Page 210

Table 1. Estimated relative risk (odds ratio, adjusted) of breast cancer and 95% CI by adipose tissue ␻–3 and ␻–6 fatty acid levels from the whole population (n ⫽ 329) Fatty acids

Odds ratio* (95%)

p for trend

1st tertile (low)

2nd tertile

3rd tertile (high)

18:2 ␻–6 20:4 ␻–6

1.00 1.00

1.60 (0.76–3.36) 0.87 (0.41–1.84)

2.31 (1.15–4.67) 0.98 (0.42–2.29)

0.06 0.32

Total ␻–6 18:3 ␻–3 22:6 ␻–3

1.00 1.00 1.00

1.50 (0.71–3.21) 0.97 (0.50–1.90) 0.84 (0.40–1.75)

2.29 (0.12–4.69) 0.39 (0.19–0.78) 0.31 (0.13–0.75)

0.07 0.01 0.016

Total ␻–3

1.00

0.91 (0.45–1.87)

0.40 (0.17–0.94)

0.001

*Adjusted for age at diagnosis, height, BMI (as continuous variables), menopause (pre- and post-) and menopausal status-BMI interaction.

␻–3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid) and the relative risk of breast cancer (table 1). However, the strongest inverse association with breast cancer was found for the ratio of long-chain ␻–6 PUFA to ␻–3 PUFA. This set of data supports the idea that the protective effect of ␻–3 PUFA depends on background levels of ␻–6 PUFA. Thus, it may be the balance between ␻–3 and ␻–6 PUFA rather than the individual amount of each class of PUFA which influence the outcome of breast cancer.

References 1 2 3

4

5 6 7 8

Bougnoux P: n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cancer. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1999;2: 121–126. Cohen LA, Chen-Backlund JY, Sepkovic DW, Sugie S: Effect of varying proportions of dietary menhaden and corn oil on experimental rat mammary tumor promotion. Lipids 1993;8:449–456. Sasaki T, Kobayashi Y, Shimizu J, Wada M, In’nami S, Kanke Y, Takita T: Effects of dietary n–3 to n–6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio on mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Nutr Cancer 1998;30: 137–143. Cognault S, Jourdan ML, Germain E, Pitavy R, Morel E, Durand G, Bougnoux P, Lhuillery C: Effect of an alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet on rat mammary tumor growth depends on the dietary oxidative status. Nutr Cancer 2000;36:33–41. Simopoulos AP: Importance of the ratio of omega–6/omega–3 essential fatty acids: evolutionary aspects. World Rev Nutr Diet. Basel, Karger, 2003, vol 92, pp 1–22. Simopoulos AP: The Mediterranean diets: What is so special about the diet of Greece? The scientific evidence. J Nutr 2001;131:3065S–3073S. Simopoulos AP: The importance of the ratio of omega–6/omega–3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 2002;56:365–379. Rose DP, Connolly JM: Omega–3 fatty acids as cancer chemopreventive agents. Pharmacol Ther 1999;83:217–244.

Omega–6/Omega–3 Fatty Acids Ratio and Breast Cancer

163

Nutrition and fitness 1  

Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer - Artemis P. Simopoulos et al (2004) Tags: diet, health, omega-3, omega-6...

Nutrition and fitness 1  

Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer - Artemis P. Simopoulos et al (2004) Tags: diet, health, omega-3, omega-6...

Advertisement