Território, PROCIV#15.

Dias, João Alverinho, 2007d, Paredão [Seawall], In Coastal Zone Glossary, Retrieved from http://www.aprh.pt/rgci/ glossario/index.html.

Antunes, Carlos, 2013, Estudo do litoral na área de intervenção da APA, I.P. / ARH do Tejo, Análise da evolução do nível médio do mar em Cascais, Lisboa, Instituto D. Luiz/FCUL.

Ferreira, José Carlos, 2006, Coastal zone vulnerability and risk evaluation. A tool for decision-making (An example in the Caparica Littoral – Portugal), Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 39: 1590-1593.

Carmo, Fernanda, 2009, Gestão integrada da zona costeira portuguesa, RevCEDOUA, 12(24): 9-13. Castelo Branco, Margarida; Coito, Anabela, 2011, Servidões e Restrições de Utilidade Pública, DGOTDU. CME, 2013, Plano Municipal de Emergência de Proteção Civil de Espinho, Câmara Municipal de Espinho.

Freitas, Joana; Dias, João Alverinho, 2012, Praia da Rocha (Algarve, Portugal): um paradigma da antropização do litoral, Revista da Gestão Costeira Integrada, 12(1): 31-42. Freitas, Joana; Dias, João Alveirinho, 2013, O caso de Espinho (Portugal): Um exemplo das consequências das acções antrópicas nas zonas costeiras, In Rodrigues, Maria

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Antonieta; Pereira, Sílvia; Dias, Bergamaschi, Sergio (Eds), Interações Homem–Meio nas zonas costeiras Brasil/Portugal, p. 123-136. Gomes, Fernando Veloso; Pinto, Francisco Taveira, 2003, Cova do Vapor, Costa de Caparica (Portugal), Eurosion Case Study. Gomes, Fernando Veloso; Pinto, Fracisco Taveira; das Neves, Luciana; Barbosa, Joaquim Pais, 2006, EUrosion – A European Initiative for Sustainable Coastal Erosion. Pilot Site of River Douro - Cape Mondego and Case Studies of Estela, Aveiro, Caparica, Vale do Lobo and Azores, Porto, Portugal. Gomes, N.A.; Weinholtz, Manuel de Bivar, 1971, Evolução da embocadura do estuário do Arade (Portimão) e das praias adjacentes. Influência da construção os molhes de fixação do canal de acesso ao porto de Portimão. Emagrecimento da Praia da Rocha e sua reconstituição por deposição de areia dragadas no anteporto. Jornadas Luso-Brasileiras de Engenharia Civil, III, Lourenço Marques, Angola. INAG, 2006, Reparação dos esporões e das obras aderentes da Costa da Caparica e da Cova do Vapor, Folheto informativo. Keller, Edward.; Blodgett, Roger, 2007, Riesgos naturales. Procesos de la Tierra como riesgos, desastres y catástrofes, Madrid: Pearson. LNEC, 1973, Estudo em modelo reduzido das obras de melhoramento do porto de Portimão. Obras interiors, Relatório, Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa, Portugal. Não publicado. MAOTDR, 2007, Bases para a Estratégia de Gestão Integrada da Zona Costeira Nacional, MAOTDR. Oliveira, I. Mota, 1990, Erosão costeira no litoral norte. Considerações sobre a sua génese e controlo. Actas do 1ºSimpósio sobre a Protecção e Revalorização da Faixa


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Costeira do Minho ao Liz, Porto, p. 201-220. Oliveira, Marta, 2015, Evolução natural e antrópica Trafaria – Cova do Vapor – Costa de Caparica, Master Thesis, University of Lisbon, Portugal, Unpublished.

Approach to coastal risks

Teixeira, Abel, 1980, As invasões do mar em Espinho através dos tempos. Boletim Cultural, 2(7): 201-220; 2(8): 387-407. Van Rijn, Leo, 2011, Coastal erosion and control, Ocean & Coastal Management, 54(12): 867-887.

Pedrosa, António; Freitas, Conceição, 2008, The human impact on the Espinho-Paramos coast in the 20th Century, Journal of Iberian Geology, 34(2): 253-270.

Van Rijn, Leo, 2013, Design of hard coastal structures against erosion, Retrieved from: https://www.leovanrijn-sediment. com/papers/Coastalstructures2013.pdf.

Perdigão, Francisco, 1931, Defesa da costa marítima de Espinho, Oficinas de O Comércio do Porto, Porto.

Legislation

Pinto, Celso: Silveira, Tanya; Teixeira, Sebastião, 2018. Alimentação artificial de praias na faixa costeira de Portugal continental: enquadramento e retrospetiva das intervenções realizadas (1950-2017), Relatório Técnico, Departamento do Litoral e Proteção Costeira Núcleo de Monitorização Costeira e Risco.

Pinto, Celso; Taborda, Rui; Andrade, César, 2007, Evolução recente da linha de costa no troço Cova do Vapor – S. João da Caparica, 5as Jornadas Portuguesas de Engenharia Costeira e Portuária, Lisbon. Santos, Filipe Duarte; Lopes, António Mota; Moniz, Gabriela; Ramos, Laudemira; Taborda, Rui, 2017, Grupo de Trabalho do Litoral: Gestão da Zona Costeira: O desafio da mudança, Santos, Filipe Duarte; Penha-Lopes, Gil; Lopes, António Mota (Eds), Lisboa. Taborda, Rui; Magalhães, Fernando; Ângelo, Carlos, 2005, Evaluation of Coastal Defence Strategies in Portugal, In Zimmermann, Claus; Dean, Robert; Penchev, Valeri; Verhagen, Henk Jan (eds), Environmentally Friendly Coastal Protection. NATO Science Series (Series IV: Earth and Environmental Series), vol. 53 (pp. 255-265), Dordrecht: Springer.

[1] Council of Ministers Resolution No. 82/2009 of August 20th, Approves the National Strategy for Integrated Coastal Zone Management, Diário da República, Série I, No. 174/2009, [Accessed on 5 June 2018], Retrieved from: https://dre.pt/. [2] Law No. 54/2005, of November 15th, Establishes the ownership of water resources, Diário da República, Série I-A, No. 219/2005, [Accessed on 5 June 2018]. Retrieved from: https://dre.pt/. [3] Law No. 58/2005 of December 29th, Approves the Water Law, transposing Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of October 23 into the national legal order, laying down the foundations and institutional framework for sustainable water management, Diário da República, Série I-A, No. 249/2005, [Accessed on 5 June 2018]. Retrieved from: https://dre.pt. [4] Decree-Law nº 166/208 of August 22nd. Approves the Legal Regime of the National Ecological Reserve and repeals the Decree-Law No. 93/90 of March 19, Diário da República, Série I, No. 162/2008, [Accessed on 5 June 2018]. Retrieved from: https://dre.pt. [5] Decree-Law No. 239/2012 of November 2nd, First amendment to Decree-Law No. 166/2008 of August 22nd, which establishes the Legal Regime of the National Ecological Reserve, Diário da República, Série I, No. 212/2012,

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[Accessed on 5 June 2018]. Retrieved from: https://dre.pt. [6] Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 81/2012 of October 3rd, Approves the strategic guidelines of national and regional scope, which consubstantiate the guidelines and criteria for the delimitation of the areas integrated in the National Ecological Reserve at municipal level, Diário da República, Série I, No. 192/2012, [Accessed on 12 June 2018], Retrieved from: https://dre.pt. [7] Rectification Statement, No. 71/2012 of November 30th, Rectifies the Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 81/2012, of October 3rd, of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, which approves the strategic guidelines at the national and regional levels, which embody the guidelines and criteria for the delimitation of the areas integrated in the National Ecological Reserve at municipal level, Diário da República, Série I, No. 232/2012, [Accessed on 3 June 2018]. Retrieved from: https://dre.pt. [8] Decree-Law No. 49/2005 of February 24th, First amendment to Decree-Law No. 140/99 of April 24th, which transposed Council Directive 79/409 / EEC of April 2 on the conservation of wild birds (Birds Directive) and Council Directive 92/43/EEC of May 21st on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora (Habitats Directive), Diário da República, Série I-A, No. 39/2005, [Accessed on 5 June 2018], Retrieved from: https://dre.pt. [9] Law No. 58/2007 of September 4th, Approves the National Program of Spatial Planning Policy, Diário da República, Série I, No. 170/2007, [Accessed on 1 June 2018], Retrieved from: https://dre.pt. [10] Decree-Law nº 364/98 of November 21st, Establishes the obligation to draw up the flood zones map in municipalities with urban clusters affected by floods, Diário da República, Série I-A, No. 270/1998, [Accessed on 13 June 2018], Retrieved from: https://dre.pt.


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[11] Decree-Law No. 115/2010 of October 22nd, Establishes a framework for the assessment and management of flood risks with a view to reducing its harmful consequences and transposes Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of October 23rd, Diário da República, Série I, No. 206/2010, [Accessed on 8 June 2018], Disponível em: https://dre.pt. [12] Directive 2007/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of October 23rd, on the assessment and management of flood risks, Official Journal of the European Union, L288, [Accessed on 15 June 2018], Retrieved from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/PT/ [13] Decree-Law No. 80/2015 of May 14th. Approves the revision of the Legal Regime of the Instruments of Territorial Management, approved by Decree-Law No. 380/99 of September 22, Diário da República, Série I, No. 93/2015, [Accessed on 15 June 2018]. Retrieved from https://dre.pt. [14] Dispatch No. 6574/2014 of May 20th, Creates the Littoral Working Group and the Commission follow-up and defines the respective missions and compositions, Diário da República, Série II, No. 96/2014, [Accessed on 15 June 2018]. Retrieved from https://dre.pt. [15] Decree-Law No. 159/2012 of July 24th, Regulates the design and implementation of coastal rim management plans and establishes the sanctioning regime applicable to coastal rim in what regards illegal access, movement and permanence in prohibited zones and their signaling, Diário da República, Série I, No. 142/2012 [Accessed on 15 June 2018], Retrieved from https://dre.pt. [16] Law No. 31/2014 of May 30th, Law of general bases of the public policy of soils, territorial organization and urbanism, Diário da República, Série I, No. 104/2014, [Accessed on 15 June 2018], Retrieved from https://dre.pt.

Approach to coastal risks

[17] Decree-Law No. 129/2008 of July 21st, Approves the estuaries management plans regime, Diário da República, Série I, No. 139/2008 [Accessed on 15 June 2018], Retrieved from https://dre.pt. [18] Law No. 65/2007 of November 12nd, Defines the institutional and operational framework for civil protection at the municipal level, establishes the organization of municipal civil protection services and determines the responsibilities of the municipal operational commander, Diário da República, Série I, No. 217/2007 [Accessed on 15 June 2018], Retrieved from https://dre.pt.

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Text

Catarina Patrício1

From

Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias – CECL/ICNOVA, FCSH, UNL

Adaptation and resistance to the new climate regime: A Tectonic Hypothesis “There are two principles inherent in the very nature of things, recurring in some particular embodiments whatever field we explore – the spirit of change, and the spirit of conservation.” WHITEHEAD, Science and the Modern World Change, there always has been. On Earth, everything results from impulses of adaptation and resistance to the constant movement of things: in order to persist, any given entity has to adapt, changing; or it resisted, and thus conserving itself – here lies the «spirit of change», and the «spirit of conservation» essential to the nature of things (Whitehead 1925). But the natural metastable state of the world as been deranged by a new triggering element of change. After 12,000 years of Holocene, here is the Anthropocene, the new geological age that absorbs the impact of the most recent developments of human action, releasing climatic mutations of all kinds. Thinking it over requires a new relation with the earth, thus imposing new tectonic hypothesis. *** In Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883) Nietzsche exhorts to be loyal to the earth «The overman (Übermensch) is the meaning of the earth (Sinn der Erde). Let your will say: the overman shall be the meaning

of the earth (Sinn der Erde)!» (Nietzsche 1883, 6) Descending the mountain, the hero Zarathustra conduces an all-encompassing uprising of geology and geography against the domination of history2. Although Nietzsche did not use the term geophilosophy, his work emanates a thought connected to the earth, and to the construction of a new direction for the earth (Sinn der Erde3) enacted by the Übermensch, or overhumanity – a significant concept that sets the question of self-overcoming, but a self-overcoming with a tectonic significance. The earth is at stake, not the world 4. It is by freeing himself from the historical bindings, surpassing any nationalistic motivations and emancipated from transcendental promises, the overman (Übermensch) will come: this new inhabitant of the earth, engage in a single but collective drive towards greater planetary events. Faithful to the earth materials, faithful to Gaia:


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question of the Anthropocene9 seems to be forcing a review on the thresholds of thought. One of the observable consequences is that earth isn’t just a medium. It is an active environment. Moreover, earth is where thought and tectonics meet. Thus, following Deleuze and Guattari, who credited Nietzsche as the first geophilosopher 10, an approximation to thought strictly based on a subject-object relation should be limited. The act of thinking is grounded «in the relationship of territory and earth»: “Subject and object give a poor approximation of thought. Thinking is neither a line drawn between subject and object nor a revolving of one around the other. Rather, thinking takes place in the relationship of the territory and the earth”. (Deleuze and Guattari 1991, 85)

Catarina Patrício, Dinosauria we, grafite e carvão sobre papel, 146x66 cm, 2018

«I beseech you, my brothers, remain faithful to the earth and do not believe those who speak to you of extra-terrestrial hopes!» (Nietzsche 1883, 6, emphasis added) What does faithful to the earth mean today? Perhaps it means To Think Like A Mountain (Pensar Como Uma Montanha) – the title of the Portuguese translation of A Sand County Almanac, And Sketches Here And There by Aldo Leopold, a field notebook written in 1948 as a celebration of the last wild natural stretch of the American Landscape. In the foreword, as a lament, one can read «There are some who can live without wild things, and some who cannot. These essays are the delights and dilemmas of who cannot» (Leopold 1949,vii). But this will lead to another halt: will wilderness remain untouched? The progressive development in history has always been an expansion of culture and civilization on Earth. Therefore if there is a human «geo-history» it entails a progress in space – as each epoch results from continuous spatial revolution5. Some

considerations on the mutations the idea of space suffered have been outlined by Michel Foucault in «Des spaces autres»6. Still they are pertinent. Therein three paradigms emerge: the archaic space of localization, that corresponded to the seminal differentiation of places based on mythical dichotomies (sacred/profane; known/unknown), a pattern that was dominant until the expansion towards the infinite with Galileo, thus giving rise to the space of expansion. Presently, the question of emplacement dissolves the preceding spatial order. At stake is the figure of a globe7, totally scrutinized and mapped, turning the limits of spatial extension into a «great anxiety» (Foucault, 1984: 753-754). The plot thickens as global (and finite) environment is being profoundly marked by the growing impact of human activity. The geological time scale, once divided by contingent global impact thresholds such as meteor strikes or other major episodes, is being disturbed by the accelerated degradation of the atmosphere composition and other land surface transformations induced by human agency. So, within the triad land-earth-globe8, the

By instituting earth as an absolute, philosophy turns fundamentally into a geophilosophy, which not only means «[…] that philosophy is borne by the earth but also that it is a thoroughly autonomous construction because its ground, its earth, is entirely immanent to it” (Gasché 2014, 21). In addition, not only through the construction of concepts, but also through the construction of the earth itself – assuming that to the materical assemblage required by architecture, there are concepts in the making. Therefore, to adapt and resist to the new climate regime means a new tectonic hypothesis that must imply a geophilosophy. Mechanization and power technology assured an increase in population (already exceeding 7 billion people), and the generalized tendency towards a «smart city» program seems to result from the challenge to manage the urban space facing such an immense pressure over earth and its land use. Not only because of the required ground for allotments and housing, but also because cities, in order to function, necessarily compromise other parcels of soil through agricultural, energetic exploitation and other resources – complying with the end of nature’s wild state. At the core of this extension of the city-form to the entire globe lies the problematization of the Anthropocene.


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All this poses a dilemma when Facing Gaia11. Gaia is the term James Lovelock yield to problematize the surface tension of the earth as skin or pelicula, not merely a surface of support but necessarily something on which everything interacts and moves. Gaia is where everything is either resisting or adapting to the ceaseless movement of things. But nature has altered. «“The earth,” he said, “has a skin; and this skin has diseases. One of these diseases for example is called: ‘Human being’» (Nietzsche 1883, 103). Nevertheless, it doesn’t mean it ended – in fact the whole problem was thinking nature as immutable. Thus, the climate change chiasm is denoting an all-too-(re)active nature, sending of storms and catastrophes in an unforeseen planetary scale. Because of imprudent land use, deforestation, the rise of CO2 levels, the altered courses of the rivers, the plague of plastic debris, etc., humans have become earth’s main disease12. In this sense, the idea of defining our present period as that of the Anthropocene is a crucial one. Geophilosophy is not an eco-philosophy, but a philosophy «within, an earth that intrinsically belongs to philosophy, an earth that is the turf of philosophical thought.” (Gasché 2014, 16)13 – and this means thinking with the earth. And by doing so the Anthropocene will constantly remind us of our duties: not the period in which the scene of man on earth is geologically and meteorologically noted, but the period when we pledge to do something about it. Thus, borrowing the idea from Latour, this calls for the response ability (Latour 2014) to clean up all the mess we have been doing since the Industrial Revolution. As previously argued, adopting the entrance at the time of the Anthropocene should entail human agency developed to the dimension of geological force. Neither of disturbance nor imbalance, but of building the Menschen-Erde (human-earth) – herein to adapt and resist climate change: «Importance depends on endurance. Endurance is the retention through time of an achievement of value. What endures is identity of pattern, self-inherited. Endurance

Adaptation and resistance to the new climate regime: A tecnonic hypothesis

requires the favourable environment. The whole of science revolves round this question of enduring organisms». (Whitehead 1925, 193) We have to endure an enveloping atmosphere that is constantly changing. This is the purpose of reviewing the Anthropocene as a tectonic hypothesis of Menschen-Erde. Following Nietzsche was the initial premise. When anticipating the problematization of the Anthropocene, he foresaw that the fate of the Menschen-Erde (human-earth) can either be a «hell» or a «garden» (Shapiro 2016, 13) – hence the importance of earth as a political concept and the site of all constructions14. The point of living in this epoch is that all agents share the same «shape-changing destiny» (Latour 2014, 17). This is a reading that wants to suggest that the Anthropocene has the redemptive possibilities of joining nature and technics. However this requires a geo-philosophy as «both geographical and mental milieu that liberates the possibilities for all human activities» (Gasché 2014, 15-16). In 1925, Alfred North Whitehead had already suggested that «it is among the merits of science to equip the future for its duties»15. Let’s say that smart cities rhetoric is meant to work: information and communication technologies must be deployed resulting in cost and energy savings supporting low-carbon economy. We can call it a cleantech turn with the will and ability to change transportation, energy, waste management and built environment. It is a political issue that looms, and one difficult to solve: one must accelerate a reconciliation with something that is constantly changing and taking on guises that are still strange or unthinkable. A much needed political attitude that holds a great promise in turning the cities around the globe more sustainable and efficient. Smart cities, as a discourse, are a figuration of modes of survival – and it might work for at stake is the habitability of the earth. Or else… Dinosauria We.16

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References: Dates given in square brackets refer to the original edition of the cited works. Dates given in-text citations refer to the original edition of the cited works. Deleuze, G. & Guattari, F. 1994 [1991]. Geophilosophy. In What is Philosophy? New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 85-113. Foucault M. 1994 [1984]. Des espaces autres. In Dits et écrits: 1954-1988, vol. IV, Paris: Gallimard, pp. 752-762. Gasché, R. 2014. Geophilosophy On Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari’s What Is Philosophy?. Illinois: Northwestern University Press Latour, B. 2014. Anthropology at the Time of the Anthropocene: A Personal View of What Is to Be Studied. Distinguished lecture American Association of Anthropologists (draft version for comments). Last acceded on June 2018. http://www. brunolatour.fr/sites/default/files/139-AAA-Washington.pdf Latour, B. 2017 [2015]. Facing Gaia: Eight Lectures on the New Climate Regime. Cambridge: Polity Press. Leopold, A. 1968 [1949]. A Sand County Almanac, and Sketches Here and There. New York: Oxford University Press. Lewis, S. & Maslin, M. 2015. Defining the Anthropocene. Nature, vol 519. pp. 171-180. Nietzsche, F. 2007 [1883]. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. 3rd Ed. New York: Cambridge University Press Schmitt, C. 2008 (1950). Le Nomos de la Terre dans le droit des gens. trad. E. Kennedy. Paris: Quadrige/Presses Universitaires de France.


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Shapiro, G. 2016. Nietzsche’s Earth: Great Events, Great Politics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1. FCT post-doc fellow at CECL/ICNOVA, FCSH,Universidade Nova de Lisboa. Orcid ID: orcid.org/00000002-1904-2775). 2. Established in Hegel in order to locate historical events as temporal organisation of the world (Welt). Gary Shapiro offers an important reading on this matter: «When Nietzsche speaks of the earth (sometimes more specifically of the Menschen-Erde), he is at least implicitly formulating a political atheology, an understanding of the sphere or territory of human habitation; Nietzsche’s war for the sake of the earth must involve an attack, parody, and inversion of political theology. The earth in this perspective is radically plural. It is neither intrinsically defined by the nation-state (like Hegel’s world), or, as in the Weltprozess of Eduard von Hartmann […]. Such a contrast of earth and world is very close to Deleuze and Guattari’s methodological protocol of subordinating history to geography.» (Shapiro 2016, 4-5) 3. Sinn der Erde is often translated as meaning of the Earth. However the German word Sinn points a direction. This will be the denoted sense used herein – and it is also the interpretation adopted by Gary Shapiro. 4. As indicated in Beyond Good and Evil (1886) Nietzsche considered world to be a concept filled with theological affiliations (Shapiro 2016, 16). 5. In Schmittian geopolitics, land-appropriation [Landnahme] is the constituent foundation of the juridical order and the events that came upon it. It is with this first movement of appropriation that a primordial pattern, the nomos, is extracted from Earth. It is an initial measure containing all the later ones and from which all property regimes emerge. This is the constituent nature of the nomos: an initial and pre-juridical act as it is the «measure by which the ground and soil of the earth [Grund und Boden der Erde] in a particular order is divided and situated» (Schmitt 1950, 74). From the archaic nomos,

Adaptation and resistance to the new climate regime: A tecnonic hypothesis

apprehended through mythical knowledge, to the nomos of the Earth, a scientific form that emerged during the great sea voyages, it is traceable that both law and property regimes exist in direct connection with the ground. Even cosmic space, boundless and infinite, is already pre-occupied by intergalactic treatises – already at the horizon when building up on Mars is becoming an insistent quest. 6. The title of a conference given by Foucault in 1967 at the Cercle d'Études Architecturales, published only twenty years later in Architecture, Movement, Continuité, no. 5. Michel Foucault only authorized the publication of the text months before his death, in 1984, and it is compiled in Dits et écrits: 1954-1988, vol. IV, Paris, Gallimard. 7. This tension between Land and Globe is explored by Latour in Facing Gaia (2015). 8. Cf. Bruno Latour Facing Gaia (2015). 9. The Anthropocene is considered to have begun either in 1610 or 1964. This is the proposition of the article «Defining the Anthropocene» by S. Lewis and M. Maslin, where a review of human geology and induced environmental impacts was held. Cf. Lewis, S. & Maslin, M. 2015. Defining the Anthropocene. Nature, vol 519. pp. 171-180. 10. Geophilosophy appears as a concept in Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari last book together What is philosophy? (1991). 11. The title of the series of lectures by Bruno Latour first published in 2015 as Face à Gaïa. Huit conférences sur le nouveau régime climatique. Paris: Éditions La Découverte. 12. As acknowledged by James Lovelock in Gaia: The Practical Science of a Planetary Medicine (1991). 13. “In spite of some occasional ambiguities in What is Philosophy?, geophilosophy, according to D&G, is a philosophy of the earth in a way similar to that in which geohistory is the history of the earth, that is, of the both geographical and mental milieu that liberates the possibilities for aIl human activities.” (Gasché 2014, 15-16)

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14. The chiasmus between an absolute engineering of the earth and the end of nature is well structured in Manuel Bogalheiro’s «O Fim da Natureza: Paradoxos e Incertezas na Era Do Antropoceno E Do Geo-Construtivismo» (The End Of Nature: Paradoxes And Uncertainties In The Era Of The Anthropocene And Geo-Constructivism). In Revista de Comunicação e Linguagens, 49. (ed. Catarina Patrício) Available at: http://www.fcsh.unl.pt/rcl/index.php/ rcl/issue/viewIssue/Cidades%20do%20Futuro/5 15. See the unabridged passage: «Modern science has imposed on humanity the necessity for wandering. Its progressive thought and its progressive technology make the transition through time, from generation to generation, a true migration into uncharted seas of adventure. The very benefit of wandering is that it is dangerous and needs skill to avert evils. We must expect, therefore, that the future will disclose dangers. It is the business of the future to be dangerous; and it is among the merits of science that it equips the future for its duties». (Whitehead 1925, 208) 16. Invoking here the striking poem «Dinosauria We» by Charles Bukowski, collected in The Last Night of the Earth Poems. 1992. Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press


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ULHT + PARTNERS Teachers

Diana Dimitra Hugo Nazareth Rui Nogueira Simões Students

Diana Martinho, Eva Pavlič Iris Pedro Lorenzo Romaniello Lucas Waning Marcelo Rafael Rodolfo Paradella

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Alto da Barra

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Railway Water Line Bugio Fort/Light House Beach View

Coast Road

Palacio do Marques de Pombal Fundação de Oeiras

Oeiras beach Main View

Railway Water Line Coast Road

Forte São João das Maias Forte de Arreiro Forte de Catalazete Catalazete Fortress

Forte São Julião da Barra


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The Blue/Green connection •

Pocket spaces

Connection with the beach-path

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+Facilities

Better connectivity


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Strategies 1- Breaking the urban boundary that divides the waterfront from the hinterland 2- Creating new connections based on the green central area, connecting the old town to the waterfront, using the waterline as the main structure of the masterplan 3- Connect the relevant buildings and public spaces with the previous points 4- Design a new path inside the masterplan, connecting the relevant buildings and public spaces

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The Factory Design District - New cultural destination - Support creative jobs - New facilities - New life to the old factory of Fundação Oeiras

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Forte de S. JuliĂŁo da Barra - Vertical and horizontal connections - Regeneration and reuse of the Forte de S. JuliĂŁo da Barra

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Sofia Senos Alessandra Tata From

Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias Portugal

Porto Brandão - Porto Undergroundão

Introduction Porto Bradão is the other side, the other side of the river. We visited Porto Brandão on the second day of Summerschool. The first day was dedicated to the north bank of the Tagus, to the urban beaches of Oeiras. We left Belem, surrounded the MAAT, the Coach Museum by João Mendes da Rocha, and the Monastery of Jerónimos. We cross the river by Cacilheiro. And in no more than ten minutes of travel, we were forgetting Lisbon. We reach the other bank. From here, Lisbon is not Lisbon. It is an amazing view, off an abstraction city that reflects all the history of Tagus Mouth. We docked and the industrial landscape gains contour. The

decadent port and surrounding buildings, memories of the renowned canning industry, let us guess the restless past of Porto Brandão. As we enter the village, the silence amazes the group. It is a forgotten place. The set of small houses is quite regular and organized. There is a small square, with a playground. You see stray dogs. There are few people. Some complaints: It is no longer in Porto Brandão that people go for swimming and to have a good dinner. The Old Tower, magnifies fortress, which together with the Tower of Belem, defended the Tagus Mouth, is abandoned, inaccessible: It is practically invisible. The seafront village, anchored in the hills, dramatizes the scenery, the picturesque underdog place.


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Porto Brandão - Porto Undergroundão

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an initial idea based on the desire to bring tourism within Porto Brandão, encouraging it through the creation of a university campus, the insertion of shops.

Analysis Porto Brandão is located on the south bank of the Tejo River exactly in front of The Belem that is on the other side, to which is connected thanks to a ferry boat that links Belem to Porto Brandão to Trafaria. The first peculiarity of the place is that the village is located in a valley, ancient bed of a small river, between two hills with particular structures now in ruin: the silos on one side and Lazareto on the other. The first problem the students noticed were the non-existent connection between these three areas with three different scale of buildings. Especially the silos, visible also on the other side of the river, with their monumental dimensions have been seen by the students as a characteristic elements of the place, that re-functionalized can become a unique component that can attract tourism and can also be useful in the future in a post- apocalyptic view. Studying this project they had to take into account also about the problem of the water rising. Starting from a careful analysis of the morphology of the place, the context in which the village is inserted and the requests and needs of the inhabitants of the country; the project moved from

Subsequently after deeper analysis and further visits to the village, the students realized the unique characteristics of the village: they described it as a place out of time, a “ghost city”; a romantic and calm place where to go, eat some fresh fish and relax; a place where time is slowed down and you don't perceive the hectic life typical of the surrounding areas. They talked with the locals to know what they hoped for the future of the village; this talks were the most important part of their studies and analysis, because it helped them to understood better the village and its hopes for the future. These conversations changed the first idea they had about the future of Porto Brandão; they understood that the project should not aim to have the same tourism of a big city such al Belém or Lisbon, they should enhance the uniqueness of Porto Brandão, preserving it, and search for a tourism that would appreciate it and go there just to enjoy a relaxed day in a village “out of time”. At the end of this analysis and researches, the aims of the project became: • •

Enhance the village without distorting it; Enhance the unique characteristics of the place and of the existing structures; • Implement existing connections; • Rehabilitate and re-functionalize silos and the Lazareto; Create a flexible project that would take into account the progressive rise of water and that could be valid both in the short and long term. Project The strategy developed by the students was to conceive a surrealistic approach for the project that could work today and in the future. The idea was to not abandon the village; rehabilitate it and refunctionalize the two hills; so that gradually, with the development of those two poles and with the rise of the water,

people will move gradually and voluntarily by themselves inside the silos and Lazareto that will be, at that time, fully restorated. The same approach was used for the connections with the outside: the idea was not to improve the connections to allow people to go to Porto Brandão, because for the tourism that exist today they are enough; the idea was to develop the peculiarity of the place, ie create a unique place for which people to see something like that can only go there. The implementation of the connections will be a consequence of the project: as the demand to reach the port increases, the external connections will also improve. The concept is divided into three different projects: one for the silos valley, one for Lazareto and then one for the improvement of the connections; the three of them together will enhance also the life in the village of Porto Brandão. The project also included the study of how they will work today and in a post-apocalyptic future and how the life in Porto Brandão will change will the progressive raising of the water. The idea was to take advantage of this unique environment to create a futuristic Eden, a kind of Noah's Ark, that is an ecosystem in which animals and people can live in peace


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Porto Brandão - Porto Undergroundão

together and can save themselves from the apocalyptic future in which the level water will completely flood the valley with the fishermen's village.

path that will create a more private and introverted beach and requalifying the natural paths that already exist.

The first step of the project is bringing back animals in the silos valley, it’s an animal takeover, it’s a zoo concept in reverse: free animals in the valley and people living in the silos. Silos are huge structures, some of them are of 40 m of diameter, they are big enough to be transformed into a shelter for animals and into buildings for the people with everything that could be needed in the future. At the same time, with regard to the second hill, the plan of the students was to requalify the Lazareto, always in the idea of rehabilitate a part, thus encouraging the transfer of people into restored buildings. Subsequently, by creating an attractive place, with the raise of the water level and with the increase of people who will move to live there, the rest of the requalification would happen spontaneously and the restoration will be completed. The third part of the project was the improvement of the existent connections between the village and the two hills. This will be done creating an elevator inside the village that will bring to a bridge that will connect it with the two hills; creating an underground connection that will allow to go directly from the village inside the silos up to the silos hill; creating a floating

The idea was to create two different circles of connections: ∙ The little one that corresponds to the connections around the village: from the port through the village and the two paths on the two sides of the village, to the elevator and the bridge. With the elevator, which was conceived inside the village to make sure that the people who arrived from the outside needed to pass inside the village, see it and discover it, to be able to reach the elevator and go to the Lazareto or silos. ∙ The bigger one that will recollect everything together: from the port, through an underground connection that connects directly the village with the silos, up to the silos hill; to the bridge, to the Lazareto, down to Torre Velha, to a new floating path back to the port and the village. With these project of requalification of the place and the surroundings, there will be an enhancement of Porto Brandão and of the fishermen's village, that will have again a tourism that will appreciate the village and the environment, without however altering the characteristic nature of the place. The two restored hills, the creation of the elevator and the bridge will give a strong identity to the place and will be visible also from the other side of the Tagus river, from the Belem; this will attract

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people and create a conscious tourism, of people attracted by the uniqueness of the place. The development of this project in the future is that while animals will be settled, silos and Lazareto will be partially re-established, the tourism will increase and there will we an enhancement of the village too but without alterations or its uniqueness. As the water level will rise, the population will begin to move voluntarily on the two hills, now completely established, and the animals begin to move also towards Lazareto. In a post-apocalyptic vision in which the water level will completely cover the village, a complete renovation of all the structures will been completed, the bridge will continue to function, the ecosystem will be settled and there will be a perfect fusion between environment and nature, people and animals. The place will not be abandoned, the place will still have its strong identity that characterize it today, the village will not be forgotten because it will become an attraction, an underwater ghost city that can be visited, everyone will be saved and the uniqueness of the place will be intact.


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Methodology On the day after we were in Porto BrandĂŁo, the students decided to visit the place and they did an interesting diagnostic. They stayed longer on the two hills, talked with people, saw the stray cats and dogs, they did a mental map of the connections: Lisbon, Almada, the university, the beaches, the river. They felt the Genius Loci of the place. As a supervisor, we understand the students were independent, motivated, and they were working as a group. Therefore, we decided to have a low intervention and let them ideas flowing. Punctually, we had meetings with the group, and we push up for their ideas to improve their argues and to build a coherent and logical rhetoric. At the first midpoint, we also introduced for debate several references, such as Superstudio, Richard Serra, Christo, Gordon Cullen or Quinta da Regaleira. We thought the references had a great impact and helped to figure out the visual part of the project. Firstly, on the group, not everyone was comfortable with "The Pos-apocalyptic" approach, but the students introduced of a sort of progressive surrealistic levels of intervention. This was decisive for the commitment of all, because it allowed that for each part of the project, there was a student who matches their technical and self being, making all of them essential for the success of the project.

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Team Project

ULHT + PARTNERS Teachers

Alessandra Tata Alexander Gogl Isabel Barbas Sofia Senos Students

Alexander Rakow Dragan Petrovic Giulia Figuera Iulia Panait Joao Serafim Ricardo Cabrita Silvana Moreira Tea Savic

Waterfronts Porto BrandĂŁo


Porto Brandão

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Location

Forte de São Sebastião

Torre de Belém


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- New lazareto is established in 1867 - Church is rebuild

- Lazareto is shut down after tropical accident in 1990s - Industry settles/silos are build - Village keep growing

- Silos are shut down - Industrial structures turn into ruins - Village struggles/ urgent need of redevelopment

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Concept : Characteristics of space


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Text

Dimitra Babalis1 From

University of Florence Department of Architecture, DiDA

Addressing the Issues of Climate Change in Sustainable Waterfront Transformation Overview The impact of climate change in urban areas can bring to extreme variability of weather events such as heatwaves, colder periods, rising sea levels, rivers’ flooding conditions, greenhouse effects and gas emissions. It is, therefore, important to look to climate crisis with more regardless, especially in sensitive contexts. Specifically, effective enforcement of sustainable planning and design in waterfront transformation is important to face regeneration or new development. Planning policies and strategies should put in evidence more awareness on regeneration frameworks, masterplans and water management to prioritise microclimate conditions. For instance, more greener and generous planting of trees on waterfront spaces can modify urban temperatures,

offering cooler and cleaner air. Further, street tree planting has particular value in cooling the air, shading buildings in summer, helping with mitigation and capturing carbon. To this end, well-coordinated and flexible waterfront design for coast protection, rivers’ flood control, strategic management of water, seems a good circumstance to face these threats. Adaptation demands with waterfront urban green spaces and natural infrastructures should be encouraged to support everyday urban life while creating more beautiful and healthies sites. However, good urban design should provide proper solutions for context management for both safety and environmental benefits. A waterfront space strategy can help to regenerate waterfront spaces, improving green provision where is needed and reinforcing the need for sustainable water supplies.


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Addressing the issues of climate change in sustainable waterfront transformation

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adaptation and implementation of resilient projects.

A proposal for waterside regeneration along the River Arno in Florence, for quality, microclimate improvement and flood risk protection (Urban Design Master Course, Year: 2017-2018)

Effective drainage of water, in fact, with a network of temporary pools and lakes could be useful in critical times of the year. Nevertheless, when it comes to flood risks, waterfront design requires a longer-term view over the impacts of climate change. To this end, it is important to identify characterisation waterfront areas of risk for key policy recommendations in order to provide flood prevention or buildings’ vulnerability. Particularly effective for planners and designers, in case of waterfront transformation, is the creation of a network of open space strategy to create condition for permanent protection. Thereby, identifying the key environmental features can be a method to monitoring the ecological significance of sites and biodiversity. In case of sea defence, monitoring climate change can be essential to control seafront scenarios. When hard defence is essential, added floating structures can be used as active flood protection. Therefore, adapting waterfront regeneration to climate change can set further economic and social benefits. Complexities and dynamics in waterfront change Waterfronts, lands of important history background, today facing environmental degradation, lack of quality or social

segregation. Indeed, the main aim is their regeneration by focusing on an integrated approach for urban change and resilience. Particularly, by exploring built environment, urban and social processes and defining design guidance, urban frameworks, transformation can be successfully managed. In this reading, some complexities and dynamics are intrinsically active and constantly produced. However, major attention on managing waterfronts can offer a range of opportunities. Further, transformation can produce new spatial configuration including new uses and significant social upgrade and physical dynamism. By focusing on the diffusion of the concept, the diversity of sites and regulatory design implication can bring to a major reflection of economic benefits. Finally, waterfront approaches and actions require clear policies by addressing key causes of climate change to: • Reduce vulnerability to natural risks by adopting sensitive planning and design • Involve local people within the decision-making process • Create waterfront places by designing sustainable building design, preserving environment and cultural resources • Create urban frameworks based on responsive climate

Waterfront regeneration is therefore a complex activity because it directly addresses the human conditions together with buildings and spaces and it can take many forms depending on the scale, location, degree of environmental degradation, condition and typology and historic significance of existing building or other structures. However, along the regeneration process the method to be adopted is this of planning and design according to people’s need and aspirations, the preservation of cultural heritage, natural resources and full exploration of opportunities and constraints. As a key aspect is the contextual reintegration and this may be achieved by a clear connectivity, placemaking, restoration of ecology and preservation of flora and fauna, protection of cultural heritage. A further layer of complexity is the contribution of urban green spaces to human health and wellbeing. In this sense, emerging topics should consider benefits of regenerated blue and green spaces. (Babalis, Townshend, 2018, pp: 10-11) Waterfront design matters Waterfront change presents complexity in terms of design, enhancing the environment and sense of place. As the past waterfronts played an important role within the social life of people, their regeneration should bring back a revitalised context. To design existing waterfront landscapes to be more attractive on the social spaces, amenities and accessibility, is important to help change been integrated with its surroundings. Therefore, watersides can be transformed as public open spaces in adaptation with climate change while small-size open spaces can offer a range of uses and added values to the context. Specifically, the choice of uses in accordance with people’s needs, maintenance, accessibility and urban security become more complex. Waterfront transformation and adaptation investment to climate crisis should include: • Understanding the waterfront environment and change scenarios


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• Considering waterfront context cultural heritage, risks and vulnerability of buildings • Shaping waterfront spaces that should set good planning and design strategies • Implementing the planning system to achieve adaptation strategies to climate change that has to be an urgent priority • Adopting policy guidance to design waterfront open spaces • Adopting policy to safeguard urban waterfronts from hazards • Designing integrated waterfront spaces that should contribute more to urban quality. The above concepts, in fact, can be plenty adopted by decision-makers in building urban resilience. There is a strong emphasis to upgrade waterfronts creating new opportunities for urban quality and become the basis for local investment, adding value to the sites. To help deliver sustainable briefs, specific requirements for waterfront masterplanning process should include: • Developing a vision and priority themes • Identifying site opportunities • Defining wide scale interventions • Defining small scale interventions. In addition, design guidance to climate change can provide efficient measures for potential adaptation on: • Prevent or reduce hazards • Inform on specific site vulnerabilities • Recommend the use physical interventions to reduce risks • Adopt sustainable urban risk management • Adopt good practice and urban design for protection and adding values on the sites. Waterfront priority themes The following priority themes must be considered within a

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Proposed pocket parks and urban farming along the River Arno in Florence for urban quality, social integration and protection from flood disaster (Urban Design Master Course: Year 2017-2018)

sustainable waterfront change: • Improving waterfronts’ connections with land/water transportation, crossings and the city centre • Introducing new public accesses with new sites for ports and marinas • Enhancing existing destinations by introducing new ones according to people’s needs • Prioritising sites to be transformed for urban quality, social integration and enjoyment • Identifying sites for protection from water with appropriate materials, green and planting • Re-connecting urban waterfronts creating walking and cycling networks and focal points • Re-organising small urban spaces for everyday life • Protecting cultural heritage and historic buildings • Adapting to climate change with proper design solutions and with smart technologies • Engaging local community to set the vision and been involved within planning process. Design strategy and proposed masterplans can help to deliver on the above themes and give good solutions. Therefore, the priority themes include spatial re-configuration, waterfront

greenery and planting for urban quality and flood protection, attractions for local people and visitor attractions. Where a place is distinguished by its cultural heritage and history, protection can help to preserve local character, exchange information and cultural happenings. Micro urban design, therefore, attempts to propose smart projects that can give new characterisation of a place while guarantee ecological and sustainable urban management.

Stimulating waterfront change in specific environments. The Oeiras Riverfront design experience The re-design of urban waterfronts is clearly to encourage sustainable change. In this regards reviewing waterfronts’ potentialities improving waterside environment can add value and aware for existing natural resources, cultural heritage and urban quality. In response to climate change, many waterfront proposals seek to promote sustainable development in a variety of ways by: • Improving water quality and aquatic habitat restoration, where applicable


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A proposed riverfront transformation along the Cascine Urban Park in Florence for the preservation of natural resources, for leisure and cultural activities and for safety and protection (Urban Design Master Course, Year: 2015-2016)

• Greening the waterfronts by upgrading, creating and linking new existing parks and greenways to support biodiversity • Promoting sustainable design and building development including energy use and waste minimisation • Developing and implementing strategy for risk and urban resilience. (Babalis, 2017. p.9) The main purpose to the regeneration strategy for the 9 km Oeiras Riverfront-Tagus Estuary is to stimulate a responsive development to respond to vibrant and attractive urban environments. The Municipal Master Plan (PDM) shows the following general planning indications: • Improve territorial integration • Assure functional management • Re-organise seafront and riverfront activities • Improve acessibility and mobility • Guarantee potential of vacant spaces • Preserve existing culture heritage • Assure landscape quality • Promote local identity • Assure environmental sustainability. (Oeiras Municipality, 2017)

The most visible scheme is to re-create the connections with the riverfront, overcoming the main route’s barrier, managing properly both heavy and light traffic. The priority, therefore, is to create pedestrian open spaces for future inspirational design. Moreover, the key strategy is to preserve, and reuse the old riverfront fortresses leading inevitably to reinforce the quality of the waterfront environment. The deteriorating conditions of such historic buildings of great value can further encourage investment whilst affecting the living conditions of both local and visitors. As a starting point, conception of temporary transformations might stimulate potential new approaches to waterfront design thinking. The Local Authority as a guidance to the Summer School ULHT Lisbon 2017 teams expressed clearly the intention to find the key to design climate responsive urban waterfronts. For many reasons, the regeneration of public open spaces is clearly on the local government agenda. Sustainable riverfront spaces should be essentially attractive for both local community and tourists. The concept of watersides transformation should be of great challenge for urban quality, economic investment and tourist growth. The next step was to develop properly the practical student

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design within a range of proposed waterfront sites. Design briefs, schemes and frameworks were developed within the workshops and the students from different European contexts - mostly from fourth and fifth year architecture degree mentored by professors from European universities as well as form practitioners from architectural practices. The Lisbon’s Summer School experiment tested also how the community might use spaces for beach leisure, sport activities, water features, pop-cafes and children’s playgrounds. However, proper proposed regeneration solutions have been given to demonstrate not only the expertise of academics but also the fresh vision of the participant students. Therefore, the undertaken analysis brought to a deeper understanding of the context and to an early-proposed Vision including the following main points: • Ocean floor (Re-shaping the terrain for tsunami prevention/Creating better surfers’ conditions) • Vegetation (Expanding the existing green belt/ Re-creating the connections with the riverfront/Improving microclimate) • Routes and Railway - Lisbon Cascais: (Perforating the main route for less traffic, noise and pollution, managing focal access points /Strengthening the Railway for sustainability and less car use/ Creating access roads to increase connectivity from the Town Centre to the Riverfront/Strengthening marinas and other nautical infrastructures) • People (Locals: Creating social spaces with new functions, strengthening local community, reusing old industrial buildings and historic fortresses / Tourists: Enhancing waterside spaces, offering the full potentiality with new functions to the old fortresses, inviting tourist to the town creating new jobs and opportunities). In short, an early conceptual framework is proposed on the principle of the connectivity in terms of: (1) Infrastructure connection; (2) Green-blue connection; (3) Cultural heritage connection; (4) Small blue-green spaces connection. Masterplan opportunities are identifying across the Oeiras’


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waterfronts that can respond to the above strategies and can offer the opportunity to express waterside transformation. Specific sites are identifying in the town city and in the riverfront including indicative schemes and layouts. Finally, essential infrastructure interventions are discussed as follows: • Re-organisation of the main urban route network with the re-design of a more permeable critical points, giving a street hierarchy in order to encourage more lateral and vertical movement to connect all areas of the sites connectivity and accessibility for locals and visitors • Proposed urban design solutions to boost ecology, infill vacant spaces to respond positively to the existing natural resources and creating a network of small regenerated places • Preservation and reuse of historic forts, proposing new functions and cultural programmes • Creation of permeable, walkable waterfront pocket public spaces for amenity, urban quality and climate change adaptation. By assessing the current situation of each proposed waterfront site, it is possible to reveal how different arrangements on design quality and placemaking could re-construct the Oerias’ character, identity and connectivity. Finally, an adaptive riverfront management that is related to good policies and strategies can bring towards dynamic contextual solutions. This tendency may be challenged from time to time, especially where the appearance of problems need major flexibility and protection. Conclusions Waterfront regeneration requires local knowledge and local competence to potential climate change. A planned adaptation can give the key elements about information on future risks providing urban frameworks and projects that can support community’s everyday life and safety. Consequently, designing for resilient waterfronts is to indicate a capacity to maintain core design principles to face hazards impacts and vulnerability.

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Lisbon. The Oeiras Riverfront and its historic fortresses, located in strategic points where the River Tagus meets the Ocean. The proposed Design Strategy suggests the preservation and reuse of the old building, to add value to the proposed riverfront change (Photos by D. Babalis) Anticipating climate change with waterfront planning and design means having the ability to manage change and its complexities and dynamics with resilient responses. However, in a disaster risk perspective, urban resilience is referring to the capacity of a local authority to identify risks in time and trying to absorb them through sustainable design in an efficient manner. In an ideal scenario, a sustainable waterfront transformation can permit planners and designers to cope with natural threats and smart solutions to reduce risks. To bring together the tendency to transform successfully urban waterfronts with the purpose to manage or prevent successfully current or future susceptibility to hazards, is essential to develop good waterfront design strategies and planned actions. Well-related actions can be incremental or transformative to maintain contexts change for long-term sustainability. At the same time, design can address not only physical configurations but also social, cultural and economic aspects. A combined waterfront transformation with possible adaptation measures to climate change can be adopted mainly with a comprehensive approach but where is essential, even with specific single actions. Specifically, the development and adoption of an appropriate waterfront planning model and

related frameworks including design concepts, guidelines and strategy recommendations, requires both scientific input and strategic vision to stimulate urban transformation. The adaptation of risk reduction requirements should be included within urban planning while the scientific knowledge to face waterfronts’ protection and safety could be promoted within the involvement of both local authorities and universities. To summarise, firstly is essential to undertake conceptual frameworks with understanding and assessing the capacity of a sensitive context to respond successfully to major transformation. Secondly, is important to identify the effectiveness of planning frameworks to climate change. Thirdly, adopting sustainable design principles for a dynamic change can bring stability of a waterfront system at a given time. From a decision-making perspective, the focus is to identify key forms of waterfront change for responding effectively to changing conditions, and new programs for protecting key ecological, cultural and social values of a sensitive context. Thus, resilience thinking opens up a number of important questions about the effectiveness of sustainable regeneration in an era of climate change.


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References BRIAN W. (2014). Managing urban water crises adaptive policy responses to drought and flood in Southeast Queensland, Australia in Ecology and Society, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Jun 2014) Resilience Alliance Inc., Retrieved at http://www.jstor.org/ stable/26269544 (accessed: June-2018). UN/DESA, (2011). Population Distribution, Urbanization, Internal Migration and Development: An International Perspective, Retrieved at file:///C:/Users/Diana/Documents/CLIMATE%20 CHANGE_pds/PopulationDistributionUrbanization.pdf (accessed: May 2018). KOZLOWSKI K., (2012). Climate Change and Sustainable Urban Planning Policies: Case Study, Southeast Queensland, Australia in Universiti Putra Malaysia Alam Cipta Vol 5 (2) 2012, pp.107-117., retrieved at http://psasir. upm.edu.my/32905/1/55.%20Climate%20change%20 and%20sustainable%20urban%20planning%20polic ies.pdf (accessed: May 2018). WAMSLER C., EBBA BRINK E., RIVERA C., (2013). “Planning for Climate Change in Urban Areas: From Theory to Practice”

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in Cleaner Production; special issue on Advancing Sustainable Urban Transformation. DESFOR G., LAIDLEY J., STEVENS Q., SCHUBERT D., (Eds) (2011). Transforming Urban Waterfronts. Fixity and Flow, New York: Routledge. CABE SPACE (2008). Public space lessons. Adapting public space to climate change, London: Horticulture Week. BABALIS D., (Edited by) (2017). Waterfront Urban Space. Designing for Blue-Green Places, Florence: Altralinea Edizioni. BABALIS D and T.G. Townshend (Eds) (2018). Urban Waterfronts and Cultural Heritage. New Perspectives and Opportunities, Florence: Altralinea Edizioni. SAIRINEN R., KUMPULAINEN S., (2006). “Assessing social Impacts to urban waterfront regeneration” in Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Elsevier, 26 (2006) 120-135. Retrieved at www.sciencedirect.com (assessed: June 2018)

1 Associate Professor in Urban Planning and Design

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Nuno Griff Pedro Ressano Garcia Spela Hudnik Students

Emidio Alfonsi Joaquim Borges Martins Lucas SchlĂźter Nina Stojanovic Pedro Figueiras Sebastian Emrich Teresa Giglio

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EXISTING GREENERY FLOWERS

BUSHES

LOW GREENERY

ERVA CARIL

PHOENICIAN JUNIPER / HIGH BUSH

GOVINHO DA PRAIA

ZIMBRO / MEDIUM

SEA HOLLY FLOWER

ELYMUS FARTUS/ LOW VEGETATION

STREET TREES

ARTEMISA CAMPESTRIS MADRONEIRA/ LOW BUSH

TREES / MEDIUM GREENERY

MYRTUS COMMUNIS

TREES / HIGH GREENERY

QUERQUS SUBER

AROEIRA VERMELHA

PINUS PINEA

PELA ARRIBA FÓSSIL

AMMOPHILA ARENARIA / LOW VEGETATION

FUTURE GREENERY FLOWERS

MEDERETANIAN BUSHES

STREET TREES

ANAGALLIS MONELLI

AMERIA ROUYANA

JACARANDA MIMOSIFOLIA

EUPHORIA

SENNA ARMATA

CELTIS OCCIDENTAILS VINEYARD

CISTUS CRISPUS

PENSTEMON PARRY

CISTUS SALVIFOLIUS

JUNUPERUS TURBINATA

GRAPEVINE / VONEA

TREES / FRUIT

PISTACIA LENTISCUS

OLEA EUROPEA

TREES / MEDIUM GREENERY

FRAXINUS ANGUSTIFOLIA

CERATONIA SILIQUA

TREES / HIGH GREENERY JACARANDA MIMOSIFOLIA

CYATHEA AUSTRALIS

CERATONIA SILIQUA

ACACIA LONGIFOLIA

PHYLLOSTACHYS NIGRA / "BLACK BAMBOO"

LEMON TREE

QUERCUS COCCIERA

PLATANUS SPP

FIG TREE

PINUS PINEA


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VISUAL BARRIER WINERY PROTECTION HIGH VEGETATION MEDIUM VEGETATION

ACTIVITIES LEISURE

SPORTS

CULTURAL

ECONOMY

CENTRE OF BIOCLIMATIC WINE SENSATION

FISHING

CAMPING

SAILING

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EXISTING / FUTURE BIRDS LANDBIRDS

EXISTING / FUTURE SEALIFEBIRDS SEABIRDS

STERNA HIRUNDO

GAIVOTA DE AUDOUIN

FALCAO PEREGRINO

LITTLE TERN

NOITIBO CINZENTO

FISH

SHELLS

SARGO

ROBALO

AMEIJOA - BOA

CARAPAU

SARDINHA

MEXILHAO

CAVALA

POLVO -

OSTRA


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Harald Gatermann Karin Lehmann From

Bochum University of Applied Sciences Germany

Connecting the city and the waterfront (Oeiras Rivefront)

At the end of the 19. century the Railway Lisboa-Cascais was built, in the forties of the twentieth centuy the motorway „Estrada Marginal“ was inaugurated, the fast an beautiful connection between Lisbon and Cascais verband. 1948 the „Urbanization Plan of Costa do Sol“ was developed. On the first sight it was a signal of future and progress to improve the traffic and to develop the coast for relaxation and tourism. And even today the coastline (in fact it is a riverfront) is very attractive for several kinds of leisure and sports activities: swimming, jogging, biking, skating etc. On the other hand the railway-track and the Estrada Marginal have a seperating effect: the residential areas in the SouthEast of Oeiras have no direct access to the waterfront.

Improving the access to the waterfront So one of the ideas was to slow down the traffic, so that pedestrians can cross the street without any tunnels or bridges. For students it is important to discuss different possible solutions. In this case a tunnel for pedestrians, a tunnel for cars (like the river shore tunnel in Düsseldorf/Germany), a green bridge for pedestrians (and the local fauna). For the design- and decision-making process it is important to have enough examples in mind, to look for examples in books and magazines and more and more in the internet. The role of the teacher in this case: giving hints and showing examples - out of the wide repertoire of their working and teaching experience.


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Some discussed examples of new developed connenctions between the city and the riverfront:

planning a new railway station.

the common link from the city to the waterfront. Due to the topographical situation it is possible to close the isolating force of the railway track by putting the station and the rails beneath the surface. The long covered area is transformed and blend in the park like area.

- in Antwerp, Bilbao or Liége the riverfront was occupied by traditional industry, manufacturers and shipyards. By using abandoned areas and setting new attractives buildings the riverfront was set into new life.. - in Duisburg a former „inner harbour“ inside the city was converted into an attractive area for living, working and leisure activities - in Düsseldorf a motorway along the river separated the city and the riverfront. Building the „River-Shore“-Tunnel“ took some years, but brought immense improvement for the traffic (direct underground access to parkings areas with direct acces to important points inside the city), for citizens and tourists by new and direct access to the river-promenade. As add-on several cultural institutions like a museum, a cinema, a theater are places in the underground area beneath the new tunnel. The vision of the rising water level One of the main parameters was the vision of the rising water level in the near future. The students developed three scenarios in a time-axis, starting in 2017 (presence)One of the main parameters was the vision of the rising water level in the near future. The students developed three scenarios in a timeaxis, starting in 2017 (presence), 2037 and 2057 (near and far future). The concerns of the students: paying attentions not only on the tourists and people from lisbon or others parts of the country, but especially to the residents by creating a new green area of activity north of the Estrada Marginal. The possible loss of beaches should be compensated by other activities. The discussion about creating tunnels for the railway and the Estrada was rejected in favour of slowing down the automobile traffic and increasing the attractiveness of the railway by

Our impressions The ‚Pinctopus‘ project area extents from Praja Santo Amaro, along the waterfront to PrajaPaco de Arcos. It guides the visitor along past historical heritages, military spots and small beach sections. Usually the project area is used in the summer time by inhabitants of the town Santo Amaro and its surroundings. On weekends it’s more likely to see small working families with the children out of the vicinity. our ideas The main goal of our project is to create a flexible open space which can be used during all seasons. Based on our analysis we’ve located the desires and requirements of the local population and transformed them in small areas. According to the placement of those areas, intersections are composed. Not only do they function as junction furthermore they shape spaces of cultural and social intercommunion. Special types of use are subordinated to them and define the core area such as a market for leisure, work facilities to support local business, an Interpretation A center for culture and tourism and a new train station will be realized to create a central origin. Our inspirations Inspired by green bridges for pedestrians and fauna, the Perez Art Museum in Miami as a transparent structure for the new railway station The pink colour as a new means of identification Our intervention area By linking the two adjoined towns the train station accomplishes to close the urban void between them. Furthermore it creates

This idea carries on to the solution for the Estrada Magistral and generates a road and path network oriented in axis which point directly to the sea. Like the arms of an octopus those axis extend into the sea. Due to the new gained perspectives from the piers the visitor is able to get a completely different and new view up to the city and its waterfront.

Thanks to this new attraction the local activity can be increased and sooner or later the tourism of the Municipality Oeiras will benefit from the project. To guaranty a long term use of this area the project is planed in different sections which can react flexible of the global warming outcome such as the increasing water level or the danger of a tsunami. All in all you can say that the municipality of Oeiras benefits through the increasing of the inhabitants quality of life through building new flexible workspaces, childcares, sport and cultural activities during all seasons, under the consideration of linking the town and the waterfront. In long term consideration it will not only support the local tourism rather it will create interest in the minds of people all over the world and allows the municipality of Oeiras to grow out the shadows of its famous neighbors.


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Bernardo Vaz Pinto Harald Gatermann Karin Lehmann Students

Anastasia Celli Antonio Francisco Lorenzo Vacirca Lucas Schlueter Luisa Darlosa

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Romolo Continenza From

L’Aquila University

Towards a new work agenda

An opportunity like this workshop organised by LusĂłfona University is certainly a valuable source of debate and fruitful exchange of ideas on the present problems affecting cities. It is beneficial to discuss these issues in an environment which is free from political influences, but which is creative and openminded. The name, of the workshop highlights the problems related to the crisis of the current model of development and organisation of Western societies. Climate change is the indicator of a systemic crisis; it is the central phenomenon underlying the worsening of the conditions that rely upon the model of unlimited growth which originated in western societies, and which is now assuming a more global dimension. Access to energy sources, which throughout the second half

of the last century was easy and cheap, becoming the pillar of the economical and social model growth and development, is now becoming more difficult. Energy reserves which previously appeared infinite have begun to show their limits, leaving behind severe conditions of decay of the system which, for a long time, appeared perfect and irreplaceable. What we see today is a gloomy landscape: water, air, and land show unequivocal symptoms of pollution, the increase in the cost of energy is causing distress in the precarious framework of the overaggressive financial markets, while the current organizational model, based on constant economic growth, is showing its unsustainability. From a social point of view, the economic gap between the few who have huge assets and the multitude who are pushed towards the abyss of poverty is becoming wider.


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Towards a new work agenda

Climate change, largely caused by an inconsiderate use of resources and environmental pollution, is causing the desertification of large areas of the planet, as well as significant migration towards wealthier countries. Unfortunately, the answers proposed to deal with these significant problems tend to be simplistic and slapdash solutions aimed at preserving the acquired privileged conditions: the closure of borders to migrants, the imposition of duties, refusals to engage, even economically, with the complexity of environmental problems. Ongoing conflicts pit populism against cooperation projects, regionalism against multiculturalism, apathy and indifference to the problems of the outer world against participation and sharing. An explosive mixture is emerging which only a few unheard protagonists are trying to defuse, and which is destined to cause profound changes in the urban and architectural layout of the living environment. That is why the opportunities for debate on these issues are precious. There are no unequivocal solutions: possible responses must be rooted in the specific conditions of each different context. The questions that are brought to our attention today are closely linked to the impacts that the emerging changes in almost all fields of life may have on the organisation and functioning of the city. Will creativity and imagination be able to accompany changes to cities caused by the necessary focus on climate problems and the widespread use of renewable energy sources?

inclusion practices?

Will developments in the creation and manipulation of forms be able to accompany the introduction of new materials according to the activation of the so-called circular economy, in order to bring about the responsible and sustainable use of construction materials? With which tools for organising the spaces of the city and its new monuments will it be possible to promote and enhance the unavoidable changes in the job market and to foster social

What will be the impact of the change in the relationships between food production and consumption places in the relationships between the sea and the city, and the country and the city? What will be the structures and spaces in which the inversion of the product-waste relationship can be managed in order to contain the growth in the quantity of waste, and increasing levels of reuse? These are the fields opened to a new operability in the built environment transformation. Precious ideas and suggestions can especially come from a careful study of the history of the tools developed by humankind in the constant search for a balance between primary needs and those of the environment to be inhabited. Much more will (have to) be entrusted to the skills and responsibility of those who work professionally in the fields of architecture and city planning. Avoiding falling into the misleading utopia of the all-powerful architect, with the mission of managing the evolution of society, we must responsibly acknowledge that an essential role in the substantial and formal changes of the city will be entrusted to the architect’s commitment and talent, above all to the young people that we are educating today.

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Brendan Randles From

Sessional Academic UNSW

Lisbon : Space Time and the City “Everything depends on measuring time against space. As in the dance, in which rings and lines are described in space as in the forms in which we represent the rhythm of musical time, in town planning it is also necessary to dare to measure time in space.” De Sola-Morales, Manuel. “Space, Time and the City” in ’Lotus 51, 1986 Electa. pp. 25 Located on the western perimeter of Europe and emerging from fascist rule only in the mid- seventies, contemporary Portugal remains for many, introverted, conservative and unable to regain the global economic and cultural status it once had. However, this attitude contradicts its many progressive social and environmental practices; a commitment to sustainability and multiculturalism, acceptance of gay marriage, the decriminalization of drugs, for example, apart from its outstanding support for art and culture, which in many wealthier nations, like Australia, is poorly lacking. Nor does this attitude recognize the richness of its cities and the historical depth of its urban culture. For an architect, Portugal presents

an outstanding legacy of practice and intellectual rigour in both the achievements of its many renowned architects and the evident commitment to urban design throughout the country. This is not only evident in the maintenance of extensive heritage precincts in Lisbon, Porto, Coimbra, Evora and other centres, but also in the apparent public commitment to progressive environmental policies, the teaching of architecture and urban design at the highest levels, the sheer number of exhibitions and lectures on subjects relating to the built environment and the apparent openness of urban discourse and debate in the public arena. From our neo liberal shores, this is anything but backward.


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Lisbon has been a truly global capital for most of its urban history. With one of Europe’s few Atlantic Ocean ports, it was highly accessible from the Mediterranean, Africa and Northern Europe and became an important trading post from its earliest times. With its boat building and seafaring capacity, Lisbon was able to establish a vast colonial empire extending from Europe to Africa, India, Asia and the Americas from the fifteenth century onwards. Closely related to its accessibility and outward looking nature, Lisbon was always a deeply multicultural city. Through successive occupations over its first two thousand years, from Phoenician and Greek establishments (800 – 600 BC) through to the Carthaginians, the Visi Goths, the Moors, the Roman city of Olissipo, (200 BC - 350 AD), the Moorish city (711 – 1147) until the Christian crusader, Alfonso III established it as his capital in 1256. With so many cultural influences, it is difficult not to relate Lisbon’s legacy of migration and discovery to the city’s diversity, openness and tolerance so evident today.

Shaped by a complex topography, the city has over time created a vast number of compact precincts, each limited in size and responsive to the specific exigencies of their time. Distinctive and walkable, each precinct appears to meet the same amenity requirements we seek in our most contemporary cities: connectivity, outlook, walkability, access to light and air, delight, compactness, legibility, scale and character. Lisbon’s rich morphology also reveals an intense capacity for innovation. This is evident in the many planning and engineering techniques used to align street networks with topography, allow for drainage, stabilize river edges and slopes, facilitate access, integrate infrastructure and provide character and identity to all of its parts. Examples of Lisbon’s historical urban design innovations include the medieval vertical structure of the Alfama, a brilliant model of compact urban form and sustainability, providing breeze, solar access and outlook through its elevated position; the Avenida da Liberdade, transformed over time from one of the Tagus’ great tributaries to its most metropolitan boulevard, now an essential component of the city’s contemporary green infrastructure; Rua do Alecrim, the eighteenth century “road as building”, not only providing a solution to the city’s topography, but creating a truly modern infrastructure of prefabricated parts. In a similar vein, the many public elevators and funiculars throughout the city centre integrate engineering, architecture and urban design resourcefulness at the highest level. Hence, the experience of this ancient city encourages reflection on movement, not just through history but through time and space.

rather than essential periods of gestation. Similarly, technical constraints and even severe events can read as peripheral to the plan’s construction or mere irritants to eventual outcomes. In truth, the evolution of the city’s built form is as informed by random events as planned actions, with unforeseen interventions following unexpected political support, building booms following economic collapse and in the case of Lisbon, opportunities created by catastrophe. With a more complex reading of time and space, even the contemporary city’s form - fragmentary and in constant change – can be viewed differently.

To an urban designer and student of city planning, the ancient city of Lisbon is surprisingly modern and urbane. It is served by cheap and efficient public transport, which includes metro, heavy rail, tram, funicular and even free public elevators. Its central streets are designed for pedestrian use and are lively at night. Food and wine is generally seasonal, local and therefore inexpensive. There are many well established bookshops, including Europe’s oldest existing bookstore in continuous operation, and a cinemateque: Sintra hosts an annual film festival and numerous theatre venues appear to thrive. International artists perform classical, jazz and pop concerts nightly, with no apparent shortage of patrons. Celebrities come and go; the centre is selling fast. While these impressions are countered by Lisbon’s high unemployment, low economic activity and limited choices for young job seekers, these temporal fluctuations do not reduce the city’s immense value, in terms of its street and spatial structure, buildings and public open spaces, institutions, public infrastructure and cultural contribution to Europe and the world.

For students of urban design, whose experience and observation of cities is essential, Lisbon presents a casebook of layouts and built solutions, not only to observe, but also to experience and record. In approaching the city’s construction however, the terrain becomes much more challenging. A purely chronological attitude to time, as a recording of interventions and outcomes, can flatten history’s urban processes and fail to include the subtle influences of time on its urban form. In hindsight, the large spaces between design and implementation for example, can appear as anomalous

When the great architect, urbanist and scholar, Manuel De Sola’-Morales (1939 – 2102), wove time and space into his description of city making, he was not merely assembling a chronology of extensions, styles and products. On the contrary, he was rallying against the common design impulse, typical of functionalist and beaux- arts planning schemes, to sterilize the urbanization process against the irregularities and asymmetries of context, programme and the random impacts of time. In his seminal essay “Space, Time and the City” (De Sola-Morales, Manuel. Op cit. pp. 25 - 30), De Sola’Morales’ assimilation of the many participants in the city’s implementation to “dancers” (planners, engineers, financiers, events, opportunities, resistances and externalities), draws our attention to their orchestration as much as their discrete and collective contributions. In qualifying how they impact and when, he refocusses our interest in complexity, not for its own sake, but as a motion of support for truly transformative urban design practice. Thus, De Sola’-Morales’ re-defines the town planning scheme within a compellingly simple conceptual framework. “”The town planning scheme is a plan to give form to a physical, architectural and engineering process, which has to combine land, construction and infrastructure. When we explain this distinction to the students, the discovery brings such a feeling of clarity that they remember it for the rest of their lives. Construction of the city is division + urbanization +


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Hence, the initially slow rhythms of the Eixample’s urbanization are described, as the vast “lattice of infrastructure” transforms the territory and links its formerly walled town to nearby villages. With an accumulation of discretely defined “places” now afforded identity and accessibility, public interest and investment ensues. This stage is followed by a “loosely linked rhythm” of division, as the complex articulation of properties within blocks takes place. Based on the competing forces of individual requirements and market forces, this process is also

influenced by municipal constraints and public exigencies. By this stage, the evolution of the city is not a unitary project but comprises a number of precincts developing at their own pace and extent. In this intersection of time and space, a phenomenal degree of variation is achieved, which heralds the third and infinitely evolving “edification” stage. With over one hundred years of development creating “800 schemes of subdivision into blocks, all these produced over 20,000 lots”, the formal evolution of the different parts of the city are by now,

construction. But these three operations are not simultaneous acts nor are they connected in the same manner. On the contrary, it is out of their multiple modes of combination in time and space that the morphological richness of the city comes. The bigger it is, the more varied are the forms of this combination.” (De Sola-Morales, Manuel. Op cit. pp. 25 - 26) In his formulation of the three operations that construct the city, it is not surprising that De Sola’-Morales’ identifies the design of the “layout” - comprising its figure, spatial distribution and little else - as the moment, “in which decisions are most concentrated, at the initial and more permanent stage.” That the layout can also – in retrospect – explain the formal expression of the original infrastructure’s original pattern, as well as the relationship “between houses and building plots, and between plots and public roads”, makes the simple planimetric drawing the most fundamental of all planning instruments and a “permanent and expressive element of urban form”. “We are interested in it as an instrument of planning, capable of dealing with the future tense of the various constructions, without shifting its form, fixed once and for all. It also interests us, when we want to intervene in the existing city, as connection between what is fixed and what moves, between what pertains to the infrastructure and the volumetrical, between time and space.” (De Sola-Morales, Manuel. Op cit. pp. 29) Behind De Sola’-Morales’ desire for complexity and variation, is not only a genuine interest in modern planning, but a determination that time remains the city’s chief protagonist. Hence, he encourages proposals that open to innovation - to typologies unanticipated at the moment of design for example - and maintaining a degree of ambivalence regarding the articulation of actual properties or specific land uses. Having authored a major study into the evolution of Barcelona’s civic form from 1750 to 1930, (exhibited in 1983 by his Laboratorio d’Urbanisme, Barcelona), De Sola’-Morales’ is able to explain the different speeds of the city’s evolution with clarity and authority.


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clearly autonomous and subject to the contemporary forces of urban change.

number of years, clarity (without any confusion between public and private, between solid and void), permanence (which combines rigour and flexibility) and economy of expression (no more forms than necessary) are considered the principle virtues of planning.” (De Sola-Morales, Manuel. Op cit. pp. 29)

within an extremely short time frame, the reconstruction of this district nevertheless conforms to De Sola-Morales’ three operations of division + urbanization + construction. Overseen by Sebastiao Jose de Carvalho e Melo, later to become the Marquis de Pombal, this process involved an immediate topographic survey of the ruins which became the basis of subsequent design proposals, and the introduction of strict laws prohibiting “any definitive construction or reconstruction” within the city. (Byrne, Goncalo. “Rebuilding in the City” in Lotus 51, 1986 Electa, eds. pp. 8) This was followed by the

While De Sola’-Morales’ scholarship determines that his attention is largely focussed on Barcelona, he also identifies exemplary proposals such as Unwin’s Hampstead and Berlage’s The Hague, whose layouts are more defined in volumetric and compositional terms, with proposed blocks dependent on specific parcels and built form typologies. However, just as in Barcelona, it is the form and configuration of the public networks, “squares, bridges, roads and monuments”, that create the proposals’ primary conceptual frameworks. With these more defined urban projects in mind, he warns against urban design “stereotypes”, clichéd compositions that propose “hierarchies and spatial relationships that are false or non-existent in the modern city.” De Sola’-Morales’ is equally averse to “plans or volumetric studies”, “standards”, “regulations” and “zoning”, which too quickly reduce the “momentum” of urbanization, introducing instead a form of quality control instead of urbanistic process, and preventing the city’s various participants to debate, compete and contribute over time. Forever an urban activist and polemicist, De Sola’-Morales was to later develop this apparent support for autonomously regulated design proposals, positing the “urban project” as the preferred design instrument to resolve issues of the urban periphery - at the scale of the territory. (De Sola-Morales’, Manuel. “Another Modern Tradition” in A Matter of Things, NAi 2008, pp. 200 – 214). In his support of the layout, De Sola’-Morales returns us to the intellectual space of the urban designer, to the intentions and skills required to synthesize immense technical and programmatic demands into geometric spatial solutions, to the imagination required to anticipate the form of future and the audacity to “measure time in space”. Accordingly, the rigour required to understand the drawing must reflect the aspirations of the proposal. “In the course on “layout and organizations” that we have been teaching to students of architecture at Barcelona for a

Predating Cerda’s expansion by more than a century, the reconstruction of Lisbon’s Baixa district after it was devastated in1755 by an earthquake, tidal waves and subsequent fire is an unrivalled example of “the layout”. Designed to be constructed


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same naval expertise and a proven understanding of timber’s durability at sea, the levels of all public spaces, including new squares and streets, were constructed on contiguous timber piles.

variety of plot widths, property sizes and subsequent uses to eventuate over time. However, in its construction of façades, as the edges of streets rather than the buildings’ exterior, the precinct’s time/ space dialogue truly changed.

In the rationalization of the Baixa, a new land register was prepared to redistribute new and former owners’ properties within the new layout. To guarantee continuity of street expression and allow the flexible distribution of dissimilar individual allotments, facades for the entire district were designed and constructed before the building volumes were apportioned. Constrained by the consistency of fenestration and structural walls, the relationship between individual properties and the public street is obscured, in a manner that is Loosian in its decorum and restraint. In this fashion, churches too were concealed and rotated away from the most public thoroughfares.

“At this point intervened one of the most interesting aspects of the strategy devised at that time, for it was necessary to add to an all-embracing conception rules that would permit the unbinding in time and space of the successive fragments that would be joined on until the layout was completed. This operating concept, made necessary by the massive involvement of private enterprise in the construction process, in this case, the successive quarters of the urban grid being perceived as a whole, especially to their public side, the facades.” (Byrne, Goncalo. Op cit. pp.13)

swift preparation of comparative plan options, each using contemporary European urban design strategies to adapt the cadastre into a new layout. In the selection of the preferred option, the layout was completely rationalized and the cadastre only abstractly referred to. Remarkably, the initial survey of the ruins and all the layout drawings prepared at the time are able to be seen today at the Instituto Geografico’ e Cadastral, at the Museu da Cidade in Lisbon. “The solution that was finally approved, layout number 5 (Eugenio dos Santos) involved a complicated network of roads perpendicular and parallel to the river that marked out long and narrow blocks. The layout pivoted around two squares, the first (Praca do Comercio) a proper monumental gate to the city opening onto the river Tajo, and the second (Rossio) set further back, a new urban “forum” to serve as a meeting place. Between the two squares an urban continuum was created in which even the individual buildings (churches) were subjected to the general rule, being inserted discretely into the blocks.” (Byrne, Goncalo. Op cit. pp.11) Given the catastrophic impact of the city’s destruction on its economy and international trading partners, the works required immediate implementation. Within the consistent alignments of its condensed street network, the rationalized layout created a compact block size, which enhanced its economic feasibility. With minimal courtyards providing air and drainage, building heights optimized internal floor space against solar access and ease of construction. With similarly scaled buildings, the mass production of building elements away from the site was possible, thereby significantly reducing construction time frames. With centuries of ship building experience, ingenious techniques were implemented to create Lisbon’s first earthquake proof buildings. Through the introduction of the “gaiola” or cage, a balloon frame technique was integrated to brace and strengthen the major walls of new buildings; interestingly, this same construction technique allowed the Chiado’s historical facades to survive the ferocious fires that would destroy that precinct centuries later. Informed by this

By reducing their visual and physical presence on newly proposed streets, the church’s perceived and actual dominance of the precinct was contained and its public role assured. Independent of the creation of regular individual lots, the new Baixa’s layout, like Cerda’s Eixample, enabled a great

Within the context of Manuel De Sola-Morales’ “Time Space and the City”, the Baixa represents an intriguing case of urban transformation. Not only because the destruction that preceded it provided such an opportunity to intervene, or that its construction was within the city, rather than beside or expanding from it. Or that its apparent built form actually preceeded its “development”. Eugenio dos Santos’ layout –


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precise, compact and so delicately placed within the city’s existing networks – was radical primarily for its imagination and creative vision of what was to come. At that moment, we see the designer “measure time in space” and prescribe a new rhythm in which to dance. "Perhaps, after music, the most perfect metrical expression of time, no other expressive activity requires as specifically characteristic as use of time as compositional material as does the town planning scheme...The construction of the city – of a part of the city – combines in the course of time various operations on the ground and the building work, and the complexity of its outcome is no mere reception of patterns or juxtaposition of fabrics, but expresses the connected processes in which the forms and stages of construction follow one another with their own rhythms. Distance or continuity, alignments and gaps, profiles and junctions, building plots and monuments, all describe the sequence of a temporal process made concrete in time." (De Sola-Morales, Manuel. “Space, Time and the City” in ’Lotus 51, 1986 Electa. pp. 25)

References Byrne, G. 1986, “Rebuilding in the city, Pombal´s Lisbon, Lotus International, nº 51, pp 7-23 De Solá-Morales, M., 1986, “Time, space and city, Lotus International, nº 51, pp 25-30 De Solá-Morales, M., 1989, “Another modern tradition: from the break of 1930 to the modern urban project, Lotus International, nº 64, pp 6-37

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1. The residents in Trafaria protest the former container terminak project 2. Sea level rising and flooding issues results from climate change 3. Lack of connection to Lisbon and surrounding areas 4. Negative education condition 5. How to regenerate the fishing port

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Nova Oeiras

Nova Oeiras is a complex wich integrates modern urban texture and landscape. The urban pattern from 20th century European modernism was clearly impacted by the modern architecture movement based on Le Corbusier's conceptions and defined in the the Athens Charter (1933), wich proposed humanized spaces from "garden cities". Architect Cristino da Silva Nova oeiras is developed around the Alameda Conde de Oeiras, wich constitutes the main road axis that limitis the central green zone with the area of 13 hectares. The central green zone provides the inner streets and the pedestrian connection.


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Karl Fischer From

UNSW, Sydney

On opening windows in Lisbon “The more eyes, different eyes, we can use to observe one thing, the more complete will our “concept” of this thing, our “objectivity”, be’” Nietzsche 1887, 119

The joint workshop conducted at Lisbon’s Lusófona University together with UNSW in November 2017 was an exceptional exercise in opening windows of international exchange, study, analysis and creativity in a number of unusual ways. Seen from the side of the University of New South Wales (UNSW) it must have been the most international studio in the history of the course of the Masters Course in Urban Development and Design (MUDD) when measured in terms of the composition of its participants – students as well as teaching staff. With their large share of students from several Asian countries, the MUDD participants have always displayed a strong multicultural character; but in 2017, the 24 MUDD students coming from China, India, the Philippines and Australia were joined by 25 students from 8 countries enrolled at Lisbon’s Universidad Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias (ULHT). In addition to the Portuguese students, this included Lisbon’s Erasmus

program exchange students from Italy, Poland, Romania and Spain, as well as students from other Portuguese speaking countries between Brazil, Angola and Mozambique. With backgrounds from Portugal, France, Germany and Australia, the teaching staff was similarly international. For the final jury they were joined by our Polish colleague Piotr Lorens, who was just stepping down as head of ISOCARP. The sheer location of our sites in Lisbon at the mouth of the Tagus River was a particular window to the world – a window to the Atlantic Ocean that in the 1500s was opened to reach other continents, establishing global connections from the times of colonialism via the times of Lisbon as an escape point during World War II to the current challenges in times of climate change. And the two sites provided such different perspectives between the bustling, rapidly transforming north of the river and the fishers’ communities to the south.


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At the level of the workshop, the consequences of the international composition of students and staff have been manifold – sometimes challenging, but as the workshop progressed, highly productive. The different educational and cultural backgrounds meant not only different approaches, working styles and techniques but also a wide range of creative ideas and inspirations. Thus it was Chinese and Spanish students who first discovered the mussels in the sands of the Tagus River which in the students’ home countries formed the basis for productive mussel farming industries. Research into the technical solutions existing in different countries was translated into design concepts that would likely not have materialized without the multicultural cooperation in the Lisbon workshop. Other groups had to struggle with differences of opinion about the path to be pursued to such an extent that on the day before the presentation, the efforts of the preceding weeks seemed to have evaporated. But there again, it was the very different talents converging from international backgrounds with different foci on artistic and design skills culminating in a diagram reminiscent of a Miró painting that revived the group work and led to a presentation that engendered the enthusiasm of the Lisbon jury.

Fundamental discussions - between architecture, urban design and development The breadth of educational backgrounds among the students also contributed to fundamental discussions about the relationship between architecture, urban design and development. In this context, the positions taken in the discussions in Lisbon ranged between two polar standpoints as frequently encountered. One displays a preference for dealing with urban design as focused on and indeed largely limited to the realm of physical design – in a way as an extension of architectural design into a larger scale. The other recognizes urban design as a component of urban development. As a process that transforms cities over time, urban development is a central part of urban change and an essential part of the economy (Harvey 1985; Lefebvre 1991; Madanipour 2006). This kind of approach appreciates the complex nature of the subject matter and thus the necessity of integrating a range of aspects and dimensions. It looks upon the urban scene as it were from a number of different windows (Fischer and Altrock 2018) in order to get a more ‘realistic’ grip on the urban development process and on the perspectives of design, implementation, maintenance and long-term success rather than restricting the view to the

limited perspective of physical design. The combined views from a range of windows allow the integration of aspects of reality at different levels, all forming part of the same multidimensional object (cf. Nietzsche as quoted in the epitaph). One set of windows allows the combination of political, economic and cultural aspects. Other windows open upon the dimension of time as part of urban and spatial change and upon the perspectives of the various actors involved – including those affected by development decisions.

1947 Town Planning Act

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1980s/90s C. Rowe

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Windows of the MUDD course This understanding of development and urban design is reflected in the approach pursued in the MUDD course, which points out that ‘Urban development embraces two concepts, the overarching role of cities as engines of economic growth and change: “dense interactive locations” where “knowledge is exchanged, innovations spurred and sophisticated skills developed”; and the specific role of property development in the ”circuit of capital”, the process of investment and disinvestment in the fixed capital of the built environment’ (Weirick 2017, based on Henderson 2010 & Harvey 1985). The conceptual strength of the MUDD approach lies in its multi-dimensional perspective as expressed in its program

1999 Rogers, CABE

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definition, which emerged out of the cooperative effort of the program founders, Alexander Cuthbert, Bruce Judd, Jon Lang, Paul Reid and James Weirick: ‘The Graduate Program in Urban Development & Design at UNSW is based on the synthesis of three bodies of knowledge about the city: • spatial political economy, the manifestation in urban form of global patterns of capital formation, investment and disinvestment; • urban design principles and paradigms, normative models of ‘good city form’ grounded in aesthetic, social and environmental concerns; and, • urban design as public policy’, the intersection of public policy, design principles, the deal-making of the property sector and defence of the public realm.’ (Weirick 2017) Integrating ‘the deal-making of the property sector’ into the strategy of ‘urban design as public policy’ (Barnett 1974) is a task that has specific characteristics in the Australian and the US urban development context. In each country to which the mandatory workshop excursions take the MUDD students, the local specific outlook provides particular challenges. In Lisbon in 2017, the broader concept of development with its more specific embracement of property development as such

raised concerns among some of the Lusófona students, who were only too aware of the Global Financial Crisis and the consequences of speculative investments in coastal Spain. Each year, this complex subject matter has been discussed by the founders of the course, other staff members and invited colleagues in the form of essays in each of the yearbooks published since 1995, and new windows have been opened each time.

1986 Lotus international magazine n. 51

The workshop theme of ‘Space, Time and the City’ – Between the windows of urbanismo and town planning – the international context Connecting back to Gideon’s classic ‘Space, Time and Architecture’ (1941) and progressing from architecture to urban design, the theme adopted for the 2017 workshop was formulated and further developed by Solà-Morales between the mid-1980s and 2007 (Solà-Morales 1986; 2007). With the importance attributed to the time dimension, the theme marks a significant point in the discussions on what constitutes ‘good city form’ and ‘good design’ and their manifestation as products of universal, eternal principles on the one hand and a degree of dependence on local discourse and ‘Zeitgeist’ on the other. Over time, these discussions and

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the realities of development and design have been reflected in the shift from British town planning with its focus on traditional land use zoning and planning mechanisms to the ‘Re-Making of the City’ through individual projects in the spirit of the Urbanismo’ of Aldo Rossi’s ‘Architecture of the City’, Colin Rowe’s Collage City, Berlin’s 1980s IBA, and the transformation of Barcelona (Hebbert 2006), which inspired Lord Rogers’ Urban Task Force in the UK to call for designled planning in the context of an Urban Renaissance in their 1999 ‘yellow book’. Windows of the local discussion Narrowing the field down to the local context for our studio, a publication of central significance was the 1986 edition of the journal Lotus International (no.51). Like no other historical publication it summarized the development history of Old Lisbon and basic principles of the reconstruction after earthquake and fires, with contributions to urban design from Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Romania emphasising the international character of discourse and practice. In addition to field excursions to Beixa, Alfama, Chiado – with its remarkable reconstruction by Álvaro Siza – and the transformed Expo 98 site, the studio was inspired by most

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References

Ressano Garcia, P. 2010, Tagus Platform - Back to the River: Lisbon’s Waterfront and the 21st Century, Edições e Publiçãoes de Fundação Serra Henriques, Lisbon.

Barnett, J. 1974, Urban Design as Public Policy: practical methods for improving cities, Architectural Record Books, New York. de Solà-Morales, M. 1986, ‘Space, time and the city,’ Lotus International, no.51. pp.25-30. de Solà-Morales, M., Frampton, K. & Geuze, A. 2008, Manuel de Solà-Morales: a matter of things, NAi Publishers, Rotterdam. Fischer, K. F. & Altrock, U. (eds), 2018, Windows Upon Planning History, Routledge, Abingdon (in press). Void within a void project – Graphic by Keurvzandra Neto (ULHT)

valuable works on urban theory by our Universidad Lusófona colleagues, most notably the work of our host Dr Pedro Ressano Garcia. His authoritative monograph on the Lisbon waterfront (Ressano Garcia 2010) and the reports from previous international workshops combined local knowledge and experience with fascinating approaches to fundamental and original urban design solutions. Finally, already the preparations for the workshop had a rich international background. The plans were hatched in discussions with Pedro Ressano Garcia in 2016 at a conference held by ISOCARP and Polish institutions in Gdynia, where the 2010 City Visions exhibition – originally conceived in Berlin and curated in Sydney as part of MUDD 21 – was shown. On this basis, the AESOP conference held in Lisbon in July 2017 strengthened the ties with Lusófona; further preparatory working sessions in Lisbon two months later detailed the November 2017 workshop. The result demonstrates the value that lies in the long-range continuity of the international MUDD workshops and those of Lusófona that joined forces in 2017. May this happen again.

Giedion, S. 1941, Space, Time and Architecture: the growth of a new tradition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Harvey, D. 1985, The Urbanization of Capital: studies in the history and theory of capitalist urbanization, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. Hebbert, M. 2006, ‘Town planning versus urbanismo,’ Planning Perspectives, vol.21 no.3, July, pp.233-251. Henderson, J.V. 2010, ‘Cities and development,’ Journal of Regional Science, vol.50 no.1, pp.515-540. Lefebvre, H. 1991, The Production of Space (1974), trans, by D. Nicholson-Smith, Blackwell, Oxford. Madanipour, A. 2006, ‘Roles and challenges of urban design,’ Journal of Urban Design, vol.11 no.2, pp.173–193. Nietzsche, F. 1887, On the Genealogy of Morals, trans. by W. Kauffmann & R.J. Hollingdale (1967), Vintage, New York.

Rogers, R. 1999, Towards an Urban Renaissance, Final Report of the Urban Task Force, HMSO, London. Rossi, A. 1982, The Architecture of the City (1966), trans. by D. Ghirardo & J. Ockman, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Rowe, C. & Koetter, F. 1978, Collage City, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. Weirick, J. 2009, ‘Introduction to the MUDD Program,’ MUDD15 Folio – Time Territory: the city as continuum, p.1.


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Text

Prof. Pedro Ressano Garcia From

Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias Portugal

Impact of Climate Change Waterfront resilient

The effect of climate change is increasing at an unprecedented rhythm which demands adaptation of urban waterfronts. Sea level rise, high tides, storms and floods enhance their vulnerability. To imagine the future most groups chose to interpret the present and the past. The present by using geographic data, fundamental to relate urban territory with natural territory, as the water currents shape the landscape and the fluvial or/and maritime activities. The past, through the available historic records that provide background on previous conditions. Both dimensions, time and space, have influenced designers to read beyond reality and think broadly. The methodology used at the ULHT Summer School and Joint Studio ULHT + UNSW workshops has been tested since 2010 when the first European Workshop on Waterfront Urban Design was launched. The re-

sults presented by each group reflect a ground-breaking nature to the present research, by fetching together municipality representatives, environment experts, designers, geographers, and researchers to exchange knowledge. The ULHT Summer School 2017 edition gathered participants from Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Portugal; Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; Università degli Studi dell'Aquila, Italy; University of Belgrade Faculty of Architecture, Serbia; Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany; Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy; Leopold-Franzens-Universitat Innsbruck, Austria; and Univerza v Ljubljani, Slovenia. The Joint Studio ULHT-UNSW gathered the participants from New South Wales University, Australia to the Master’s students at ULHT, already a multi-national group.


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All came to Portugal to merge their experience and knowledge, and their different cultural backgrounds, into well-considered and innovative solutions for challenged and diverse waterfront sites.

The new paradigm of resilience for the 21st century waterfronts relies on their engagement in a permanent dialogue with nature, integrating solutions that enhance a symbiosis with local natural ecosystems. The local authorities came to share their ideas and struggles, participants in the workshop were invited to inquire the local communities and develop their own programs. The design proposals were encouraged to attract all sorts of investments other than maritime, thus easing competitiveness. Each group was asked to present a vision for the mouth of the estuary, north bank (Oeiras) and south bank (Almada) the precise location where Tagus River reaches the Atlantic Ocean. Waterfront brings together a number of different topics since it relates two different worlds: land and water. The subject has a growing impact for both citizens and businesses in terms of environmental quality and economic competitiveness thus sustainable open solutions are in the centre of the waterfront

debate, searching for resilient strategies to address difficulties stemming from environmental constrains brought by climate change. During the events participants have exchanged views, gained new perspectives on the researched topic, discussed new approaches of resilience and had the opportunity to test their methods in an international environment. According to Yoshiki Yamagata who writes about resilience, change itself is not necessarily the problem; on the contrary, Resilience is not a static state of a system. It is a process. A city is dynamic and is always changing. (…) Resilience is transformative, and in each transformation, tries to create a stronger, improved city.1 That is, resilience itself can be understood as change. Urban waterfronts are challenged by human, educational and urban development that cannot be comprehensively tackled by traditional approaches. Each group discussed how changes, gradually introduced and the continuous transformation can make the city grow stronger. The solutions presented along the book cover a large scope of opportunities addressing diverse strategies such as the creation of new infrastructures, the rehabilitation of abandoned buildings to enhance the community's quality of life, the environmental improvement, the expansion of renewable energies, the construction of collective memory, the value of local identity or the protection towards extreme climatic swings. The benefits from creative and innovative solutions can contribute for most desirable waterfront urban resilience in Europe. The creation of a stronger city is a process that normally extends over long periods of time, and as Ayda Eraydin notes must aim for flexibility:

actions or goals within a comprehensive framework but rather to define priorities that ensure a no-regret situation and create a system that is not only adaptive to slow changes. 2 To take advantage of the Tagus River geographic situation, future solutions merge natural ecosystems and the built environment in a creative way. It is hard to predict what will happen in the estuary of Lisbon in the next decade but new models will emerge for discussion to deal with climatic threats. It is foreseeable that an interface between land and water will require transformations that will improve the city renewal. The results have succeeded to influence local administrations to take in consideration the results thus the challenges now facing climate change are required to receive feedback from local and international partners. The new paradigm of resilience for the 21st century waterfronts relies on their engagement in a permanent dialogue with nature, integrating solutions that enhance a symbiosis with local natural ecosystems. The protection of vulnerable waterfront areas depends on the implementation of sustainable solutions that integrate complex systems and find new strategies to adapt to climate change, and to invent increasingly green modes of energy production. In search for a cleaner environment, the city has a unique opportunity to create a better and stronger position. The center of the debate is how to design and implement long-term strategies for the environment of the estuary and the ocean, promoting new programs towards an inclusive diverse community and fostering the economy of the sea adapted to the 21st century.

Resilience planning is not to define the most effective 1 Y. Murakami, H. Maruyama (Eds), “Preface” in Urban Resilience, A Transformative Approach (Switzerland, Springer, 2016)

2 A. Eraydin, “Resilience Thinking” for Planning, in Resilience Thinking in Urban Planning, p.31 (Dordrecht, Springer, 2013)


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