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An Introduction to the UN System: Orientation for Serving on a UN Field Mission

C O U R S E AU T H O R

Lt. Col. (Retired) Christian HĂĽrleman S E R I E S E D I TO R

Harvey J. Langholtz, Ph.D.

Peace Operations Training Institute

ÂŽ


An Introduction to the UN System: Orientation for Serving on a UN Field Mission

C O U R S E AU T H O R

Lt. Col. (Retired) Christian HĂĽrleman S E R I E S E D I TO R

Harvey J. Langholtz, Ph.D.

Peace Operations Training Institute

ÂŽ


Š 2011 Peace Operations Training Institute. Peace Operations Training Institute 1309 Jamestown Road, Suite 202 Williamsburg, VA 23185 USA www.peaceopstraining.org First edition: 2001 Second edition: October 2003 Third edition: June 2011 Cover: UN Photo #108581 by Joao Araujo Pinto The material contained herein does not necessarily reflect the views of the Peace Operations Training Institute, the Course Author(s), or any United Nations organs or affiliated organizations. Although every effort has been made to verify the contents of this course, the Peace Operations Training Institute and the Course Author(s) disclaim any and all responsibility for facts and opinions contained in the text, which have been assimilated largely from open media and other independent sources. This course was written to be a pedagogical and teaching document, consistent with existing UN policy and doctrine, but this course does not establish or promulgate doctrine. Only officially vetted and approved UN documents may establish or promulgate UN policy or doctrine. Information with diametrically opposing views is sometimes provided on given topics, in order to stimulate scholarly interest, and is in keeping with the norms of pure and free academic pursuit.


An Introduction to the UN System: Orientation for Serving on a UN Field Mission

FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix METHOD OF STUDY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x SECTION I: THE OVERALL FRAMEWORK 11–44

LESSON 1: THE TASK AND THE TASK ORGANIZATION. . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.1

The Charter of the United Nations: An Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

1.2

Purposes and Principles of the United Nations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.3

Legal Framework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

1.4

Financial Principles: Budget of the United Nations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

1.5

The United Nations System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

1.6

Achievements: Some Basic Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

LESSON 2: THE PRINCIPAL ORGANS OF THE UNITED NATIONS. . . 29 2.1

General Assembly (GA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

2.2

Security Council (SC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

2.3

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

2.4

Trusteeship Council (TC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.5

International Court of Justice (ICJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

2.6

Secretariat and the Secretary-General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38


SECTION II: THE OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK 45–86

LESSON 3: THE UNITED NATIONS ROLE IN MAINTAINING PEACE AND SECURITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 3.1

Political Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

3.2

The Key Concepts to Maintaining Peace and Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

3.3

Principles Guiding Peacekeeping/Peace Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

3.4

Structure and Main Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

3.5

Types of Peace Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

3.6

Planning and Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

3.7 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.8

Management Responsibilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

3.9

Peacekeeping Partnership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

LESSON 4: THE ROLES OF THE UN IN THE FIELDS OF DEVELOPMENT AND RELATED HUMANITARIAN ACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 4.1

The Development Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

4.2

The Interface between Disaster Relief and Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

4.3

Humanitarian Imperatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

4.4

Distinctions and Similarities between Human Rights Law and International Humanitarian Law (IHL). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

4.5

Human Rights (HR) and the Principles for Protection of Human Rights. . 78

4.6

Principles and Applications of International Humanitarian Law. . . . . . . . . 81

4.7

Human Development and Climate Change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83


SECTION III: THE WORKING CONCEPT 87–134

LESSON 5: ENVIRONMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5.1

Social and Cultural Environment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

5.2

Mission Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

5.3

Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

5.4

The Security and Safety Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

LESSON 6: PRINCIPLES, GENERAL DUTIES, AND RESPONSIBILITIES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 6.1

Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

6.2

Obligations and Duties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106

6.3

Cultural and Social Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

6.4

Personal Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

6.5

Privileges and Immunities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

LESSON 7: SAFETY AND SECURITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 7.1

The Principal Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

7.2

Main Principles and Structure of the UN Security Management System .120

7.3

Responsibilities of a UN Staff Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

7.4

Personal Safety and Precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

7.5

Travel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

7.6

Sexual Harassment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

7.7

Special Security Precautions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

7.8

First Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

7.9

Stress Situations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

7.10 Health Precautions: General Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130


SECTION IV: THE WORKING TOOLS 135–44

LESSON 8: THE AVAILABLE TOOLS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 8.1

Participatory Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

8.2

Projects and Project Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

8.3

Verification/Monitoring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

8.4

Transparent Communication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

8.5

Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

8.6

Mediation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

8.7

Written Communications and Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

8.8

Communication with the Media. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

LESSON 9: THE PARTNERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 9.1

The Need for Proper Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

9.2

UN Programmes and Funds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

9.3

UN Specialized Agencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

9.4

International Organizations with Member States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

9.5

Non-Governmental International Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

9.6

International Governmental Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

9.7

Non-Governmental Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

APPENDIX A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 APPENDIX B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174 END-OF-COURSE EXAM INSTRUCTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 ABOUT THE AUTHOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178


Foreword The current political and socio-economic environment requires a broad and holistic approach, which provides both challenges and opportunities for the international community. Trends of disintegration and fragmentation in some countries, stalemates in ongoing peace processes, and new internal conflicts are only a few of the daunting problems of today’s political world. Although climate change and the global environment may be the greatest challenges of this century, peace and security remain the priorities of the United Nations. Peace and security must be addressed in order to arrive at a safer world, and they require simultaneous investment in governance, democracy, and development to do so. This situation demands efforts by the United Nations Organization to find political and financial solutions, but it also requires the identification and exploration of appropriate and adequate human resources, particularly in the field. United Nations field missions are a blend of peacekeeping and peace operations, humanitarian aid, and development activities involving both civilian personnel and military specialists. Although these missions still require a large number of military specialists, the involvement of civilians has expanded significantly, particularly where an operation has been called upon to perform duties that are less military in nature. The same tendency prevails in other areas of UN field operations, such as the more peaceful peacebuilding and development activities. All UN field missions require staffing by personnel with extensive professional training in their own field of expertise. In addition, several field missions contain components that are more concerned with reconstruction and development and, consequently, require civilian specialists in a number of professions. Most of these specialists come from the private sector and without previous experience with the United Nations in general and UN field missions in particular. This includes a good knowledge of the United Nations system itself, but also an awareness of the complex working environment, including political, economic, social, and security conditions in the field. This course is primarily aimed at those from the private sector who are, or who will be, working within the context of the United Nations and who would like to become better familiarized with the UN system, as well as with the working conditions and requirements in the field. It is hoped that the information contained in this course will assist these individuals in better understanding the United Nations and its work in the field. Christian Hürleman Stockholm, Sweden November 2010

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Method of Study The following are suggestions for how to proceed with this course. Though the student may have alternate approaches that are effective, the following hints have worked for many. • Before you begin actual studies, first browse through the overall course material. Notice the lesson outlines, which give you an idea of what will be involved as you proceed. • The material should be logical and straightforward. Instead of memorizing individual details, strive to understand concepts and overall perspectives in regard to the United Nations system. • Set up guidelines regarding how you want to schedule your time. • Study the lesson content and the learning objectives. At the beginning of each lesson, orient yourself to the main points. If you are able to, read the material twice to ensure maximum understanding and retention, and let time elapse between readings.

• When you finish a lesson, take the End-of-Lesson Quiz. For any error, go back to the lesson section and re-read it. Before you go on, be aware of the discrepancy in your understanding that led to the error. • After you complete all of the lessons, take time to review the main points of each lesson. Then, while the material is fresh in your mind, take the End-of-Course Examination in one sitting. • Your exam will be scored, and if you achieve a passing grade of 75 per cent or higher, you will be awarded a Certificate of Completion. If you score below 75 per cent, you will be given one opportunity to take a second version of the End-of-Course Examination. • One note about spelling is in order. This course was written in English as it is used in the United Kingdom.

Key features of your course classroom: • Access to all of your courses; • A secure testing environment in which to complete your training;

• Access to additional training resources, including Multimedia course supplements;

• The ability to download your Certificate of

Completion for any completed course; and

• Student fora where you can communicate with other students about any number of subjects.

Access your course classroom here: http://www.peaceopstraining.org/users/user_login

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P E A C E O P E R AT I O N S T R A I N I N G I N S T I T U T E


SECTION I THE OVERALL FRAMEWORK

lesson one

The Task and The Task Organization

lesson two

The Principal Organs of the United Nations


LESSON 1 THE TASK AND THE TASK ORGANIZATION


LESSON 1

LESSON OBJECTIVES 1.1 The Charter of the United Nations: An Introduction

In order to understand the United Nations and its field operations, it is necessary to have an awareness of the institutional framework of the Organization. While Lesson 1 deals with its general principles and organizational structure, Lesson 2 provides a more detailed description of the “core” United Nations – in other words, the Organization’s principal organs.

1.5 The United Nations System

The first four sections of Lesson 1 provide information about the structure and main content of the Charter of the United Nations, as well as the basic principles that guide the Organization in its global efforts to maintain international peace and security. Although the legal and financial principles are complicated issues, the student should acquire an awareness of these fundamental concepts. The fifth section introduces the student to the United Nations system and the interrelations between the various agencies, programmes, funds, and other bodies. The sixth and final section of Lesson 1 deals with what might be called the empirical framework. Since United Nations activities are always under debate, this final section also provides some hard facts, which might be useful in forthcoming discussions. At the end of the lesson, the student is expected to have obtained an understanding of the overall framework.

1.6 Achievements: Some Basic Facts

Key questions to be considered by the student when studying Lesson 1:

1.2 Purposes and Principles of the United Nations 1.3 Legal Framework 1.4 Financial Principles: Budget of the United Nations

• What were the reasons for founding the United Nations? • What is the purpose of the United Nations? • What is the main principle of the United Nations? • What document is the constituting instrument of the United Nations? • What is the legal framework for a peace operation? • What are the principles for financing a peacekeeping operation? • What are the main bodies of the UN system?


Introduction The United Nations Charter sets out the rights and obligations of the Member States and authorizes the establishment of the United Nations principal organs and main procedures. The Charter is the constituting instrument of the Organization, codifying the major principles of international relations. The institutional framework of the Organization rests in the principles, structures, and rules of the various organs that are provided for in the Charter. Knowledge about the Charter is a prerequisite for understanding the interrelationship between Member States and the United Nations, as well as the relations between the Organization’s various organs and bodies as stipulated in the Charter. The high ideal of the UN stated in the Charter – “To end the scourge of war” – has guided the UN from its founding in 1945 to its Nobel Peace Prize award in 2001, and carries it into the future and the challenges of the 21st Century. The United Nations family of organizations – the “UN system” – addresses almost all areas of political, economic, and social endeavours. The “system” consists of the United Nations principal organs, 15 agencies, several funds and programmes, specialized agencies, and related organizations. In addition, there is a large number of other international, governmental, non-governmental, and civil societies organizations, which are in some way linked to the UN system. All of those actors – together with other entities outside the system that are concerned with international issues – constitute what is generally called the international community. They all adhere to the Charter of the United Nations.

1.1 The Charter of the United Nations: An Introduction History The League of Nations was established in the aftermath of the First World War to avoid further global conflicts, but the organization was never fully recognized and, consequently, failed to avert the Second World War. Thus, the United Nations was established in the shadow of two global conflicts with the major purpose to prevent a repeat

of the tragedies of wars. The Organization was established with an amazing swiftness. Between 1941 and 1944, four conferences were held at which the allies discussed the establishment of an international organization to maintain international peace and security. Although the crucial question of power-sharing was resolved at the Yalta Conference in 1944, it was not until the San Francisco Conference in April 1945, with the participation of 50 states, that the Charter was officially drafted. As originally envisioned, the majority of the United Nations’ power would rest in the five major powers sitting permanently on the Security Council. However, at the San Francisco Conference, the smaller states successfully argued for stronger roles for the General Assembly, the Secretary-General, and the International Court of Justice. As a result, the Charter was broadened, and “the United Nations” was empowered to act in economic and social areas, as well. On 26 June 1945, the Charter was signed by all participating nations, and on 24 October 1945, it was ratified by the allies’ five major powers (the present five permanent members of the Security Council) and by a majority of the signatory States. Aims The United Nations Charter was, and still is, a bold prescription for maintaining international peace and security and promoting economic and social development. The Charter provides the purposes and principles of the United Nations and sets out the structure of the United Nations, the interrelations, principles, and rules forming the institutional framework of the United Nations. The Charter begins with the Preamble, which expresses the aims and ideals of the United Nations in elevated words. The founders were undoubtedly guided by experiences from two major world wars, the suffering of mankind, and a deep longing for peace based on equality, dignity, and social and economic progress. Other themes throughout the document are peace, human rights, freedom, sovereignty, and respect for treaties and the international law system, all of which are to be achieved through tolerance, maintenance of international peace and security, and the promotion of the economic and social advancement of

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all people. The Preamble ends with a formal declaration in which all the signatory States agree to the present Charter and the establishment of an organization “to be known as the United Nations.” Contents of the Charter The Preamble is followed by 19 chapters, or 111 articles. The Chapters evolved around four major areas: peace and security; economic and social issues; the trusteeship system; and the judicial organ. The various articles describe the functions, rules, and procedures of the six principal organs, of which the General Assembly can be considered as the governing organ and the Secretariat as the executive function. The Charter ends with Provisional Rules (among others, the privileges and immunities for United Nations officials), Transitional Arrangements (relevant at the end of World War II), Amendments, and Ratification and Signature. The annexed Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter, comprising five chapters. The first three deal with the Organization, Competence, and Procedures of the Court, and the remaining two with Advisory Opinions and Amendments.  The UN Charter can be accessed online at http://www.un.org/en/documents/ charter/

1.2 Purposes and Principles of the United Nations Purposes Articles 1 and 2 are the most important articles of the Charter since they describe the overall objectives and principles of the United Nations. Article 1 sets forth the primary purposes of the United Nations by authorizing the Organization: …to maintain international peace and security and to that end: to take effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats to peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other breaches of peace, and to bring by peaceful means, and in conformity 16 |

with the principles of justice and international law, adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which might lead to a breach of peace… (Art. 1) The article also mandates the Organization to develop friendly relations among nations and to achieve international cooperation in addressing economic, social and cultural matters, and fundamental rights issues concerning groups and individuals. The United Nations is viewed as the harmonizing centre in attaining these common ends. Principles Article 2 stipulates the principles behind the United Nations’ and the Member States’ actions in pursuit of the purposes of Article 1. The Article is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all the Member States that fulfil in good faith their obligations to the Charter. States are to refrain from the threat or use of force against any other State, and international disputes are to be settled by peaceful means without endangering peace, security, or justice. Members shall give the United Nations every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the Charter and shall not assist States against which the United Nations is taking preventive or enforcement action. However, these two articles are secondary to the principles of sovereignty and non-interference. The end of paragraph 7, Article 2 states that “nothing in the Charter shall authorize the United Nations to intervene in matters which are essential within the domestic jurisdiction of any state….” On the other hand, the Charter adds that “this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter VII” – a principle which, in the 1990s, was used to support various political arguments. Experiences As previously discussed, the founders of the United Nations envisioned a framework for relations between states, which would act through cooperation instead of force, either as a means of obtaining foreign policy goals or settling conflicts.

P E A C E O P E R AT I O N S T R A I N I N G I N S T I T U T E


Despite the Charter’s establishment of a framework for relations between states, the purposes and the principles of the United Nations seemed far from assured during the Cold War era. Instead, the era witnessed competition between the superpowers, and their exercise of veto power in the Security Council significantly hampered the effective discharge of responsibilities by the United Nations’ chief security organ – the Security Council. The circumstances became an everyday political reality, which, to a certain extent, carried over from the Security Council to the rest of the UN system.

the Security Council did not agree to authorize military action taken by the United States and the United Kingdom. The failure of the Council and the subsequent war was a painful experience for the United Nations. The Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations but is still without true international representation. The events in 2003 further promoted the necessity to increase the number of permanent members in including non-nuclear powers, as well.

With the end of the Cold War and the easing of superpower rivalries and tensions, the Charter’s relevance to the contemporary political environment was improved. On the other hand, the end of the Cold War and the following Post-Cold War era witnessed conflicts of more internal character, where states’ functions did not exist or were very limited (failed states), and consequently, the fundamental rights of the individuals became increasingly abused. The call for the unambiguous protection of humanity and human rights has since spurred the international community to act collectively and not always with the consent of the parties (states) concerned. The tragic events of 11 September 2001, the issue of international terrorism, and the military and non-military aspects of security have further complicated the general perception of the United Nations’ role in maintaining international peace and security. This has led to the erosion of one of the Charter’s fundamental principles – “not to intervene in matters which are essential within the domestic jurisdiction of any state.” The development of the intervention norm, in favour of protecting civilians from the worst devastation, has no doubt challenged the expectations of the international community. The invasion of Iraq was one of the most serious violations of the Charter’s aims and principles. The invasion was strongly opposed by a large number of Member States that argued that invading the country was not justified in the context of the UN report of 12 February 2003 (UNMOVIC) and was not in accordance with the aims and principles of the United Nations Charter. Consequently,

Flags of the member nations flying at UN Headquarters in New York. (UN Photo #108581 by Joao Araujo Pinto, December 2005)

1.3 Legal Framework General The ratification of the Charter by the five major allies – the People’s Republic of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (transferred to the Russian Federation in 1991), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the United States of America – and by a majority of the other signatory states provides the basis for its constituent authority. The United Nations adheres to international laws, treaties, and conventions and is an international body, “subject to international laws and capable of possessing international rights and duties and it has capacity to maintain its rights by bringing international claims” (International Court). Throughout the years, one of the most impressive achievements of the United Nations has been the

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development of a series of conventions, treaties, and standards within the area of international law, which all play a crucial role in economic and social development, human rights, international peacekeeping, and security. As stated above, national equal sovereignty, non-intervention in the internal affairs of a Member State, and the prohibition of the use of force in international relations are some of the Charter’s fundamental principles. The United Nations Charter permits a departure from these principles only when action is necessary to prevent a threat to intentional peace or to restore peace. The Charter calls on the Organization to assist in the settlements of international disputes and in maintaining international peace and security. This is the primary responsibility of the UN Security Council, which may, in fulfilling its duties, adopt a range of measures as provided for in Chapter VI (Pacific Settlements of Disputes), Chapter VII (Action with Respect to Peace), and Chapter VIII (Regional Arrangements). Courts and Tribunals The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. All members of the United Nations are automatically parties to the Statute of the Court. Consequently, they and a few others can be parties to cases. The General Assembly and the Security Council can ask the Court for advisory opinions on legal matters, while other organs of the United Nations and specialized agencies can do so by authorization from the General Assembly. The jurisdiction of the Court covers all questions that Member States refer to it and all matters as provided for in the Charter or in treaties and conventions in force. (See also Lesson 2.) Among the other international legal bodies is the International Law Commission, whose main objective is promoting the progressive development of international law and its codification. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) develops conventions, model laws, rules, and legal guides in order to facilitate and harmonize world trade. Under the Law of the Sea Convention, there are three other legal bodies established: the International Seabed Authority; the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea; and the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. 18 |

The serious violations of international humanitarian law in the former Yugoslavia and in Rwanda led the Security Council to establish two international tribunals with the power to prosecute those individuals responsible for such violations. Thus, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia was established in 1993 and the International Tribunal for Rwanda in 1994. The International Criminal Court (ICC) is an independent judicial body “with jurisdiction over persons charged with genocide, crimes against humanity and war.” The Court was established by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court on 17 July 1998, when 120 States participating in the “United Nations Diplomatic Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court” adopted the Statute. However, the statute did not enter into force until 1 July 2002. In accordance with Article 2 of the Rome Statute, the relationship with the United Nations system is governed by an agreement between the two organizations.  The website of the International Criminal Court (ICC) can be accessed at http://www.icc-cpi.int.  Additional information on the courts and tribunals can be accessed at http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/resguide/specil. htm#trib3trib Principal Legal Bodies The Sixth Committee of the General Assembly is one of the six Main Committees of the General Assembly. All legal items on the Assembly’s agenda are allocated to the Sixth Committee and the decisions/resolutions of the Assembly are based on the recommendations of the Committee. Among the principal bodies is the International Law Commission, with a main objective of promoting the progressive development of international law and its codification. The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) develops conventions, model laws, rules, and legal guides in order to facilitate and harmonize world trade. Under the Law of the Sea Convention, there are three bodies established: the

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International Seabed Authority; the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea; and the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.  Additional information on the principal legal bodies can be accessed at http://www.un.org/Depts/dhl/resguide/specil. htm#legal#legal. Within the Secretariat, the Office of Legal Affairs provides legal advice to the Secretary-General and acts on his or her behalf on legal matters. It also advises the Secretariat and other organs of the United Nations on matters related to international, public, private and administrative laws. The Office is also responsible for the registration and publication of treaties and conventions and, thus, publishes the United Nations Treaty Series.  Website of the Office of Legal Affairs: http://untreaty.un.org/ola Legal Framework for Peacekeeping and Other Similar Operations

In addition, and in order to facilitate these operations, some additional legal relationships have been established in order to facilitate relations between the United Nations and the host country, and between the United Nations and the troop-contributing country. These Status of Forces/Mission Agreements (SOFA and SOMA) concern the opus operandi of the Force/ Mission. The SOFA/SOMA regulates the status of the force/mission vis-à-vis the host country, for example, jurisdiction, taxation, status of UN personnel, freedom of movement, use of facilities, etc. The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is a similar agreement between the UN and the troop-contributing country. It deals with the contributing country’s responsibilities vis-à-vis United Nations: size, type and duration of the contingents to be used, equipment, liability, claim and compensation, administrative and budgetary matters, etc. Above that, the UN Police, in their assigned duties, follow the rules and regulations stipulated by the United Nations Criminal Law and Justice Branch.

Peacekeeping was not foreseen by the founders of the United Nations and, therefore, was neither mentioned nor provided for in the Charter. However, the Charter authorizes the Security Council to “establish such subsidiary organs it deems necessary for the performance of its functions.” Therefore, it is concluded (and generally accepted) that the Security Council (and the General Assembly) is legally justified in creating and mandating a peacekeeping force – and other similar entities – as an additional mechanism towards fulfilling the UN’s task of maintaining international peace and security. Even if peacekeeping is the normative mechanism in maintaining peace and security, the Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (HR) and International Humanitarian Law (IHL) are the guiding instruments of all peacekeeping operations. While performing its peacekeeping duties, the United Nations adheres to the Charter and recognizes human rights as a fundamental means in promoting peace and security; International Humanitarian Law (“the law of war”) provides protection to those who do not participate in hostilities, known as a “non-combatant.” (See Lesson 4)

The first session of the International Tribunal on War Crimes in Former Yugoslavia opens in the Hague. (UN Photo #31411, November 1993)

The Charter, as well as the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, provides privileges and immunities as deemed necessary for personnel working in connection with the Organization. The 1994 Convention on the Safety of United Nations and Associated Personnel serves as the legal instrument for protection and outlines duties to ensure safety and security, release and return of detained personnel, crimes and exercise of jurisdiction.

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1.4 Financial Principles: Budget of the United Nations1 Regular Budget The regular budget of the United Nations covers two years’ cost for the staff, infrastructure and activities of the principal organs, offices and regional commissions. The budget is submitted by the Secretary-General and approved by the General Assembly after review by the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ). The main source of funds is the mandatory contributions from Member States, based on an assessment scale approved by the General Assembly. As of 2006, the maximum contribution was 22 per cent (the United States) and the minimum contribution was fixed at 0.001 per cent. As approved for 2008-2009, the regular budget totalled approximately $4.1 billion. Extra Ordinary Budget The extra ordinary budget makes up a large part of the funding acquired through voluntary contributions from Member States. The budget covers the cost for the operational programmes and funds: the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Food Programme (WFP), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and others. UN specialized agencies have separate budgets, which are voluntarily supplemented by states, but not all funding comes from the Member States. The United Nations sometimes receives grants from private institutions or foundations such as the Turner Foundation and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Peacekeeping Budget The costs of the United Nations peacekeeping operations are covered by the Member States in accordance with the Special Scale of Assessments. Since 2001 the Member States’ regular assessment levels are adjusted according to their placement in one of ten levels, ranging from a premium payable by permanent Members of the Security Council (Level A) to a 90 per cent 1

Ref: The United Nations Today, p. 18-22. 20 |

discount for Last Developed Countries (Level J). The total budget for the operations has increased from USD 2.5 billion in 2003 to USD 7.3 billion in July 2010. The General Assembly approves this peacekeeping budget with the recommendations of its Fifth Committee and after review by the ACABQ.  For more on the financing of UN peacekeeping operations, visit http://www. un.org/en/peacekeeping/contributors/ financing.shtml

1.5 The United Nations System2 The six principal organs, including the General Assembly and the Security Council, are well known. Although they have a general oversight of the United Nations’ huge array of global activities, the direct control of these activities lies with a large number of entities known as funds, programmes, commissions, and agencies. This section describes the main actors, including the principal organs, who make up what is called the UN system. For the purpose of simplicity the system has been divided in four major segments: A) The Principal Organs, B) Funds, Programmes and Other Bodies of the United Nation, C) The Specialized Agencies, which are further divided into Major Agencies and Technical Agencies, and D) Outside organizations linked to the system. Because of the complexity and comprehensiveness of the system, a number of entities are not listed in this section. The coordinating body of these entities is the UN System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB). It is chaired by the Secretary-General and meets twice a year. The next page depicts the UN System Chart. Visit the UN’s Web site at http://www.un.org/aboutun/ chart_en.pdf for an interactive version of the diagram. Additionally, full documentation and the complete list of all organizations of the UN system can be found at http://www.unsystem.org.

2

Ref: The United Nations Today, p. 22-52.

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| 21 Status of Women

This is not an official document of the United Nations, nor is it intended to be all-inclusive.

tion on 1 November 1994 with the independence of Palau, the last remaining United Nations Trust Territory, on 1 October 1994.

4 The Trusteeship Council suspended opera-

mous organizations working with the UN and each other through the coordinating machinery of ECOSOC at the intergovernmental level, and through the Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) at the inter-secretariat level. This section is listed in order of establishment of these organizations as specialized agencies of the United Nations.

3 Specialized agencies are autono-

cil and the General Assembly.

2 IAEA reports to the Security Coun-

OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

UNU United Nations University

UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

Other Bodies

UN Peacebuilding Commission

Advisory Subsidiary Body

UNIDIR1 United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research

SRSG/CAAC Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict

OSAA Office of the Special Adviser on Africa

OLA Office of Legal Affairs

OIOS Office of Internal Oversight Services

UNWTO World Tourism Organization

UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization

IFAD International Fund for Agricultural Development

WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization

WMO World Meteorological Organization

UPU Universal Postal Union

ITU International Telecommunication Union

IMO International Maritime Organization

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization

UNOV United Nations Office at Vienna

UNON United Nations Office at Nairobi

UN-OHRLLS Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States

UNOG United Nations Office at Geneva

UNODA Office for Disarmament Affairs

•  ICSID International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes

•  MIGA Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

•  IFC International Finance Corporation

•  IDA International Development Association

OHCHR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

Other sessional and standing committees and expert, ad hoc and related bodies

United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names

Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

Committee on Non-Governmental Organizations

•  IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

World Bank Group

WHO World Health Organization

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

ILO International Labour Organization

IMF International Monetary Fund

WTO World Trade Organization

OPCW Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

IAEA2 International Atomic Energy Agency

CTBTO Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization

Related Organizations

UNOPS United Nations Office for Project Services

UNISDR United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction

UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS

Specialized Agencies3

UNICRI United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute

Research and Training Institutes

WFP World Food Programme

UN-Women United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women

Committee of Experts on Public Administration

DSS Department of Safety and Security

DPKO Department of Peacekeeping Operations

UNSSC United Nations System Staff College

UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund

Other Entities

UNRISD United Nations Research Institute for Social Development

UNHCR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNRWA1 United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East

UNITAR United Nations Institute for Training and Research

UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme

Committee for Development Policy

DPI Department of Public Information

DPA Department of Political Affairs

DM Department of Management

ESCWA Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

DGACM Department for General Assembly and Conference Management

DFS Department of Field Support

DESA Department of Economic and Social Affairs

EOSG Executive Office of the Secretary-General

Departments and Offices

United Nations Forum on Forests

Sustainable Development

Statistics

to the General Assembly.

1 UNRWA and UNIDIR report only

Social Development

Science and Technology for Development

ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

ECE Economic Commission for Europe

Narcotic Drugs Population and Development

ECA Economic Commission for Africa

Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

Regional Commissions

Standing committees and ad hoc bodies

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

Functional Commissions

Sanctions committees (ad hoc)

Peacekeeping operations and political missions

Military Staff Committee

UNFPA United Nations Population Fund

UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

•  UNV United Nations Volunteers

•  UNCDF United Nations Capital Development Fund

UNDP United Nations Development Programme

•  ITC International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/WTO)

UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Programmes and Funds

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)

Counter-terrorism committees

Subsidiary Bodies

Standing committees and ad hoc bodies

International Law Commission

Human Rights Council

Disarmament Commission

Main and other sessional committees

Subsidiary Bodies

NOTES:

Trusteeship Council 4

International Court of Justice

Secretariat

Economic and Social Council

Security Council

General Assembly

UN Principal Organs

The United Nations System

Published by the United Nations Department of Public Information DPI/2470—10-00133—April 2011

Published by the United Nations Department of Public Information DPI/2470—10-00133—April 2011


A. The Principal Organs The principal organs of the United Nations as provided for in the Charter of the United Nations are: the General Assembly (GA); the Security Council (SC); the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC); the Trusteeship Council; the International Court of Justice (ICJ); and the Secretariat. These six organs, described in Lesson 2, form the core of the United Nations system. The principal organs are mainly located at the Headquarters in New York (UNNY) except for the International Court of Justice, which is located in The Hague. The United Nations Offices in Nairobi (UNON), Vienna (UNOV), and Geneva (UNOG) – the latter located in the same building as the former League of Nations − are all considered part of the United Nations’ Headquarters. The Charter also provides for the establishment of subsidiary bodies as the principal organs may find necessary (e.g., various commissions, committees, temporarily constituted peacekeeping operations, as well as a variety of observer, verification missions, etc.). Reporting to the ECOSOC and operating under the authority of the Secretary-General are the five Economic and Social Regional Commissions (Art.68). The basic mandate of these commissions is to facilitate the promotion of the regional economic and social development of each region and to strengthen the economic relations of the countries in that region both among themselves and with other countries of the world. The five Commissions, with their own structures and secretariats, are grouped as follows: for Africa in Addis Ababa (ECA); Asia and the Pacific in Bangkok (ESCAP); Europe in Geneva (ECE); Latin America and the Caribbean in Santiago (ECLAC); and Western Asia in Beirut (ESCWA). The above-mentioned organs, offices, and commissions are financed through the United Nations Regular Budget.

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B. Programmes, Funds, and Bodies of the United Nations The core of the United Nations includes various Programmes and Funds, which are generally responsible for the operational development in programme countries. Today, there are 14 various programmes and funds including: the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP); Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); World Food Programme (WFP); and United Nations Volunteers (UNV). Although these programmes and offices seem to be autonomous, they all report through ECOSOC to the General Assembly. They have their own governing bodies and set their own standards and guidance. Their budgets are in large part funded through voluntary contributions from governments and the private sector through the Extra Budgetary Resources. In addition there are a number of related programmes, such as the research and training institutes UN Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR); and UN Institute for Disarmament Research. Other entities include the UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS), United Nations University (UNU), and the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), among others. C. Specialized Agencies These agencies provide support and assistance to the development programmes. They are all autonomous and work at the inter-governmental level through ECOSOC and at the inter-secretarial through the CEB. Major Specialized Agencies The major specialized agencies and the Bretton Woods Institutions (founded at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944) are separately established by governments and have their own constitution, budgets, and governing boards and secretariats.

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(i) One group consists of five agencies: the International Labour Organization (ILO); the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO); and the World Health Organization (WHO). These are all “brought into the agreement” with the United Nations and, thus, formally recognized under the Charter. Their budgets are raised by assessment from their Member States but not as part of the United Nations’ regular budget. (ii) The Bretton Woods Institutions consist of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank Group. The World Bank is the lender of commercially raised capital for development projects, while the IMF, among other things, promotes monetary cooperation and expansion of international trade. The World Bank Group encompasses the main commercial-rate International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD); the soft-loan International Development Association (IDA); the International Finance Corporation (IFC); the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); and the International Centre for Settlements of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Their budgets are raised through the usual capital market procedures. These two major organizations − IMF and the World Bank − have adopted a voting system where voting is weighted in accordance to the members’ shares. (iii) The third group includes the IFAD, the WTO, and the CD. The International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) has a separate legal status within the system. In 1995, the World Trade Organization (WTO) replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) as the mechanism to help trade flow as freely as possible. The WTO does not fall under the Charter as a specialized agency but has cooperative arrangements with the United Nations. The International Trade Centre UNCTAD/WTO operates as the technical cooperation agency of the WTO. The Conference on Disarmament (CD) is the single global negotiating forum and was established under the General Assembly’s 10th Special Session. The Conference has a special relationship with the United Nations, since it reports to the GA and is funded from the regular budget.

Technical Specialized Agencies The technical specialized agencies, with the same relations as those above, are some of the most important technical organizations of the world. All agencies except the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) had predecessors under the former League of Nations. The Universal Postal Union (UPU), the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) were established more than a century ago. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and the International Maritime Organization (IMO) were present before World War II, but after the war they were restructured into the existing organizations. D. Outside Organizations Linked to the System Non-government organizations (NGOs) have an important role in the United Nations’ activities. In order to avoid a political dependency, most of the NGOs stand outside the governmental system. Their experiences and technical knowledge are of great value to the United Nations, and, therefore, approximately 2,100 NGOs have some sort of consultative status with ECOSOC. They are divided into three categories: (i) NGOs concerned with most ECOSOC activities; (ii) NGOs with specific knowledge in specific areas; and (iii) NGOs for ad hoc consultations. The most eminent member of the NGO group is the International Committee of the Red Cross, which, in recognition of its formal mandate under the Geneva Convention, is invited to participate in the work of the General Assembly. Examples of inter-governmental organizations are the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which works under the aegis of the United Nations (see above), and the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The Committee of Non-Governmental Organizations (CNGO) is responsible to examine and report on the consultative relationship that ECOSOC should accord to the NGOs.

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In addition, there are a number of regional organizations, which are involved in peace, security, and social and economic development, among others: African Union (AU); Organization of American States (OAS); Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC); EU; NATO; ASEAN forum; etc. Some of them have entered into a framework agreement with the United Nations, some are seeking observer status, and some have neither formal nor informal UN status. Their links to the United Nations may fall under Article 52 of the Charter. Further information about the various organizations linked to the UN system can be found in Lesson 9.

1.6 Achievements: Some Basic Facts Now more than ever, the United Nations is engaged in service to all the world’s nations and peoples.

Since its beginning, the United Nations has assisted 60 former colonies attain independence.

Within the field of International Law, more than 500 agreements have been concluded.

As of June 2009, the Secretariat had a staff of approximately 40,000 around the world.

Seventy per cent of the work of the UN system is devoted to helping developing countries build the capacity to help themselves. This includes: promoting and protecting democracy and human rights; saving children from starvation and disease; providing relief assistance to refugees and disaster victims; countering global crime, drugs and disease; and assisting countries devastated by war and the long-term threat of land-mines.

Costs of the UN system’s operational activities for development are estimated at USD 6 billion a year (excluding the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and International Fund for Agriculture Development). This is equal to 0.60 per cent of world total military expenditures of over USD 1 trillion. (2007)

As of 2010, more than 121,000 personnel were serving on 15 peacekeeping operations on four continents. More than 85,000 of those serving were troops and military observers and about 13,000 were police personnel. In addition, there were more than 5,000 international civilian personnel, 14,000 local civilian staff, and some 2,400 UN Volunteers from over 160 nations. The approved budget for the period 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011 was USD 7.26 billion.

In 2006, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) launched interagency appeals, raising more than USD 3 billion to assist 40 million people in 19 countries and regions.

At the end of 2009, there were some 36 million people of concern to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in more than 150 countries, and as of September 2010, the World Food Programme (WFP) had 90

Sources: Renewing the United Nations System. Development Dialogue 94:1. Building Partnerships (ISBN 92-1-100890-5). United Nations Handbook, 2008/2009.

Children of concern for UNHCR and the WFP include the internally displaced indigenous children in Colombia, depicted above. (UN Photo #138798 by Mark Garten, June 2006)

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million beneficiaries in 73 countries.

Learning Questions

The Charter evolves around four major areas. Can you describe them? Which are the major legal organizations within the United Nations?

Knowledge What are the aims of the United Nations? What are the purposes of the United Nations? What are the principles of the United Nations? What is the constituent authority of the United Nations? Which are the fundamental principles in the relations between Member States? What is the main role of the International Court of Justice? What are the six major components in the United Nations system? Awareness What is the meaning of the “International Community”?

How is the United Nations financed? Which entities normally belong to what is called the “Central” United Nations? The non-governmental organizations have a kind of consultative status to one UN organ. Which one? Application You have been assigned to a United Nations mission in Africa. Among your friends, you are now considered as an expert on all UN issues. At a dinner party, your friends start to discuss the United Nations in a rather negative way. “What has the UN done? All money goes to peacekeeping and the rest to feed the UN bureaucrats and nothing is done to help the poor countries!” How do you respond to this statement, and what will your answer be?

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End-of-Lesson Quiz

1. On which date was the Charter of the United Nations ratified?

5. A peacekeeping operation can be authorized by:

A. 16 April 1945;

A. The General Assembly;

B. 26 June 1945;

B. The Security Council;

C. 24 October 1945;

C. The Secretary-General;

D. 1 January 1946.

D. The Security Council and the General Assembly.

2. The Preamble of the Charter of the United Nations: A. Expresses the principles of the United Nations; B. Is a formal declaration in which the signatory States agree to the present Charter;

6. The minimum contribution to the United Nations’ regular budget was (as of 2006) fixed at: A. 0.1 percent;

C. Expresses the aims and ideals of the United Nations;

B. 0.01 percent;

D. States the purpose of the United Nations.

D. 1.0 percent.

3. Which sentence is correct?

7. The principal organs of the United Nations system are:

A. The most important principles of the Charter of the United Nations are stated in Article 1; B. The most important principles of the Charter of the United Nations are stated in Article 2; C. The most important principles of the United Nations are those stated in Articles 1 and 2; D. The most important principles of the Charter of the United Nations are stated in the Preamble.

4. Which sentence is correct? A. The International Court of Justice is not one of the six principal organs of the United Nations; B. The International Tribunal for Rwanda was established in 1994 by the General Assembly;

C. 0.001 percent;

A. The General Assembly and the Security Council; B. The General Assembly, the Security Council, the Trusteeship Council, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat; C. The Secretary-General, Programmes and Funds, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and Major Agencies; D. The Security Council, the International Court of Justice, Programmes and Funds, and Major Agencies.

C. The Office of Legal Affairs provides legal advice to the Secretary-General; D. The Statute for an International Criminal Court was ratified in Rome in 2002.

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8. Most of the non-governmental organizations involved with the UN: A. Operate under ECOSOC; B. Are concerned with ECOSOC’s activities; C. Have various kinds of consultative status with ECOSOC; D. Are invited to participate in the work of the General Assembly.

9. The International Committee of the Red Cross is invited to participate in the work of: A. The Economic and Social Council; B. The International Court of Justice; C. The General Assembly; D. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

10. Which sentence is correct? A. UN funds and programmes provide assistance for countries’ development efforts; B. UN specialized agencies provide assistance for countries’ development efforts; C. UN specialized agencies deal with operational activities for development in programme countries; D. UN funds and programmes do not report to ECOSOC.

ANSWER KEY 1C, 2C, 3C, 4C, 5D, 6C, 7B, 8C, 9C, 10B


An Introduction to the United Nations System  

Students gain a solid introductory foundation in the workings and structure of the UN and UN initiatives to support peace. Topics include th...

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