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Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook TENTH EDITION Edited by

Christian Dubay, P.E. Vice President, Codes and Standards, and Chief Engineer National Fire Protection Association

With the complete text of the 2007 edition of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems

National Fire Protection Association Quincy, Massachusetts


Product Manager: Debra Rose Developmental Editor: Khela Thorne Permissions Editor: Josiane Domenici Project Editor: Irene Herlihy Copy Editor: Pamela Nolan

Composition: Modern Graphics, Inc. Art Coordinator: Cheryl Langway Cover Designer: Twist Creative Manufacturing Manager: Ellen Glisker Printer: R.R. Donnelley/Willard

Copyright 䉷 2007 National Fire Protection Association, Inc. One Batterymarch Park Quincy, Massachusetts 02169-7471 All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form without acknowledgment of the copyright owner nor may it be used in any form for resale without written permission from the copyright owner. Notice Concerning Liability: Publication of this handbook is for the purpose of circulating information and opinion among those concerned for fire and electrical safety and related subjects. While every effort has been made to achieve a work of high quality, neither the NFPA nor the contributors to this handbook guarantee the accuracy or completeness of or assume any liability in connection with the information and opinions contained in this handbook. The NFPA and the contributors shall in no event be liable for any personal injury, property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use of, or reliance upon this handbook. This handbook is published with the understanding that the NFPA and the contributors to this handbook are supplying information and opinion but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought. Notice Concerning Code Interpretations: This tenth edition of Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook is based on the 2007 edition of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. All NFPA codes, standards, recommended practices, and guides are developed in accordance with the published procedures of the NFPA by technical committees comprised of volunteers drawn from a broad array of relevant interests. The handbook contains the complete text of NFPA 13 and any applicable Formal Interpretations issued by the Association. These documents are accompanied by explanatory commentary and other supplementary materials. The commentary and supplementary materials in this handbook are not a part of the Standard and do not constitute Formal Interpretations of the NFPA (which can be obtained only through requests processed by the responsible technical committees in accordance with the published procedures of the NFPA). The commentary and supplementary materials, therefore, solely reflect the personal opinions of the editor or other contributors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the NFPA or its technical committees. The following are registered trademarks of the National Fire Protection Association: Building Construction and Safety Code威 and NFPA 5000威 Comprehensive Consensus Codes威 Life Safety Code威 and 101威 National Electrical Code威 and NEC威 National Fire Alarm Code威 and NFPA 72威 NFPA No.: 13HB07 ISBN-10: 0-87765-718-1 ISBN-13: 978-0-87765-718-7 Library of Congress Control Number: 2006937007 Printed in the United States of America 07 08 09 10 11 5

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This handbook is dedicated to Chester W. Schirmer. Chet has served on the Automatic Sprinkler Systems Committee for more than 40 years, beginning in 1966. During that time he also served as Chair of the Automatic Sprinkler Systems Committee for 24 years, from 1974 until 1997. In addition, he served on the NFPA Board of Directors from 1974 until 1986 and as Chairman of the Board from 1984 to 1986. Chet’s expertise, knowledge, and service are an integral part of NFPA 13 and are fundamental to the long-term success and performance of automatic fire sprinkler systems. His continued dedication, commitment, and tireless efforts have provided a legacy that continues to influence the committees he works with today, as well as the users of this standard.


Contents List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits Preface xxvii Acknowledgments xxix

4.3 4.4

xi

5

1

Administration 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

2

3

7

Level of Protection 87 Limited Area Systems 87

91

System Components and Hardware

117

General 117 Sprinklers 119 Aboveground Pipe and Tube 130 Fittings 137 Joining of Pipe and Fittings 140 Hangers 150 Valves 150 Fire Department Connections 153 Waterflow Alarm Devices 154

System Requirements

159

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

Wet Pipe Systems 159 Dry Pipe Systems 161 Preaction Systems and Deluge Systems 173 Combined Dry Pipe and Preaction Systems for Piers, Terminals, and Wharves 174 7.5 Multi-Cycle Systems 184 7.6 Antifreeze Systems 185 7.7 Automatic Sprinkler Systems with Non–Fire Protection Connections 195 7.8 Outside Sprinklers for Protection Against Exposure Fires (Exposure Protection Sprinkler Systems) 198 7.9 Refrigerated Spaces 202 7.10 Commercial-Type Cooking Equipment and Ventilation 208

21

87

Classification of Occupancies and Commodities

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9

13

General 21 NFPA Official Definitions 21 General Definitions 23 Sprinkler System Type Definitions 31 System Component Definitions 37 Sprinkler Definitions 39 Construction Definitions 52 Private Water Supply Piping Definitions Storage Definitions 63 Marine Definitions 83 Hanging and Bracing Definitions 85

General Requirements 4.1 4.2

6

General 13 NFPA Publications 13 Other Publications 15 References for Extracts in Mandatory Sections 18

Definitions 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11

4

3

Referenced Publications 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

1

Scope 3 Purpose 4 Application 6 Retroactivity Clause 6 Equivalency 7 New Technology 8 Units and Symbols 9

88

5.1 Classification of Occupancies 91 5.2 Light Hazard Occupancies 92 5.3 Ordinary Hazard Occupancies 93 5.4 Extra Hazard Occupancies 96 5.5 Special Occupancy Hazards 97 5.6 Commodity Classification 98

PART ONE

NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, and Commentary

Owner’s Certificate Additives 89

59

8

Installation Requirements 8.1

Basic Requirements

215 215 vii


viii

Contents

8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17

9

System Protection Area Limitations 217 Use of Sprinklers 221 Application of Sprinkler Types 229 Position, Location, Spacing, and Use of Sprinklers 236 Standard Pendent and Upright Spray Sprinklers 247 Sidewall Standard Spray Sprinklers 273 Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers 283 Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers 293 Residential Sprinklers 300 Large Drop Sprinklers 310 Early Suppression Fast-Response Sprinklers 317 In-Rack Sprinklers 324 Pilot Line Detectors 326 Special Situations 327 Piping Installation 353 System Attachments 375

Hanging, Bracing, and Restraint of System Piping 393 9.1 9.2 9.3

Hangers 393 Installation of Pipe Hangers 411 Protection of Piping Against Damage Where Subject to Earthquakes 424

10 Underground Piping 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10

11

11.3

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4

13.1 13.2 13.3

Miscellaneous Storage up to 12 ft (3.7 m) in Height 539 Design Basis 539 In-Rack Sprinklers 543

Stored Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Boxes, or Shelf Storage 545 14.1 14.2

14.3

14.4

14.5

14.6

General 545 Control Mode Density–Area Sprinkler Protection Criteria for Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Box, or Shelf Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities 547 Large Drop Sprinklers and Specific Application Control Mode Sprinklers for Palletized or SolidPiled Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities 550 Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers for Palletized or Solid Piled Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities 552 Special Design for Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Box, or Shelf Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities 554 High Expansion Foam—Reduction to Ceiling Density 555

15 Protection of Plastic and Rubber Commodities That Are Stored Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Boxes, or Shelf Storage 557 15.1 15.2

General 497 Occupancy Hazard Fire Control Approach 500 Special Design Approaches 513

15.3

517

General 517 Hose Connections 520 Adjacent Hards or Design Methods Wet Pipe Systems 521

539

14 Protection of Class I to Class IV Commodities That Are

497

12 General Requirements for Storage

Dry Pipe a Preaction Systems 522 Storage Applications 523 Discharge Considerations 528 Hose Demand 529 Restrictions 530 Room Design Method 531 High-Expansion Foam Systems 532 Protection of Idle Pallets 532

13 Miscellaneous Storage

463

Piping Materials 463 Fittings 469 Joining of Pipe and Fittings 471 Depth of Cover 472 Protection Against Freezing 473 Protection Against Damage 474 Requirement for Laying Pipe 476 Joint Restraint 478 Backfilling 488 Testing and Acceptance 488

Design Approaches 11.1 11.2

12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.9 12.10 12.11 12.12

15.4 520

General 557 Control Mode Density—Area Sprinkler Protection Criteria for Palletized, Solid Piled, Bin Box, or Shelf Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities 558 Large Drop Sprinklers and Specific Application Control Mode Sprinklers for Palletized or Solid-Piled of Plastic and Rubber Commodities 566 Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers for Palletized, Solid Piled of Plastic and Rubber Commodities 568 2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


Contents

15.5

High Expansion Foam — Reduction to Ceiling Density 572

16 Protection of Class I Through Class IV Commodities That Are Stored on Racks 16.1 16.2

16.3

573

General 573 Protection Criteria for Rack Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 580 Protection Criteria for Rack Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 601

17 Protection of Plastic and Rubber Commodities That Are Stored on Racks 17.1 17.2

17.3

18.6

669

General 669 Columns Within Rubber Tire Storage 671 Water Supplies 672 Ceiling Systems 672 In-Rack Sprinkler System Requirements for Protection of Rubber Tires 676 Reduced Discharge Density 676

19 Protection of Roll Paper 19.1

20.4

Protection of Roll Paper Storage

21.5

21.13 21.14 21.15 21.16 21.17 21.18 21.19 21.20 21.21 21.22

21.23 21.24 21.25

21.26 21.27 21.28

679

691

General 691 Plastic Motor Vehicle Components 691 Sprinkler Design Criteria for Storage and Display of Class I Through Class IV Commodities, Cartoned Non-Expanded Group A Plastics, and Non-Expanded Exposed Group A Plastics in Retail Stores 692 Protection of Baled Cotton Storage 699

21 Special Occupancy Requirements 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4

21.11 21.12

679

20 Special Designs of Storage Protection 20.1 20.2 20.3

21.7 21.8 21.9 21.10

629

General 629 Protection Criteria for Rack Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 635 Protection Criteria for Rack Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height 652

18 Protection of Rubber Tire Storage 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5

21.6

703

General 703 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Aerosol Products 708 Standard for Spray Application Using Flammable or Combustible Materials Solvent Extraction Plants 712

Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

21.29 21.30 21.31 21.32 21.33 21.34

703 21.35 21.36 710

ix

Installation and Use of Stationary Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines 714 Nitrate Film 715 Storage of Pyroxylin Plastic 718 Laboratories Using Chemicals 720 Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes 723 Acetylene Cylinder Charging Plants 724 Storage, Use, and Handling of Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluids in Portable and Stationary Containers, Cylinders, and Tanks 724 Utility LP-Gas Plants 725 Production, Storage, and Handling of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 725 Protection of Information Technology Equipment 725 Standard on Incinerators, and Waste and Linen Handling Systems and Equipment 725 Standard for Ovens and Furnaces 730 Industrial Furnaces Using a Special Process Atmosphere 730 Class A Hyperbaric Chambers 730 Life Safety Code 731 Fixed Guideway Transit Systems 735 Motion Picture and Television Production Studio Soundstages and Approved Production Facilities 735 Animal Housing Facilities 736 Water Cooling Towers 736 Standard for the Construction and Fire Protection of Marine Terminals, Piers, and Wharves 747 Cleanrooms 749 Aircraft Hangars 750 Standard on Airport Terminal Buildings, Fueling Ramp Drainage, and Loading Walkways 751 Aircraft Engine Test Facilities 751 Code for the Storage of Liquid and Solid Oxidizers 751 Storage of Organic Peroxide Formulations 756 Advanced Light Water Reactor Electric Generating Plants 757 Light Water Nuclear Power Plants 761 Electric Generating Plants and High Voltage Direct Current Converter Stations 761 Hydroelectric Generating Plants 765 Code for the Protection of Cultural Resource Properties — Museums, Libraries, and Places of Worship 766


x

Contents

22 Plans and Calculations 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 22.6 22.7 22.8 22.9

Working Plans 769 Water Supply Information 777 Hydraulic Calculation Forms 779 Hydraulic Calculation Procedures 796 Pipe Schedules 831 Deluge Systems 838 Exposure Protection Sprinkler Systems 838 In-Rack Sprinklers 840 Hose Allowance 840

23 Water Supplies 23.1 23.2

General Types

25.7 25.8 25.9

769

26 System Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance 26.1

A B C D E

24 Systems Acceptance 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6

25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6

895

895

Explanatory Material 899 Miscellaneous Topics 901 Explanation of Test Data and Procedures for Rack Storage 905 Sprinkler System Information from the 1997 Edition of the Life Safety Code 917 Informational References 921

857

Approval of Sprinkler Systems and Private Fire Service Mains 857 Acceptance Requirements 857 Circulating Closed Loop Systems 867 Instructions 867 Hydraulic Design Information Sign 868 General Information Sign 869

25 Marine Systems

General

893

Annexes

843 843 847

Water Supplies 887 System Acceptance 892 System Instructions and Maintenance

871

General 871 System Components, Hardware, and Use 876 System Requirements 880 Installation Requirements 881 Design Approaches 886 Plans and Calculations 886

PART TWO

Supplements 1 2 3 4

927

A Brief History of Sprinklers, Sprinkler Systems, and the NFPA Sprinkler Standards 929 The Effect of Large Orifice Sprinklers on HighChallenge Fires 947 Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Fire Sprinkler Systems 955 Combination Standpipe/Sprinkler Risers 965

NFPA 13 Index 975 Commentary Index 991 About the Contributors 1013 About the Editor 1017

2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits NFPA 13 Figures Number Figure 7.4.3.2

Figure 7.6.2.5 Figure 7.6.2.5(b) Figure 7.6.2.5(c) Figure 7.6.3.1 Figure 7.6.3.2 Figure 7.8.4.2.1 Figure 7.8.4.2.1(b) Figure 7.9.2.7.1.1

Figure 7.9.2.7.1.1(b) Figure 7.9.2.8.4 Figure 8.3.2.5 Figure 8.6.4.1.1.3 Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1

Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1(b) Figure 8.6.4.1.3.3 Figure 8.6.4.1.4

Figure 8.6.4.1.5.1

Figure 8.6.5.1.2

Caption Header for Dry Pipe Valves Installed in Parallel for Combined Systems; Standard Trimmings Not Shown. Arrows Indicate Direction of Fluid Flow Densities of Aqueous Ethylene Glycol Solutions (Percent by Weight) Densities of Aqueous Propylene Glycol Solutions (Percent by Weight) Densities of Aqueous Glycerine Solutions (Percent by Weight) Arrangement of Supply Piping and Valves Arrangement of Supply Piping with Backflow Device Typical Arrangement of Check Valves Alternate Arrangement of Check Valves Refrigerator Area Sprinkler System Used to Minimize the Chances of Developing Ice Plugs Preaction System Arrangement Valve Arrangement High-Temperature and IntermediateTemperature Zones at Unit Heaters Vertical Changes in Ceiling Elevations Sprinklers Under Pitched Roofs with Sprinkler Directly Under Peak; Branch Lines Run Up the Slope Sprinklers at Pitched Roofs; Branch Lines Run Up the Slope Horizontal Clearance for Sprinklers at Peak of Pitched Roof Sprinklers Under a Roof or Ceiling in Combustible Concealed Spaces of Wood Joist or Wood Truss Construction with Members 3 ft (0.91 m) or Less on Center and a Slope Having a Pitch of 4 in 12 or Greater Arrangement of Sprinklers Under Two Sets of Open Joists — No Sheathing on Lower Joists Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (SSU/SSP)

Number Figure 8.6.5.1.2(b) Figure 8.6.5.2.1.3 Figure 8.6.5.2.2

Figure 8.7.5.1.3

Figure 8.7.5.1.4

Figure 8.7.5.2.1.3 Figure 8.7.5.2.2

Figure 8.8.4.1.1.4 Figure 8.8.5.1.2

Figure 8.8.5.1.2(b)

Figure 8.8.5.2.1.3

Figure 8.8.5.2.2

Figure 8.9.5.1.3

Figure 8.9.5.1.4

Figure 8.9.5.2.1.4 Figure 8.9.5.2.2

Caption Obstructions Against Walls (SSU/SSP) Minimum Distance from Obstruction (SSU/SSP) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions in Light Hazard Occupancies Only (SSU/SSP) Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions Along the Wall (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinkler) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only Vertical Changes in Ceiling Elevations Position of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) Obstructions Against Walls (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions (Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers) Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions Along the Wall (Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Extended Coverage Sidewall) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only

xi


xii

List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number Figure 8.10.3.4 Figure 8.10.3.4(b) Figure 8.10.3.5 Figure 8.10.3.5(b) Figure 8.10.6.1.2 Figure 8.10.6.1.2(b) Figure 8.10.6.2.1.3 Figure 8.10.6.2.2

Figure 8.10.7.1.3 Figure 8.10.7.1.4 Figure 8.10.7.2.1.4 Figure 8.10.7.2.2

Figure 8.11.5.1.2

Figure 8.11.5.2.1.3 Figure 8.11.5.3.2 Figure 8.11.5.3.4

Figure 8.11.5.3.5 Figure 8.12.5.1.1 Figure 8.15.18.2 Figure 8.15.19.4.2 Figure 8.15.19.4.3 Figure 8.15.9 Figure 8.15.9(b) Figure 8.16.2.4 Figure 8.16.2.5.3.4

Caption Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers with Sloped Ceilings — Arrangement A Maximum Distance Between Sprinklers with Sloped Ceilings — Arrangement B Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers with Sloped Ceilings — Arrangement A Minimum Distance Between Sprinklers with Sloped Ceilings — Arrangement B Position of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (Residential Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) Obstructions Against Walls (Residential Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Residential Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Residential Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers) Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions Along the Wall (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers) Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Residential Sidewall) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (Large Drop Sprinkler) Minimum Distance from Obstruction (Large Drop Sprinkler) Obstruction Entirely Below the Sprinkler (Large Drop Sprinkler) Obstruction More Than 24 in. (610 mm) Below the Sprinkler (Large Drop Sprinkler) Obstruction More Than 36 in. (914 mm) Below the Sprinkler (Large Drop Sprinkler) Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (ESFR Sprinkler) Return Bend Arrangement Nipple and Reducing Elbow Supplying Sprinkler Below Ceiling Sprinklers in Concealed Space and Below Ceiling Sprinklers in Multitier Bookstacks with Complete Vertical Dividers Sprinklers in Multitier Bookstacks with Incomplete Vertical Dividers Drain Connection for System Riser Dry System Auxiliary Drain

Number

Caption

Figure 8.17.2.1 Figure 9.3.5.9.1 Figure 10.8.3.2.3 Figure 10.10.1 Figure 11.2.3.1.1 Figure 11.2.3.2.3.1 Figure 13.2.1 Figure 14.2.4.1 Figure 14.2.4.2 Figure 14.2.4.3 Figure 15.2.1 Figure 16.2.1.3.2

Figure 16.2.1.3.2(b)

Figure 16.2.1.3.2(c)

Figure 16.2.1.3.2(d)

Figure 16.2.1.3.2(e)

Figure 16.2.1.3.2(f)

Figure 16.2.1.3.2(g)

Figure 16.2.1.3.4.1 Figure 16.3.4.1.1

Fire Department Connections Maximum Loads for Various Types of Structure and Maximum Loads for Various Types of Fasteners to Structure Restraint Straps for Tees [24:Figure 10.8.3.2.3] Sample of Contractor’s Material and Test Certificate for Underground Piping [24: Figure 10.10.1] Density/Area Curves Design Area Reduction for QuickResponse Sprinklers Miscellaneous Storage 12 ft (3.7 m) or Less in Height — Design Curves (see Table 13.2.1) Sprinkler System Design Curves, 20 ft (6.1 m) High Storage — Ordinary Temperature — Rated Sprinklers Sprinkler System Design Curves, 20 ft (6.1 m) High Storage — High Temperature–Rated Sprinklers Ceiling Sprinkler Density vs. Storage Height Decision Tree Sprinkler System Design Curves — 20 ft (6.1 m) High Rack Storage — Class I Nonencapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets Sprinkler System Design Curves — 20 ft (6.1 m) High Rack Storage — Class II Nonencapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets Sprinkler System Design Curves — 20 ft (6.1 m) High Rack Storage — Class III Nonencapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets Sprinkler System Design Curves — 20 ft (6.1 m) High Rack Storage — Class IV Nonencapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets Single- or Double-Row Racks — 20 ft (6.1 m) High Rack Storage — Sprinkler System Design Curves — Class I and Class II Encapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets Single- or Double-Row Racks — 20 ft (6.1 m) High Rack Storage — Sprinkler System Design Curves — Class III Encapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets Single- or Double-Row Racks — 20 ft (6.1 m) High Rack Storage — Sprinkler System Design Curves — Class IV Encapsulated Commodities — Conventional Pallets Ceiling Sprinkler Density vs. Storage Height In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I Commodities, Storage Height 25 ft to

2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number

Figure 16.3.4.1.1(b) Figure 16.3.4.1.1(c)

Figure 16.3.4.1.1(d)

Figure 16.3.4.1.1(e)

Figure 16.3.4.1.1(f)

Figure 16.3.4.1.1(g)

Figure 16.3.4.1.1(h)

Figure 16.3.4.1.1(i)

Figure 16.3.4.1.1(j)

Figure 16.3.4.1.2

Figure 16.3.4.1.2(b)

Figure 16.3.4.1.2(c)

Figure 16.3.4.1.2(d)

Figure 16.3.4.1.2(e)

Figure 16.3.4.1.3 Figure 16.3.4.1.3(b)

Caption Maximum 30 ft (7.6 m to Maximum 9.1 m) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, Storage Height 25 ft to Maximum 30 ft (7.6 m to Maximum 9.1 m) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 3 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 4 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 3 Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities, In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Single-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1 Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, SingleRow Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1 Class I, Class II, or Class III Commodities, In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, SingleRow Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2 Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities, In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Single-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2 Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities, In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Single-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 3 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement — Multiple-Row Racks, Class I Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement — Multiple-Row Racks, Class I, Class II, or Class

Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

Number

Figure 16.3.4.1.3(c)

Figure 17.1.2.1 Figure 17.2.1.2 Figure 17.2.1.2(b) Figure 17.2.1.2(c) Figure 17.2.1.2(d) Figure 17.2.1.2(e) Figure 17.2.1.2(f) Figure 17.3.1.2

Figure 17.3.1.2(b)

Figure 17.3.1.2.1

Figure 17.3.1.2.1(b)

Figure 17.3.1.2.1(c)

Figure 17.3.4.1.3

Figure 17.3.4.1.3(b)

Figure 17.3.4.1.3(c)

Figure 17.3.4.1.3(d)

xiii

Caption III Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Class I, Class II, Class III, or Class IV Commodities — Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) Decision Tree 5 ft to 10 ft (1.5 m to 3 m) Storage; Up to 10 ft (3 m) Clearance to Ceiling 15 ft (4.6 m) Storage; Up to 10 ft (1.5 m to 3.1 m) Clearance to Ceiling 20 ft (6.1 m) Storage; <5 ft (1.5 m) Clearance to Ceiling 20 ft (6.1 m) Storage; 5 ft to 10 ft (1.5 m to 3.1 m) Clearance to Ceiling 25 ft (7.6 m) Storage; <5 ft (1.5 m) Clearance to Ceiling 25 ft (7.6 m) Storage; 5 ft to 10 ft (1.5 m to 3.1 m) Clearance to Ceiling In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Group A Plastic Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Group A Plastic Commodities, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Group A Plastic Commodities, Single-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Group A Plastic Commodities, Single-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Group A Plastic Commodities, Single-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 3 In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1 [10 ft (3.05 m) Maximum Spacing] In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2 [10 ft (3.05 m) Maximum Spacing] In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 1 [5 ft (1.52 m) Maximum Spacing] In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 2 [5 ft (1.52 m) Maximum Spacing]


xiv

List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number Figure 17.3.4.1.3(e)

Figure 17.3.4.1.3(f)

Figure 17.3.4.1.4

Figure 21.7.2.2.2 Figure 21.7.2.4 Figure 21.8.2 Figure 21.8.2(b) Figure 21.8.2.5 Figure 21.8.2.5(b)

Figure 21.8.2.6 Figure 21.30.2.3.1 Figure 22.3.5.1 Figure 22.3.5.1(b) Figure 22.3.5.1(c) Figure 22.3.5.1(d) Figure 22.5.2.3 Figure 22.5.2.3(b) Figure 22.5.2.3(c) Figure 24.1 Figure A.3.10.4 Figure A.3.4.6 Figure A.3.4.7 Figure A.3.5 Figure A.3.7.1 Figure A.3.7.1(b)

Caption In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 3 [5 ft (1.52 m) Maximum Spacing] In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Plastic and Uncartoned Unexpanded Plastic, Multiple-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) — Option 4 [5 ft (1.52 m) Maximum Spacing] In-Rack Sprinkler Arrangement, Cartoned Expanded and Unexpanded Plastic and Uncartoned Unexpanded Plastic Commodities, Single- and Double-Row Racks, Storage Height Over 25 ft (7.6 m) Standard Film Cabinet for Other Than Extended Term Storage Film [40:Figure 6.2.1] Extended Term Storage Vault [40:Figure A.6.5] Raw Stock Storage Vault Showing General Arrangement of Sprinklers, Racks, and Baffles [42:Figure 6.3.3.7(a)] Details of Storage Racks in Raw Stock Storage Vault [42:Figure 6.3.3.7(b)] Tote Box Storeroom Showing General Arrangement of Racks and Sprinklers [42:Figure 6.7] Tote Box Storeroom Showing Arrangement of Sprinklers and Baffles and Section of Tote Box Storage Rack [42:Figure 6.7.7] Finished-Stock Storeroom Showing General Arrangement of Racks [42:Figure 6.8(a)] Arrangement of Barriers and In-Rack Sprinklers for Special Fire Protection Provisions [430: Figure 7.4.2.2.1] Summary Sheet Graph Sheet Supply and Node Analyst Sheet Detailed Work Sheet Arrangement of Branch Lines Supplying Sprinklers Above and Below a Ceiling Sprinkler on Riser Nipple from Branch Line in Lower Fire Area Arrangement of Branch Lines Supplying Sprinklers Above, in Between, and Below Ceilings Contractor’s Material and Test Certificate for Aboveground Piping International Shore Fire Connection Gridded System Looped System Building Elevation Showing Parts of Sprinkler Piping System Typical Concrete Tee Construction Typical Composite Wood Joist Construction

Number

Caption

Figure A.3.7.2 Figure A.3.7.2(b) Figure A.3.7.2(c) Figure A.3.8.1.11 Figure A.3.9.1.17 Figure A.3.9.1.17(b) Figure A.3.9.1.7 Figure A.3.9.3.1 Figure A.3.9.3.6 Figure A.3.9.3.7 Figure A.3.9.3.7(b) Figure A.3.9.3.7(c) Figure A.3.9.3.7(d) Figure A.3.9.3.7(e) Figure A.3.9.3.7(f) Figure A.3.9.3.7(g) Figure A.3.9.3.7(h)

Figure A.3.9.3.7(i) Figure A.3.9.3.7(j) Figure A.3.9.3.7(k) Figure A.3.9.4.9 Figure A.3.9.4.9(b) Figure A.3.9.4.9(c) Figure A.3.9.4.9(d) Figure A.3.9.4.9(e) Figure A.3.9.4.9(f) Figure A.3.9.4.9(g) Figure A.3.9.5.6.3 Figure A.6.2.9.7.1 Figure A.6.5.2.2 Figure A.6.5.2.4.1 Figure A.7.2.3.7 Figure A.7.4.2.1

Figure A.7.4.4

Figure A.7.6.2.4 Figure A.7.9.2.4

Figure A.7.10.2

Wood Bar Joist Construction Open-Web Bar Joist Construction Examples of Wood Truss Construction Typical Private Fire Service Main Cut-Away Reinforced Plastic Pallet Assembled Reinforced Plastic Pallet Typical Pallets Illustration of Aisle Width Typical Double-Row (Back-to-Back) Rack Arrangement Conventional Pallet Rack Double-Row Racks Without Solid or Slatted Shelves Double-Row Racks with Solid Shelves Double-Row Racks with Slatted Shelves Automatic Storage-Type Rack Multiple-Row Rack to Be Served by a Reach Truck Flow-Through Pallet Rack Drive-In Rack — Two or More Pallets Deep (Fork Truck Drives into the Rack to Deposit and Withdraw Loads in the Depth of the Rack) Flow-Through Racks (Top) and Portable Racks (Bottom) Cantilever Rack Movable Rack Typical Open Portable Tire Rack Unit Typical Palletized Portable Tire Rack Units Open Portable Tire Rack Double-Row Fixed Tire Rack Storage Palletized Portable Tire Rack, On-Side Storage Arrangement (Banded or Unbanded) On-Floor Storage; On-Tread, Normally Banded Typical Laced Tire Storage Wrapping and Capping Terms and Methods Sample List Weld Diagram Weld Descriptions Example Manifold Arrangement (Four Sprinklers) Typical Piping Layout for Combined Dry Pipe and Preaction Sprinkler System Arrangement of Air Exhaust Valves for Combined Dry Pipe and Preaction Sprinkler System Freezing Points of Water Solutions of Ethylene Glycol and Diethylene Glycol Refrigerator Area Sprinkler Systems Used to Minimize the Chances of Developing Ice Plugs Typical Installation Showing Automatic Sprinklers or Automatic Nozzles Being

2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number

Figure A.8.4.10.2 Figure A.8.4.10.2(b) Figure A.8.5.5.1 Figure A.8.6.3.2.3 Figure A.8.6.3.2.4 Figure A.8.6.3.2.4(b) Figure A.8.6.3.2.4(c) Figure A.8.6.3.2.4(d) Figure A.8.6.4.1.2(5) Figure A.8.7.4.1.3.2 Figure A.8.7.4.1.3.3 Figure A.8.8.2.1 Figure A.8.9.2.1 Figure A.8.9.4.1.3.1 Figure A.8.9.4.1.3.2

Figure A.8.12.2.2.3 Figure A.8.15.1.2.16

Figure A.8.15.1.2.6 Figure A.8.15.21 Figure A.8.15.3.3 Figure A.8.15.3.3(b) Figure A.8.15.4 Figure A.8.15.7

Figure A.8.16.1.1 Figure A.8.16.1.1.4 Figure A.8.16.2.4 Figure A.8.17.1

Caption Used for the Protection of Commercial Cooking Equipment and Ventilation Systems Dry Sprinkler Seal Arrangement — Seal on Exterior of Freezer Structure Dry Sprinkler Seal Arrangement — Seal Within Freezer Structure Obstructions to Sprinkler Discharge Pattern Development for Standard Upright or Pendent Spray Sprinklers Maximum Distance from Walls Small Room Provision — One Sprinkler Small Room Provision — Two Sprinklers Centered Between Sidewalls Small Room Provision — Two Sprinklers Centered Between Top and Bottom Walls Small Room Provision — Four Sprinklers Typical Concrete Joist Construction Location Sidewalls with Respect to Soffits — Sidewall in Soffit Location Sidewalls with Respect to Soffits — Sidewall Under Soffit Determination of Protection Area of Coverage for Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Sprinklers Determination of Protection Area of Coverage for Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers Location of Extended Coverage Sidewalls with Respect to Soffits — Sidewall in Soffit Location of Extended Coverage Sidewalls with Respect to Soffits — Sidewall Under Soffit. ESFR Sprinkler Spacing Within Trusses and Bar Joists One Acceptable Arrangement of a Concealed Space in Truss Construction Not Requiring Sprinklers Combustible Concealed Space Cross Section One Arrangement of Flanged Joint at Sprinkler Riser Noncombustible Stair Shaft Serving Two Fire Sections Noncombustible Stair Shaft Serving One Fire Section Sprinklers Around Escalators Dry Pendent Sprinklers for Protection of Covered Platforms, Loading Docks, and Similar Areas Examples of Acceptable Valve Arrangements Pit for Gate Valve, Check Valve, and Fire Department Connection Unacceptable Pressure Gauge Location Identification Sign

Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

Number Figure A.8.17.2 Figure A.8.17.2(b) Figure A.8.17.4.1 Figure A.8.17.4.2 Figure A.8.17.4.2(b) Figure A.8.17.4.3 Figure A.8.17.5.2.2

Figure A.8.17.5.2.2(b)

Figure A.9.1.1 Figure A.9.1.2.3 Figure A.9.2.3.2.2 Figure A.9.2.3.4 Figure A.9.2.3.4.4

Figure A.9.2.3.4.4(b)

Figure A.9.2.3.5 Figure A.9.2.3.5.2

Figure A.9.3.2 Figure A.9.3.2(b) Figure A.9.3.2.3(2)(a) Figure A.9.3.2.3(2)(b) Figure A.9.3.2.4 Figure A.9.3.3

Figure A.9.3.3(b) Figure A.9.3.5 Figure A.9.3.5(b) Figure A.9.3.5.6 Figure A.9.3.5.6(b)

xv

Caption Fire Department Connection Typical City Water Pit — Valve Arrangement Water Supply Connection with Test Connection System Test Connection on Wet Pipe System Floor Control Valve System Test Connection on Dry Pipe System Acceptable Piping Arrangement for Combined Sprinkler/Standpipe System [14:Figure A.7.10.1.3.1(a)] Acceptable Piping Arrangement for Combined Sprinkler/Standpipe System [14:Figure A.7.10.1.3.1(b)] Common Types of Acceptable Hangers Example of Additional Hangers Utilized to Eliminate Non-Axial Loads Distance Between Hangers Distance from Sprinkler to Hanger Distance from Sprinkler to Hanger Where Maximum Pressure Exceeds 100 psi (6.9 bar) and a Branch Line Above a Ceiling Supplies Pendent Sprinklers Below the Ceiling Examples of Acceptable Hangers for End-of-Line (or Armover) Pendent Sprinklers Maximum Length for Unsupported Armover Maximum Length of Unsupported Armover Where the Maximum Pressure Exceeds 100 psi (6.9 bar) and a Branch Line Above a Ceiling Supplies Pendent Sprinklers Below the Ceiling Riser Details Detail at Short Riser Flexible Coupling on Horizontal Portion of Tie-In Flexible Coupling on Main Riser and Branch Line Riser Flexible Couplings for Drops Seismic Separation Assembly. Shown are an 8 in. (203 mm) Separation Crossed by Pipes up to 4 in. (102 mm) in Nominal Diameter. For other separation distances and pipe sizes, lengths and distances should be modified proportionally Seismic Separation Assembly Incorporating Flexible Piping. Seismic Bracing Calculation Form Sample Seismic Bracing Calculation Earthquake Protection for Sprinkler Piping Typical Location of Bracing on a Tree System


xvi

List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number Figure A.9.3.5.6(c) Figure A.9.3.5.6(d) Figure A.9.3.5.6(e) Figure A.9.3.6.1 Figure A.9.3.6.1(5) Figure A.9.3.6.1(5)(b) Figure A.9.3.6.1(b) Figure A.9.3.6.1(c) Figure A.9.3.6.1(d) Figure A.10.4.1

Figure A.10.5.1

Figure A.10.8.2 Figure A.10.8.2(b) Figure A.10.8.2(c) Figure A.10.8.3

Figure A.10.10.2.1 Figure A.11.3.1.1 Figure A.11.3.1.2 Figure A.12.6 Figure A.15.2.1 Figure A.15.2.1(b)

Figure A.16.3.4.1.1 Figure A.19.1 Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure

A.20.3 A.20.3(b) A.20.3(c) A.20.3(d) A.20.3(e) A.20.3(f)

Figure A.21.7.2.3

Caption Typical Location of Bracing on a Gridded System Typical Location of Bracing on a Looped System Examples of Load Distribution to Bracing Wire Attachment to Cast-in-Place Concrete Hangers, with Surge Clips, Used in Combination for Restraint of Branch Lines Hangers, with Threaded Rod Extended to Pipe, Used in Combination for Restraint of Branch Lines Acceptable Details — Wire Connections to Steel Framing Acceptable Details — Wire Connections to Steel Decking with Fill Acceptable Details — Wire Connections to Wood Framing Recommended Depth of Cover (in feet) Above Top of Underground Yard Mains [24: Figure A.10.4.1] Isothermal Lines — Lowest One-Day Mean Temperature (⬚F) [24:Figure A.10.5.1] Thrust Forces Acting on a Bend [24:Figure A.10.8.2(a)] Bearing Thrust Block [24:Figure A.10.8.2(b)] Gravity Thrust Block [24:Figure A.10.8.2(c)] Typical Connection to a Fire Protection System Riser Illustrating Restrained Joints [24:Figure A.10.8.3] Methods of Flushing Water Supply Connections [24:Figure A.10.10.2.1] Determination of Protection Area of Coverage for Residential Sprinklers Examples of Design Area for Dwelling Units Available Pressure Comparison Corrugated Carton Containing Individually Separated Plastic Jars Corrugated Carton Containing Plastic Pieces Individually Separated by Carton Material Placement of In-Rack Sprinkler Where Rack Levels Have Varying Heights Plan View of Typical Tissue Storage Array Fire Test A1 Fire Test A2 Fire Test A3 Fire Test A4 Fire Test A6 — Plan View Fire Test A6 — Main Array (North/ South) Standard Film Vault (for Other Than Ex-

Number

Caption

Figure A.21.16.2.1 Figure A.21.16.2.1(b) Figure A.21.16.2.1(c) Figure A.21.16.2.1(d)

Figure A.21.16.2.1(e)

Figure A.21.16.2.1(f)

Figure A.21.16.2.1(g)

Figure A.21.16.2.1(h) Figure A.21.24.1.7.1.1 Figure A.21.24.1.7.1.3 Figure A.21.24.1.7.2.1

Figure A.21.24.1.7.2.2

Figure A.21.24.2.1

Figure A.21.24.2.1(b)

Figure A.21.24.2.1(c)

Figure A.21.24.2.1(d)

Figure A.21.24.2.2

Figure A.21.24.2.2(b)

Figure A.21.24.2.2(c)

Figure A.21.24.2.2(d)

Figure A.21.24.2.3

tended Term Storage Film) [40:Figure A.6.3] Gravity Linen Chute [82:Figure A.5.2(a)] Gravity Waste Chute [82:Figure A.5.2(b)] Full Pneumatic System [82:Figure A.5.3(a)] Fire Damper Engineering Alternative for Penetration of Floor at Base of Shaft [82:Figure A.5.3(b)] Fire Damper Engineering Alternative for Penetration of Fire-Rated Enclosure [82:Figure A.5.3(c)] Fire Damper Engineering Alternative for Penetration of Fire-Rated Wall [82:Figure A.5.3(d)] Fire Damper Engineering Alternative for Penetration of Wall at Base of Shaft [82:Figure A.5.3(e)] Gravity Pneumatic System [82:Figure A.5.4] Single Deluge System [214:Figure A.5.6.1.1] Multiple Deluge Systems [214:Figure A.5.6.1.3] Multiple Wet, Dry, or Preaction Systems with Fire-Resistant Partitions [214:Figure A.5.6.2.1] Multiple Wet, Dry, or Preaction Systems with No Fire-Resistant Partitions [214:Figure A.5.6.2.2] Plan View, Typical Deluge Fire Protection Arrangement for Counterflow Towers [214:Figure A.5.2.4.1(a)] Section View, Typical Deluge Fire Protection Arrangement for Counterflow Towers [214:Figure A.5.2.4.1(b)] Plan View, Typical Deluge or Dry Pipe Fire Protection Arrangement for Counterflow Towers [214:Figure A.5.2.4.1(c)] Section View, Typical Deluge or Dry Pipe Fire Protection Arrangement for Counterflow Towers [214:Figure A.5.2.4.1(d)] Plan View, Typical Deluge Fire Protection Arrangement for Crossflow Towers [214:Figure A.5.2.4.2(a)] Section View, Typical Deluge Fire Protection Arrangement for Crossflow Towers [214:Figure A.5.2.4.2(b)] Plan View, Typical Deluge Fire Protection Arrangement for Multicell Crossflow Towers [214:Figure A.5.2.4.2(c)] Section View, Typical Deluge Fire Protection Arrangement for Multicell Crossflow Towers [214:Figure A.5.2.4.2(d)] Plan View, Typical Deluge Fire Protection Arrangement for Crossflow Towers

2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number

Caption

with Completely Enclosed Distribution Basins [214:Figure A.5.2.4.3(a)] Figure A.21.24.2.3(b) Section View, Typical Deluge Fire Protection Arrangement for Crossflow Towers with Completely Enclosed Distribution Basins [214:Figure A.5.2.4.3(b)] Figure A.21.24.2.5 Typical Deluge Fire Protection Arrangement for Crossflow Towers with Covers Completely Enclosing Distribution Basins [214:Figure A.5.2.4.5] Figure A.22.1 Typical Preliminary Plan Figure A.22.1(b) Ownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Information Certificate Figure A.22.1.1 Typical Working Plans Figure A.22.1.5 Working Plans for Circulating ClosedLoop Systems (Example 1) Figure A.22.1.5(b) Working Plans for Circulating ClosedLoop Systems (Example 2) Figure A.22.3.2 Summary Sheet Figure A.22.3.2(b) Hydraulic Calculation Example (Plan View and Elevation View) Figure A.22.3.2(c) Hydraulic Calculations Figure A.22.3.2(d) Hydraulic Graph Figure A.22.3.3 Sample Worksheet Figure A.22.3.3(15) Example of Hydraulically Remote Area â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Grid System Figure A.22.3.4 Sample Graph Sheet Figure A.22.4.4 Example of Determining the Number of Sprinklers to Be Calculated Figure A.22.4.4.1 Example of Hydraulically Most Demanding Area Figure A.22.4.4.1(b) Example of Hydraulically Most Demanding Area Figure A.22.4.4.4 Example of Determining the Most Remote Area for a Gridded System Figure A.22.4.4.5.1 Moody Diagram Figure A.22.4.4.5.3 Sprinkler Spacing Figure A.22.4.4.5.6 Determination of Floor Area Under Sloped Ceiling/Roof Figure A.23.2.1 Method of Conducting Flow Tests Figure A.24.5 Sample Nameplate Figure A.24.6 Sprinkler System General Information Figure A.25.1.3(4) International Shore Fire Connection Figure A.25.7.3.12.2(1) Abbreviated Example of a Dual Fire Pump Water Supply Figure A.25.7.3.13 Abbreviated Example of a Water Supply with Fire Pump Backup Figure B.1 Permitted Arrangements Between the Fire Protection Water Supply and the Domestic Water Supply

Number Table 6.2.5.1 Table 6.3.1.1 Table 6.3.6.1 Table 6.4.1 Table 6.4.3 Table 7.2.3.6.1 Table 7.6.2.2 Table 7.6.2.3 Table 7.8.8.4 Table 8.3.2.5(a) Table 8.3.2.5(b) Table 8.3.2.5(c) Table 8.6.2.2.1(a)

Table 8.6.2.2.1(b)

Table 8.6.2.2.1(c)

Table 8.6.2.2.1(d)

Table 8.6.5.1.2 Table 8.6.5.2.2 Table 8.7.2.2.1 Table 8.7.5.1.3

Table 8.7.5.1.4

Table 8.7.5.2.2

Table 8.8.2.1.2

Table 8.8.5.1.2 NFPA 13 Tables Number Table 1.7.1.3 Table 1.7.2 Table 6.2.3.1

Title SI Units and Conversion Factors Hydraulic Symbols Sprinkler Discharge Characteristics Identification

Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

Table 8.8.5.2.2

Table 8.9.2.2.1

xvii

Title Temperature Ratings, Classifications, and Color Codings Pipe or Tube Materials and Dimensions Specially Listed Pipe or Tube Materials and Dimensions Fittings Materials and Dimensions Specially Listed Fittings Materials and Dimensions Dry System Water Delivery Antifreeze Solutions to Be Used If Potable Water Is Connected to Sprinklers Antifreeze Solution to Be Used If Nonpotable Water Is Connected to Sprinklers Position of Window Sprinklers Temperature Ratings of Sprinklers Based on Distance from Heat Sources Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Locations Ratings of Sprinklers in Specified Residential Areas Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Light Hazard Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Ordinary Hazard Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for Extra Hazard Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Spray Upright/Standard Spray Pendent) for High-Piled Storage Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (SSU/SSP) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions in Light Hazard Occupancies Only (SSU/SSP) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinkler) Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions Along the Wall (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Standard Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) Position of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Extended Coverage Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only Protection Area and Maximum Spacing for Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers


xviii

List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number Table 8.9.5.1.3 Table 8.9.5.1.4 Table 8.9.5.2.2 Table 8.10.6.1.2

Table 8.10.6.2.2

Table 8.10.7.1.3

Table 8.10.7.1.4

Table 8.10.7.2.2

Table 8.11.2.2.1 Table 8.11.5.1.2

Table 8.11.5.3.2 Table 8.12.2.2.1 Table 8.12.5.1.1 Table 8.16.2.4.2 Table 9.1.1.6.1(a) Table 9.1.1.6.1(b) Table Table Table Table Table Table

9.1.2.1 9.1.2.4 9.1.2.5.1 9.1.3.10.1 9.1.4.5.1 9.1.5.2.1

Table 9.1.5.3.1 Table 9.1.5.7.1 Table 9.1.5.7.2 Table 9.2.2.1(a) Table 9.2.2.1(b) Table 9.3.5.3.2(a)

Title Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions (Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers) Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions Along the Wall (Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray Sprinklers) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Extended Coverage Sidewall Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only Position of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (Residential Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Residential Upright and Pendent Spray Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers) Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions Along the Wall (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers) Suspended or Floor-Mounted Obstructions (Residential Sidewall Sprinklers) in Light Hazard Occupancies Only Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing for Large Drop Sprinklers Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (Large Drop Sprinkler) Obstruction Entirely Below the Sprinkler (Large Drop Sprinkler) Protection Areas and Maximum Spacing of ESFR Sprinklers Positioning of Sprinklers to Avoid Obstructions to Discharge (ESFR Sprinkler) Drain Size Section Modulus Required for Trapeze Members (in.3) Available Section Moduli of Common Trapeze Hangers (in.3) Hanger Rod Sizes U-Hook Rod Sizes Eye Rod Sizes Minimum Bolt Size for Concrete Minimum Bolt Size for Steel Screw Dimensions for Ceiling Flanges and U-Hooks Minimum Bolt or Lag Screw Sizes for Side of Beam Installation Minimum Coach Screw Rod Size Minimum Plank Thicknesses and Beam or Joist Widths Maximum Distance Between Hangers (ft-in.) Maximum Distance Between Hangers (metric) Maximum Load Fpw in Zone of Influence (pounds), Schedule 10 Steel Pipe

Number

Title

Table 9.3.5.3.2(b) Table 9.3.5.6.2 Table 9.3.5.8.8(a) Table 9.3.5.8.8(b) Table 9.3.5.8.8(c) Table 9.3.5.10.3 Table 9.3.6.4 Table 10.1.1 Table 10.2.1(a) Table 10.2.1(b) Table 10.8.3.1.2.2 Table 10.8.3.2.3 Table 10.10.2.1.3 Table 10.10.2.2.4 Table 11.2.2.1 Table 11.2.3.1.2 Table 12.12.1.2(a) Table 12.12.1.2(b) Table 12.12.1.2(c) Table 12.12.1.2(d) Table 12.12.2.1 Table 13.2.1 Table 14.1.1 Table 14.3.1(a) Table 14.3.1(b)

Table 14.4.1

Maximum Load Fpw in Zone of Influence (pounds), Schedule 40 Steel Pipe Seismic Coefficient Table Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r ⳱ 100 for Steel Braces with Fy ⳱ 36 ksi Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r ⳱ 200 for Steel Braces with Fy ⳱ 36 ksi Maximum Horizontal Loads for Sway Braces with l/r ⳱ 300 for Steel Braces with Fy ⳱ 36 ksi Allowable Horizontal Load on Brace Assemblies Based on the Weakest Component of the Brace Assembly Maximum Spacing of Branch Line Restraints, (feet) Manufacturing Standards for Underground Pipe Fittings Materials and Dimensions Specially Listed Fittings Materials and Dimensions Rod Number — Diameter Combinations Restraint Straps for Tees Flow Required to Produce a Velocity of 10 ft/sec (3 m/sec) in Pipes Hydrostatic Testing Allowance at 200 psi per 100 Feet of Pipe Water Supply Requirements for Pipe Schedule Sprinkler Systems Hose Stream Allowance and Water Supply Duration Requirements for Hydraulically Calculated Systems Control Mode Density-Area Sprinkler Protection for Indoor Storage of Idle Wood Pallets Large Drop Protection for Indoor Storage of Idle Wood Pallets Specific Application Control Mode (16.8 K-Factor) Sprinkler Protection for Indoor Storage of Idle Wood Pallets ESFR Sprinkler Protection for Indoor Storage of Idle Wood Pallets ESFR Protection of Indoor Storage of Idle Plastic Pallets Discharge Criteria for Miscellaneous Storage 12 ft (3.7 m) or Less in Height Hose Stream Allowance and Water Supply Duration Requirements Large Drop Sprinkler Design Criteria for Palletized and Solid-Piled Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Specific Application Control Mode [16.8 KFactor (242)] Sprinkler Design Criteria for Palletized and Solid-Piled Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities ESFR Protection of Palletized and SolidPiled Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities

2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number Table 15.1.1 Table 15.2.5(a) Table 15.2.5(b) Table 15.3.1(a) Table 15.3.1(b)

Table 15.4.1 Table 16.1.4.1 Table 16.2.1.3.2 Table 16.2.1.3.3.1

Table 16.2.1.3.3.2

Table 16.2.1.3.4.3 Table 16.2.1.3.5

Table 16.2.2.1(a)

Table 16.2.2.1(b)

Table 16.2.3.1

Table 16.2.4.2.1 Table 16.3.1.1

Title Hose Stream Allowance and Water Supply Duration Requirements Design Densities for Palletized, Solid-Piled, Bin Box, or Shelf Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities (U.S. Units) Design Densities for Palletized, Solid-Pile, Bin-Box, or Shelf Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities (Metric Units) Large Drop Sprinkler Design Criteria for Palletized and Solid-Piled Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities Specific Application Control Mode [16.8 KFactor (242)] Sprinkler Design Criteria for Palletized and Solid-Piled Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities ESFR Protection of Palletized and SolidPiled Storage of Plastic and Rubber Commodities Ceiling Sprinkler Densities for Protection of Steel Building Columns Single- or Double-Row Racks — Storage Height Over 12 ft (3.7 m) Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) Without Solid Shelves Multiple-Row Racks — Rack Depth Up to and Including 16 ft (4.9 m), Aisles 8 ft (2.4 m) or Wider, Storage Height Over 12 ft (3.7 m) Up to 25 ft (7.6 m) Multiple-Row Racks — Rack Depth Over 16 ft (4.9 m) or Aisles Narrower Than 8 ft (2.4 m), Storage Height Over 12 ft (3.7 m) Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) Adjustment to Ceiling Sprinkler Density for Storage Height and In-Rack Sprinklers Hose Stream Allowance and Water Supply Duration Requirements for Rack Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Large Drop Sprinkler Design Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks Without Solid Shelves of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Specific Application Control Mode [16.8 Kfactor (242)] Sprinkler Design Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks Without Solid Shelves of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height ESFR Protection of Rack Storage Without Solid Shelves of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height In-Rack Sprinkler Spacing for Class I, II, III, and IV Commodities Stored Up to 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Double-Row Racks Without Solid Shelves, of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height, Aisles 4 ft (1.2 m) or Wider

Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

Number Table 16.3.1.2 Table 16.3.1.3

Table 16.3.2.1(a)

Table 16.3.2.1(b)

Table 16.3.3.1

Table 17.1.4.1 Table 17.2.1.8

Table 17.2.2.1(a)

Table 17.2.2.1(b)

Table 17.2.3.1 Table 17.3.1.1

Table 17.3.1.3

Table 17.3.3.1 Table 18.4(a) Table 18.4(b)

xix

Title Multiple-Row Racks, of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Hose Stream Allowance and Water Supply Duration Requirements for Rack Storage of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Above 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Large Drop Sprinkler Design Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks Without Solid Shelves of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Specific Application Control Mode [16.8 Kfactor (242)] Sprinkler Design Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks Without Solid Shelves of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height ESFR Protection of Rack Storage Without Solid Shelves of Class I Through Class IV Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Ceiling Sprinkler Densities for Protection of Steel Building Columns Hose Stream Allowance and Water Supply Duration Requirements for Rack Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Large Drop Sprinkler Design Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks Without Solid Shelves of Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Specific Application Control Mode [16.8 Kfactor (242)] Sprinkler Design Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks Without Solid Shelves of Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height ESFR Protection of Rack Storage Without Solid Shelves of Plastics Commodities Stored Up to and Including 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Control Mode Density—Area Sprinkler Discharge Criteria for Single-, Double-, and Multiple-Row Racks of Plastics Commodities with Storage Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Hose Stream Allowance and Water Supply Duration Requirements for Rack Storage of Plastics Commodities Stored Above 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height ESFR Protection of Rack Storage Without Solid Shelves of Plastics Commodities Stored Over 25 ft (7.6 m) in Height Protection Criteria for Rubber Tire Storage Using Control Mode Density-Area Sprinklers Control Mode Density-Area Sprinklers System Density for Palletized Portable Rack Storage and Fixed Rack Storage of Rubber Tires with Pallets, Over 5 ft to 20 ft in Height


xx

List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number Table 18.4(c)

Title

Large Drop Sprinklers and Sprinkler Protection for Rubber Tires Table 18.4(d) Early Suppression Fast-Response (ESFR) Sprinklers for Protection of Rubber Tire Table 19.1.2.1.3(a) Control Mode Density–Area Sprinkler Protection Criteria for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage for Buildings or Structures with Roof or Ceilings Up to 30 ft (Discharge Densities are gpm/ft2 over ft2) Table 19.1.2.1.3(b) Control Mode Density—Area Sprinkler Protection Criteria for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage for Buildings or Structures with Roof or Ceilings Up to 9.1 m (Discharge Densities are mm/min over m2) Table 19.1.2.2 Large Drop Sprinklers for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage (Number of Sprinklers to be Calculated) Table 19.1.2.3 ESFR Sprinklers for the Protection of Roll Paper Storage (Maximum Height of Storage Permitted) Table 20.2 K-25.2 (363) ESFR Sprinkler Design Criteria for Portable Racks (Closed Array) Without Solid Shelves Containing Automotive Components Table 20.4.2.1 Baled Cotton Storage Up to and Including 15 ft (4.6 m) Table 21.30.1.2.1 Ceiling Sprinkler Protection for Class 2 Oxidizers in Palletized or Bulk and Rack Storage Areas Table 21.30.1.3.2 Sprinkler Protection of Class 3 Oxidizers Stored in Total Quantities Greater Than 200 lb (91 kg) But Less Than 2300 lb (1043 kg) Table 21.30.1.3.3 Sprinkler Protection of Class 3 Oxidizers Stored in Total Quantities Greater Than or Equal to 2300 lb (1043 kg) Table 22.4.3.1.1 Equivalent Schedule 40 Steel Pipe Length Chart Table 22.4.3.2 C Value Multiplier Table 22.4.4.7 Hazen—Williams C Values Table 22.5.2.2.1 Light Hazard Pipe Schedules Table 22.5.2.4 Number of Sprinklers Above and Below a Ceiling Table 22.5.3.4 Ordinary Hazard Pipe Schedule Table 22.5.3.5 Number of Sprinklers — Greater Than 12 ft (3.7 m) Separations Table 22.5.3.7 Number of Sprinklers Above and Below a Ceiling Table 22.7.1 Exposure Protection Table 25.7.2.1 Required Water Supply Table A.3.9.6.1 Typical Cotton Bale Types and Approximate Sizes Table A.5.6 Examples of Commodities Not Addressed by the Classifications in Section 5.6 Table A.5.6.3 Alphabetized Listing of Commodity Classes Table A.5.6.3.1 Examples of Class I Commodities Table A.5.6.3.2 Examples of Class II Commodities Table A.5.6.3.3 Examples of Class III Commodities Table A.5.6.3.4 Examples of Class IV Commodities Table A.5.6.4.1 Examples of Group A Plastic Commodities

Number Table Table Table Table Table

Title

A.5.6.5 A.6.2.3.1 A.6.3.2 A.6.3.5 A.7.2.3

Paper Classification Nominal Sprinkler Orifice Sizes Steel Pipe Dimensions Copper Tube Dimensions Capacity of 1 ft of Pipe (Based on Actual Internal Pipe Diameter) Table A.8.3.2.7 Distance Beyond Perimeter of Storage for High-Hazard Occupancies Protected with High Temperature—Rated Sprinklers Table A.9.3.5.2.2 Specially Listed Tension-Only Seismic Bracing Table A.9.3.5.6 Piping Weights for Determining Horizontal Load Table A.10.1.6 ID for Cement-Lined Ductile Iron Pipe Table A.10.8.2(a) Thrust at Fittings at 100 psi (6.9 bar) Water Pressure for Ductile Iron and PVC Pipe Table A.10.8.2(b) Horizontal Bearing Strengths Table A.10.8.2(c) Required Horizontal Bearing Block Area Table A.12.3 Extension of Installation of HighTemperature Sprinklers over Storage Table A.12.6(a) Ceiling Type Table A.12.6(b) Ceiling Arrangement Table A.12.6(c) Paper Product Testing Results Table A.12.12.1.1 Recommended Clearance Between Outside Idle Wood Pallet Storage and Building Table A.15.2 Metric Conversion Factors for Examples Table A.19.1 Summary of Roll Paper Tissue Tests Table A.19.1.2(a) Automatic Sprinkler System Design Criteria — Spray Sprinklers for Existing Storage Facilities (Discharge densities are gpm/ft2 over ft2.) Table A.19.1.2(b) Automatic Sprinkler System Design Criteria — Spray Sprinklers for Existing Storage Facilities (Discharge densities are mm/min over m2.) Table A.22.4.4.5.1 Suggested ⑀-Factor for Aged Pipe Table A.22.5.4 Extra Hazard Pipe Schedule Table A.25.1.4 Examples of Shipboard Space Occupancy Classification Table A.26.1 Maintenance Schedule Table C.9 Summary of Relationship Between Sprinkler Discharge Density and the Extent of Fire Damage and Sprinkler Operation Table C.22 Summary of Test Results for Plastic Commodities Using 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) Orifice Sprinklers

Commentary Exhibits Number Exhibit 1.1 Exhibit 1.2 Exhibit 1.3

Caption NFPA 101威, Life Safety Code威, and NFPA 5000威, Building Construction and Safety Code威. NFPA’s One-Stop Data Shop (www.nfpa.org/ OSDS). Examples of ESFR Sprinklers: (from left to right) Viking威 K-14, Victaulic威 K-16.8, K-22.4 from 2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number

Exhibit 1.4 Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

1.5 1.6 3.1 3.2

Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Exhibit 3.7 Exhibit 3.8 Exhibit 3.9

Exhibit 3.10 Exhibit 3.11 Exhibit 3.12

Exhibit 3.13 Exhibit 3.14 Exhibit 3.15 Exhibit 3.16 Exhibit 3.17 Exhibit 3.18

Exhibit 3.19 Exhibit 3.20 Exhibit 3.21 Exhibit 3.22 Exhibit 3.23

Exhibit 3.24 Exhibit 3.25

Caption Reliable Automatic Sprinkler Co., Inc., and K25.2 from Tyco Fire & Building Products. Listed Flexible Sprinkler Hose. (Courtesy of FlexHead Industries) Listed Special Sprinklers. Listed Plastic Pipe. Ceiling Slope. Simplified Fire Control/Fire Suppression Analogy. Fire Pump and Water Supply Performance. Deluge System. Dry Pipe System. (Courtesy of Viking威) Example of a Preaction System. (Courtesy of Reliable Automatic Sprinkler Co., Inc.) Wet Pipe Sprinkler Riser with Alarm Check Valve. Diagram of Typical Complete Sprinkler System. Examples of Fast-Response Sprinklers: (left) Grinnell Model A Standard-Response Spray Sprinkler; (right) Viking Model A QuickResponse Standard Spray Sprinkler. [Photos courtesy of (left) Tyco Fire & Building Products and (right) Viking威] Comparison of Sprinklers with Fast-Response Operating Elements. Generalized RDD-ADD Relationship. Examples of Pendent-Type ESFR Sprinklers: (from left to right) Viking威 K-14, Victaulic威 K16.8, K-22.4 from Reliable Automatic Sprinkler Co., Inc., and K-25.2 from Tyco Fire & Building Products. Upright-Type ESFR Sprinkler. (Courtesy of Viking威) Pendent-Type Extended Coverage Sprinklers. Sidewall-Type Extended Coverage Sprinkler. Viking Large Drop Sprinkler. (Courtesy of Viking威) Grinnell Automatic Protectospray娃 Nozzle. (Courtesy of Tyco Fire & Building Products) Principal Distribution Pattern of Water from OldStyle/Conventional Sprinklers (Used Before 1953). Principal Distribution Pattern of Water from Spray Sprinklers (Introduced in 1953). Grinnell Open Sprinkler. (Courtesy of Tyco Fire & Building Products) Quick-Response Extended Coverage Sprinkler. Viking Listed Residential Sprinkler. (Courtesy of Viking威) Viking Model M Glass Bulb Standard Spray Upright Sprinkler (left) and Pendent Sprinkler (right). (Courtesy of Viking威) Standard Model G Concealed Ceiling Sprinkler. Viking Model H Standard Spray Pendent FlushMount Sprinkler. (Courtesy of Viking威)

Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

Number Exhibit 3.26 Exhibit 3.27 Exhibit 3.28 Exhibit 3.29 Exhibit 3.30 Exhibit 3.31 Exhibit 3.3.2

Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36

Exhibit 3.37 Exhibit 3.38

Exhibit 3.39

Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

3.40 3.41 3.42 3.43

Exhibit 3.44

Exhibit 3.45 Exhibit 3.46 Exhibit 3.47 Exhibit 3.48 Exhibit 3.49 Exhibit 3.50 Exhibit 3.51 Exhibit 3.52 Exhibit 5.1 Exhibit 5.2 Exhibit 5.3

xxi

Caption Standard Spray Pendent Sprinkler. (Courtesy of Viking威) Recessed Sprinkler. Horizontal Sidewall Sprinkler. (Courtesy of Viking威) Upright Sprinklers. Central Model A Upright Wax-Coated CorrosionResistant Sprinkler. Viking Model E Dry Pendent Sprinkler. (Courtesy of Viking威) Examples of Institutional Sprinklers: (left) Viking威 Sprinkler and (right) Tyco Sprinkler. [Photos courtesy of (left) Viking威 and (right) Tyco Fire & Building Products] Beam and Girder Construction. Bays Formed by Beam and Girder Construction. Bar Joist Construction. Smooth, Flat, Horizontal Ceiling Construction Consisting of a Suspended Ceiling. Flat Slab, Pan-Type Reinforced Concrete Ceiling. Heavy Timber Construction of the Laminated Floor and Beam Type. (Courtesy of National Forest and Paper Association) Components of a Heavy Timber Building That Shows Floor Framing with Components of a Type Known as Semi-Mill Identified. Encapsulated Chairs. Commodity Wrapped in a Plastic Sheet. Example of High-Piled Storage. Reinforced 40 in. ⳯ 48 in. (1015 mm ⳯ 1220 mm) Solid Deck Plastic Pallet. (Courtesy of ORBIS Corporation/Nucon Beverage Products Group) Repairable Nonreinforced 40 in. ⳯ 40 in. (1015 mm ⳯ 1220 mm) Plastic Pallet. (Courtesy of ORBIS Corporation/Nucon Beverage Products Group) Shelf Storage. Face Sprinkler Not Properly Located Within the Transverse Flue. Storage Rack with Solid Shelving. On-Side Tire Storage on Portable Racks. (Courtesy of Ford Motor Company) On-Tread Tire Storage on Racks. Pyramid Tire Storage. Laced Tire Storage on Portable Racks. (Courtesy of Ford Motor Company) Measurement of Heel Angle. (Courtesy of Morgan Hurley) Density/Area Curve Comparison. Standard Class II Commodity. (Courtesy of FM Global) Standard Plastic Commodity. (Courtesy of FM Global)


xxii

List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number Exhibit 5.4 Exhibit 5.5

Exhibit 5.6 Exhibit 5.7 Exhibit 6.1 Exhibit 6.2 Exhibit 6.3 Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11

Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15

Exhibit 6.16

Exhibit 6.17

Exhibit 6.18 Exhibit 6.19

Exhibit 6.20 Exhibit 6.21 Exhibit 6.22

Exhibit 6.23 Exhibit 6.24 Exhibit 6.25

Caption Nonreinforced Plastic Pallet. (Courtesy of ORBIS Corporation/Nucon Beverage Products Group) Classified Fire-Retardant Plastic Pallet [40 in. ⳯ 48 in. (1015 mm ⳯ 1220 mm)] Equivalent to Wood Pallet. (Courtesy of ORBIS Corporation/ Nucon Beverage Products Group) Fire Test of Roll Paper Using Large Drop Sprinklers. Fire Test of Roll Paper Using Standard Spray Sprinklers. Viking Sprinkler Showing SIN on Deflector. (Courtesy of Viking威) Sprinklers with K-factors of 5.6, 25.2, and 2.8. Comparison of Orifices of Sprinklers with Kfactors of 5.6, 25.2, and 2.8. Improperly Installed Concealed Sprinkler. Sprinkler with Listed Guard. Intermediate Level Sprinkler. Spare Sprinkler Cabinet. Section of Steel Pipe with One End Roll-Grooved. Pipe Joined Using Threaded Fittings. Bent Pipe. Example of Plastic Pipe Showing the Marking of the Listing Agency. Press Fit Tool. Pipe and Fitting Joined Using the Press Fit Tool. Hexagonal Bushing. Discs Attached to Piping at Point at Which They Were Cut. Various Examples of Welding: (upper left) Acceptable Fillet Weld, (lower left) Another Acceptable Fillet Weld, and (right) Substandard Welding Practice Shown with Porosity, Slag, and Arc Strikes. [Photographs (lower left) and (right) courtesy of Sperko Engineering Services, Inc.] Details of a Grooved Fitting: (left) Actual Fitting and (right) Diagram of Typical Fitting. (Courtesy of Victaulic威) Two Examples of Sweating of Copper Joints. (Courtesy of Copper Development Association) Outside Stem and Yoke (OS&Y) Valve with Its Position Supervised by a Lock and Chain and a Tamper Switch. Control Valve with a Position Indicator. Butterfly Valve. Fire Department Connections: (left) Siamese Connection and (right) Quick-Connect Connection. (Courtesy of Guardian Fire Equipment) Connection with Locking Caps. (Courtesy of Knox Company) Paddle-Type Waterflow Switch. Paddle-Type Waterflow Switch Installed on a Wet Pipe Riser.

Number

Caption

Exhibit 6.26 Exhibit 6.27 Exhibit 7.1 Exhibit 7.2 Exhibit 7.3 Exhibit 7.4 Exhibit 7.5 Exhibit 7.6 Exhibit 7.7 Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11

Exhibit 8.1 Exhibit 8.2 Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

Exhibit 8.7 Exhibit 8.8 Exhibit 8.9 Exhibit 8.10 Exhibit 8.11 Exhibit 8.12 Exhibit 8.13

Exhibit 8.14

Exhibit 8.15 Exhibit 8.16 Exhibit 8.17

Exhibit 8.18

Paddle-Type Waterflow Switch Assembly. (Courtesy of Potter Electric Signal Company) Water Motor and Gong Assembly. (Courtesy of Reliable Automatic Sprinkler Company, Inc.) Alarm Check Valve with Gauge Above and Below. Relief Valve Installed on Gridded Sprinkler System. Example of a Combined System Riser. Dry Pipe Valve and Associated Components. Air Compressor and Air Maintenance Device for Dry Pipe System. Deluge Valve. Backflow Prevention Device Installed on an Antifreeze System. Refractometer. Digital Refractometer. Dielectric Fitting. Mistery Hood Deep Fat Fryer Sprinkler. (Courtesy of GW Sprinkler) Manifold Riser Arrangement Consisting of Three Wet Pipe Systems. Manifold Riser Arrangement Consisting of Two Wet Pipe Systems and One Dry Pipe System. Mezzanine Used for Storage. Mezzanine Storage Area in Warehouse. Determining the Area of Coverage for a Sprinkler. Example of How to Determine the Area of Coverage for a Specific Sprinkler. Sprinklers Installed Along a Curved Ceiling. Bay Window Measurements. (Courtesy of National Fire Sprinkler Association) Sprinkler Deflector Location. Overhead Door Obstructs Sprinkler Discharge When in the Open Position. Intermediate Level Sprinkler. Separation Between Skylights. Positioning of Standard Spray Sprinkler Under a Flat Slab Concrete Ceiling in an Ordinary Hazard Occupancy. Positioning of Standard Spray Sprinkler Under a Ceiling Consisting of Continuous Smooth Bays with Beams Supported on Columns in an Ordinary Hazard Occupancy. Placement of Standard Spray Upright Sprinklers Underneath Obstructed Construction. Placement of Standard Spray Upright Sprinklers Underneath Solid Wood Joist Construction. Placement of Standard Spray Upright Sprinklers Underneath Obstructed Construction with the Sprinkler Deflector Positioned Above the Bottom of the Structural Member. Placement of Standard Spray Upright Sprinklers in Each Bay of Obstructed Construction.

2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number Exhibit 8.19 Exhibit 8.20 Exhibit 8.21

Exhibit 8.22 Exhibit 8.23

Exhibit 8.24

Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

8.25 8.26 8.27 8.28

Exhibit 8.29 Exhibit 8.30 Exhibit 8.31 Exhibit 8.32 Exhibit 8.33 Exhibit 8.34 Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

8.35 8.36 8.37 8.38 8.39

Exhibit 8.40 Exhibit 8.41 Exhibit 8.42 Exhibit 8.43 Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

8.44 8.45 8.46 8.47 8.48

Exhibit 8.49

Caption Standard Spray Upright Sprinkler Positioned near Bar Joist Construction. Location of Sprinklers in Open Truss Construction. Sprinkler Placed over the Centerline of the Bottom Chord of a Wood Truss in Accordance with 8.6.5.2.1.7. Upright Sprinkler Installation. Example of Health Care Privacy Curtain with Sprinklers: (left) Piece of Mesh Used for the Curtains and (right) Mesh Curtain Installed. (Courtesy of Tana-Tex, Inc.) Examples of Storage Room Clearances: (left) Room with Storage Against a Wall Extending to Ceiling with Sprinklers and (right) Storage Room with Proper Clearance Below Sprinklers. Unprotected Ceiling Pockets. Sidewall Sprinkler Adjacent to an End Wall. Sidewall Sprinkler Along a Soffit. Examples of In-Rack Sprinklers Equipped with Listed Water Shield: (left) Pendent Sprinkler Head with Shield and (right) Upright Sprinkler Head with Shield. Stairways. Example of Closely Spaced Sprinklers and Draft Stops. Parking Area Under an Exterior Ceiling That Is Required to Be Sprinklered. Return Bend Used for Pendent Sprinkler Positioning. Floor Control Assembly. Area Above a Ceiling Requiring Sprinkler Protection Throughout. Valve Arrangement. Straight Pipe Riser. OS&Y Valve. Wet Pipe System. Post-Indicator Valve with Means of Supervision Damaged. Wall Post-Indicator Valve. Separately Controlled Ceiling and In-Rack Sprinklers. In-Rack Sprinklers Supplied Directly from Ceiling System Without a Separate Control Valve. In-Rack Sprinklers Occupying Only a Portion of the Area Protected by Ceiling Sprinklers. Sectional Control Valve for In-Rack Sprinklers. Auxiliary Drain Consisting of a Valve and a Plug. System Main Drain Discharging to Atmosphere. Wet Alarm Valve with Alarm Test Shutoff Valve. Example of a Typical Fire Department Connection. Alternative Water Supplies to Sprinkler System.

Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

Number Exhibit 8.50 Exhibit 8.51

Exhibit 8.52 Exhibit 8.53 Exhibit 8.54 Exhibit 8.55 Exhibit 9.1 Exhibit 9.2 Exhibit 9.3 Exhibit 9.4 Exhibit 9.5 Exhibit 9.6 Exhibit 9.7

Exhibit 9.8 Exhibit 9.9 Exhibit 9.10

Exhibit 9.11

Exhibit 9.12 Exhibit 9.13 Exhibit 9.14 Exhibit 9.15 Exhibit 9.16

Exhibit 9.17

Exhibit 9.18

Exhibit 9.19

xxiii

Caption Fire Department Water Supply Connections to Sprinkler System. Fire Department Connection with an Automatic Drain Valve Located on the Outside of the Building. Inspectorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Test Connection for a Wet Pipe System. Backflow Prevention Device. Example of a Small Hose Station. Sprinkler System Equipped with a Hose Connection. Hanger Assembly Consisting of a C-Clamp, an All-Thread Rod, and an Adjustable Swivel Ring. Trapeze Installation. Example of a Trapeze Hanger. (Courtesy of National Fire Sprinkler Association) Sprinkler Pipe Inappropriately Used to Support Electrical Conduit. Bent Section of Threaded Hanger Rod. Hanger Assembly Attached to Concrete That Uses a Post-Installed Anchor in the Horizontal Position. Hanger Assembly Attached to Concrete Decking That Uses Post-Installed Anchors in the Vertical Position. Installation of a Coach Screw Rod in the Bottom of a Beam or Joist. Installation of Coach Screw Rods in Wood Ceiling Planking. Toggle Hanger for the Support of 11â &#x201E;2 in. (40 mm) or Smaller Pipe Under Hollow Tile or Metal Lath and Plaster. Examples of Flexible Sprinkler Hose Fittings: (left) Fitting in a Suspended Ceiling Application and (right) Fitting in an Exhaust Duct Application. (Courtesy of FlexHead Industries) Hanger Assembly Improperly Penetrating Ductwork. Unsupported Armover to an Upright Sprinkler. Riser Supported with a Pipe Clamp Fastened to the Building Structure. Flexible Pipe Coupling. Lateral Sway Brace: (left) Photo of Brace Attached to Wood and (right) Diagram of Brace. (Courtesy of AFCON) Longitudinal Sway Brace: (left) Photo of Brace Attached to Steel Bar Joist (Courtesy of Tolco) and (right) Diagram of Brace. (Courtesy of AFCON) Four-Way Brace: (left) Photo of Brace (Courtesy of AFCON) and (right) Diagram of Brace. (Courtesy of AFCON) Examples of Tension-Only Bracing System Providing Different Types of Bracing: (left) Longitudinal Bracing and (right) Lateral Bracing. (Photos courtesy of Loos & Company, Inc.)


xxiv

List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number Exhibit 9.20

Exhibit 9.21 Exhibit 9.22 Exhibit 9.23 Exhibit 10.1 Exhibit 10.2 Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

10.3 10.4 11.1 12.1

Exhibit 12.2 Exhibit 14.1 Exhibit 14.2 Exhibit 15.1 Exhibit 16.1 Exhibit 16.2 Exhibit 16.3 Exhibit 16.4

Exhibit 16.5 Exhibit 16.6 Exhibit 16.7 Exhibit 16.8 Exhibit 16.9 Exhibit 16.10 Exhibit 16.11 Exhibit 16.12 Exhibit 16.13 Exhibit 16.14 Exhibit 16.15

Caption Examples of Lateral Brace Connections: (a) Unacceptable Lateral Brace Connection and (b) Acceptable Lateral Brace Connection. Restraint of Branch Line with a Wraparound U-Hook. (Courtesy of Tolco) Application of a C-Clamp with a Restraining Strap on an I-Beam. (Courtesy of AFCON) C-Clamp with a Restraining Strap. Heated Enclosure. (Courtesy of AquaSHIELD) Typical Thrust Block Arrangement. (Courtesy of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power) Example of a Restrained Joint System. Object Trapped in a Dry Pipe Sprinkler System. Comparison of Density/Area Curves. Idle Pallet Storage Arrangement That Meets the Conditions of 12.12.1.2. Nonreinforced Plastic Pallet. Palletized Storage. (Source: Photo by Fire Concepts, Inc.) Solid Pile Storage. (Source: Photo by Jeffrey Moore.) Cartoned Nonexpanded Plastic. Warehouse with Rack Storage. (Source: Photo by Jeffrey Moore) Double-Row Storage Racks Consisting of Solid Shelves and Inadequate Flue Spaces. Plan View of Double-Row Rack Without a Longitudinal Flue Space. Multiple-Row Rack Storage Arrangement Consisting of Aisle Widths of Less than 3 ft (0.9 m). Positioning of One Level of In-Rack Sprinklers for Storage Heights Under 25 ft (7.6 m). Positioning of Two Levels of In-Rack Sprinklers for Storage Heights Under 25 ft (7.6 m). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.1(a). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.1(b). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.1(c). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.1(d). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.1(e). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.1(f). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.1(g). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.1(h). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.1(i).

Number

Caption

Exhibit 16.16 Exhibit 16.17 Exhibit 16.18 Exhibit 16.19 Exhibit 16.20 Exhibit 16.21 Exhibit 16.22 Exhibit 16.23 Exhibit 16.24 Exhibit 17.1 Exhibit 17.2 Exhibit 17.3

Exhibit 17.4(a)

Exhibit 17.4(b)

Exhibit 17.5(a)

Exhibit 17.5(b)

Exhibit 17.5(c) Exhibit 17.6(a)

Exhibit 17.6(b) Exhibit 17.6(c) Exhibit 17.7(a) Exhibit 17.7(b) Exhibit 17.7(c) Exhibit 17.7(d)

Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.1(j). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.2(a). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.2(b). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.2(c). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.2(d). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.2(e). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.3(a). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.3(b). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 16.3.4.1.3(c). Double-Row Storage Racks Consisting of Solid Shelves and Inadequate Flue Spaces. Plan View of Double-Row Rack Without a Longitudinal Flue Space. Multiple-Row Rack Storage Arrangement Consisting of Aisle Widths of Less than 3 ft (0.9 m). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(a)–Left Figure (No In-Racks Required). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(a)–Right Figure (No InRacks Required). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(b)–Left Figure (No In-Racks Required). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(b)–Middle Figure (No InRacks Required). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(b)–Right Figure. Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(c)–Left Figure (No In-Racks Required). Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(c)–Middle Figure. Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(c)–Right Figure. Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(d)–Upper Left Figure. Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(d)–Upper Right Figure. Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(d)–Lower Left Figure. Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(d)–Lower Right Figure.

2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number

Caption

Exhibit 17.8(a) Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(e)–Left Figure. Exhibit 17.8(b) Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(e)–Right Figure. Exhibit 17.9 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.2.1.2(f). Exhibit 17.10 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.1.2(a). Exhibit 17.11 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.1.2(b). Exhibit 17.12 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.1.2.1(a). Exhibit 17.13 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.1.2.1(b). Exhibit 17.14 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.1.2.1(c). Exhibit 17.15 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.4.1.3(a). Exhibit 17.16 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.4.1.3(b). Exhibit 17.17 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.4.1.3(c). Exhibit 17.18 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.4.1.3(d). Exhibit 17.19 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.4.1.3(e). Exhibit 17.20 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.4.1.3(f). Exhibit 17.21 Positioning of In-Rack Sprinklers in Accordance with Figure 17.3.4.1.4. Exhibit 18.1 On-Side Tire Storage on Portable Racks. (Courtesy of Ford Motor Company) Exhibit 18.2 On-Tread Tire Storage on Racks. Exhibit 18.3 Pyramid Tire Storage. Exhibit 18.4 Laced Tire Storage on Portable Racks. (Courtesy of Ford Motor Company) Exhibit 19.1 Closed Paper Roll Vertical Storage Array. Exhibit 19.2 Horizontal (Nested) Storage of Paper Rolls. Exhibit 20.1 Baled Cotton. (Courtesy of Marco Warehousing, Inc.) Exhibit 21.1 Fire Protection Criteria Decision Tree for WaterMiscible Flammable and Combustible Liquids in Plastic Containers. Exhibit 21.2 Flow Diagram of Extraction Process. Exhibit 21.3 Rectangular Loop Extractor. Exhibit 22.1 Velocity and Normal Pressures. Exhibit 22.2 Normal Pressure Is Responsible for Flow from Sprinklers Where Additional Flow Is Downstream of the Operating Sprinkler. Exhibit 22.3 Branch Line Schematic. Exhibit 22.4 Design Area Example with Nonuniform Spacing of Sprinklers. Exhibit 22.5 Applying the Rule for 1.2 Times the Square Root of the Design Area. Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

Number Exhibit 22.6 Exhibit 22.7 Exhibit 22.8 Exhibit 22.10 Exhibit 22.11 Exhibit 22.12 Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4

Exhibit 23.5 Exhibit 23.6 Exhibit 24.1 Exhibit 24.2 Exhibit 25.1 Exhibit 25.2

xxv

Caption Covering More than the Minimum Required Design Area. Final Design Area for Example. Sprinkler Spacing. Typical Sprinkler System Used in Making Sample Calculations. Tuberculated Pipe. Sprinkler Layout Using Multiple-Orifice Approach. Suction Tank. Embankment-Supported Tank. Pond. (Courtesy of Kenneth Isman) Vertical Turbine Pump. (Courtesy of ITT A-C Pump Systems) Horizontal Split Case Fire Pump. (Courtesy of ITT A-C Pump Systems) Gravity Tank. Pressure-Reducing Valve. (Courtesy of CLA-VAL Canada) Hydraulic Nameplate. Fire on Cruise Ship Ecstasy in 1998. (Courtesy of Reuters/Colin Bradley/Archive Photos) Measurement of the Heel Angle. (Courtesy of Morgan Hurley)

Supplement Exhibits Number Exhibit S1.1 Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit Exhibit

S1.2 S1.3 S1.4 S1.5 S1.6

Exhibit S1.7 Exhibit S1.8 Exhibit S1.9 Exhibit S1.10 Exhibit S1.11 Exhibit S2.1 Exhibit S2.2 Exhibit S4.8

Title The First Sprinkler, Which Was Invented by Henry S. Parmelee. Buell Sprinkler. Mackey Sprinkler. Neracher Sprinkler. Harkness Sprinkler. Elbow Head of New York and New Haven Sprinkler. Early Grinnell Sprinklers. Kane Sprinkler. Duraspeed Sprinkler. (Courtesy of Tyco Fire & Building Products) An Early Residential Sprinkler. (Courtesy of Tyco Fire & Building Products) Organization of NFPA 13’s Technical Correlating Committee on Automatic Sprinkler Systems. Pressure Requirements for Various-Sized Orifice Sprinklers at Various Densities. Differences Between K-8 and K-17 Initial Operating Pressures. Sizing Combination System — Two Standpipes and Sprinklers Throughout (Standpipe Flow Rate Only).


xxvi

List of Figures, Tables, and Exhibits

Number Exhibit S4.9

Exhibit S4.10

Title Sizing Combination System — Two Standpipes and Sprinklers Throughout (Sprinkler Flow Rate Exceeds Standpipe Flow Rate). Sizing Combination System — Two Standpipes and Partial Sprinklers Throughout (Combined Flow Rates).

Number

C-Table 21.4 Fire Separation Requirements for Sprinklered Laboratory Units C-Table 22.1 Friction Loss Based on Various Pipe Flows C-Table 22.2 Common Types and Sizes of Pipe C-Table 22.3 Comparison of C Values for New Pipe Supplement Tables

Commentary Tables Number C-Table 1.1 C-Table 10.1 C-Table 19.1 C-Table 21.1

C-Table 21.2

C-Table 21.3

Title Leading Reasons for Unsatisfactory Sprinkler Performance Minimum Width of High-Density Polyethylene Flat Tubes and Sheets Summary of Roll Paper Fire Test Program for Kraft Linerboard and Newsprint Water Sprinkler Protection for Bulk or Palletized Storage of Metal Containers, Intermediate Bulk Containers, and Portable Tanks (for Nonmiscible Liquids or Miscible Liquids with Flammable Liquid Concentration >50% by volume) Maximum Quantities of Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Liquefied Flammable Gases in Sprinklered Laboratory Units Outside of Inside Liquid Storage Areas Maximum Quantities of Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Liquefied Flammable Gases in Nonsprinklered Laboratory Units Outside of Inside Liquid Storage Areas (for Use with Existing Laboratories Approved for Construction Prior to July 2004)

Title

Number Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table

Title

S1.1 S1.2 S1.3 S1.4 S2.1 S2.2 S2.3 S2.4

Early Pipe Schedules Sprinkler Pipe Schedules NFPA Sprinkler Committee Chairmen NFPA 13’s Voting Membership Interests Constant Density Test Comparisons Constant Density Test Comparisons Constant Density Test Comparisons Constant Density Test Comparisons for Idle Pallet Storage Table S2.5 Constant Density Test Comparisons Table S2.6 Comparative Test Results Table S2.7 81 PSI Initial Operating Pressure (10 ft ⳯ 10 ft Sprinkler Spacing) Table S2.8 Effect on Design Pressure Where Large Orifice Sprinklers Are Utilized

2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


Preface The first automatic fire extinguishing system on record was patented in England in 1723 and consisted of a cask of water, a chamber of gunpowder, and a system of fuses. In about 1852, the perforated pipe system represented the first form of a sprinkler system used in the United States. In 1874, Henry S. Parmelee of New Haven, Connecticut, patented the first practical automatic sprinkler. C. J. H. Woodbury of the Boston Manufacturers Mutual Fire Insurance Company and F. E. Cabot of the Boston Board of Fire Underwriters completed a study on the performance of sprinklers for the Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Company in 1884. This study was the basis for the first set of rules for the installation of automatic sprinkler systems that were developed by John Wormald of the Mutual Fire Insurance Corporation of Manchester, England, in 1885. In 1887, similar rules were prepared in the United States by the Factory Improvement Committee of the New England Insurance Exchange. By 1895, the commercial growth and development of sprinkler systems were so rapid that a number of different installation rules had been adopted by various insurance organizations. Within a few hundred miles of Boston, Massachusetts, nine radically different standards for the size of piping and sprinkler spacing were being used. This problem led to the creation of NFPA 13 and the formation of the National Fire Protection Association in 1896. In many respects, the issues that led to the development of the first edition of NFPA 13 are relevant today. The unprecedented development of sprinkler system products, design techniques, and installation practices over the past several years is offering numerous options for effective system design. While this increased flexibility provides numerous advantages, it also requires more diligence by those

designing, installing, and approving sprinkler systems as the rules for various system components become less uniform. As has been the case for more than 100 years, the intent of NFPA 13 is to provide a means for analyzing sprinkler system information and presenting it in a form that will lead to effective system designs and installations. This task continues to become increasingly demanding as scientific and other discoveries generate information at an increasingly accelerated rate. In response to these challenges, in 1997 NFPA expanded the scope of NFPA 13 so that it became the most comprehensive document addressing sprinkler systems. NFPA 13 addresses sprinkler system installations for all types of facilities regardless of the type of fire hazards present. NFPA 13 contains sprinkler system design and installation information from more than 40 NFPA codes and standards. As the scope of NFPA 13 has expanded, so has that of the Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook. This 10th edition includes new and updated commentary on underground piping installation, rack and on-floor storage applications of various commodities including plastics, rubber tires, baled cotton, wooden and plastic pallets, and roll paper, as well as commentary on many of the extracted special occupancies. In addition, the handbook includes updated commentary on those portions of NFPA 13 that have been revised. Also, a new supplement addressing combined sprinkler and standpipe systems has been added to the current supplements addressing microbiologically influenced corrosion, large orifice sprinkler applications, and the history of sprinklers, sprinkler systems, and NFPA sprinkler standards. Christian Dubay, P.E.

xxvii


Acknowledgments The 2007 edition of the Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook contains the latest requirements for automatic sprinkler systems and has a reached a significant milestone as the 10th edition of the handbook. When I look back through the previous nine editions, I am amazed at the cross section of expertise that has contributed to the development of the various editions of the handbook. Many of the previous contributors are still involved with the sprinkler project, and their work has created the solid foundation on which to build this and future editions. In working on the Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook, I have had the good fortune to work with some of the most knowledgeable and experienced people in the sprinkler industry. The help of these individuals has been invaluable in completing the 10th edition. I would especially like to acknowledge and thank the following people for their efforts with this project: Ed Budnick Russ Fleming Roland Huggins Larry Keeping Ken Linder Bill Thomas

Kerry Bell James Golinveaux Ken Isman George Laverick Maurice Pilette

I would be remiss if I did not acknowledge others at NFPA with whom I worked very closely on this project. Debra Rose, Kim Cervantes, Khela Thorne, and Irene Herlihy provided key input throughout various stages of the bookâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s development and showed great patience in working with an editor who views the written word through the eyes of an engineer.

I would like to thank Chet Schirmer for his many years of service to the committee and to NFPA and specifically for the many early morning breakfasts and late evening dinners we shared over the years as the new editions of NFPA 13 unfolded. His long history and broad experience have served to give me guidance and perspective on the history and requirements of NFPA 13. On a personal level, Chet is also responsible for instilling in me the direct relationship between flies, pepper, and long-debated technical committee discussions, a relationship that has brought much needed relief after many hours of technical committee discussion and debate. I am particularly grateful to my wonderful wife Andrea, who provided me with continual support and understanding as I worked through this handbook, and to my sons Benjamin, Nicholas, and Silas, who not only remind me on a daily basis where to place my priorities and focus, but also provide me with continual cookies, treats, and matchbox cars to keep me motivated. In closing, sprinkler systems have established an enviable record for achieving life safety and property protection. The Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook is intended to provide a better understanding of the requirements of NFPA 13 and how to implement them. I hope that the 10th edition helps people make better decisions about fire safety and that it advances the legacy of automatic sprinkler systems worldwide.

Christian Dubay, P.E.

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Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


PART ONE

NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, with Commentary

P

art One of this handbook includes the complete text and figures of the 2007 edition of NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. The text, tables, and figures from the standard are printed in black and are the official requirements of NFPA 13. Line drawings and photographs from the standard are labeled as ‘‘Figures.’’ An asterisk (*) following a standard paragraph number indicates that advisory annex material pertaining to that paragraph appears in Annex A. Paragraphs that begin with the letter A are extracted from Annex A of the standard. Although printed in black ink, this nonmandatory material is purely explanatory in nature. For ease of use, this handbook places Annex A material immediately after the standard paragraph to which it refers. In addition to standard text and annexes, Part One includes explanatory commentary that provides the history and other background information for specific paragraphs in the standard. This insightful commentary takes the reader behind the scenes, into the reasons underlying the requirements. Commentary text, captions, and tables are printed in blue, to clarify identification of commentary material. So that the reader can easily distinguish between line drawings and photographs of the standard and those of the commentary, line drawings, graphs, and photographs in the commentary are labeled as ‘‘Exhibits.’’ This edition of the Handbook includes a Frequently Asked Questions feature. The marginal FAQs are based on the most commonly asked questions of the NFPA 13 staff. The handbook also features a tool designed to help users easily identify important new or revised elements in the standard. New or revised material of special interest is identified with a ‘‘New’’ icon in the margin of the book next to that material.

1


Administration

CHAPTER 1

Chapter 1 provides the administrative text and requirements for NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. This chapter covers the standardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Scope, Purpose, Application, Retroactivity, Equivalency, New Technology, and Units and Symbols. Chapter 1 provides the user with basic assumptions and principles, a clear understanding of the limitations of NFPA 13, and information on the proper use and application of the requirements within the standard.

1.1* Scope This standard shall provide the minimum requirements for the design and installation of automatic fire sprinkler systems and exposure protection sprinkler systems covered within this standard. A.1.1 This standard provides a range of sprinkler system approaches, design development alternatives, and component options that are all acceptable. Building owners and their designated representatives are advised to carefully evaluate proposed selections for appropriateness and preference. Section 1.1 addresses the design and installation of sprinkler systems employing automatic or open sprinklers that discharge water to suppress or control a fire. NFPA 13 provides only the minimum requirements for satisfactory sprinkler system performance during a fire. The overall level of fire protection provided by sprinkler systems can be enhanced through the use of additional provisions, such as supplemental supervisory signaling systems. As an installation standard, NFPA 13 does not specify the buildings or structures that require sprinkler systems. The purpose of NFPA 13 is to provide for the proper design and installation of a sprinkler system and to specify acceptable system components when a sprinkler system is required. In other words, NFPA 13 specifies how to properly design and install a sprinkler system using the proper components. The standard does not identify when a system is required. The local building code; NFPA 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code; NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (see Exhibit 1.1); or insurance regulations typically specify the buildings and structures that require sprinkler systems. To the extent possible, all requirements pertaining to the design and installation of automatic sprinkler systems have been centralized in NFPA 13. The scope of NFPA 13 includes sprinkler system design and installation requirements for storage facilities, which were formerly located in the NFPA 231 series of documents and were merged into NFPA 13 in 1999. The design and installation requirements for underground piping and private fire service mains, which are also found in NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances, have been extracted from NFPA 24 into Chapter 10. Chapter 21 of NFPA 13 incorporates and consolidates the sprinkler system information that has been extracted from other NFPA standards to assist NFPA 13 users with the design and installation of automatic sprinkler systems for hazards and facilities not previously

 FAQ Does my building require a sprinkler system?

 FAQ Where are the design and installation requirements for underground piping and private fire service mains located?

3


4

Chapter 1 â&#x20AC;˘ Administration

EXHIBIT 1.1 NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, and NFPA 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code.

addressed by NFPA 13. Sprinkler system information from more than 35 NFPA codes, standards, and recommended practices is extracted in Chapter 21 of NFPA 13 and its annex. For example, 21.7.1 and 21.7.2 contain sprinkler system design and installation criteria from NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose Nitrate Film. In a few instances where extracted text could be confusing or misleading, NFPA 13 only references the appropriate NFPA standard. For example, 21.2.1 references NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, rather than extracting specific sprinkler system installation and discharge criteria from NFPA 30. NFPA 13 also references other documents that address equipment that is essential to the proper and effective operation of the sprinkler system. Chapter 23 establishes the types of acceptable water supply sources. However, Chapter 23 does not contain installation or performance requirements for those water supply sources. Specific installation requirements for fire pumps and water storage tanks are provided in NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, and NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection. Since NFPA 13 pertains only to sprinkler systems, other NFPA standards should be referenced for design and installation requirements for other types of water-based fire protection systems. The following list identifies some of these standards: NFPA 11, Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems

1.2* Purpose A.1.2 Since its inception, this document has been developed on the basis of standardized materials, devices, and design practices. However, Section 1.2 and other subsections such 2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


Section 1.2 • Purpose

5

as 6.3.6 and 8.4.8 allow the use of materials and devices not specifically designated by this standard, provided such use is within parameters established by a listing organization. In using such materials or devices, it is important that all conditions, requirements, and limitations of the listing be fully understood and accepted and that the installation be in complete accord with such listing requirements.

1.2.1 The purpose of this standard shall be to provide a reasonable degree of protection for life and property from fire through standardization of design, installation, and testing requirements for sprinkler systems, including private fire service mains, based on sound engineering principles, test data, and field experience. As stated in 1.2.1, the purpose of NFPA 13 is ‘‘ . . . to provide a reasonable degree of protection for life and property from fire . . . ’’ However, as with most life safety systems, it is difficult to precisely quantify the overall level of protection to life and property provided by sprinkler systems. For example, accurate mathematical predictions that everyone exposed to a rapidly spreading flammable liquids fire in a fully sprinklered processing plant would escape without harm, or that property damage could be limited to a specific dollar value or to a percentage of the overall building area, cannot be made. However, life safety and property protection in buildings are both known to be greatly enhanced by the presence of an automatic sprinkler system complying with NFPA 13. Fire data collected and analyzed by NFPA’s Fire Analysis and Research Division and available at NFPA’s One-Stop Data Shop (see Exhibit 1.2) has lead to the conclusions that follow. Where sprinklers are present, the chances of dying in a fire are reduced by one-half to three-fourths, and the average property loss per fire is cut by one-half to two-thirds, compared to fires where sprinklers are not present. This simple comparison understates the potential value of sprinklers, because it lumps together all sprinklers, regardless of type, coverage, or operational status, and because it is limited to fires reported to fire departments. If unreported fires could be included, and if complete, well-maintained, and properly installed and designed systems could be isolated, sprinkler effectiveness would be seen as even more impressive. [Rohr and Hall 2005] Furthermore, ‘‘NFPA has no record of a fire killing more than two people in a completely sprinklered building where the system was properly operating, except in an explosion or flash fire or where industrial fire brigade members or employees were killed during fire suppression operations.’’ [Rohr and Hall 2005] With regard to unsatisfactory sprinkler system performance, the cited NFPA data indicates that such performance is rare and that the reason almost always involves some type of human error. Examples of human error include failure to properly maintain the system or failure to upgrade an existing system when the hazard or occupancy in which it is located changes. Overall, the NFPA study states that the major reason a sprinkler system did not operate satisfactorily is that the water supply had been shut off. See Commentary Table 1.1.

1.2.2 Sprinkler systems and private fire service mains are specialized fire protection systems and shall require knowledgeable and experienced design and installation. The requirements of NFPA 13 were developed through the application of engineering principles, fire test data, and field experience. During its history of over 100 years, the technical committees on automatic sprinkler systems have reviewed, analyzed, and evaluated sprinkler system–related information and presented it in a useful form. Although those who have developed and updated NFPA 13 possess numerous credentials regarding their ability to design, install, review, or evaluate sprinkler systems, NFPA 13 does not specify particular qualifications for its users beyond those stated in 1.2.2. As with any specialized subject, a good understanding of the basic principles as well as a continued effort to keep current with developing technologies is essential. NFPA 13 is a design and installation standard. It is not a how-to manual or a textbook. Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

EXHIBIT 1.2 NFPA’s OneStop Data Shop (www.nfpa.org/OSDS).

 FAQ What are the leading reasons for unsatisfactory sprinkler performance?


6

Chapter 1 • Administration

COMMENTARY TABLE 1.1 Leading Reasons for Unsatisfactory Sprinkler Performance

Cause of Failure

Percentage of Cases

Water shut off Inadequate maintenance Obstruction to water distribution System frozen

35.4 8.4 8.2 1.4

Note: Table statistics based on 3134 fires reported to NFPA from 1925 to 1969 for which sprinkler performance was deemed unsatisfactory. Of these reported fires, 75 percent were in industrial facilities, 12 percent were in storage facilities, 5.6 percent were in stores, and 7.4 percent were in all other properties. Source: Rohr, K.D., and J. Hall. ‘‘U.S. Experience with Sprinklers: Who Has Them? How Well Do They Work?,’’ National Fire Protection Association Fire and Analysis and Research Division, 2005.

FAQ  Who sets the qualifications for those who design and install sprinkler systems?

NFPA 13 does not specify qualifications for those who design and install sprinkler systems. Such criteria are typically set by state and local government agencies. For example, some states require that sprinkler system designers be registered fire protection engineers or be certified as National Institute for Certification of Engineering Technicians (NICET) and that those who install sprinkler systems be licensed. These requirements are similar to the required qualifications for those who design and install electrical systems that affect public safety.

1.3 Application 1.3.1 This standard shall apply to the following: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

Character and adequacy of water supplies Selection of sprinklers Fittings Piping Valves All materials and accessories, including the installation of private fire service mains

1.3.2 This standard shall also apply to ‘‘combined service mains’’ used to carry water for both fire service and other uses as well as to mains for fire service use only. NFPA 13 addresses not only the requirements for the sprinkler system, but also requirements for any combined service mains that are used to supply both sprinkler and demands. For combined service mains, it is essential to ensure that the water supply will be adequate to meet the required sprinkler system demand when called upon. For additional information on water supply acceptability, see Chapter 23, Water Supplies. In the 2007 edition of NFPA 13, specific text was added to A.23.1.3.2 to address the addition of domestic demand from combined service mains less than 6 in. (152 mm) in diameter.

1.4 Retroactivity Clause The provisions of this standard reflect a consensus of what is necessary to provide an acceptable degree of protection from the hazards addressed in this standard at the time the 2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


Section 1.5 â&#x20AC;˘ Equivalency

standard was issued. Unless otherwise specified, the provisions of this standard shall not apply to facilities, equipment, structures, or installations that existed or were approved for construction or installation prior to the effective date of this standard. Where specified, the provisions of this standard shall be retroactive. In those cases where the authority having jurisdiction determines that the existing situation presents an unacceptable degree of risk, the authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to apply retroactively any portions of this standard deemed appropriate. The retroactivity clause, as shown in Section 1.4, appears in many NFPA codes and standards. Its main purpose is to reinforce the premise that any sprinkler system installed in accordance with the applicable edition of NFPA 13 is considered to be in compliance with the standard for the systemâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lifetime, as long as no system modifications are made and the fire hazard remains unchanged. In other words, an existing system is not required to be reviewed for compliance with every new edition of the standard. For example, the 2007 edition of NFPA 13 requires that means be provided downstream of pressure-reducing valves so that flow tests at system demand can be conducted. This requirement is not intended to retroactively apply to a system that was installed in accordance with previous editions of the standard that did not contain the requirement. Omission of this retroactivity clause would require building owners, code enforcers, insurance companies, and installers to undertake the never-ending task of updating and revising their sprinkler systems every time a new edition of NFPA 13 was published. Although newer editions often include updated requirements that enhance the level of protection, older editions should not be interpreted as unsafe. In those instances where a severe deficiency is discovered, the last sentence of Section 1.4 provides latitude for the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ). For example, it could be discovered that an existing system would not be able to perform satisfactorily for the fire hazard presented. Where the hazard within a sprinklered building or space has changed, an evaluation of the existing sprinkler system needs to be conducted to verify its adequacy. For example, it is highly unlikely that a sprinkler system designed and installed to protect 8 ft (2.4 m) high on-floor storage would be capable of protecting 18 ft (5.4 m) high rack storage of the same commodity. Sprinkler protection for the high rack storage arrangement needs to be upgraded in compliance with the latest NFPA 13 provision for such storage. Routine inspections and testing of a sprinkler system in accordance with NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, uncover many of the impairments, including closed valves, damaged or painted sprinklers, obstructed sprinklers, system leaks, and nonoperational or malfunctioning waterflow devices, which lead to unsuccessful sprinkler system performance. Proper knowledge of system design and installation requirements, as well as a vigilant maintenance program, are also critical in ensuring that sprinkler systems remain one of the most reliable and effective defenses against fire.

1.5 Equivalency Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the use of systems, methods, or devices of equivalent or superior quality, strength, fire resistance, effectiveness, durability, and safety over those prescribed by this standard. Technical documentation shall be submitted to the authority having jurisdiction to demonstrate equivalency. The system, method, or device shall be approved for the intended purpose by the authority having jurisdiction. In Section 1.5, the equivalency statement allows that products and system arrangements not specifically covered by the standard can be used, provided it can be demonstrated that these Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

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products or arrangements do not lower the level of safety provided by the standard or alter the standardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intent.

1.6 New Technology Scientific understanding of fire, sprinklers, and their interaction continues to increase, and Section 1.6 provides for this advance in technology. This knowledge allows for better system performance and the development of more effective new products. For example, residential sprinklers were developed to protect people in the room of fire origin within a dwelling unit who are not intimate with ignition, provided the fire load is typical of that found in a residential-type occupancy. More information on residential sprinklers is provided in NFPA 13D. Another example includes the development of early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers with various K-factors, including K-14, K-16.8, K-22.4, and K-25.2. Exhibit 1.3 shows various ESFR sprinklers. The application of this technology allows for fire suppression of various commodities stored up to 40 ft (12.2 m) in height with relatively low discharge pressures. See Chapters 12 through 20 of NFPA 13 for more information and specific applications of ESFR sprinklers. EXHIBIT 1.3 Examples of ESFR Sprinklers: (from left to right) Viking K-14, Victaulic K-16.8, K-22.4 from Reliable Automatic Sprinkler Co., Inc., and K-25.2 from Tyco Fire & Building Products.

1.6.1 Nothing in this standard shall be intended to restrict new technologies or alternate arrangements, provided the level of safety prescribed by this standard is not lowered. NFPA 13 encourages innovative and economically feasible measures that provide life safety and property protection. Subsection 1.6.1 allows for the use of increasingly available specially listed materials and products and promotes the continued development of new sprinklerrelated technologies. Exhibit 1.4 shows a listed flexible sprinkler hose, which, until the 2007 edition, was not discussed in NFPA 13. For additional information on listed flexible sprinkler hose, see 9.2.1.3.3. EXHIBIT 1.4 Listed Flexible Sprinkler Hose. (Courtesy of FlexHead Industries)

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Section 1.7 â&#x20AC;˘ Units and Symbols

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1.6.2 Materials or devices not specifically designated by this standard shall be utilized in complete accord with all conditions, requirements, and limitations of their listings. NFPA 13 encourages innovative and economically feasible measures that provide life safety and property protection. Subsection 1.6.2 allows for the use of increasingly available specially listed materials and products and promotes the continued development of new sprinklerrelated technologies. Exhibit 1.5 shows various types of special sprinklers. EXHIBIT 1.5 Listed Special Sprinklers.

Subsection 1.6.2 alerts the NFPA 13 user that specialized products often have specific requirements or limitations, which are not addressed by NFPA 13. For all listed products, the listing information and the relevant manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s literature must be referenced. For example, nonmetallic pipe is an acceptable alternative to traditional materials, such as steel or copper, for certain applications. Initially tested and listed in 1984 for use only in systems designed in accordance with NFPA 13D, nonmetallic pipe is now listed for use in any light hazard occupancy. (See Exhibit 1.6.)

 FAQ When using a specially listed product, are the only installation requirements those contained within NFPA 13?

1.7 Units and Symbols 1.7.1 Units. Subsection 1.7.1 addresses the use of units in NFPA 13. The English units for sprinkler design densities are gallons per minute per square foot (gpm/ft2). The direct metric equivalent to these English units is liters per minute per square meter [(L/min)/m2]. However, the more common units for measuring sprinkler discharge densities in those countries that employ the metric system are millimeters per minute (mm/min), and this designation is used throughout the standard. 1.7.1.1 Metric units of measurement in this standard are in accordance with the modernized metric system known as the International System of Units (SI). 1.7.1.2 Two units (liter and bar), outside of but recognized by SI, are commonly used in international fire protection. 1.7.1.3 These units are listed in Table 1.7.1.3 with conversion factors. 1.7.1.4 If a value for measurement as given in this standard is followed by an equivalent value in other units, the first stated is to be regarded as the requirement.

1.7.2 Symbols. The standard abbreviations in Table 1.7.2 shall be used on the hydraulic calculation form discussed in Chapter 22. Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook 2007

EXHIBIT 1.6 Listed Plastic Pipe.


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TABLE 1.7.1.3 SI Units and Conversion Factors Name of Unit

Unit Symbol

liter millimeter per minute cubic decimeter pascal bar bar

L mm/min dm3 Pa bar bar

Conversion Factor 1 1 1 1 1 1

gal = 3.785 L gpm/ft2 = 40.746 mm/min = 40.746 (L/min)/m2 gal = 3.785 dm3 psi = 6894.757 Pa psi = 0.0689 bar bar = 105 Pa

Note: For additional conversions and information, see ASTM SI 10, Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System.

TABLE 1.7.2 Hydraulic Symbols Symbol or Abbreviation p gpm q Q Pt Pf Pe

Pv Pn E EE Lt.E Cr T GV BV Del V ALV DPV CV WCV St psi v

Item Pressure in psi U.S. gallons per minute Flow increment in gpm to be added at a specific location Summation of flow in gpm at a specific location Total pressure in psi at a point in a pipe Pressure loss due to friction between points indicated in location column Pressure due to elevation difference between indicated points. This can be a plus value or a minus value. If minus, the () shall be used; if plus, no sign need be indicated. Velocity pressure in psi at a point in a pipe Normal pressure in psi at a point in a pipe 90-degree ell 45-degree ell Long-turn elbow Cross Tee-flow turned 90 degrees Gate valve Butterfly (wafer) check valve Deluge valve Alarm valve Dry pipe valve Swing check valve Butterfly (wafer) check valve Strainer Pounds per square inch Velocity of water in pipe in feet per second

SUMMARY In addition to the administrative text of NFPA 13, Chapter 1 provides the user with an introduction to the use and application of NFPA 13 and to sprinkler system design and review. This chapter also provides some of the basic assumptions and principles to be used when applying the requirements of NFPA 13. Additionally, Chapter 1 provides the important allowance for new technologies that are developed and specified in new designs and installations. 2007 Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook


References

REFERENCES CITED IN COMMENTARY National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169-7471. NFPA 11, Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam, 2005 edition. NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, 2007 edition. NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height, 2007 edition. NFPA 14, Standard for the Installation of Standpipe and Hose Systems, 2007 edition. NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection, 2007 edition. NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems, 2007 edition. NFPA 20, Standard for the Installation of Stationary Pumps for Fire Protection, 2007 edition. NFPA 22, Standard for Water Tanks for Private Fire Protection, 2003 edition. NFPA 24, Standard for the Installation of Private Fire Service Mains and Their Appurtenances, 2007 edition. NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 2002 edition. NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code, 2003 edition. NFPA 40, Standard for the Storage and Handling of Cellulose Nitrate Film, 2007 edition. NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, 2006 edition. NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems, 2006 edition. NFPA 5000, Building Construction and Safety Code, 2006 edition. Rohr, K. D., and J. Hall. ‘‘U.S. Experience with Sprinklers: Who Has Them? How Well Do They Work?,’’ Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, Fire Analysis and Research Division, 2005.

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