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Israel and the World – Midterm answers 2010 1. Define Zionism. In what ways was Zionism old; in what ways was it new? Zionism is the international movement to allow Jews the right of restoring their statehood. The movement contains both old and new aspects. Old aspects contain the original Jewish history, with such stories as Cyrus the Great allowing Jews to return to Jerusalem. Since the fall of Kingdom of Judea, Jews had a continuous presence in the land located between Sinai and Lebanon. Even when the Romans destroyed and sacked Jerusalem, Jews maintained presence in the area as subjects of the ruling authority. Old Zionism was highly based on religious ideology seeking the coming of the Messiah to lead the Jews back into the Promised Land. Very different, modern Zionism came into existence to answer the short falls created through old Zionism, such as scientific racism and failure of Jews to gain acceptance in their new societies. Modern Zionism is based on a much secular ideology giving preference to abilities of creation over the creator’s. Greatly influenced by scientific theory and the spirit of nationalism of the 19th century, leading figures in the Jewish communities in Europe rose to create the first Zionist Congress under the leadership of the charismatic Theodor Herzl, a secular Jew, instead of relying on traditional priests. Herzl efforts planted the seed of national identity in many Jewish hearts. After World War I, Zionism assisted in facilitating the migration of Jews from Europe to the former Ottoman territory commonly identified by Palestine. The movement assisted in establishing infrastructure and repopulation of the land. After the creation of the state of Israel, Zionism continue to become an important part of Israel stability through promoting Israel agenda, defending the creation of the state of Israel, and facilitating the return of many Jews to their mother land. The name it self

Pierre N. Demian, UCI student id # 18103312

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Israel and the World – Midterm answers 2010 included the name of the Mountain of Zion, which is located by Jerusalem, the historical capital of the ancient kingdom of Judea. 2. What were the main elements of the League of Nations Mandate for Palestine? After World War I, the League of Nations was formed to produce solutions for conflicts through peaceful resolutions among its members. On July 24th of 1922, the Council of the League of Nations assigned a mandate to Britain to maintain and manage the area commonly know by Palestine. The mandate had 28 articles. It provided that the Mandatory, Britain, shall keep all power of administration assigned within the mandate. It also provided for the migration of Jews to populate the land and restore it through cooperation with the Zionist organization. It called for the creation of a home for the Jews within the Palestine territories. Amazingly, the mandate eliminated rights given to foreigners under the Ottoman Empire rule within the territory while it kept the door open for such rights to return after the end of the mandate. In addition, the mandate provided equal rights for access regarding the Holy Places. Finally, the territory was denied the right to form any military or assemble forces except for those needed to maintain peace and order. 3. Give 5 reasons the British and the League of Nations set up the Palestine Mandate as a homeland for the Jewish people. Having been prosecuted throughout history, Jews became a heavy weight on Europe, as they were used by political parties to release pressure, point fingers and assign blame. During World War I, both sides tried earnestly to gain the Jews – who lived in multiple nations and were especially associated with financial services – to move to their side.

Pierre N. Demian, UCI student id # 18103312

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Israel and the World – Midterm answers 2010 Herzl efforts were finally answered by the Ottoman Empire and Germany to allow the return of the Jews back to the territory commonly known by Palestine. At the same time, the allied reached a good settlement with the Zionist Congress. The British government released the Balfour Declaration stating: “His Majesty’s government view with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.” After the declaration, Jewish support world wide moved towards the allies resulting in Ottoman Jews moving away from their government positions and greatly crippling the Ottoman internal administration. In response, the Ottoman Empire tried to massacre Jews living in Palestine to be only stopped by new reinforcement formed from European Jews, and Egyptian forces, coming through Sinai. Both Britain and the League of Nations saw that the mandate will reward Jewish efforts to overthrow the Ottoman Empire (1). England also thought that Jews held major power in the United States who was about to join the war effort as Russia signed a separate peace agreement with Germany (2). Furthermore, Palestine needed development and population as the land was a waste land (3). Because the destruction of the Ottoman Empire allowed for the creation of over twenty Arab states, Britain thought that no wrong doing was done to the Arabs (4). As the United States stayed out of the League of Nations and Russia engulfed in a civil war, Britain sought to limit French influence in the area and secure the Suez Canal and other routs connecting England with India (5). In addition, Christian Zionism favored the return of the Jews to the Promised Land (6). 4. The boundaries designated for the Jewish homeland changed twice between the original 1920 plans for the Palestine Mandate and the 1947 UN Partition Resolution. What were these changes?

Pierre N. Demian, UCI student id # 18103312

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Israel and the World – Midterm answers 2010 The original boundaries for the Jewish home land included the territory commonly known as Palestine (forming current day Jordon, Israel, Golan Heights, West Bank and Gaza strip). To satisfy the Arabs, eastern Palestine was seeded of to form current day Jordon. All Jews were removed to Western Palestine and their return was not allowed. After the Syrian Congress filed a complaint, the Golan Heights were seceded off to Syria. During the uprising that followed, both Arab and Jewish communities moved or suffered resulting in demographics change. After World War II, the United Nation inherited the mandate of the Palestine territories. Afraid of consequences, the territory was gerrymandered to include the population of every group – without moving – leaving the Jews with 55% and the Arabs with 45%, while maintaining Jerusalem as an international city (in accordance to discoveries made by UNSCOP). The partition plan was passed by the UN General Assembly resolution 181. 5. List some of the ways the Zionists fulfilled the Mandate’s expectations between 1920 and 1947. The Zionist confirmed to the Mandate’s expectations through accomplishing difficult tasks. Jews were able to cultivate the land turning it to farms. They planted over 1.7 million trees. They repopulated the land, built cities, started infrastructure projects (such as education facilities and hospitals), and allowed for the expansion of economy. Many Jews migrated from Europe to live in the new land. The Jews resisted temptations to entice conflict by engaging the Arab response on the same level (destruction of property and death threats); instead, the Jews formed Hagna groups to act in self defense. The Zionist movement provided most of the funds without asking Britain for financial support.

Pierre N. Demian, UCI student id # 18103312

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Israel and the World – Midterm answers 2010 6. What was the 1939 British White Paper, and why were Zionists so opposed to it? As the fog of war took over Europe by the end of the 1940s, the major allied powers sought to guarantee the support of the new Arab nations. In addition, Britain wanted to quell the violence in the Palestine territory as resources were becoming extremely precious. Thus, Britain defaulted on previous agreements and declarations regarding the future of a Jewish state. The White Paper, written in 1939 under the direction of Sir Malcolm MacDonald, established limits on future Jewish immigrations by allowing only 15,000 new Jewish immigrants into Palestine for every year for the following five years. Furthermore, limits on land purchases were established to curb Jewish land ownership. At the same time, Jews were being slaughtered in Europe. Most countries accepted restrictions – on Jewish migration between European countries – enforced by the Third Reich to avoid German aggression. This new policy reversed Zionist progress to achieve state hood. In response, the Zionist movement decided to fight off the Nazis in Europe, world reaction, and the British enforcement of the White Paper. 7. What were the key elements of the 1947 UN Partition Resolution? The key elements of the 1947 UN partition Resolution are: 1) the territory commonly known as Palestine to be divided according to demographics; 2) no relocation or moving of the population; 3) Jerusalem to become an international city; 4) the mandatory Power (Britain) has to guarantee an area situated for the creation of a Jewish home land which ought to include sea ports; 5) the mandatory power can’t stay in Palestine beyond August 1st of 1948 (termination of the Mandate); 6) establishment of citizenship rights and provisions to ensure quality and minority rights; 7) an international commission will Pierre N. Demian, UCI student id # 18103312

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Israel and the World – Midterm answers 2010 monitor and assist each side, Jewish or Arab, to create a state in the land under their control; 8) all nations must be supportive and cease any efforts to hamper the progress of the partition; and, 9) the Jewish home land effort was given 55% of the land compared to 45% to the Arabs. 8. List the main causes of the 1948 War. The main causes of the 1948 war are: 1) ongoing civil war – between Jews and Arabs – resulting from enticement of local communities by radicals (for example, such calls were made by Jerusalem’s Imam); 2) interference by Arab states in the Palestine civil war; 3) the mandatory Power (Britain) assisted the Arabs more than the Jews; 4) both the United States and USSR sought to establish power in the Middle East as counter for French and British influence; 5) declaration of state of Israel; 6) expansion agenda of some Arab states; 7) invasion of Palestine by five Arab armies; and 8) foreign fighter groups causing havoc as they saw the local population property as personal prizes and war booty while having less regards to human rights. 9. List some of the main results of the 1948 War. Results of the 1948 War are: 1) territorial changes as Israel was created and its borders expanded; 2) failure of the Arabs to assist Palestinian Arabs to create a state of their own and the demise of economic and social welfare of the Arab Palestinians; 3) Egypt assumes control over the Gaza Strip; 4) Jordon invades and annexes a good portion of the Arab Palestinian territory and labels it West Bank; 5) the city of Jerusalem was divided between Israel (Mountain Scopes) and Jordon (the Old City); 6) the creation of the refugees problem as Arab states expelled Jews while Israel absorbed a good portion

Pierre N. Demian, UCI student id # 18103312

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Israel and the World – Midterm answers 2010 of Arab Palestinian and expelling others; 7) establishment of armistice lines between the fighting forces; 8) continuation of hostilities between the different parties; and 9) the over throw of monarchy in Egypt and beginning of the Arabism movement. 10. Briefly list some of the similarities and differences between the experience and fate of the Jewish refugees and the Arab refugees of the 1948 War. The similarities between the experience and fate of the Jewish and the Arab refugees of 1948 war are: 1) both groups experienced life threatening trauma only some years after the end of World War II; 2) international actors held almost the final decision over the fate of both groups; 3) both groups suffered death, loss of personal and real property; 4) the Holy city of Jerusalem was divided causing relocation of its population; 5) Jew and Arab Palestinian were to suffer from consecutive wars; and, 6) both sides developed a strong scene of belonging into one of two national identities, Israel or Palestine. The Differences between the experience and fate of the Jewish refugees and the Arab refugees of the 1948 war are: 1) while the Arab Jews enjoyed acceptance and citizenship rights in Israel, the Arab Palestinian were denied citizenship except by Jordon; 2) international actors offered assistance only to Arab Palestinians through the United Nations; 3) Arab states expelled its Jewish population stripping them from citizenship rights forcing them outside of the land; 4) each side moved towards an international major force to gain assistance and acceptance; 5) Israel accepted and respected the rights of the Arab Palestinians and Muslim sites, while Arab forces dealt harshly with Arab Palestinians and the Jewish holy sites; and 6) Jewish refugees were given homes by the state of Israel, while Arab Palestinians were given tenets and put into camps.

Pierre N. Demian, UCI student id # 18103312

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Israel and the World – Midterm answers  

Different questions regarding the nation of Israel

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