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studied in patients with depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, attention deficit disorders and dementia. Casper in her paper on ‘Psychiatric Disorders, Mood and Cognitive Function: The Influence of Nutrients and Physical Activity’ reviews studies that have related variations in the amount of protein, amino acids, carbohydrates, and polyunsaturated fatty acids to mood changes. Efficacy data on omega–3 fatty acids used as adjunct or in monotherapy in unipolar and bipolar depressive disorders are critically reviewed. Evidence now exists that prenatal exposure to wartime famine may have had a bearing on the development of psychomorbidity, in particular the schizophreniform disorders. Casper also presents an evaluation of the literature that addresses the relationship between regular physical activity in the form of exercise, in relation to mood and cognitive function. Increasing evidence that psychiatric disorders are not only multifactorial, but also multigenic diseases, suggests that genetic variation could emerge as an important variable mediating the effects between nutrition and mental disorders. Peet, in his paper ‘Nutrition and Schizophrenia’ presents a critical review and evaluation of the literature on the role of dietary components on schizophrenia. In addition to omega–3 fatty acid intervention studies, Peet reviews the evidence that a low saturated fat and low sugar diet may be beneficial, but this has not been tested in controlled clinical trials. Dubnov and Berry in their paper ‘Managing Obesity after Menopause: The Role of Physical Activity’ carried out a Medline and manual search for articles on overweight and obesity following menopause, the risks and methods of treatment emphasizing physical activity. Their results show that among postmenopausal women, physical activity is a major mode of treatment and postmenopausal women should engage in physical activity daily, because overweight and obesity occurs in over 50% of that population. Ferrari, in his paper ‘Osteoporosis: A Complex Disorder of Aging with Multiple Genetic and Environmental Determinants’ reviews the genetic and environmental factors influencing bone turnover and bone density, particularly estrogen-deficient women and those with low calcium intake and genes associated with vertebral bone mass and size in adult men. The usefulness of the gene variants or polymorphisms in predicting fracture risk and response to therapy remains to be demonstrated. Inflammation is now considered to be at the basis of many chronic diseases and conditions including aging. Okuyama and coworkers, in their paper ‘Changes in Dietary Fatty Acids and Life Style as Major Factors for Rapidly Increasing Inflammatory Diseases and Elderly-Onset Diseases’ indicate that the major elderly-onset diseases in Japan are cancer, atherosclerosis related diseases and pneumonia. Elevation of inflammatory tone is a likely major cause for these diseases, which is brought about by excessive intake of linoleic

Preface

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Nutrition and fitness 1  

Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer - Artemis P. Simopoulos et al (2004) Tags: diet, health, omega-3, omega-6...

Nutrition and fitness 1  

Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer - Artemis P. Simopoulos et al (2004) Tags: diet, health, omega-3, omega-6...

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