Effective Practice Guide
to Youth-Led Green Job Creation Initiatives in Europe
The goals of Peace Child International(PCI) are guided by what young people tell us are their primary concerns. Our mission is to empower young people and work with them to create education and training materials that provide them, their teachers and their governments with effective strategies, courage and inspiration to tackle those concerns.
PROJECT MANAGER Janne Geurts
RESEARCHER Torey Pitman
THE YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT CRISIS Causes Effects Conclusion
8-10 9 9 10
GENERAL APPROACHES TO JOB CREATION Networks Training Programmes Financial Support Mentorship/Professional Advice Job Placement
THE GREEN ECONOMY
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Work Experience Training Working with Schools Financial Support
CRITERIA FOR YOUTH -LED GREEN JOB CREATION INITIATIVES Youth-Related Green Metrics Replicable/Scalable/Joinable Comprehensive Sustainable FEATURED INIATIVES Change Agents UK Euforia Chrysalis LEAP Enviu Liga Bruntal Libson Challenge / Beta i Green Corridor Garage48 Student Hubs Archaeological Summer J贸venes Dinamizadores Rurale ECO UNESCO European Pirate Summit Social Enterprise NL
12 12 12 12 13
17 17 17 17 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20-49 22 25 26 29 30 32 34-35 36 38-39 40 43 44-45 46 48 50
Currently, the top concern for young people is job creation. I learned that at our World Youth Congress in Brazil two years ago when I witnessed 120 young people crowding into a room designed for 60 to hear Yannick Dupont’s Workshop on Youth Employment. Since then, I have encouraged the development of PCI’s Be the Change Academy centres in India and West Africa; its innovative youth-led ‘Work the Change’ programme, developed in partnership with the Paul Hamlyn Foundation; and its Enterprise YOU! entrepreneurship training programme, supported by the European Commission. These initiatives have given
PCI an excellent basis from which to judge the realities and challenges faced by anyone attempting to deliver effective youth job creation programmes on the ground. It is therefore with great pleasure that I welcome the work done by Janne Geurts, Liz Weiner and Torey Pitman in creating this comprehensive analysis of the organisations active in this field here in Europe. The Effective Practice Guide they have compiled lists approximately 900 initiatives, and there are still many more out there. Youth job creation has no one-size-fitsall approach, but we can all learn from each other – which is why so many of
us crammed together at our Brazil Congress to listen to Yannick’s experience. We will build on this collaboration at our next Congress, which will focus on creating a ‘Road Map to Full Youth Employment by 2030’ – a series of policies that will, I hope, be incorporated into every government’s post-2015 Development Agenda. This Effective Practice Guide will inform those agendas, and it is my hope that it will focus more attention at senior levels of government on what works in the effort to create what every young person in every
country wants: a decent, safe, well-paying job. I thank the European Commission, DG-EACEA, for giving Peace Child International the chance to create this Effective Practice Guide, and I congratulate Janne and her team for rising to the challenge so intelligently. Jane Grisewood, Chair, Board of Trustees, Peace Child International, July 31st 2014
As part of its Action 4.6 Programme, DG-EACEA of the European Commission has financed the youth empowerment NGO, Peace Child International, to create a Effective Practice Guide to YouthLed Green Job Creation (Project Ref. 2011 - 5083 / 026 â€“ 001.] By researching, indexing and publishing all the job creation initiatives we can find in Europe, Peace Child International hopes that this Guide will become a useful resource for
young people, youth workers, community leaders, civil society organisations, governments and other European Agencies interested in creating, replicating and/or launching youth employment initiatives. This Effective Practice Guide focusses on green jobs and youth-led programmes in particular. The project was researched, written and compiled by the young staff and volunteers of Peace Child International.
INTRODUCTION This guide will highlight programmes that encourage European youths to be mindful of the environment and aware of the possibilities within a green economy. Additionally, the burgeoning market of environmentally-friendly products and energy sources is prime territory for young entrepreneurs to explore.
This Effective Practice Guide to YouthLed Green Job Creation Initiatives is a di-rectory of job creation programmes in Europe. As the average youth unemployment rate continues to hover at 23% in the EU, the rate varies wildly between regions – the two EU Member states of Greece and Spain have over 50% youth unemployment1,2. The effects on the wellbeing and security of individuals, families, communities and countries will be felt on this continent for decades to come.
The private sector has a vested interest in youth employment and therefore also has a part to play in job creation. Corporate social responsibility departments are already establishing programmes that address the youth unemployment crisis by providing training, work experience and networking opportunities. This guide will outline the benefits of these programmes for young people as well as companies.
However, the situation is not hopeless. Scores of programmes have been developed to empower youths and promote job creation through apprenticeships, start-up loans, training, mentoring, entrepreneurial support, work experi-ence placements, etc. This Effective Practice Guide’s purpose is to feature the most impressive of these programmes and the ways in which they help young Europeans. By describing these initiatives, their impact and their cost-effectiveness, this guide will establish the potential for programmes to be replicated.
The final and largest component of this guide is the index of all the job creation initiatives for young people in Europe, organised alphabetically by country. This Effective Practice Guide to YouthLed Green Job Creation Initiatives is for young people, teachers, communities, development organisations, governments and anyone else who shares our goal of creating sustainable job growth and empowering Europe’s youth. Peace Child International believes that the world’s most pressing problems can be solved by the energy, creativity, skills and idealism of young people. This Effective Practice Guide to Youth-Led Green Job Creation Initia-tives is dedicated to them.
The green economy is critical in establishing sustainable job creation in Europe, for it has the potential to create 60 million jobs3. With coal, oil and natural gas reserves running out, new sources of energy are in demand. The continent is in the early stages of transitioning from a brown fossil fuel-based economy to a green one that relies on energy efficiency, zero waste, sustainable sources of food and water and conservation4. The European Commission has even released a Green Economy Initiative communiqué that outlines the strategies and policy measures needed for this change5. Green jobs, or positions that ‘preserve or restore the quality of the environment’, span numerous sectors and can give millions of young people the opportunities they need6.
THE YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT CRISIS Before a problem can be addressed, it needs to be fully understood â€“ for just as there is no single cause of the youth unemployment crisis, there is no single cure. The facts are that more than five million young people in the EU are jobless7. More than seven million are not in employment, education or training (NEET). Whether you view these millions as a massive work force going to waste, costing the econo-
my billions8 or as individuals denied the chance to earn a living, give back to their communities and develop personally and professionally, it is undeniably true that Europe is experiencing a crisis9. This section of the guide will explain general causes and effects of the crisis, but research into your own community or country is recommended. 8
graduating from school often means a potentially long period of unemployment. Meanwhile, frustration abounds among businesses as they cannot find suitable candidates for their positions – there are a shocking two million unfilled vacancies in the EU14.
Blame for the high youth unemployment rates is often placed on the financial downturn, but the recession merely exacerbated existing, systemic defects in labour markets, school curricula and other structures. However, in combination with labour market policies, the recession affected the quality and secur ty of jobs open to young people. Temporary positions, part-time work, zero-hour contracts and other precarious job paths are the only recourse for many young people to earn money and/or gain experience.
The skills mismatch is caused by a combination of school curricula in Europe neglecting vocational, business and employability training in favour of more traditional academics, and a disconnect between the private and educational sectors15. The skills mismatch can be addressed by integrating practical education, like training and apprenticeships, with traditional curricula. Known as a ‘dual system’, this is the educational model of the countries with the lowest youth unemployment rates in Europe16. This system gives students hands-on work experience and helps them network with businesses.
Some get trapped in these low-paid jobs, unable to find anything better. In 2012, 42% of young workers were on a temporary contract, and 32% were working part-time10. In positions like these, young people are often underemployed, so they work less than they would prefer11. This carries an economic and personal cost, as young people are essentially barred from working to their full potential.
Another cause is a general disinclination for entrepreneurship, a proven job creator and economy booster. Europeans, when compared to those in nonEU countries, are generally reluctant to pursue self-employment. In 2012, 37% of Europeans said they would rather be self-employed than an employee – down from 45% in 2009. When Europeans were asked why they are averse to starting an enterprise, they cited financial risks and difficulties in accessing capital. Young Europeans are more open to self-employment than their elders, but unfortunately, banks are often hesitant to lend to young people, as they often have no collateral and are seen as inexperienced12,13.
On scales large and small, the youth unemployment crisis is having economic, social and political repercussions across Europe, which will be felt for years. Mass unemployment is always of serious concern to markets and governments as well as communities and families. It is a tremendous waste of money, talent and time, and it makes for extremely unstable environments. On a personal level, young Europeans are suffering from the disillusionment, disenfranchisement and mental illness unemployment often inflicts17. Unemployment is an exceedingly costly phenomenon. According to the European Commission, in 2011, NEETs cost the EU a staggering €153 billion. Huge sums are spent on unemployment benefits and support schemes. At the same time, economies lose out on the money these unemployed millions could be generating through taxes, private sector growth and personal spending. For example, if just 10% of the 7.5 million NEETs were sudden-
Ultimately, the skills mismatch is a significant contributor to the youth unemployment crisis. Despite an overabundance of young people out of school and ready to work, businesses are demanding skills that they never had occasion to get. Young people therefore experience a difficult school-to-work transition, and 9
ly employed, then they would generate €15 billion each year18.
during high youth unemployment in the Middle East and North Africa22.
Youth unemployment is not only an immense drain on already struggling financial systems, but it worsens income inequality as well19. Increases in poorly regulated and low-paid work, like parttime and temporary jobs, have widened the already considerable gap between rich and poor. Spain, Ireland, Greece, Italy and Portugal in particular have seen huge increases in income inequality as unemployment takes its toll.
Even if these more serious effects are avoided, young people who experience unemployment will still have to cope with more lasting problems, like skill loss, CV gaps and wage scarring. In other words, their unemployment will affect them forever.
Conclusion The youth unemployment crisis is ‘Europe’s most pressing problem’. Though the crisis receives significant attention from media outlets, governments and politicians, real, effective action must be taken as soon as possible. Countless people, organisations and institutions have already found ways to start tackling the problem, and there are success stories out there. This guide will highlight the feasible, workable and effective initiatives already helping young people all over Europe.
This increasingly unfair economic system will have damaging and lasting social effects. To stave off poverty, many youths have turned to their parents for financial support, but this can burden already strained families. Regrettably, the longer an individual is unemployed, the less likely they are to be hired. Unfortunately, when and if a young person out of work for a long period secures a job, they will typically earn less than their peers for decades to come. This effect is known as ‘wage scarring’, and its negative economic effects are obvious. As a lack of income will result in poverty and all the social ramifications that entails, there exists the potential for inter-generational poverty, which means the negative effects of unemployment are passed down20. For all these reasons, unemployment is especially damaging on a personal level. As young people cannot work, earn an income or achieve independence, many lose faith in their abilities, prospects and future. In an effect known as ‘social exclusion’, young people find themselves isolated not only from the labour market but also from their social networks and society at large. Their perception of larger systems, such as communities, governments and the private sector, weakens. All these feelings can lead to mental health issues like depression or, more seriously, to crime, drugs and violence. Politically, a multitude of unemployed young people is considered a security risk21. It is no coincidence that the Arab Spring occurred 10
Photo: ‘The Eye’ by Monika Nowak
GENERAL APPROACHES TO JOB CREATION While each job creation programme is unique, there are five common approaches to youth employment and empowerment. The most successful initiatives often use a combination of these approaches in order to provide more comprehensive services. From governments to corporations, non-profits to schools, these approaches are tailored to a variety of contexts and locales. These are their broad definitions:
enterprise to address sustainability issues; and general skills training programmes, which can cover anything from job hunting and CV writing techniques to more vocational, sector-specific learning, such as Informational and Communication Technology (ICT). Many training programmes offer official certification upon completion. The approach to training programmes needs to be tailored to the country and/or culture of the target group. For example, some young people will not only require entrepreneurial training but also inspiration to start their own enterprise.
Networks A network is any forum that allows young people to access support systems, communicate with one another or connect with potential employers or funders. For youth employment purposes, these networks can be web-based message boards or ma jor events like career days or summits. Many networks exist for entrepreneurs to support one another, receive advice or access potential investors. To empower young people, networks can also promote discussion and action for specific themes, such as environmental issues or labour policy changes. Meanwhile, networks on a more local scale aim for social inclusion, so young people can connect with their communities.
Financial Support Financial support programmes also fall into two categories: those that offer scholarships or fellowships for educational or professional purposes and those that fund aspiring entrepreneurs. Considering the reluctance of banks to provide loans to young people, these programmes provide seed money to get enterprise ideas off the ground. An application process involving at least a pitch, business plan or prototype is usually required. These programmes may require application fees or a portion of the businessâ€™s earnings. Some initiatives offer access to a workspace and equipment as well.
Training Programmes Training programmes address the skills gap by supplementing educational systems with the knowledge and experience required for professional success. This eases the school-to-work transition and increases employability. These programmes are either independently executed or incorporated into school systems as extracurricular activities. Two main forms of training initiatives have been identified for this guide: entrepreneurial training programmes, which target aspiring entrepreneurs by teaching financial literacy, business management and leadership and/or promote social
Mentorship/Professional Advice This approach gives young people the chance to access career counsellors or business professionals for advice. By having a mentor or coach, struggling job hunters or budding entrepreneurs can receive guidance on coping with challenges, developing a better understanding of the market and possibly benefit from the mentorâ€™s own list of contacts. Stipulations regarding the mentor-mentee relationship vary depending on the programme. 12
Job Placement Job placement initiatives include general employment services and work placements, such as jobs, internships,
traineeships, apprenticeships, etc. These initiatives connect young people with employers, fund work placements for a set amount of time or simply help with a young personâ€™s job search.
THE GREEN ECONOMY Youth unemployment may be Europe’s most pressing concern but climate change is not far behind – harmful effects on health, economies and agriculture from unusual weather patterns, pollution, increased floods, stronger heat waves and other disasters are already affecting the continent23. However unrelated these two tremendous dilemmas may seem, they have the same solution – to combat climate change effectively, a reduce-reuserecycle ‘green’ economy, must replace the noxious, wasteful, fossil fuel-based ‘brown’ one. With this critical and inevitable shift, demand for sustainable, energy-efficient methods will grow, new markets will open up and anywhere from 15 to 60 million new job opportunities will materialise. The key to putting young people to work lies in the establishment of this greener system.
This fossil fuel dependence is also unsustainable. At the current rate of use, the world’s oil deposits will dry up by 2052, and coal and gas reserves will run out eight years after that26. Fossil fuels are also extremely expensive and preclude self-sufficiency – the EU spends €1 billion on foreign oil imports each day27. If nothing is done to halt climate change, the economic, political and social ramifications all over the world will be devastating28. Transitioning to a green economy can halt these cataclysmic effects. By managing waste effectively through recycling and reuse, making buildings, transportation and products more energy efficient and environmentally sound and implementing new energy sources like wind, solar and water power, the green economy can usher in a future that is clean and sustainable. The ILO identifies eight key sectors that will be energised by a green economy transition: agriculture, forestry, fishing, energy, manufacturing, recycling, building and transport. Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are poised to lead the way. As they expand, so will the job opportunities.
The brown economy’s affect on climate is increasingly undeniable. A new report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that climate change is the result of mankind, and no person on earth will be unaffected by its impact. Many regions are already witnessing extreme temperatures, droughts, intense rains and natural disasters. Agricultural patterns are predicted to shift, creating food scarcities and increasing the cost of staples like bread. Famine and flooding will force people to leave their homes, resulting in millions of displaced people. Currently, the lethal combination of extreme heat and pollution is already causing health problems, from heat stroke to lung disease, for the very young and very old in particular24. The human cost of climate change is mounting – 150,000 people die of its effects each year, and the World Health Organization predicts that the number of deaths will only grow25.
Green jobs are a fundamental part of the three globally-recognised pillars of sustainable development: healthy societies, environment and economies. The growth and improvement of these pillars must be promoted by governments, enterprises and societies to achieve an ecologicallysound world. This means healing the shattered economy, taking care of the environment and ensuring that people are no longer marginalised within society. Employment, in the green economy in particular, can contribute to these goals29. In the EU, more than one million green jobs were created across a range of sectors in the last decade. By 2020, Europe is expected to see twenty million jobs added in the green economy30.
Immediate action is needed. The current brown economy relies on oil, gas and coal, the use of which generates the greenhouse gases that cause climate change. 14
Growth in this new economic system, especially in the EU, is simply that certain. As such, the potential in this market translates to potential for the millions of young people unemployed. Job creation initiatives for young people can help realise this green economy solution. A workforce that has the knowledge and ability to succeed in these fields must be cultivated. By emphasising job opportunities and environmental sustainability, programmes can motivate youths to pursue training, employment or education in the green economy sectors. Furthermore, considering the potential of SMEs, entrepreneurship-based initiatives can help immensely. Enterprise programmes, particularly those focusing on social enterprise, can establish finance schemes particularly for green business ideas or provide advice from green energy experts. At the least, job creation initiatives can encourage an environmental outlook. Networks can inform their communities about the potential of the green
economy and promote environmental projects. This solution will not be challenging. A survey of more 13,000 young Europeans discovered that 74% already recycle, 65% watch their energy and water use and 58% reduce their consumption of disposables31. Young people have grown up during the global warming debate, witnessed unusual weather patterns and understand the risks climate change poses to their future world. The green element of job creation initiatives is a vital component of this Effective Practice Guide. Many programmes have seized the chance to incorporate sustainable development and environmentalism into their initiatives, encouraging young people to explore new sectors. By examining the ways in which current programmes are highlighting green projects, markets and lifestyles, this guide aims to offer inspiration for other initiatives. A sustainable future lies in a green economy.
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY The private sector is a ma jor stakeholder in the youth unemployment crisis. Not only do high unemployment rates negatively affect the business climate, but as stated in section two of this guide, the school-to-work transition is exceedingly challenging for young people, and this affects employers as well. Their applicant pools are often not up to company standards for skills and experience. It is therefore in the private sectorâ€™s interest to tackle the youth unemployment crisis, and
corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an effective solution. CSR is a companyâ€™s awareness of its impact on society and its choice to commit to a moral code that works to improve the surrounding community32. In terms of youth unemployment, CSR programmes are a direct way for companies to educate and engage with young people entering the job market. By implementing these programmes, corporations not only 16
have the power to contribute to the youth unemployment crisis’s alleviation, but also improve their own standing in the eyes of their constituents and the public. Though the following CSR methods parallel the General Approaches in section three of this guide, they are more business-specific:
Working With Schools Short of education reform, the mismatch between what young people are taught in school and what businesses want in their applicants is difficult to change on a large scale. Change on a smaller scale is more feasible, and businesses are in a unique position to take action. By working with local schools, employees can facilitate workshops, trainings and career days in the classroom, connecting with students as well as teachers. This is the motivation behind many in-school CSR programmes, including a new Youth Academy programme developed by UK grocery chain Tesco, which also offers scholarships and career advice36. Exposing young people to local businesses helps them understand what companies want and experience and the opportunities available.
Work Experience Businesses are in a unique position to help young people get the work experience they need. Companies that provide internships, traineeships, apprenticeships or other opportunities for young people to work on a temporary or part-time basis give these youths the chance to develop vital skills, add to their CV and increase their employability. Organisations that offer a position at the end of a work placement mean they have acquired a vetted employee who understands the business and requires no training. British banks Barclays and Lloyds are known for offering such opportunities. Barclays reports that 77% of its former apprentices have stayed on33.
Financial Support Businesses can also set aside funds to establish scholarships and sponsor young entrepreneurs. CSR Europe, a pan-European organisation, is spearheading an initiative that duplicates Sweden’s CSR approach of financing enterprises37.
Training As employers are often disappointed in their applicant pools, many companies are establishing their own training programmes. This form of CSR focuses on education in employability, workplace, entrepreneurship and/or IT skills. These initiatives use company employees, human resources representatives or hired tutors as trainers. Companies can also join networks that have established CSR programmes. JA-YE’s Entrepreneurial Skills Pass project already works with more than 5,000 companies across Europe to provide entrepreneurship education34. To reach a wider audience and increase accessibility to trainings, some companies establish webinars and online networks. Technology giant HP has an e-learning CSR initiative that offers free entrepreneurship and IT training online. This technological approach obviously plays to HP’s strengths35.
Aside from the obvious social and economic good CSR provides, there are several direct benefits to companies for pursuing youth engagement and job creation projects. By engaging with young people in schools, trainings and programmes, companies increase their visibility in the community. Providing work experience shows that a business recognises the potential of young people as well as the creativity and fresh outlook they can offer. All these elements reflect positively on the company, improving its brand and reputation. Furthermore, the more businesses work with young people, the more the negative stereotypes surrounding youth will be broken down across the private sector.
Photo: ‘Moss carpet near Sognefjord’ by Gerrit de Rooij
CRITERIA FOR YOUTH-LED GREEN JOB CREATION INITIATIVES network-based, joinable. To reduce youth unemployment Europe-wide, effective programmes should be recognised and replicated. Not every job creation initiative is capable of literal duplication due to differences in location, target demographics, cultural considerations, environment, funding and educational systems mean altering programmes appropriately, but even initiatives that operate on a panEuropean or global sphere tailor their programmes depending on these regional variations. These larger-scale, networkbased initiatives essentially resemble franchises, meaning they are joinable.
While approaches to job creation may vary, certain criteria are vital to initiatives’ effectiveness. To be included in this Effective practice guide, job creation programmes incorporate at least one of the following criteria. The more successful initiatives tend to incorporate many if not all.
Youth-Related This guide focuses exclusively on youthoriented job creation initiatives, which empower young people by giving them the skills, guidance, experience and/or responsibility to succeed. Youth-led job creation initiatives, which are quite rare, are especially highlighted. For the purposes of this criterion, youth is defined as those up to age 30.
Comprehensive The most effective initiatives take a comprehensive approach to job creation by incorporating several approaches. If a single approach is taken, the programme tends to prove ineffective in the long term. For example, providing a loan to an entrepreneur with no training or experience is harmful both to the entrepreneur and the lender, but if a loan is provided in tandem with business training courses, the enterprise is more likely to succeed. Similarly, training alone is potentially ineffective while training programmes that connect with local businesses or offer career counselling are more helpful38.
Green To promote the green economy, this guide will highlight initiatives that promote social enterprise, sustainable development, renewables, recycling and environmental protection. Please refer to section four of this guide for the benefits of the emphasising the green economy in job creation.
Metrics Metrics are the quantitative and qualitative data collected from the monitoring and evaluation procedures initiatives use to gauge their effectiveness. Tracking a programme’s reach, cost-effectiveness and participants’ progress is essential to understanding what the programme does well, where it can improve, if it should expand or contract, etc. Metrics are necessary to secure funding and/or support because they serve as proof to potential partners and funders that it is worth investing in the initiative.
Sustainable A sustainable initiative is able to maintain its effectiveness over time. As youth unemployment is a systemic problem, the most sustainable job creation projects recognise the problems within the system and try to change, supplement or provide alternatives to them. A sustainable initiative has a cost-effective organisational model and ensures that it has stable sources of funds. It can adapt its mission statement and programmes while embracing long-term goals. Metrics are critical to ensuring an initiative’s sustainability.
Replicable/Scalable/Joinable For the purposes of this guide, initiatives must be replicable, scalable or, if it is 19
F E A T U R E D
I N I T I A T I V E S
The following pages contain initiatives that fulfil the above criteria particularly well and are therefore worthy of note in terms of Effective practice. These initiatives have been explored in greater detail than
those contained in the final index. In most cases, representatives from these initiatives have contributed to this research.
CHANGE AGENTS UK UK, 1996 changeagents.org.uk
young employees • Being creative and effective with tight budgets • Achieving sustainability by diversifying funding sources
Network, Job Placement, Mentorship, Training (entrepreneurial/general)
Change Agents UK offers sustainability programmes specifically for youth:
• 87% of participants in Change Agents UK provided positive feedback • Participants in the paid work placement programme had a 100% employability rate • Provides resource efficiency advice to 350+ schools • 135,000 people are a part of the Change Agent UK’s online network
• Paid work placements in the UK and Europe in the sustainability and environmental sectors for recent graduates • Women in Social and Environmental Enterprise project to empower and assist women in pursuing green entrepreneurship • Environmental accreditation schemes to improve employability
Approach to Metrics
Motivation to Start
• Conducts monitoring and evaluation on a project-by-project basis but is working to unite all the data to generate an organisation-wide report • What funders as for is often a drive of what is measured
‘Change Agents UK started in 1996 as a response to high graduate unemployment, considering the amount of graduates that are struggling to access paid work...[it] also started with a particular focus on sustainability and environment issues and careers...We were attempting to create an alternative to unpaid internships and volunteering opportunities in the environmental area. The way we did that was to become an organisation that offered paid graduate opportunities’ - Nick Goodman, Group Chief Executive
Advice • Control what you can control. Don’t worry too much about the stuff that you can’t • Try and maintain quality, maintain a strong foundation, maintain high standards for yourself and for the staff that you have and for the work that you do. Generally, good things happen off the back of that • Before you set out to start a project, make sure there is a demand. Make sure that the way you’re approaching that need is going to work for that target audience
Strengths • Peer-to-peer training • Large alumni and support network • Opportunities throughout Europe
Lessons learned • Coping with the pros and cons of having a high staff turnover in the organisation’s 22
Photo: ‘Jungfraujoch, Switzerland’ by David L. Haeni
Switzerland, 2007 euforiaction.org Approaches
Motivation to Start
Network, Training (entrepreneurial/general), Financing
‘There are many existing engagement opportunities for youth who are already active, but hardly any initiative reaches out to those young people who have not yet discovered their changemaking potential. Thus, a tremendous potential for positive societal change is currently unused’. Corina Helfenstein, Project Manager
Short Description Euforia is a youth-led national organisation that promotes youth empowerment by encouraging their commitment to face global challenges, from racism to global warming. Euforia offers:
• Networking and workshop events for enterprise trainings, accelerators and finance opportunities for those aged 20+ secondary school visits for sustainable development instruction • A community of young people and participants
• Sustainable development element • Peer-to-peer marketing • Programmes are youth-designed • Events bring together aspiring young entrepreneurs and connects them with experts and potential investors
Lessons learned • Reach out and ask for advice • Get a network of experienced external experts with whom to consult
• Developing recommendations for scaling intentions • Providing a convincing communications strategy to prove and improve impact
Six months after trainings, 50-70% of the participants have become more actively involved in taking up global challenges locally.
Always stay true to your organisation’s core values. Euforia’s are: dedication and impact; qualities of youth; joie de vivre; collaborating radically; and the ooops culture: be ambitious, be courageous, dare to doubt in yourself and have the right to fail’. Corina Helfenstein
Approach to Metrics For all Euforia’s projects, clear goals for the different target audiences are defined. Impacts are measured with questionnaires before the events, right after and 6 months after the events. Euforia will further improve its evaluation system to include: • Mapping the impact of engagement without borders (impact map) • Clearly defining measurable indicators as key performance measures • Collecting data on indicators 25
CHRYSALIS LEAP Cyprus, 2011 chrysalisleap.com
trepreunership. I have proposed the idea to everyone, but closed doors everywhere - banks, universities, business associations. I could not sell the idea.
Training (entrepreneurial), Financing, Mentorship
Then in 2011, with six others, we started working more on the idea, formed Chrysalis LEAP, decided on the plan, and we started looking for funding. Again closed doors, the economic crisis in Cyprus hit, so we decided to start it with our own funding. Only then did Ernst & Young become our sponsors and help with the 2013 program.
Short Description Chrysalis LEAP (Launching Entrepreneurship Acceleration Platform) is the first accelerator in Cyprus. It focusses on: • Cleantech and sustainable development entrepreneurship training, competition and accelerator • Providing access to financing by connecting start-ups with investors • Running CleanLaunchpad, the largest cleantech enterprise idea competition in Europe for 2014
Main lesson learned: you need a team, not an idea’. Alexandros Charalambides
Effectiveness • In 2013, Chrysalis LEAP had 60+ application 20 teams received free training • Out of those, 5 received free mentoring, and 1 received funding from the EU.
Motivation to Start ‘It started as an idea in 2003 when I won a business competition in Cyprus, and I was a finalist in London. We were asking for more than 2 million is funding, but there was no “after” after the competition. We won, we got a small prize, and that was it. No connections with industry, with VCs, etc. That’s when I realised that the “after” is more important than the competition’ - Alexandros Charalambides, Founder, Director
Advice • Go for it. Start small, prove your concept and move on • It is good to have a niche. Don’t do generic events or programmes. Be specific, like agriculture, tourism, etc.
Strengths • Sustainable development focus • Accepts applications on an international scale to be based in Cyprus • Values start-ups as the key to a green economy
Lessons learned ‘In 2009, I started promoting the idea of the Cyprus Young Environmental En26
Photo: ‘Cyprus’ by Rita Willaert
Photo: ‘Patterned sand’ by Alma de Groot
Netherlands, 2004 enviu.org Approaches
ners do not collide • Use on-going projects for small experiments, testing new ideas in a smart way. You don’t have to Go Big immediately • Try to be as clear as possible that direct opportunities can come and go • Have a large and diverse pool of volunteers and community members. That way you are not dependent on a small number once a project requires community involvement
Training (entrepreneurial), Financing, Mentorship, Network
Short Description Enviu is a co-creation platform that kickstarts impact-driven companies by • Building online platforms for various challenges that tackle social issues or an issue that a company wants to solve • Harnessing the ideas of people from around the world - ‘the crowd’ - for solutions to that platform • Selecting the best ideas and helping them grow • Sometimes becoming a co-owner for the social enterprises that come into existence because of this process
Effectiveness • 5 start-ups running • 6 in the pipeline • Enviu community average age is 25-35 and represents 30+ countries
Approach to Metrics
Motivation to Start
Enviu has started to seriously consider how to measure its impact so it can start communicating this more extensively in the coming years.
‘We work with organisations, investors and crowds that, like us, want to offer as many people as possible access to improved quality of life, in a sustainable way’. Monique Bradley, Communications Manager
Advice • Build a diverse team • Make sure you combine youth with experience • Make sure you know what you want to go for (focus) • Accept that you cannot manage everything in micro detail • Allow for ‘flow’ and stimulate the chance of serendipity
Strengths • Sustainable development and global development focus • Generates strong partnerships with investors, stakeholders and experts • Extensive network of creative young people from all over the world
Lessons learned • Choose financial partners that allow space for experimentation and, based on the results, finance next steps • Don’t spend money you don’t have • Take care that the interests of the part29
Czech Repulic, 2004 ligabruntal.cz
ed for people with social or health handicaps
Training (entrepreneurial/general), Job placement
Short Description Liga is a public benefit organisation that has existed since the 1990s. Today, it provides the following services to the long-term unemployed, socially marginalised and young people struggling with the school to work transition: • A successful green workshops as a job creation tool • Financial/legal/social literacy training
Motivation to Start Liga Bruntal started as a League for Human Rights particularly for socially excluded and disadvantaged young people. In 2003, it started helping the long-term unemployment by organising public works projects. Two years later, Liga Bruntal joined a green workshop to put people to work recycling and has since added a social entrepreneurship programme and job placement programme to its repertoire.
Strengths • Strong ties with government ministries and other organisations that serve as partners for projects • Green workshop recycles electronic waste • Focus on societal improvement and the disadvantaged
Effectiveness • 44 jobs have been created in the green workshop • 90% of these job positions are designat30
Photo: ‘Slag And Gravel’ by Pavel Petros
LISBON CHALLENGE / BETA I Portugal, 2010 lisbon-challenge.com
Approaches Training (entrepreneurial), Mentoring, Network, Finance
teams • Provides a workspace • Promotes participation in an international market
Lisbon Challenge is a three-month acceleration programme that selects top international entrepreneurs with a tech product and offers:
• Finding money is not easy. Lisbon Challenge was pitched over 1000 times to potential sponsors
• Workshops, mentorship and access to finance • Trips to London, UK, Boston, USA and Sao Paulo, Brazil to increase visibility and pitch to investors • A consistent methodology for startups acceleration, acquired through know-how and relationships with top global startup acceleration programs
• Coordinated 25+ programmes and supported over 500 startups • €23.5 million invested in startups so far (including three by YCombinator and two by Seedcamp) • 400+ jobs created
Approach to Metrics
Motivation to Start
Lisbon Challenge follows its start-ups every week, giving them the tools to measure their progress (and telling why it is important: if you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it).
‘Four years ago, a group of entrepreneurs that had created their own startups or were many years abroad returned and wanted to create an independent organisation to help the next generation of entrepreneurs. Lisbon Challenge started with inspirational events, such as bringing the first TEDx to Portugal, developing the “Silicon Valley comes to Lisbon”, the “Explorers Festival” and bringing Seedcamp Lisbon to our city...
Advice ‘You have to believe that this is what is missing in your ecosystem, and you have to understand in which stage the ecosystem is. For us, we had to first inspire (for three years we have done it), then start the idea-stage and build that for two years, and only last year we did we feel that the ecosystem of start-ups was mature enough for a programme like Lisbon Challenge’ - Ricardo Marvão
We focused on training...through acceleration programmes to the startups - first the idea-stage (Beta-Start is one month full-time), then the prototype or product stage (Lisbon Challenge is three-months full time)’ - Ricardo Marvão (Co-Founder)
Strengths • Extensive network of talented, successful and dedicated mentors to help start-up 32
Photo: ‘Lisbon’ by Francisco Antunes
GREEN CORRIDOR UK, 2000 greencorridor.org.uk
Training (general), Job placement
• Volunteering • Educational programmes • Accreditation
• Reputation cannot be built/created over night, reputation it is built upon high quality consistent outcomes that have the learner at the heart of the decision making process • Supporting young people is not a quick win but a journey of discovery that is as unique as the young people you support • Doing a bit of everything doesn’t work – Green Corridor’s success is fundamentally tied to the decision to narrow our scope and become excellent at what we do rather than average at everything we touch
Motivation to Start
‘Green Corridor began as a single regeneration project in 2000, following its success it was agreed to transition across to charitable status in 2002.
• 95% of Green Corridor’s young participants achieve a qualification • 41% move into employment • 34% go onto further training • 22% move into full time education
Short Description Green Corridor links young people with the environments around them and improves their self confidence and employability through the following environmentally-focussed opportunities:
In 2010, Green Corridor undertook a fundamental business review to establish need and value of the organisation. Through this process the charity partnered with Pilotlight (a UK charity supporting innovative third sector organisations through the partnering of commercial sector business mentors).
Approach to Metrics: ‘We take our evaluation and monitoring very seriously – as it’s our evidence of distance travelled and positive impact. Our funders expect nothing less’ - Jean Rolfe
Working with Pilotlight Green Corridor narrowed its mandate, focusing on supporting disadvantaged 14 to 25 year olds back into employment, education or training through land-based initiatives’ -Jean Rolfe (CEO)
• ‘A charity is only as good as its staff – investing in and ensuring your team value and support each other ensures a solid platform upon which to support young people • Being flexible, understanding, patient and genuine helps to build trust and honesty amongst the young people you aim to support. They will see through anything that doesn’t have these values firmly embedded. • Think about what you want to do and why. This is not an arena for easy money
Strengths • Helps disadvantaged young people • Emphasis on environmentalism and employability
although many seem to think so. It’s hard work, with great highs and lows, that takes a lot of time to become established • An initiative needs to be a considered business objective that matches the skill set and purpose of the organisation and
requires considerable investment with regard to infrastructure, staff training and, in Green Corridor’s, case accredited status’ - Jean Rolfe
Estonia, 2010 garage48.org
business idea â€˘ They work in teams with a designated developer, designer and marketer â€˘ Projects are evaluated and potentially carried on by the team
Training (entrepreneurial), Network
Motivation to Start
Garage48 is an award-winning start-up programme in the form of an entrepreneurial event series, the formula of which is:
Garage48 aims to give young people the chance to explore, develop and pursue an enterprise free from the fears often involved in starting a business, like a lack
â€˘ Participants have 48 hours to develop a 36
of funding, a team and training. The intensity of the atmosphere empowers them to push themselves and persevere.
Eastern Europe and Africa
• Approximately 100 participants per 48hour event • Approximately 16 start-ups generated, half of which are likely to continue, and 2-3 of which will become real companies
• Tech sector focus • Builds teamwork skills • Already expanded into Northern and
STUDENT HUBS UK, 2007 studenthubs.org
of coordination between different student groups in Oxford. It went on to offer placements in volunteering and the public sector to give students the chance and connections to work for a positive social impact.
Network, Job placement
Short Description Student Hubs aims to empower students to participate in social action and environmentalism while at university through:
‘We are not defined by a single cause; we help students – the citizens, consumers, and leaders of tomorrow – identify their cause. In bringing all players to the table, from the mainstream to the progressive, we aim to create opportunities for volunteering, learning, collaboration and debate that foster engaged citizenship, responsible business and a thriving third sector’ - Sara Fernandez, Chief Executive
• Established connections with local volunteering and non-profit organisations • Job placement opportunities • Co-founding a forum and award scheme for social entrepreneurs
Motivation to Start
A group of Oxford students started Student Hubs in 2007 to address the lack
• All work is student-led 38
• Works and collaborates with local organisations • Empowers young people to recognise their change-making potential
Lessons learned ‘Our challenge has been in consolidating our existing programmes whilst tapping into the broader landscape of the university, government and not-for-profit sector...We have learned to balance our ethos of student leadership with our institutional knowledge of the funding landscape, scope for projects, and wider socio-economic indicators’ - Sara Fernandez
Effectiveness • Reached 20,000 students in 2012-2013 • 82% felt more motivated to take on social/environmental issues • 90% felt that Student Hubs inspired them to take further action • 40% want to keep tackling social/environmental issues • 1,275 volunteers, 1/3 of which had never been involved in social action before Incubator for 80 student-led projects
Approach to Metrics: ‘A clear vision and mission is central to our approach to monitoring and evaluation...It gives us an explicit framework in which we position our programmes so that they can have the highest-value ‘double benefit’ impact for the students with whom we work and the communities they serve. By staying consistent to this approach it is easier to compare how effective our activities are in the different universities where we work over time’ Sara Fernandez
Advice • ‘Social action – and in particular youth social action - will come in and out of fashion with changing political agendas; but a strong core mission can weather funding cuts, sector priorities and cultural narratives. • Finally, we are always open to inspiration by other organisations’ best practice. True to form, we are not afraid to innovate and stay at the cutting edge of impact measurement - even if we don’t always know how this will develop!’ Sara Fernandez
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SUMMER Bulgaria, 2013 dolnamitropolia.bg
Job Placement, Training (general) • ‘‘Usually the practice is to seek European or state funding for such activities, not to reallocate funds from the municipal budget. However, with the political will and the support of the mayor, the leadership and Municipal Council, the Archeaological Programme addresses two ma jor necessities, “Conduction of rescue excavations” and “Tackling youth unemployment,” becoming an expression of a targeted policy and using all available resources to do so’ - Tanya Nikolova • The programme has an ultimate goal to develop a tourist site with a trained staff of young people
Short Description This local government initiative of the Dolna Mitropolia Municipality gives young people a summer opportunity to participate in local archaeological projects. The young people can pursue interests in history and culture firsthand while learning the skills vital to working environments.
Motivation to Start ‘Archaeological Summer got its start in 2012 when an archaeological expert joined the Dolna Mitropolia municipality’s ‘Programs and Projects’ department, which works with young people. With assistance from the department’s leadership, the proposed Archaeological Summer initiative received approval from the Mayor and acquired a budget. This was quite a feat - often in Bulgaria programs and strategies are developed, but have no funds or people responsible for their implementation, which often leads to the programmes’ failure.
Lessons learned ‘‘The work designed for young people must be adaptable to the needs of the young people, with the awareness that they are not only motivated by money and social benefits, but also opportunities for leisure and incentives typical for the young people, such as parties’ - Tanya Nikolova
Because treasure hunters destroy Bulgaria’s cultural sites, the Archaeological Summer programme was developed as a preventive measure for the preservation of ancient objects. Conducting rescue archeological excavations lead to the protection of the site and its opening for tourist visits.
• In 2013, the financial allocations was approximately 10000 euro. The programme involved 15 young people for a total of 20 working days • In 2014, the programme received nearly double the previous budget and involved 30 young people for a period of 35 working days
Despite over 10 archeological sites on the territory of the municipality, this is the first time activities for the research and rescue of cultural material heritage has involved young people’. - Tanya Nikolova (Head of European Integration, Projects and Programs Department)
Advice: • ‘Enter clear rules, and meet all young people and their parents before the start of the activity • Do not try to please everyone 40
JÓVENES DINAMIZADORES RURALE Spain, 2010 dinamizomipueblo.es
• Involves peer-to-peer training • Provides access to resources, such as radio equipment • Fosters social inclusion and community involvement
Job Placement, Training (general)
Jóvenes Dinamizadores Rurales is a youth empowerment initiative that offers volunteer opportunities in communications, broadcasting, and event management throughout the rural Aragón region. Programmes include:
• Spans twelve counties with collaboration between nine local action groups • During the last two years, more than 44 local actions has been developed, including training sessions, music festivals, art exhibitions, youth meetings, etc. • Six months after trainings, 50-70% of the participants become more actively involved in taking up global challenges locally
• info peers: developing awareness campaigns by discussing issues with their peers and developing an understanding of youth demands and needs in order to convey it to youth workers and the JDR project • vozcasters: those interested in the communication field develop their skills by recording online radio shows about youth initiatives and interests, which gives a voice to young people and promote their activities and opportunities. • rural facilitators: those who take an active role in the organization and execution of different local activities that enrich rural life. They collaborate with Town Halls, Associations and other entities to increase cultural, social and leisure activities.
Motivation to Start The goal of Jovenes Dinamizadores Rurales is to motivate young people who live in Aragon’s rural areas to participate in their town development, explore interests and experience cultural exchange. By developing their villages, these young people gain positive and active attitudes while revitalising rural areas.
Strengths • Various emphases allow young people to pursue a variety of interests 43
ECO UNESCO Ireland, 1986 ecounesco.ie
Motivation to Start
Training, Job placement
‘ECO-UNESCO was started by a group of young people who were interested in environmental protection and conservation. They wanted an organisation that provided a voice and a space for young people, which raised knowledge, awareness and understanding of the natural environment in young people, which provided a space for them to come together and do practical projects and with like-minded young people and which promoted the ideals of UNESCO’ - Elaine Nevin, National Director
Short Description ECO-UNESCO is an environmental education and youth organisation affiliated with UNESCO. Its programmes include: • Going through schools and youth organisations to offer workshops and activities to boost environmental awareness and personal development • Offering training programmes on sustainable development • Putting on the Young Environmentalist Awards to recognise young people’s projects on raising environmental awareness • Organising paid work placements for unemployed young people interested in environmental careers
Strengths • Continues to change and adapt to stay up-to-date and relevant • Connects with local communities around Ireland • UNESCO affiliation lets ECO UNESCO 44
participate in global events
Lessons learned ‘The organisation started when environmental protection and awareness raising was not as mainstream as it is today... One of the biggest challenges for a new organisation was getting recognition for the unique work – on the one hand raising environmental awareness and protection and on the other promoting the personal development of young people through a voluntary approach’. Elaine Nevin
Effectiveness • 12000+ ECO UNESCO participants • 5000+ young people involved in the Young Environmentalists Awards • 1000+ people received training
Approach to Metrics: • Feedback on Satisfaction • Process (quality of facilitation, presentation and group activities)
• Self-Assessment of Learning measures the learning of each participant using a ‘before’ and ‘after’ approach • Impact Grid Assessment Workshops, which measures a training or education programme’s impact 3 to 6 months postdelivery • At the start of longer term projects and programmes, ECO UNESCO carries out Needs Assessments
Advice: • ‘Be innovative; think creatively and be forward thinking • Don’t be afraid to set ambitious goals and believe that when a group of interested dedicated young people come together that so much can be achieved • Try to garner support from local groups, and from government departments if you can although this is not essential it can help to have ongoing financial support for your work • Get support from like-minded and interested people through a strong membership programme – this will help promote your work in a network’. Elaine Nevin
EUROPEAN PIRATE SUMMIT Germany, 2011 piratesummit.com
• Includes parties into its schedule Lessons learned
Approaches Training (entrepreneurial), Network
‘Even in our third year (2013), we had to realise how difficult it is to grow an impactful community. It was still hard to collect 500 hand-selected people for the event.
Short Description European Pirate Summit is a grassroots entrepreneurship event. The summits last 5 days with satellite events throughout the year. The European Pirate Summit:
It is even harder to organise profitable events in the start-up scene and not lose your credibility. We recently started a new event series called Exec I/O, which aims to build a bridge between corporations and startups. There is a lot of demand from the corporate side, which is very helpful in terms of sponsoring and ticketing. So there are ways to somehow make a living’. Alexandra Grimm
• Brings together aspiring and established entrepreneurs, investors, developers, etc. • Gives people a network for connections and financing • Offers lectures, workshops and a pitch competitions
Motivation to Start
‘When we started setting everything up for the first time, we were students, had our own startups and were looking for investors. We didn’t have any idea how to get in contact with the right people and thus came up with the idea of creating something new and unique - the idea of the Pirate Summit was born.
European Pirate Summit has many success stories, which they track. Their startups have a huge impact already across a variety of industries.
Advice: • ‘‘Start now, start small, be unique • Have a committed board of advisors or a community to leverage your reach’ - Alexandra Grimm
We wanted make this event...something we would truly love. With no previous event experience at all - which surely wasn’t easy - we created everything from scratch. In 2011, we hosted the first Pirate Summit. In the end, it wasn’t really successful for our own businesses (we buried them afterwards), but we dived into the event management business and have kept improving ever since’ - Alexandra Grimm (Head of Content & PR)
Strengths • Focus on tech startups • Ticket discounts available 47
SOCIAL ENTERPRISE NL Netherlands, 2009 social-enterprise.nl
ing in the general public, of what it means to build a business model that is aimed primarily at achieving social impact • Another challenge is to broaden the field in the Netherlands; how can we help social entrepreneurs scale their business/solution successfully. There are many challenges in scaling. Many social entrepreneurs face difficulty in attracting growth capital for example. We try to alleviate some of these issues through our training and coaching programs for social entrepreneurs’ Nina Koopman
Short Description ‘Social Enterprise NL is the national organisation for Dutch social enterprises. Our goal is to grow the social enterprise sector in the Netherlands in the next five years. We build a network of social enterprises and now have more than 200 members (social enterprises) on our platform. We offer these entrepreneurs support services like coaching, training, access to expertise etc.
Approach to Metrics ‘We support our member organisations in their efforts to measure impact and look at how they can professionalize their operations to direct their efforts towards impact effectiveness. We offer coaching, training and a program in which we help 8 entrepreneurs with impact measurement. We ourselves, being a relatively young organisation, have not yet done a full-fledged impact study. However, each year we collect key data of our member organisations and compile a social enterprise monitor. These monitors give an overview of how the sector is developing in the Netherlands’ - Nina Koopman
At the same time, we also create public awareness for the sector trough our campaigns in which we aim to generate more awareness with the general public on social enterprise models. Besides that we work hard to put social entrepreneurship on the agenda of policy makers, financial institutions and universities through our research and agenda-setting activities’ Nina Koopman (Program Director)
Strengths • Connects with many diverse stakeholders, like entrepreneurs, intermediaries, banks, universities, colleges, funds, investors, commercial companies and experts • Acts as a voice for the social enterprise industry • Offers publications and data to keep people informed
Lessons learned • ‘Finding social entrepreneurs is a challenge. This is a relatively new concept in the Netherlands. Not all entrepreneurs who have a social enterprise identify with social entrepreneurship yet. We are working hard to establish a better understand48
NOTES 1 Anon. 01.08.2014. Euro area unemployment. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ ITY_PUBLIC/3-08012014-BP/EN/3-08012014-BP-EN.PDF. 2 Szu Ping Chan. 15.11.2013. Youth unemployment could tear Europe apart, warns WEF. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/financialcrisis/10450811/Youth-unemploymentcould-tear-Europe-apart-warns-WEF.html. 3 Anon. 31.05.2013. Transition to a green economy could yield up to 60 million jobs, ILO says. http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_181795/lang--en/ index.htm. 4 Anon. About GEI. http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/aboutgei/whatisgei/tabid/29784/default.aspx. 5 Anon. 02.07.2014. European Commission Adopts Green Employment Initiative. http:// uncsd.iisd.org/news/european-commission-adopts-green-employment-initiative/ 6 Anon. Sept 2008. Green Jobs: Towards decent work in a sustainable, low-carbon world. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_emp/---emp_ent/documents/ publication/wcms_158733.pdf. 7 Anon. 8.11.2013. EU measures to tackle youth unemployment. http://europa.eu/rapid/ press-release_MEMO-13-968_en.htm. 8 22.10.2012. Eurofound contributes to EU Presidency on ‘Developing sustainable youth employment policies in an era of fiscal constraints 22-23 October 2012. http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/press/releases/2012/121022.htm. 9 Kate Connolly. 02.07.2013. Angela Merkel: youth unemployment is most pressing problem facing Europe. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/02/angela-merkel-youthunemployment-europe. 10 Anon. 2012. TYEC “Tackling Youth Employment Challenge” Measures and strategies for European Social Dialogue Actors. http://www.alda-europe.eu/newSite/public/ doc/514-Final-Publication.pdf. 11 Anon. 18.03.2014. Third of young people trapped in underemployment by 2018, warns LGA. http://www.local.gov.uk/media-releases/-/journal_content/56/10180/6020941/ NEWS. 12 Anon. 09.01.2013. 37% of Europeans would like to be their own boss. http://europa. eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-13-7_en.htm, http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/flash/ fl_354_en.pdf. 13 Anon. 2013. Global Employment Trends for Youth 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/ groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_212423.pdf. 14 Anon. Youth employment. http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=1036. 15 Nye Cominetti, Paul Sissons and Katy Jones. Jul 2013. Beyond the business case: The Employer’s role in tackling youth unemployment. http://www.theworkfoundation.com/ DownloadPublication/Report/336_Employer’s%20Role%20FINAL%202%20July%202013. pdf. 16 Dannis Görlich, Ignat Stepanok and Fares Al-Hussami. Jan 2013. Youth Unemployment in Europe and the World: Causes, Consequences and Solutions. http://www.ifw-kiel.de/ wirtschaftspolitik/politikberatung/kiel-policy-brief/kpb-2013/KPB_59.pdf. 17 Daniel Tkatch. 19.03.2014. Overqualified and underpaid. http://www.theeuropeanmagazine.com/daniel-tkatch--4/8242-youth-unemployment-and-europes-brain-drain. 18 Anon. 2013. Youth Unemployment. http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/themes/21_ youth_unemployment.pdf. 19 Caitlin Del Sole. Jul 2013. Can an EU Budget Deal Save the Lost Generation? http:// www.europeaninstitute.org/July-2013/can-an-eu-budget-deal-save-the-lost-generation-7-18.html. 20 Ülly Enn. Dec 2009. SALTO Working on Work. https://www.salto-youth.net/down50
loads/4-17-1948/WorkingOnWork.pdf 21 Maria Tadeo. 02.01.2014. Unemployed young people feel they have ‘nothing to live for’. http://www.independent.co.uk/student/news/unemployed-young-people-feel-theyhave-nothing-to-live-for-9034146.html 22 Abdel Aziz Aluwaisheg. 27.05.2012. The Jobless Generation: Regional crisis in youth employment. http://www.arabnews.com/jobless-generation-regional-crisis-youth-employment. 23 Mark Kinver. 21.11.2012. Climate change evident across Europe, says report. http:// www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-20408350. 24 Anon. Climate Impacts on Human Health. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/impacts-adaptation/health.html. 25 Anon. 2014. Climate change. http://www.who.int/heli/risks/climate/climatechange/en/. 26 Anon. The End of Fossil Fuels. https://www.ecotricity.co.uk/our-green-energy/energyindependence/the-end-of-fossil-fuels 27 Anon. 14.05.2014. What is the EU doing about climate change? http://ec.europa.eu/ clima/policies/brief/eu/index_en.htm. 28 Suzanne Goldenberg. 31.05.2014. Climate change a threat to security, food and humankind – IPCC report. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/mar/31/climatechange-threat-food-security-humankind. 29 Anon. Green jobs. http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/green-jobs/lang--en/index.htm. 30 Anon. Dec 2012. Skills of tomorrow’s green economy. http://ec.europa.eu/energy/intelligent/files/library/mag/iee-mag-5_en.pdf. 31 Anon. 28 April 2014. Eurobarometer. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/pdf/eurobarometre/2014/youth/eb_395_synthesis_youth_en.pdf 32 Shanaz Musafer. 22.10.2012. Corporate social responsibility: Measuring its value. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-19876138. 33 Anon. 10.04.2014. How corporate social responsibility switched focus towards L&D. http://www.learndirect.com/business/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/PTLD6-CorporateResponsibility.pdf. 34 Anon. Entrepreneurial Skills Pass. http://entrepreneurialskillspass.eu. 35 Anon. HP Life. http://www.life-global.org/en. 36 Anon. 2014. Tesco and Society Report 2014. http://www.tescoplc.com/files/pdf/responsibility/2014/tesco_and_society_review_2014.pdf. 37 Anon. 2014. CSR Europe. http://www.csreurope.org/skills-jobs. 38 Matthieu Cognac. 26.11.2013. 14 ways to foster youth enterprise. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2013/nov/26/young-unemploymententrepreneurship-best-bits.
PEACE CHILD INTERNATIONAL The White House 46 High Street Buntingford Hertfordshire SG9 9AH UK ENGLAND firstname.lastname@example.org www.peacechild.org