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Charolais Connection • March 2020

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The Charolais Connection 124 Shannon Road Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 5B1 Ph. (306) 584-7937 • Fax (306) 546-3942 Home Page: http://www.charolaisbanner.com email: charolaisbanner@gmail.com ISSN 0824-1767 Helge By, Manager/Publisher Candace By, Managing Editor charolaisbanner@gmail.com Cell 306-536-3374 @ByCandace Susan Penner, Production/Design charolais.susan@sasktel.net

MARCH 2020 • VOL. XXXVII, NO. 2

Dalyse Robertson, Web Design pdmrobertson@gmail.com Sarah Wright, Admin Cell (306) 831-6332 charolaisbanner2@gmail.com

From the Field ..........................................................................................8 dans nos champs ....................................................................................10

FIELDMEN: Helge By Res (306) 584-7937 • Cell (306) 536-4261 charolaisbanner@gmail.com @CharolaisBanner

Profile – Deep Sands Livestock ..............................................................17 Corns and Sand Cracks  Research Dispels the Myths ..........................30 Herd Health ............................................................................................34 Preparing your Bull for the Breeding Season........................................40

Jon Wright Cell (306) 807-8424 charolaisbanner2@gmail.com

Why Cows are Getting a Bad Rap in LabGrown Meat Debate ..........48

Robbie Chomik Cell (780) 336-6424 charolaisbanner3@gmail.com

Timing Spring TurnOut ..........................................................................52 Increasing Efforts to Monitor Livestock Water Quality ........................54 Understanding the Benefits of Creep Feeding ....................................56 CCYA News ..............................................................................................59 Calendar of Events ..................................................................................67 Index of Advertisers ................................................................................70

SUBSCRIPTIONS: $9.45 per year $25.20 – 3 years (Prices include 5% GST) The Charolais Connection is mailed to over 8,000 cattlemen nationwide. Those cattlemen include all purebred Charolais breeders, buyers of purebred Charolais bulls from the past six years and all subscribers to the Charolais Banner. No material contained in the Charolais Connection may be reprinted without the permission of the Charolais Banner. The publishers reserve the right to refuse any advertisements. The material produced in this publication is done so with the highest integrity, however, we assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. We are responsible for only the value of the advertisement. Animals in the photographs in the Connection have not been altered by computer enhancement or mechanical methods according to the knowledge of the publisher.

On the cover…

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Printed by Print West, Regina, Saskatchewan Publications Mail Agreement No. 40047726 Postage paid at Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada

A scene at many sales this time of year, bull buyers assessing the offering.

Postmaster: Please return undeliverable publications (covers only) to: Charolais Banner, 124 Shannon Road, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 5B1, Canada.

Photo: Helge By Design: Susan Penner

Published by the Charolais Banner, Regina, SK (3 times per year - February, March and Fall)

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POINTS TO PONDER

From the Field Helge By

It sure was a lot nicer picturing in January and first half of February for the bull sales than it was last year. Michael Hunter said it was 35 degrees warmer this year clipping than when they did it last year and it was still around zero this year. Wow. Outside of a couple cold weeks, it was nice calving in Western Canada. Eastern Canada had a real mixed bag of weather from cold to wet and back and forth. For most of you commercial cattlemen that haven’t started calving, you will hopefully have escaped any bad weather and I wish you all good success with your calving season. For those following the commodity markets and in particular the meat segment, the middle of February was a roller coaster with the discovery of the Coronavirus. The markets will use any excuse to move and this one I believe got over played by the fund buyers. Here is why I saw that. The reports from the end of January looked very positive and the fundamentals shouldn’t change much when things settle down. Using the U.S.A. market, as we are so closely tied, January turned out to have the highest domestic beef production in history. Choice boxed beef prices were the fifth highest average in history even with the record large production. The price was not far behind the 2019 levels which turned out to be the fourth highest. Beef demand is

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tremendous and the gross wholesale beef sales at this level of production are incredibly high. The end of January USDA cattle inventory report was interesting. The USDA lowered the 2018 calf crop by nearly 400,000 head from the 2019 report. They also lowered the 2019 calf crop by 90,000 head. This means the large fed cattle slaughter forecasts made for 2019 and 2020 were significantly overstated. The cattle were never there in the first place. That is why feeder cattle receipts in 2019 fell dramatically short of 2018. The USDA also lowered beef cows and beef heifers by 95k head from what they reported in 2019. A summation of this is, the U.S. beef cattle industry has been liquidating and the herd size is smaller than what was widely believed in 2018 and 2019. The remaining number of feeder cattle outside feed yards is significantly smaller than a year ago and at some time this spring, when grass starts to green up and the coronavirus is a memory, it will matter. Between the three of us at the Charolais Banner we were over 12,000 clicks of the camera shutter in the past six weeks, well over a hundred hours of video shot, over 50 bull pens toured so far, and sale season is upon us. From all we have seen, you the buyers have a tremendous selection of Charolais bulls to select from across the country. I must commend the breeders who have worked hard to

Charolais Connection • March 2020

breed in calving ease, calf vigour at birth and still have lots of meat and performance. As I have said before when I think back to some of the first Charolais my family raised 50 years ago, it is quite a change. Virtually, no more calving problems and no more big dumb calves that have to be helped to suck. There are Charolais bulls and bloodlines now that will calve as well as anything and still give you that identifiable product that has produced as big a premium when selling your calves as ever. So as we get into more of the bull sales, if Robbie Chomik, Jon Wright or I can be of any assistance, please don’t hesitate to give us a call. We are always happy to help in any way we can. Most of the Charolais sale catalogues are on our website and a reminder too, that all our Charolais Banner and Charolais Connection magazines are online for free at charolaisbanner.com. If you want to go back to past issues or show your neighbours past articles, please do. We also try to keep the sale news very current on our homepage, so you can check out the latest results usually within a day of the sale. We wish everyone a great calving season with nice weather and may the moisture conditions this summer be favourable. Until next time, Helge


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POINT A SURVEILLER

Dans nos champs Helge By

Une chose est certaine: prendre des photos de taureaux pour la préparation des catalogue de ventes à l’extérieur en janvier et pour une bonne partie de février fut beaucoup moins pénible que l’an passé. Cette différence était de 35 degrés, selon Michael Hunter, qui assistait à la tonte des sujets avant les photos. Les moyennes se sont tenues autour du point de gelé. Wow. À part quelques semaines plutôt froides, le début des vêlages dans l’ouest Canadien va bien. L’est du Canada a reçu des précipitations mixtes qui sont passées du grand froid et de pluie à plusieurs reprises. Pour la plupart des éleveurs commerciaux qui n’ont pas encore entamé leurs mises bas, j’espère que vous vous en sortirez sans trop d’intempéries. Je vous souhaite tous du succès pour cette saison des vêlages. Pour ceux qui font partie des marchés des commodités, en particulier dans les secteurs de viande, le mois de février nous a fait vivre des moments forts suite à l’annonce du coronavirus et de sa pandémie. Les influences boursières prennent n’importe quel excuse pour jouer les marchés et je crois qu’on s’est fait avoir par les acheteurs de fonds institutionnels. Voici la raison pour laquelle je pense de cette façon. Les rapports de la fin janvier étaient très positifs et les principes fondamentaux devraient rester les mêmes quand les choses retourneront à la normale. En comparant le marché Américain, dont lequel nous sommes étroitement liés, le mois de janvier a enregistré la plus haute production de boeuf de son histoire. Le prix du boeuf en caisse à été enregistré comme étant la cinquième plus haute

moyenne dans l’histoire même si la production avait obtenu son propre record. L’écart de ce prix n’était pas si haut comparativement à celui de 2019, qui aussi avait enregistré la quatrième plus haute note. La demande pour le boeuf y est et les prix au gros à ce niveau de production sont d’ailleurs très hauts. Le rapport du mois de janvier de l’USDA était intéressant. L’USDA a baissé sa production de veaux en 2018 de près de 400 000 têtes comparativement au rapport de l’année 2019. Le nombre de production a aussi baissé de 90 000 têtes. Ceci représente donc un fausse estimation des prédictions pour 2020 de la part des grands abattoirs. Ces têtes n’auraient pas du faire partie de ces chiffres. Ceci explique la chute des prix dans les parcs d’engraissements en 2019 comparativement à celui de 2018. L’USDA a aussi réduit les vaches et les taures de 95 000 sujets, tel que reporté en 2019. En résumé, le marché du boeuf aux États-Unis liquide son marché et diminue la grosseur des troupeaux à l’encontre de ce qu’on croyait en 2018 et 2019. Le nombre de bovins d’engraissement à l’extérieur des parcs d’engraissement s’est amincit comparativement à l’an passé et je suspecte que lors du retour du printemps et que le coronavirus sera un vague souvenir, ce sujet suscitera plus d’intérêt. Entre nous trois au bureau du Charolais Banner, nous avons enregistrés plus de 12 000 déclics de caméra dans les six semaines passées, plus de cent heures de montage vidéos, plus de 50 visites de pacage de taureaux jusqu’à ce jour et nous approchons la saison des ventes. D’après ce que nous avons visité, vous, les acheteurs, avez un choix incroyable et diverse de taureaux

Suivez, moi sur Twitter! @CharolaisBanner 10

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Charolais pour votre entreprise. Je félicite tous ces éleveurs qui travaillent sans relâche pour perfectionner la facilité de vêlage, la rigueur des leurs progénitures à la naissance, qui produisent de bonnes carcasses et de la performance. Comme je l’ai dit dans le passé, on ne retrouve plus des veaux comme il y avait sur ma ferme familiale il y a 50 ans. Les problèmes de vêlage ont presque disparus ainsi que les gros veaux plutôt lent qui avaient toujours besoin d’aide à téter. Plusieurs taureaux et lignes Charolais vêlent aussi bien que d’autres races communes et vous donnerons une prime lors des encans grâce à notre réputation et notre produit identifiable. Maintenant que nous approchons les ventes de taureaux, si Robbie Chomix, Jon Wright ou moi-même peuvent vous assister dans vos démarches, n’hésitez pas à nous rejoindre. Nous sommes heureux de vous aidez du mieux que nous pouvons. La plupart de nos catalogue de vente sont disponible sur notre site web ainsi que nos revues précédentes pour votre consultation, et ce gratuitement sur: charolaisbanner.com. Vous pouvez même partager les articles déjà paru avec vos voisins. Toutes les informations sur les ventes sont à jour sur le site web. Vous pouvez aussi consulter les résultats des ventes près de chez vous. Ceux-ci sont habituellement disponible la journée suivante après la vente. Je vous souhaite une bonne saison des vêlages accompagnée de température clémente et un bon taux d’humidité pour la saison à venir. À la prochaine, Helge


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David and Kim Gavelin, Deep Sands Livestock, calve around 150 breeding females. They used to run a purebred Gelbvieh herd but they have not been involved in the purebred industry for about five years. There are still purebred females in the herd, but they are no longer papered. Their kids dabble in it still, but their main business is their commercial cow/calf business. They try to breed as many as they can Charolais. Every Charolais calf born in their operation is sold as they believe Charolais is a terminal cross. All steers and heifers that will not be kept for replacements are also sold. “We breed the Gelbvieh females Red Angus and our Red Angus females Gelbvieh for replacement females. We like to have Gelbvieh x Red Angus females to breed Charolais. We do buy some replacements, but it is difficult to always find what we want, thus we breed some ourselves. We only breed for 45 days. We turn our bulls out on June 1 and pull them on July 15th, or thereabouts. We put 30 females in the Meyronne community pasture, but the rest are pastured close to home on our own land,” explains David. “When buying bulls I remember that we sell everything off the cow, so 205-day weight is really important to

me. I try not to go under a 90-95 pound birth weight, but I prefer 110115 pound birth weight. I prefer a polled bull, but I will buy a horned bull if I find one I like. Temperament is a real deal breaker. When the kids were smaller, it was very important and we just stuck with it. A cow only gets one chance to do something stupid and she is gone. Feet structure is also important.” “Everybody talks about calving ease, but you just need to look at the phenotype of how the bull is made. Until we were in the purebred business, we had no idea what calves weighed. I think most commercial guys would be shocked at the weight of their calves. I remember one time when a neighbour came over and I was going to weigh a newborn bull calf. I asked him what he thought the calf would weigh. He said maybe 80 pounds, but he wasn’t sure if it would be that much. I said I bet he wouldn’t be much under a hundred pounds and he was shocked when he weighed

97 pounds. I think a lot of people that think they are having 60 pound calves aren’t weighing them. A sixty pound calf is actually pretty disappointing. They start small and they tend to stay small. It is hard to find those curve benders that start small and manage to perform with the rest of the calves. I want my Charolais calves to weigh 110 to 115 pounds at birth. I do wonder about the Charolais breed chasing the calving ease. I hope they don’t go too far as I think their place in the industry is to be a terminal cross.” “If you ask guys if they ever weigh their calves, many will say no. They won’t believe their calves are larger than sixty pounds. They talk about big, slow Charolais calves, and maybe that was true 25 years ago, but we never have trouble with our 110 lb calves getting up and sucking. I know that if there is a cold night and I miss something and they don’t get up right away, that 110 lb calf is going to stand continued on page 18

“I want my Charolais calves to weigh 110 to 115 pounds at birth.”

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Just weaned replacement heifer calves

a chance to live at least. That 60 lb calf will be dead by morning.” “We weigh anything we think we might keep for a replacement female. We don’t keep any females with birth weights over 100 pounds. Everybody thinks if you have calving problems, it is the bull’s fault. The cow has at least fifty percent of the equation and she has all of the environmental factors influencing the calf, so she probably carries sixty percent of the equation. We don’t have small cows, our mature cows weigh around 1400–1500 pounds.” “When we started breeding Charolais on our cows, we started with a pretty heavy birth weight and had no problems because he was built right. We use a Red Angus cow bull on our females and a Gelbvieh bull on our heifers. I found a few years ago I could buy a Red Angus cow bull a lot cheaper than I could buy a Red Angus heifer bull,” David laughs. “We usually only keep replacements

A typical Gelbvieh female used in the program

out of our mature cows, as our heifers have been bred to a heifer bull. If we source replacements we try to buy Gelbvieh females and breed them Red

“Our buckskin heifers will bring as much or more as some average steers.” Angus. It seems to work better than the a Gelbvieh bull on a Red Angus female. We were a little disappointed this year in the calves from our heifers, but the feed shortage last year was a factor. Some of the feed we sourced wasn’t the greatest either, it all adds up.” “I don’t know if there is a huge

difference in the weight of our calves by breed, but there definitely is in the price. We try to hand pick the maternal cows from which we hope to retain replacements and breed accordingly. Our biggest complaint in our Charolais bulls is that they don’t have all bull calves.” “Our buckskin heifers will bring as much or more as some average steers. There is probably five to seven cents difference. Last year I went to pick up my cheque after the sale and started talking to a guy in the line. I told him I had started using Charolais bulls about ten years ago. He said you couldn’t have convinced me to use a Charolais bull, but I had some cows in a pasture where there were Charolais bulls and now after watching the sale, I am going to buy more.” “We do an overnight stand in Moose Jaw to sell. We will lose eight to nine percent of their weight through the weaning, shrink and continued on page 20

David Gavelin

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Chayce Gavelin

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“The cheapest way to make money in the cattle business is hybrid vigour.”

Craig Gavelin

Erin’s last Charolais steer

Erin’s graduation

traveling process. We had quite a few that weighed over 700 lb before weaning this year. What your calves bring in dollars per pound means nothing if you don’t calculate it with their weight. The price by itself is meaningless.” “There were a few black Gelbvieh females in the herd that were Kade’s and Chayce’s (their sons) projects. They have competed in the Swift Current regional for years. This year, the clubby calves came more into play. It is rather sad really, no one is going to go raise a liner load of clubby calves to sell, it isn’t really relevant to the industry.” Chayce is 26 and worked four years in EMS in Swift Current as a paramedic before switching careers. He is now in his third year of an Agricultural degree. Craig is 24 and he worked three years as a paramedic in Strasbourg before switching to Electrical Engineering and he is in third year. Erin is 22 and has started Addictions Counseling in Prince Albert. Kade is in grade 12 and as of now, is planning to study Engineering at the University of Saskatchewan. They have all participated in 4-H and Kade remarked this year that he has never missed a Swift Current Fair since he was born. He went as a baby as his siblings were participating. Kim does books for the Co-op in McCord and David works for Sask Crop Insurance. “I have worked for them for 13 years. I call it my BSE job, now I call it my four kids in university job. We didn’t have a lot of grainland, so we either had to get bigger or give it up. I preferred the cattle to grain farming so that made the decision easy.” They were in purebred Gelbvieh for close to fifteen years. They sold bulls off the farm and eventually sold some in the Top Cut Bull Sale in Mankota. We made a lot of good friends in the purebred business and still keep in touch with many of them. “When the kids left home we had less help and didn’t have large purebred numbers, we didn’t feel we had the critical numbers to make it work. I have always believed that if you have a commercial herd, there really is no reason to run straight bred cattle. The cheapest way to make money in the cattle business is hybrid vigour. So we started using Red Angus on the Gelbvieh cows. Then after watching sales for a while, Kim said, ‘we just can’t afford to give money away. We need to use Charolais bulls.’ We started with one Charolais bull on 25 cows. If I knew we could consistently source our replacement females from outside our herd, I would breed everything Charolais. We are getting some more pounds out of the Charolais, but the biggest difference is the five to seven cent premium on that calf. It starts to add up.” “We stay with the Gelbvieh because of their fertility and docility. The 45 day breeding window has really helped. We maybe took a bit of a hit in the first year, but now 75-80 percent of our females calve in the first cycle, so that buys the calves another thirty days of growth before weaning. The Charolais breed has come a long way, they still have performance but they are built to calve. It is important to us continued on page 22

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“We just can’t afford to give money away. We need to use Charolais bulls.” because we both work and the kids are active. We can’t be babysitting them, we don’t live with them. Yes, if it is really cold or the weather is miserable, we will check more, but if conditions are good, they should be able to do it themselves. We never had any trouble when we switched to Charolais bulls.” “We raise as much of our own feed as possible. The last couple of years we sourced more because of the dry conditions. We also buy pellets as we don’t grow any grain. We probably purchase about a third of our feed. The cow herd picks on left over stubble and grass in the fall and if the snow doesn’t get too deep and we feed them pellets everyday, we can keep them out until Christmas.' David was raised in McCord, but 22

after marrying Kim in 1991, they purchased their farm near Meyronne in 1993. Their kids all attended Kincaid school and participated in hockey, 4-H and school sports. “Kim was an assistant leader in 4-H and I was a project leader for a while. I will miss that part of the industry when Kade is gone.” They are currently at the capacity of their land base’s capability. Expanding a bit would be nice, but pasture land just isn’t easy to come by. It would also mean one of them would have to work less as next year it will only be the two of them at home. Through his work with crop insurance he has discovered that people that run a mixed operation are just a little easier to deal with. “They seem to be more rounded and take things in stride. I think cows Charolais Connection • March 2020

have taught our kids some life skills and patience. They all still like the cows and they participate in whatever way they can. Chayce is a beef leader for a local 4-H club and they all showed up at Swift Current to watch their brother Kade show this year.” At one time they had 80-90 ewes to help clean up some leafy spurge. Kim grew up with sheep. ‘We bought 25 sheep one year and kept them fenced in an area close to home. Within a week, we were down to 8, as coyotes kept taking them. We haven’t had coyote problems with our calves. Some time we may consider sheep again, you never know.” “We sell in Moose Jaw in a Charolais and Simmental sale. The last few years, all of our calves sold in continued on page 24


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“ If you can find another five cents per pound and find another 25 pounds, you have really increased your profit margin.” the first 25 minutes of the sale. That is really satisfying. The most important thing to consider in your profit margin is pounds per cow exposed. I don’t want too many people to catch on about how much more money they can make with these tan calves, because I don’t want the market saturated. But people are funny, they just won’t take a chance and try anything different than they have always done. Where we make up the biggest difference is on good tan Charcross heifers. There is not near the penalty on those heifers as there is on any other breed. When your numbers aren’t big you have to get as

much as you can out of each animal to maximize your profit. I strive for quality over quantity. There isn’t room for a large margin of error in the industry. If you can find another five cents per pound and find another 25

Chayce, Kim, Erin, Craig, David and Kade Gavelin

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pounds, you have really increased your profit margin.” They use a computer program called Ranch Manager. It tracks cows individually which allows you to make better management decisions. The calves are weighed a week before weaning. “I learned in the purebred business to not criticize other people’s breeds or choices. People do what works for them and their situation. Every breed has its benefits. What works for one person, won’t work for another. For us, it is the three way cross, a Gelbvieh x Red Angus female with a Charolais bull.”


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RESEARCH

Corns and Sand Cracks – Research Dispels the Myths Bonnie Warnyca

There are a lot of non-scientific assumptions related to corns and sand cracks on beef cattle, but Dr. Chris Clark at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine says they only rarely need specific intervention.

A corn – is a fleshy fold between the two claws and most of the time it’s not a problem. There is only a problem when they become big enough and are pinched on either side by the hoof.

“Years ago, many producers thought that corns needed to be surgically removed, but sometimes the cure is worse than the disease,” says Clark. “When you cut out a corn, the skin has to be sutured and the toes wired together to allow for healing. The wound is then exposed to urine and mud and manure and there is the chance of infection.” “Corns are not an indication of a hereditary problem and in fact, studies show that it is only Hereford cattle that have a slight predisposition to low grade corns naturally. I see a lot of low grade corns, and if they are not inflamed then it’s usually not a problem.” Clark did his Master’s program on sand cracks and he says that they too are misunderstood. He says they are commonly found in the outside claw of the front foot, on older animals, on

Photo depicts a typical sand crack

Post mortem – cross section view of a sand crack – while it branches out it does not reach the quick of the animal

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heavier animals and on animals with bigger feet. If you look closely, there may be as high as 30 to 40 percent of the cows in some herds with sand cracks. Research suggests that sand cracks appear because there is no free moisture in winter in order to keep the hoof supple and soft. You will see more cattle with sand Dr. Chris Clark at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine disputes the idea that all cracks in drier corns and sand cracks need intervention soils such as sandy soils. “We know from studying horses that the water content of the horn has a huge impact on whether it will crack. We took samples of hoofs from an abattoir in February and the horns were dry and prone to cracking. The horn is brittle because it’s not well hydrated.” While the researchers don’t see sand cracks in dairy cattle, they see it regularly in beef cattle. “If you look carefully at the hooves of dead animals they have grown a thicker wall and the sand crack is almost never full thickness. While the sand crack looks ugly from the outside it’s not an indication of damage on the inside,” says Clark. “If you cut the hoof in half through the sand crack you will see the hoof wall has increased in size, but the sand crack has branched out like a tree and doesn’t reach down to the quick.” Clark has had lots of lame cattle come into the clinic with sand cracks but the problem usually turns out to be an abscess. However, sometimes the sand crack will allow material to get stuck putting pressure on the underlying quick. Clark then uses a mechanical trimming tool to trim out the horn to create a smooth gutter down the front of the foot (not all the way down to the bleeding tissue) to allow the junk to pass through the foot. “Only rarely will a sand crack reach the quick and get an abscess. If it does, the abscess will be located at the tip of the bone at the bottom of the sand crack. This then requires trimming it down and opening up the abscess to drain it,” says Clark. “Studies have failed to show any genetic linkage to sand cracks. One particularly sound study demonstrated that a supplement with biotin may reduce the number of sand cracks. Biotin is a vitamin that is needed as a building block of the horn.” Clark also says that cattle on a diet with high selenium could show cracking in the hooves which producers could confuse with sand cracks. Charolais Connection • March 2020

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HERD HEALTH

Deficiencies in Vaccine Usage in Western Canada Roy Lewis, DVM

A recent article just came out in the Canadian Veterinary Journal authored by three veterinarians including Dr. Cheryl Waldner and Dr. John Campbell from the veterinary school in Saskatoon. It was a very in-depth survey of cowcalf herds across Western Canada. In a summary, it shows decent improvement in vaccination usage over the last surveys done in the early 2000s but does still pinpoint gap areas in vaccine coverage that could be improved. There are things to be learned by every producer and veterinary consultant. We also need you the producers to spread the word to friends, neighbors and colleagues that may need some encouragement to take the next step. The need for decreasing usage of antimicrobials should encourage more producers to work with their veterinarian . When it comes to preventative procedures to diseases on our cow-calf ranches management, vaccination and biosecurity principles are the three key things to address. If we look at calves, commonly used vaccines were clostridials where most vaccinated 85-95%. We must encourage everyone to vaccinate for clostridial disease. Where the disconnect comes is many don’t booster, so cattle become susceptible again. The clostridial spores are prevalent worldwide. Keep in mind replacement heifers and even more importantly if you have Redwater in your area and if you band calves you must make sure the diseases clostridium hemolyticum and tetanus are covered in the clostridial vaccines you are using. Vaccinating for the viral components of resp disease like

IBR and BVD saw about an 80% usage while histophilus and the other respiratory bacteria only 50% or less. One must realize that with IBR and BVD the cow calf person is not only starting the protection for the respiratory diseases but it starts the protection for the reproductive diseases in the breeding heifers. Boostering drops substantially. A lot of these calves are sold and left up to the feedlot but if weaned at home and especially for your replacement heifers, you want to get the second shot into them ideally at the time recommended on the label. Over the years, the timing between shots has been lengthened, but if stretched too much calves become susceptible to disease. We see that with blackleg or Redwater outbreaks later in the summer with calves only vaccinated once. Also histophilus (the old hemoplilus) becoming a bigger disease in the feedlot with many calves not vaccinated or vaccinated once only. Vaccinating at the feedlot almost becomes too little too late as weaning transportation and comingling increases the transmission of the disease. Much much better to do it ahead of time. The other respiratory bacteria are starting to rise but still about 30%. With these diseases the old adage it is not a matter of if, but when these diseases will strike. Every year has different stressors with weather, crowding, introduction of new animals, nutrition that get some sick calves is inevitable. Vaccination will at least reduce the severity Cows, we are up over 90% with the reproductive diseases such as IBR and BVD. This is about a two-fold increase over surveys done in the early 2000s.

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Producers, when asked, vaccinate because they don’t want to get these reproductive diseases. Recent work has shown up to 60% less abortions with the IBR and BVD vaccines as well as an increase in pregnancy rates. Another survey done by Dr. Waldner showed an increase in pregnancy rate and decreased abortions in those herds vaccinated and current on IBR and BVD vaccines going into community pastures. Vaccination pays and we need to fit it into our management strategies at the right time. Lastly bulls, only about ¾ vaccinate with something and clostridial disease, IBR, BVD (all respiratory viruses) and footrot all need to be considered in your vaccination program. Do it at semen checking time, that is almost ideal and the bulls are being handled then anyway. It is promising to see the progress made in the last twenty years by cattlemen. There is room for improvement, and vaccination and other immune stimulants are the solution into the future to prevent disease in general and decreased antimicrobial usage. Take heed of these results and other vaccines or combinations are always being developed. They are an absolute necessity in the cattle business both for the health of your cattle, but also to pass it down to the backgrounders and feedlots. This is even more critical in the purebred sector where commercial clients look to you for advice and guidance, plus the breeding bulls and heifers are used in their herds for years to come.

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NEWS

Preparing your Bull for the Breeding Season James Byrne, Beef Cattle Specialist, OMAFRA

The breeding season for bulls is short but intense. Consequently, when the breeding season begins your bull must be ready to go and have the appearance of a well-muscled athlete. The bull needs all that physical fitness as he will spend a significant amount of time following cows rather than feeding over the course of the breeding season. To deliver success with calves on the ground, your bull must be in good nutritional and physical shape when the breeding season rolls around. Preparing your bull for the current year’s breeding season begins at the end of the previous year’s breeding season. This article discusses key considerations to get maximum performance out of your bull. Bull Nutrition Bulls should be body condition

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scored between 30 and 60 days prior to turnout (the earlier the better!). An ideal pre-breeding target body condition score (BCS) is between 3 and 3.5. A bull with a BCS of 2 or less should be deemed unsatisfactory for use as the animal is unlikely to be able to perform adequately over the intensive breeding season. Equally, bulls classed as obese should not be used as semen quality is likely to be affected due to fat deposition in the scrotum. Fat interferes with thermoregulation – an important component of quality sperm production. Bulls that are marginally under the ideal BCS 60 days out from breeding will benefit from being put on a higher plane of nutrition. Attempting to get thin bulls to an ideal BCS will often lead to bulls getting fat rather than fit. Fat bulls have poorer semen quality

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and from a libido perspective are often lazy. Yearling bulls need a diet containing 13.5 – 14% crude protein with no more than 60% grain. The inclusion of forage in the diet should increase as the young bull matures. Mature bulls will be adequately supplied with a 12% crude protein diet. Often this protein requirement can be met by offering moderate to good quality forage. Mineral supplementation is critical, as an adequate supply of minerals (particularly vitamins A & E and zinc) are important to build the bull’s physical fitness and to prime the reproductive system for the breeding season ahead. Over the course of the breeding season bulls can lose between 220 and continued on page 41


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330 lbs in weight, even on very good pasture. Once the breeding season is complete, your bull needs to be placed on good pasture, have access to good quality forage over the winter, and have continued access to minerals and water so that he can regain his strength and fitness. Foot Trimming Foot trimming should be carried out at least 30 days and ideally 60 days out from the start of the breeding season. This will give time for the hoof to recover from the effects of trimming and, if there are any hoof issues detected, to give time for those issues to be treated. Vaccinations The time leading up to breeding season is also a good time to revisit and execute your annual vaccination protocol. Bulls should be vaccinated with the same vaccines used on the cows. In Ontario, vaccination against BVD and IBR should be considered standard practice. Vaccination against leptospirosis and camplyobacteriosis (Vibrosis) may be more herd-specific

and producers should consult with their veterinarian for direction. Vaccinations should be given at least 60 days prior to the start of the breeding season as, with all vaccines, there is a risk of fever. Sperm produced during a fever are abnormal and infertility can last up to 2 months after such an event. Parasite and Fly Control Parasite and fly control should be carried out to ensure bulls can maintain peak physical performance. In Ontario, dewormer is typically given in the fall. There is little in the literature about the risk of infertility from using wormers on bulls, but if a dewormer is needed during the breeding season, consult with a veterinarian to make sure the products used is appropriate. Fly control is important as flies can be a nuisance and a distraction for bulls. Producers should read product labels carefully to ensure the product to be used is safe for use on breeding bulls and follow the instructions carefully. Charolais Connection • March 2020

Eye Lesions Eye lesions in mature bulls occur more frequently than is often realised. Eyes should be examined for vision compromising conditions such as cataracts, corneal opacity or carcinoma. The mouth should be examined for signs of injury or lesions that may impact on the ability of the animal to feed properly. Feet and legs should be examined for signs of lameness or for any conformational defect that could lead to lameness in the future. Managing Infertility Research by the University of Georgia has shown that a sub fertile bull when used a 35-cow herd produces 4,560 lbs less of weaned calf than a fertile bull. Total infertility in bulls is rare and is defined as the inability to impregnate. However, many bulls are or may become “subfertile� for a variety of reasons. We define fertile bulls as mature bulls capable of impregnating 60% and 90% of a 50-cow herd within 3 and 9 weeks continued on page 42

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of the breeding season, respectively, by natural service. A sub-fertile bull is a bull that can achieve pregnancies by natural service, but not at the rate achieved by fertile bulls when the opportunity exists. Carrying out breeding soundness examinationis an important exercise to identify potentially sub-fertile bulls and to avoid the substantial economic losses these bulls can cause. A bovine soundness examination should be carried out by a qualified veterinarian or technician. It is not a cheap examination but considering the substantial economic cost of a sub-fertile bull, it’s well worth the annual investment. To carry out a breeding soundness exam, the veterinarian requires access to the scrotum and sheath. Therefore, the bull must be properly restrained. A rump bar should be used to avoid getting kicked when measuring and palpating the testicles. Bulls should stand on non-slip flooring material (rubber flooring is ideal) to avoid the bull losing its footing during 42

Figure 1 - Diagram of the reproductive tract of the bull

Image adopted from: Hamilton, T., 2006

examination. Bulls must have the ability to move backwards and forwards during examination. In many cases, a simple halter is the better solution to using a head gate. A visual assessment of the scrotum shape should be made prior to any physical examination. A normal scrotum has a pendulous shape with a well-defined neck, an ideal shape for thermoregulation. Straight sided and wedge-shaped scrotums are Charolais Connection • March 2020

associated with small testicles and excess fat in the scrotum. Careful physical examination of the scrotum is important to detect problems not visibly apparent. The scrotal skin should be smooth, elastic and the testicles should move freely within the scrotum. Thickening of the scrotal skin can be indicative of trauma and, if inflamed, will cause heating of the testicles and a tendency for them to be held higher in the body. Photosensitivity in some bulls can cause oedema and swelling of the scrotum. Scrotal circumference (SC) is a critical component of a breeding soundness examination. Scrotal circumference is highly correlated with paired testes weight, daily sperm production and sperm quality. Bulls with above average SC reach puberty earlier and this trait is highly heritable in female offspring. Seasonal variation in scrotal circumference is commonly observed but these changes should not exceed 1 – 2 cm. An SC decline of 2 – 4 cm continued on page 43


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of bulls is critically important for their successful management and to reduce the risk of fighting injuries. Seniority and social ranking are determined by age and are established in the holding paddock prior to the breeding season. It is not a good practice to mix bulls of different ages together in the breeding paddock as the older bulls will inhibit the breeding activity of the younger animal, particularly when there are a low number of cows in estrus. Research has shown that breeding rates are higher when bulls of similar Table 1 - Min. recommended scrotal circumference in various breeds for breeding soundness age are mixed together compared to mixing bulls of different ages. Age (Months) Minimum Scrotal Circumference (cm) In Summary Proper management and breeding Simmental Angus Hereford Limousin assessment of bulls prior to the Charolais Shorthorn Blonde d’Aquitaine breeding season is critical for the Maine Anjou economic wellbeing of any cow calf operation. 12–24 33 32 31 30 Carrying out these simple checks 15–20 35 34 33 32 well in advance of the breeding 21–30 36 35 34 33 season will provide enough time for a replacement to be found, if that >30 37 36 35 34 is necessary. Adopted from (Hamilton, T., 2006) between the date of examination and the start of the breeding season can indicate a problem with testicular degeneration and may not be simply a result of loss in bodyweight. Recovery, if it occurs, can take months. Palpation of the sheath is important to detect the presence of any abnormal swelling. A penile rupture/haematoma is a painful swelling of the sheath close to the scrotum. This is caused by sudden movements of the cow during intromission or when young bulls mount each other. If untreated, these

bulls find mating difficult and painful. Sperm collection, examination and analyses is an important component of a breeding soundness exam. Semen should be analysed for motility, sperm count, and identification of the significance of abnormal sperm. The threshold for the % normal sperm in a sample is 70%. The presence of foreign cells in the semen is often noted as this may indicate the presence of inflammation elsewhere in the reproductive system. Other Considerations Understanding the social behaviour

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NEWS

Why Cows are Getting a Bad Rap in Lab-Grown Meat Debate Alison Van Eenennaam, PhD, Extension Specialist, Animal Biotechnology & Genomics, Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis

A battle royal is brewing over what to call animal cells grown in cell culture for food. Should it be in-vitro meat, cellular meat, cultured meat or fermented meat? What about animalfree meat, slaughter-free meat, artificial meat, synthetic meat, zombie meat, lab-grown meat, non-meat or artificial muscle proteins? Then there is the polarizing “fake” versus “clean” meat framing that boils this complex topic down to a simple good versus bad dichotomy. The opposite of fake is of course the ambiguous but desirous “natural.” And modeled after “clean” energy, “clean” meat is by inference superior to its alternative, which must logically be “dirty” meat. The narrative posited by, for now let us call it cultured meat, proponents is that animal agriculture requires large amounts of land and water, and produces high levels of greenhouse gases (GHG). The environmental impacts of a product, such as beef hamburger, is then compared to the anticipatory ones for producing a cultured hamburger patty through tissue engineeringbased cellular agriculture. I research how biotechnology can improve livestock production, and while it is true that conventional meat production has a large environmental footprint, the problem with this dichotomous framing is that it overlooks the rest of the story. Cattle produce more than just hamburgers for well-off consumers, and they typically do so by utilizing rain-fed forage growing on non-arable land. Additionally, cellular hamburger patties are themselves not an environmental impact-free lunch, especially from the perspective of energy use. Energy Inputs Versus Methane Cultured meat requires the initial 48

collection of stem cells from living animals and then greatlly expanding their numbers in a bioreactor, a device for carrying out chemical processes. These living cells must be provided with nutrients in a suitable growth medium containing food-grade components that must be effective and efficient in supporting and promoting muscle cell growth. A typical growth medium contains an energy source such as glucose, synthetic amino acids, fetal bovine serum, horse serum and chicken embryo extract. If cultured meat is to match or exceed the nutritional value of conventional meat products, nutrients found in meat not synthesized by muscle cells must be supplied as supplements in the culture medium. Conventional meat is a high-quality protein, meaning it has a full complement of essential amino acids. It also provides a source of several other desirable nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, and bioactive compounds. Therefore to be nutritionally equivalent, cultured meat medium would need to provide all of the essential amino acids, along with vitamin B12, an essential vitamin found solely in food products of animal origin. Vitamin B12 can be produced by microbes in fermentation tanks, and could be used to supplement a cultured meat product. It would also be necessary to supplement iron, an especially important nutrient for menstruating females, that is also high in beef. The process for making cultured meat has technically challenging aspects. It includes manufacturing and purifying culture media and supplements in large quantities, expanding animal cells in a bioreactor, processing the resultant tissue into an edible product, removing and Charolais Connection • March 2020

disposing of the spent media, and keeping the bioreactor clean. Each are themselves associated with their own set of costs, inputs and energy demands. The start-to-end environmental footprint - called a life cycle assessment (LCA) - of cultured meat at large scale is not available as no group has yet achieved this feat. Anticipatory life cycle analyses are therefore based on a range of assumptions, and vary dramatically, ranging from favourable to unfavourable comparisons to conventional meat production. One study concluded that “in vitro biomass cultivation could require smaller quantities of agricultural inputs and land than livestock; however, those benefits could come at the expense of more intensive energy use as biological functions such as digestion and nutrient circulation are replaced by industrial equivalents.” This idea of “industrial replacement of biological functions” emphasizes the point that nature has already developed a fully functional biological fermentation bioreactor for the conversion of inedible solar-powered cellulosic material, such as grass, into high-quality protein. It is called a cow. Ruminants have evolved, along with their large vat of rumen microbes, to digest cellulose, an insoluble carbohydrate, that is the main constituent of plant cell. That is their super power. continued on page 50

A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions by source. During digestion, ruminants such as cows give off methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. EPA, CC BY


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WHY COWS GET A BAD RAP, CONTINUED FROM PAGE 48

It does come with the tradeoff that methanogenic bacteria are required to perform this conversion and they produce methane, a greenhouse gas, that is subsequently burped up (eructated) by the cow. To keep greenhouse gas emissions from livestock in perspective, according to the EPA, all of agriculture is responsible for 9 percent of GHG emissions in the United States, and collectively animal agriculture is responsible for slight less than 4 percent. Entirely eliminating all animals from U.S. agricultural production systems would decrease GHG emission by only 2.6 percent. By contrast, energy production for electricity and transportation are each responsible for 28 percent of U.S. greenhouse gases. Cattle and Land Use On a global scale, the Earth’s 1.5 billion cattle are found in almost all climatic zones. They have been bred for adaptations to heat, cold, humidity, extreme diet, water scarcity, mountainous terrain, dry environments, and for general hardiness. More than just hamburgers, they autonomously harvest forage on marginal lands to produce 66 million tons of beef, 6.5 billion tons of milk, macro- and micronutrients, fibers, hides, skins, fertilizer and fuel; and are used for transportation, draft power, a source of income, and a form of banking for

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millions of smallholder farmers in developing countries. Even in developed countries, the products and ecosystem services produced by cattle extend well beyond milk and harvestable bonesless meat. Land use per unit of beef varies significantly by region. It has been estimated that globally only 2 percent of the cattle population is produced in intensive feedlot systems, with the remaining 98 percent being produced on grassland-based grazing systems, or mixed crop and livestock systems. Grass and rangelands make up 80 percent of the 2.5 billion hectare of land used for livestock production, and most of this land is considered too marginal to be convertible to cropland. Hypothetically removing ruminants from this non-arable land would mean that 57 percent of the land currently used for livestock production would no longer

Charolais Connection • March 2020

contribute to global food production. This does not consider the unintended impacts of removing grazing animals, which play an important role in maintaining healthy soil and grassland ecosystems. Rain, socalled “green” water as distinct to “blue” surface and ground water, would still fall on rangelands with no cattle, but it would generate no food. And ironically, it is this green rainfall that constitutes the vast majority of beef’s water footprint. Beef LCA document large amounts of land and water, but do not reflect that rain falling on non-arable land has no alternative food production use. Cultured meat, or whatever it ends up being called, may provide an additional source of protein to help meet projected future demands, and it may further appeal to consumers who choose not to consume conventional meat for ethical or other reasons. However, framing cultured meat as “clean,” thereby unavoidably invoking dirty as the alternative, belittles the important role that ruminants play in global ecosystems and food security. Furthermore, I believe that overplaying the role that dietary choices actually play on GHG emissions in the United States distracts focus from reducing the much larger source of GHG from human activities - the burning of fossil fuels for electricity, heat and transportation.


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PASTURE MANAGEMENT

Timing Spring Turn-out Christine O'Reilly, Forage and Grazing Specialist, OMAFRA

Spring is in the air, and cattle and farmers alike are eager to start the grazing season. Timing that delightful move is critical, as spring grazing management sets up both yield potential of the pasture and the amount of gain achievable for calves and yearlings. How early is too early? Livestock should go out on pasture when grasses have fully developed three to four new leaves. Turning out earlier than this is very stressful on the plants. Perennial forages rely on carbohydrates stored in their root systems to fuel regrowth when they break dormancy (Figure 1). The plants do not refill those carbohydrate stores until they have enough leaf area to produce more sugar than they need to grow. By waiting until grasses have three to four fully developed new leaves, those plants are given a chance to put energy back into the roots. The plants will draw on those reserves again to recover from grazing. If cattle go out to pasture too early, the plants have not been able to refill their root reserves and there is no energy to draw on when grazing takes their leaves away. This early spring stress will reduce pasture yields for the rest of the grazing season. If livestock are turned out too early year after year, weeds that begin their growth later in spring than grasses may be able to out-compete the forage plants.Root carbohydrate reserves change during grass regrowth How late is too late? Waiting too long can have negative effects on livestock production. Spring

Figure 1. Root carbohydrate reserves change during grass regrowth

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grass growth is very rapid, and it is easy for pasture maturity to get ahead of animal consumption. Once plants enter their reproductive stages, feed quality and palatability decline quickly. This reduces gains in young stock and milk production in cows with calves at foot. For the first grazing rotation, cattle should be moved quickly through paddocks to nip the tops off everything, which will delay the onset of reproductive growth stages. The second rotation through the paddocks will be slower and make more use of the grass that is there. Many producers manage forage quality by taking a first cut of hay (or haylage) off part of their pasture ground and bringing those acres back into the grazing rotation in the late spring or summer once the plants have recovered and grass growth has slowed. One way to check whether grasses are too mature is to grab a handful and slide your hand along the leaves. If the grasses are coarse, sharp, or cut your hand they are very mature and are no longer palatable to cattle. Another quick test: would it feel nice to walk barefoot through that paddock (avoiding cow pies of course)? Young stock are even fussier eaters than mature cows. Their mouths and muzzles are more sensitive, and they do not like being poked in the face by their food. To keep intakes and gains up, graze plants frequently enough to keep them in a vegetative state. Maintaining grass quality also reduces the need for energy and protein supplements, which saves money. What about wet pastures? Spring grazing often involves managing wet conditions. Pugging (also called poaching) is hoof damage that creates divots in a pasture and exposes grass roots and bare soil. This kind of damage can reduce pasture yields, and the uneven surface may make haying operations difficult. Not grazing during these wet conditions is Charolais Connection • March 2020

an option, but with rapid spring grass growth delayed grazing makes managing grass quality even more difficult. Research in Ireland has shown that cattle with unrestricted access to pasture spent only 37% of their time grazing (Kennedy et al., 2012). Livestock do the least amount of pugging damage to a field when they are grazing. Other activities, such as visiting the water trough or mineral source, lying down, or socializing cause more damage. Researchers studied restricting the amount of time that cattle spent on pastures to try to reduce pugging damage. They found that cows can eat their daily forage dry matter intake during two 3-hour periods each day, and spend 98% of their time on pasture grazing under this type of management (Kennedy et al., 2012). This has led to the development of a management technique called on/off grazing, where cattle are let out to graze for three hours in the morning, then brought into a barn or dry lot until they are turned out to graze for another three hours in the afternoon or evening. For each grazing interval they are only given access to the amount of grass the herd can eat in that time, so it is a modified form of strip or block grazing. The Irish study showed that when cows were not restricted in the time they could graze, pugging damage resulted in 20% less grass yield compared to the on/off grazing management. Another way to minimize pasture damage is to use several gates. If the herd enters the paddock through one gate and leaves through a different gate the traffic through each gate area is cut in half. This decreases the amount of pugging and soil compaction around gates. Leaving behind more residual grass can also help protect the field from pugging damage. In tame pastures, leaving 10 15 cm (4-6 in.) might be appropriate under wet conditions. Waiting to let cattle out to pasture continued on page 59


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MANAGEMENT

Increasing Efforts to Monitor Livestock Water Quality Miranda Burski, Communications Consultant, Communications Branch, Agriview

We rely on regular testing and oversight to catch when the water coming out of our taps might be of poor quality. Such results aren’t a regular occurrence, but, when they happen, we look for alternate sources that we know won’t compromise our health. Our province’s livestock rely on us to do the same for them. The extent of “poor water quality” may look different for humans than for livestock, but it still makes the water dangerous for livestock to consume. “It’s important for almost all functions in the body, everything from digestion, to thermoregulation, to immunity,” said Colby Elford, Livestock and Feed Extension Specialist with the Ministry of Agriculture. In particular, problems arising from poor water quality could range from decreased weight gain to increased levels of diseases such as polio or scours. In Saskatchewan, the issue most likely to cause poor water quality for livestock is high levels of sulphates, although high levels of any total dissolved solid would compromise quality. “As mineral levels rise, it starts having negative effects on production,” explained Travis Peardon, Livestock and Feed Extension Specialist with the Ministry. A rise in mineral levels could be caused by a number of factors,

including spring or summer run-off or 54

a change in temperature. Summer 2017, for example, saw lower water quality than usual across the province, partly due to the summer’s unusually hot temperatures. This caused producers’ surface water sources to evaporate at a higher rate than normal, leaving behind dissolved minerals. Any marginally bad water became worse as the summer progressed. The summer reinforced the importance of testing for water quality, to both producers and Ministry of Agriculture staff. “We really did a lot more work in trying to educate producers on what was happening with their water quality,” said Peardon. Elford agreed, adding that regional office staff also increased the rate at which they were helping producers test their water quality. “The Ministry also bought some conductivity meters, which can be used in the offices to do quick screenings for water.” A similar type of water quality test is available on-the-spot at the Ministry’s booth during Canadian Western Agribition. In addition, if one of the Ministry’s regional specialists is working with a producer’s livestock and suspects that the water may be of low quality, the specialist can work with that producer to have the water tested at a provincial lab at no charge. After test results come back, staff can help the producer interpret the results. Peardon and Elford recommend producers test their water anywhere from once per year to three or four times per year, depending on the source. They also recommend sending the water for testing at least two weeks prior to when producers plan on using the water source, to allow enough time for the results to come back. If the test results do show poor water quality, additional steps will need to be taken. Charolais Connection • March 2020

Colby Elford testing a water sample at Canadian Western Agribition

“Lots of times, it’s really hard to have an alternative water source,” Peardon said. “Sometimes it’s digging a new well or dugout, but a lot of times it might involve hauling water or not using that pasture that summer.” To help ensure alternative water sources are available, producers can apply for the Farm and Ranch Water Infrastructure Program (FRWIP), available through the Canadian Agricultural Partnership (CAP), a five-year $388 million investment by federal and provincial governments. Projects approved under FRWIP receive a rebate up to 50 per cent of eligible costs to a maximum of $50,000, and could include the digging of new dugouts or wells, subject to program criteria. However, sometimes the quality of a water source can change after livestock have started drinking from it. With that being the case, it’s important to watch for signs of poor continued on page 59


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MANAGEMENT

Understanding the Benefits of Creep Feeding James Byrne, Beef Cattle Specialist, OMAFRA

The choice to creep feed beef calves or not can be a difficult decision for a cow-calf producer. The reason for this difficulty lies in the fact that there is no one-size-fits-all answer. Cow-calf producers must consider several important variables, all of which will determine if the choice is the correct production and economic one. Creep feeding has both a biological and economic effect and these effects must be considered simultaneously. The typical cow-calf production system in Ontario involves the rearing of spring-born calves with their dams at pasture for a 6 to 8 month period, at the end of which those calves are weaned and either sold or retained for backgrounding. Creep feed is often introduced to compensate for reduced milk yield from declining forage quality on pasture and ultimately to improve calf weaning weights. Creep feeding is also advocated as a means of reducing weaning stress in calves through the familiarization to a solid and palatable feed and has been shown to decrease morbidity in feedlots. The type of creep feed to be fed depends on the quality of forage being consumed by the calf. The more indigestible a forage is, the more slowly it digests and the longer it takes to move through the rumen. Highly digestible forages, however, disappear quickly and take up little space in the rumen. Consequently, calves consuming highly digestible forages allowed ad libitum access to creep can consume higher amounts of concentrate. For producers, this observation means that calves consuming high quality forages should be offered a salt-limited high protein calf creep to limit intake, whereas calves consuming poor quality forages should have access to nutrient dense, energy-rich calf creep to compensate for the lower energy available from poorer quality forage. 56

A study by Lusby et al. (1986) found that limit feeding creep feed to measured daily amounts increased animal performance, gain:feed efficiency, and profitability. Research by Moreil et al. (2017) showed that beef calves limit-fed creep feed gained 0.4 lbs per day more than control calves fed no creep, where both sets of calves grazed similar pasture. These results agree with previous studies. Overfeeding calves creep feed can lead to the production of heavy, fleshy calves. Buyers typically discount fleshy calves because the plane of nutrition these creep-fed calves have received up to this point is usually greater than the plane of nutrition the calves will be placed on in a backgrounding program. In the feedlot, over-conditioned calves grow slower, are less feed efficient, and cost more to finish compared to calves in ideal condition. This can be a double blow for cow-calf producers selling over-conditioned calves. Sellers incur additional costs associated with creep feed, then may take a lower price compared to those selling calves in ideal condition. The biological response to creep feed is well understood but the economic response to creep feed is also significant to cow-calf producers as this determines if creep, even in the presence of a known production response, should be fed. The No Creep Creep Weaning Weight (lbs) 500

550

Amount of creep fed (lbs/calf) 0

300

Calf Price ($/lb)

$2.30

$2.10

Calf Value ($)

$1,110

$1,155

Cost of Creep @ $0.10/lb ($/calf)

-

$30.00

Profit/Loss from creep feeding ($)

-

$25.00

Table 1. Sample calculation to assess the effect of no creep feeding versus creep feeding on price received

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economic response to creep feed depends on the cost of creep, feed efficiency and the potential market price for those calves at the target sale weight at the time of sale. The economics of creep feeding improve as the price of calves increases. Table 1 provides a sample calculation to assess the effect of no creep feeding versus creep feeding on price received. In this case, it was profitable to creep feed as the creepfed calves were heavier at the time of sale compared to those calves that received no creep, even though the creep fed calves received a lower price per pound. Consideration of the difference between current average daily gain without creep and the potential increase in average daily gain with creep is critical to determine the true economic response to creep. If the difference between average daily gain without creep and the average daily gain with creep is small, the feeding of creep is unlikely to be profitable unless the cost of the creep feed is low. In this circumstance the feeding of a small amount of grain is beneficial for bunk training and to help reduce the stress of weaning. Creep-fed bull calves have been shown to have a smaller reduction in growth rate post weaning than creepfed heifers. It has been suggested that this occurs because the larger framed bull calves can use creep more efficiently to lay down more muscle than fat compared to heifers. Feeding programs that alter the growth rates of animals in one phase of growth often influence the subsequent phase of growth. The effect of creep feeding on postweaning performance appears to be dependant on the energy intake of calves post -weaning. Creep-fed calves fed to grow at moderate rates of gain (1.5 lbs per day or less) post-weaning continued on page 59


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CANADIAN CHAROLAIS YOUTH ASSOCIATION NEWS

Travel Opportunity Tyson Black, Treasurer

Once again, the Canadian Charolais Youth Association is happy to provide the “Travel Opportunity Scholarship”. This scholarship provides the opportunity for a youth member to travel to any event that involves the Charolais breed or the cattle industry (excluding CCYA). In order to apply for this opportunity the

youth must fill out an application form which can be found on the Canadian Charolais Youth Association website www.youth.charolais.com, the youth will also have to fill out a questionnaire explaining how the trip will help them in the future and why they should be selected for this opportunity. After submission a committee reviews the application and

CCYA NATIONAL BOARD charolaisyouth@gmail.com President: Keegan Blehm keegb34@yahoo.ca Vice-President: Reegan McLeod Reeganmc11@gmail.com Treasurer: Tyson Black blackbern@hotmail.com Secretary: Haley Rosso hrosso25@gmail.com

determines how much money will be provided to the youth member. CCYA will cover all registration fees needed for the selected event. In order to be selected the application must be submitted at least two months in advance of the departure date. To find out more on this great program check out the Canadian Charolais Youth Association’s website under programs.

Director: Evan Jamieson evanjamieson31@gmail.com Director: Megan Perih perihmegan@yahoo.ca Director: Calina Evans calinae13@gmail.com Director: Bradley Fergus bradleyfergus3@gmail.com

Vice-President: Logan Jamieson Treasurer: Robyn Young Secretary: Evan Jamieson CCYA Provincial Advisors SK: Jill Debenham kidsandcows@sasktel.net ON: Karen Black blackbern@hotmail.com MB: Jeff & Jackie Cavers tobbagirl@yahoo.ca AB: Kasey Phillips | kphillips@mcsnet.ca

2020 CCYA Conference & Show Executive President: Reegan McLeod

Youth Coordinator: Shae-Lynn Evans shaelynnevans03@gmail.com

TIMING SPRING TURNOUT, CONTINUED FROM PAGE 52

until the grasses have three to four full leaves reduces stress on the plants and contributes to higher pasture yields all season. Managing fast spring growth to keep grasses in a

vegetative state will maximize gains on pasture. Wet ground in spring is a challenge, but careful management can prevent field damage and maximize forage quality for the

rest of the season. Getting the timing of turn-out right sets up the pasture for success.

WATER QUALITY, CONTINUED FROM PAGE 54

water quality intake in your animals. “They’re not going to want to drink the water if it’s bad, which will usually translate also into low feed intake, which will affect cow condition and weight gain,” explained Elford. “The minerals that are dissolved in the water will interrupt trace mineral status in the animal, so you’ll get trace mineral deficiencies, which can have effects on all sorts of things.”

These feed intake and trace mineral deficiencies are of particular interest to Ministry specialists. Under the Strategic Field Program, also funded under CAP, the specialists will be evaluating what effects sulphates have on growing animals. This includes looking at three different levels of sulphates in water given to animals over a particular period of time, then evaluating weight

gain, feed intake and mineral status. “What we’re wanting to do is have good recommendations for producers out there when they’re trying to make decisions,” said Elford. For more information about water quality and testing, visit Saskatchewan.ca/livestock. For more information about FRWIP or the Strategic Field Program, visit Saskatchewan.ca/CAP.

CREEP FEEDING, CONTINUED FROM PAGE 56

tend to grow slower than non-creep fed calves. However, when placed on high energy finishing rations after weaning, calves in good condition

that have been effectively creep-fed eat more feed and gain faster during the first month due to the familiarity to solid feed and feeding bunks. Thus, Charolais Connection • March 2020

the success of a creep feeding program is dependent on managing intake, creep quality, and calf condition for every grazing season. 59


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Charolais Connection • March 2020


Services

Advertise Your Services Here! Call today and get your name out there! 306.584.7937

Charolais Connection • March 2020

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Alberta Breeders

Barry & Lee-Ann Kaiser & family 403.787.2489 Box 209, Hussar, AB T0J 1S0 Barry 403.334.2489 Lee-Ann 403.334.2155 kaiserbarry@gmail.com

Kasey, Arlana, Kord & Peri Phillips Box 420, Waskatenau, AB T0A 3P0

T 780.358.2360 • C 780.656.6400 • kphillips@mcsnet.ca KREATING KONFIDENCE

Be Wise — Advertise. Your ad should be here. 306.584.7937

62

Charolais Connection • March 2020


caught you looking! Your ad should be here. 306.584.7937

British Columbia Breeders

Your ad should be here Call today! 306.584.7937

SADDLERIDGE

Manitoba

CHAROLAIS

Ralph Retzlaff 403.793.0794 Leonard Retzlaff 403.501.9333 Rosemary, AB • www.saddleridgecharolais.com

Breeders

Charolais Connection • March 2020

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Ontario Breeders

Kevin, Crystal, Kory & Shaylin Stebeleski P/F 204.234.5425 Cell 204.365.6010 Box 266, Oakburn, MB R0J 1L0 | happyhavencharolais@gmail.com

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Charolais Connection • March 2020


Quebec Breeders

Rollin’ Acres Charolais Full French Charolais 598516 2nd Line, Mulmur, ON L9V 0B6 chester.tupling@premierequipment.ca Chester Tupling 519.925.2938 C 705.627.0672

“Breeding the Cattle that Work in Both Rings.”

Saskatchewan Breeders

R.R. #3, Markdale, Ontario N0C 1H0

Brent 519.372.6196 • Darrell 519.373.6788 email: saunders@bmts.com John & Marie • Brent & Marni • Darrell & BillieJo

Charolais Connection • March 2020

65


KLR

KLR

Visitors Wendall & Leanne Weston Box 206, Maidstone, SK S0M 1M0 • wlweston@sasktel.net

Tel 306.893.4510 • Cell 306.893.7801

66

Welcome

Ron & Donna Elder 306.267.4986 C 306.267.7693•relder@sasktel.net @ElderElderly • Michael & Judy Elder C 306.267.7730 Box 37, Coronach, SK S0H 0Z0 • www.eldercharolais.com

Charolais Connection • March 2020


IMPORTANT ACTIVITIES IN OUR INDUSTRY

Calendar of Events March 7-9 101st Pride of the Prairies Bull Show & Sale, Lloydminster (SK) Exhibition Grounds

March 13 Meridian Agriculture Co. Charolais & Angus Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Acadia Valley, AB

March 7 High Country 46th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Pincher Creek (AB) Ag Grounds

March 14 Horseshoe E Charolais Annual Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., at the farm, Kenaston, SK

March 7 Wrangler Made 8th Annual Bull Sale, 1:30 p.m., at the farm, Westlock, AB

March 14 Blackbern, Whitewater & Kirlene Charolais Bull Sale, 1:30 p.m., Renfrew Pontiac Livestock Facility, Cobden, ON

March 7 Ferme Louber Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., at the farm, Ste-Marie de Beauce, QC March 7 Ontario Charolais Association Annual General Meeting, 2:00 p.m., Holiday Inn, Peterborough, ON March 8 Steppler Farms 9th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m. DST, Steppler Sale Barn, Miami, MB

USA Breeders

March 16 Flat Valley Cattle Co. & K Lazy T Cattle Co Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Medicine Hat (AB) Feeding Company March 16 Grassroots Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., Dryland Trading Corp, Veteran, AB March 16 North West Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Kramer’s Big Bid Barn, North Battleford, SK

March 9 Palmer Charolais 9th Annual Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., at the farm, Bladworth, SK

March 19 Creek’s Edge Land & Cattle Co. 2nd Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., at the farm, Yellow Creek, SK

March 10 Harvie Ranching Bull Sale, at the ranch, Olds, AB

March 19 Footprint Farms Bull Sale, 3:30 p.m., at the ranch, Esther, AB

March 10 Built Right 7th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Provost (AB) Livestock Exchange

March 19 Lazy S Charolais Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., VJV Auction Mart, Beaverlodge, AB

March 12 Nelson Hirsche Purebreds Spring Bull Sale at the Ranch, Del Bonita, AB March 12 McKeary Charolais Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., Bow Slope Shipping, Brooks, AB March 12 Wilkie Charolais & Cutbank Cattle Co. Red Angus Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Stettler (AB) Auction Mart March 13 CK Sparrow Farms Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., at the farm, Vanscoy, SK March 13 16th Annual Northern Classic Bull Sale, Grand Prairie, AB Charolais Connection • March 2020

March 20 High Bluff Stock Farm Charolais & Simmental Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., at the farm, Inglis, MB March 20 Reese Cattle Co. 11th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Innisfail (AB) Auction Mart March 21 Pleasant Dawn Charolais 17th Annual Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., at the farm, Oak Lake, MB March 21 Rollin’ Acres/Whiskey Hollow & Guests 9th Annual Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., Maple Hill Auctions, Hanover, ON

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March 21 Northern Impact VII Charolais Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., North Central Livestock, Clyde, AB

March 28 Lazy S Cattle Co. Limousin & Charolais Bull Sale, 6:00 p.m., VJV Auction Mart, Rimbey, AB

April 4 Vermilion Charolais Group 34th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., North Central Livestock, Vermilion, AB

March 21 Select Genetics Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., at Forsyth Angus, Herbert, SK

March 28 Borderland Cattle Company Bull Sale, 1:30 p.m., at the ranch, Rockglen, SK

April 4 Maritime Bull Test Station Sale, at the test station, Nappan, NS

March 21 8th Annual Balamore Farms “Thickness Sells” Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., at the farm, Great Village, NS

March 28 Cornerview Charolais Bull Sale, 1:30 p.m., at the farm, Cobden, ON

April 4 Saunders Charolais 15th Annual Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., Keady (ON) Livestock Market

March 21 Canada’s Red, White & Black Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Johnstone Auction Mart, Moose Jaw, SK March 23 TRI-N Charolais Farms Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., at the farm, Lenore, MB March 23 Neilson Cattle Co. 30th Annual Bull Sale, at the farm, Willowbrook, SK March 24 Diamond W Charolais, Red & Black Angus 17th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Minitonas, MB March 24 Poplar Bluff Stock Farm & Twin Anchor Charolais 4th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Dryland Trading Corp., Veteran, AB March 25 HTA Charolais & Guest Bull Sale, 1:30 p.m., at the farm, Rivers, MB

March 28 Alameda Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Alameda (SK) Auction Mart March 28 8th Annual “Thickness Sells” Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., Atlantic Stockyards, Truro, NS March 28 High Point Charolais Bull Sale, 12:00 p.m., at Sunrise Charolais, Stayner, ON March 28 Chomiak Charolais Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Viking (AB) Auction Market March 28 Candiac Choice Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., Candiac (SK) Auction Mart March 29 6th Annual Elite Genetics Bull Sale, RSK Sale barn, Douglas, MB March 29 Best of the Breeds Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., Heartland Livestock, Yorkton, SK

March 26 Elder Charolais 10th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., at the farm, Coronach, SK

March 31 Prairie Distinction Charolais Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Beautiful Plains Ag Complex, Neepawa, MB

March 27 McTavish Farms & Guest 9th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., at the farm, Moosomin, SK

March 31 White Lake Colony Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Balog Auction, Lethbridge, AB

March 27 Thistle Ridge Ranch Bull Sale, Taber (AB) Agriplex

April 1 White Cap/Rosso Charolais & Howe Red Angus Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., at the Howe Family Farm, Moose Jaw, SK

March 28 K-Cow Ranch Bull Sale, 1:30 p.m., at the ranch, Elk Point, AB

April 2 Hunter Charolais 9th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., at the farm, Roblin, MB

March 28 Coyote Flats Charolais 5th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., at the farm, Coaldale, AB

April 2 C2 Charolais Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Killarney (MB) Auction Market

March 28 Impact Angus & Charolais Bull & Female Sale, 1:00 p.m., Saskatoon (SK) Livestock Sales 68

April 3 Fleming Stock Farms & RJ Livestock Bull Sale, 1:30 p.m., Foothills Auctioneers Inc., Stavely, AB

Charolais Connection • March 2020

April 4 Acadia Ranching Charolais & Angus Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., Bow Slope Shipping, Brooks, AB April 4 Transcon’s 24th Annual Advantage Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Saskatoon (SK) Livestock Sales April 4 JTA Diamond Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., at the farm, Courval, SK April 6 North of the 49th 17th Annual Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., at Wilgenbusch Charolais, Halbrite, SK April 7 Cedarlea Farms “Git ‘R Done” Bull Sale, at Windy Willows Angus, Hodgeville, SK April 7 Gilliland Bros. Charolais 8th Annual Bull Sale, 1:30 p.m., at Chopper K Auction Mart, Alameda, SK April 9 Sliding Hills Charolais Bull Sale, 1:30 p.m., at the farm, Canora, SK April 9 Daines Cattle Co. Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Innisfail (AB) Auction Mart April 10 Spirit of the North Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Spiritwood (SK) Auction Mart April 11 Eastern Select Bull & Female Sale, 1:00 p.m., Hoards Station Sale Barn, Campbellford, ON April 13 Cattle Capital Bull Sale, 1:00 p.m., Ste. Rose (MB) Auction Mart April 14 Top Cut Bull Sale, 2:00 p.m., Stockman’s Weigh Co., Mankota, SK


April 18 Brimner Cattle Co., Cornerstone Bull Sale, 1:30 p.m., Whitewood (SK) Auction Mart

June 18 – 20 Canadian Charolais Association AGM & 60th Anniversay Celebration, Russell, MB

April 18 Cedardale Charolais 17th Annual Bull & Select Female Sale, 1:00 p.m., at the farm, Nestleton, ON

July 5 – 10 Canadian Charolais Youth Association Conference & Show, Olds, AB

April 18 Lindskov-Thiel Bull Sale, at the ranch, Isabel, SD April 27 Cassity Charolais Dispersal Sale, 1:00 p.m., VJV Auctions, Beaverlodge, AB

July 25 Manitoba Charolais Association Annual General Meeting, at C2 Charolais, La Riviere, MB August 5 – 15 Charolais World Congress in Australia

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LOOKING TO FIND SOMEONE?

Advertisers Index Alta Genetics Inc. .........................................61 Amabec Charolais ........................................64 Annuroc Charolais........................................64 B Bar D Charolais..........................................64 Baker Farms ..................................................64 Bar H Charolais .............................................65 Beck Farms....................................................65 BeRich Farms ...............................................62 Blackbern Charolais .....................................64 Blake's Red Angus ........................................53 Bob Charolais ...............................................62 BoJan Enterprises ........................................65 Borderland Cattle Co. .............................29,66 Bow Valley Genetics Ltd. .............................61 Bricney Stock Farms .....................................66 Bridor Charolais............................................64 Brimner Cattle Company ...................26,27,66 Buffalo Lake Charolais ................................62 By Livestock ...............6,7,9,16,21,26,27,36,IBC Campbells Charolais .....................................66 Canadian Beef Industry Conference 2020 ..60 Carey, Brent ..................................................61 Cassity Charolais ...........................................58 Cattle Lac Charolais......................................46 Cedardale Charolais ................................55,64 Cedarlea Farms..........................................7,66 Charla Moore Farms...........................12,19,66 CharLew Ranch ...........................................62 CharMaine Ranching ..................................62 Charolais Journal..........................................61 Chartop Charolais ........................................66 Charworth Charolais Farms .........................62 Chomiak Charolais ......................................62 Circle Cee Charolais Farms ...........................62 Cline Cattle Co....................................36,37,63 Cockburn Farms............................................65 Cougar Hill Ranch ........................................64 Coyote Flats Charolais.............................21,62 Creek's Edge Land & Cattle Co. ..............11,66 C2 Charolais.............................................45,64 DavisRairdan ...............................................61 Demarah Farms ............................................66 Diamond W Charolais .............................16,66 Dogpatch Acres ............................................32 Dorran, Ryan ................................................61 Double P Stock Farms .............................36,64 Dowell Charolais ..........................................62 Dubuc Charolais ...........................................65 DudgeonSnobelen Land & Cattle ..............65 Eaton Charolais ............................................67 Echo Spring Charolais ..................................65 Edge, Dean ...................................................61 Elder Charolais Farms................................9,66 Fergus Family Charolais ...............................65 Fischer Charolais...........................................62 Flat Valley Cattle Co.....................................62 Fleury, Michael .............................................61 Flewelling, Craig ..........................................61

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Footprint Farms ......................................13,62 Future Farms.................................................62 Gilliland Bros. Charolais ..........................44,66 Good Anchor Charolais................................62 H.S. Knill Company Ltd. ...............................61 Happy Haven Charolais................................64 Harcourt Charolais ..................................33,66 Hard Rock Land & Cattle Co. .......................64 Harvie Ranching ..........................................62 HEJ Charolais ...............................................62 Hicks Charolais .............................................65 High Bluff Stock Farm ...............................5,64 Holk Charolais ..............................................62 Hopewell Charolais ......................................66 Horseshoe E Charolais..................................66 Howe Family Farm ..................................35,66 HTA Charolais Farm ..................................3,64 Hunter Charolais ...................................64,IBC Jack Auction Group......................................28 JMB Charolais ..............................................64 Johnson Charolais ........................................62 Johnston Charolais ..................................36,39 Johnstone Auction .......................................61 June Rose Charolais ................................42,66 Kaiser Cattle Co............................................62 KayR Land & Cattle Ltd...............................62 KCH Charolais ...............................................63 Kirlene Cattle ...............................................65 La Ferme Patry de Weedon .........................65 Lakeview Charolais .................................47,62 Land O' Lakes Charolais ...............................65 Langstaff Charolais ......................................65 Lazy S Limousin & Charolais ........................31 Leemar Charolais..........................................62 Legacy Charolais...........................................62 LEJ Charolais.......................................36,38,64 LindskovThiel Charolais Ranch ...................67 M&L Cattle Co. .............................................65 Mack's Charolais...........................................65 Maple Leaf Charolais ...................................62 Martens Cattle Co. .......................................66 Martens Charolais ........................................64 McAvoy Charolais Farm ..........................23,66 McKay Charolais ...........................................64 McKeary Charolais .......................................63 McLeod Livestock .........................................61 McTavish Farms........................................19,66 Medonte Charolais.......................................65 Miller Land & Livestock...........................47,65 Mutrie Farms ...........................................40,66 Myhre Land and Cattle ................................64 Nahachewsky Charolais ...............................66 Neilson Cattle Company ..............................14 Norheim Ranching .......................................61 P & H Ranching Co. ......................................63 Packer Charolais ...........................................65 Palmer Charolais ..........................................66 Phillips Farms...........................................25,66

Charolais Connection • March 2020

Pleasant Dawn Charolais ..........................6,64 Poplar Bluff Stock Farm ...............................14 Potter Charolais............................................65 Prairie Cove Charolais ..................................63 Prairie Gold Charolais .............................43,66 ProChar Charolais .......................................63 Qualman Charolais ......................................66 R & G McDonald Livestock.................36,39,64 Raffan, Don ..................................................61 Rawes Ranches .............................................63 Reeleder, Andrew.........................................61 Reese Cattle Company .................................15 Rollin' Acres Charolais .................................65 Ross Lake Charolais ......................................63 Rosso Charolais........................................35,66 Royale Charolais ...........................................65 RRTS Charolais ..............................................63 Saddleridge Farming Co. .............................63 SanDan Charolais Farms ..............................63 Saunders Charolais ..................................49,65 Serhienko/Voegeli Cattle Co........................67 Sharodon Farms ...........................................65 Skeels, Danny ...............................................61 Sliding Hills Charolais..............................51,67 Snake Valley Charolais Farm........................25 Southside Charolais......................................63 Southview Farms ..........................................65 CK Sparrow Farms .......................................IFC Springside Farms ..........................................63 Spruce View Charolais.............................12,63 Stach Farms Charolais ..................................63 Stephen Charolais Farm ...............................67 Steppler Farms Ltd. .....................................64 Stock, Mark...................................................61 Sugarloaf Charolais ......................................63 Sunblade Charolais ......................................36 Sunderland Charolais Farm .........................57 Sunshine Oak Charolais ...............................64 T Bar C Cattle Co. ...........14,23,32,33,45,61,69 Temple Farms................................................67 Thistle Ridge Ranch......................................63 Transcon Livestock Corp.....................44,58,61 TRIN Charolais ........................................28,64 Turnbull Charolais ........................................63 Twin Anchor Charolais ............................14,63 Valanjou Charolais .......................................12 Vermilion Charolais Group ..........................46 Wendt & Murray Farms Ltd. ...................41,63 Western Litho Printers .................................61 White Lake Colony ..................................30,63 White Meadow Charolais Ltd......................64 WhiteWater Livestock..................................65 Wilgenbusch Charolais ........................67,OBC Wilkie Ranch.................................................63 Wood River Charolais .............................53,67 Wrangler Charolais ......................................63 Wraz Red Angus......................................26,27


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