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THE DEFINITIVE BENCHMARKS ISSUE 227 JUNE 2009

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Issue 227 June 2009 £5.99 Outside UK & ROI £6.49

COMPANY OF HEROES FALLOUT 3 THE PIT: TALES OF VALOR DIGGING DEEPER PCF227.cover 1

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Rise of the chat ‘em up

Illustration: Chris Hedley

RICHARD WENTK asks, will 3D worlds conquer gaming and eat the web alive?

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titching Facebook and MySpace into a 3D environment might not seem like the most exciting project in the history of gaming, but a handful of intrepid gaming companies are wondering if social gaming is going to be the next huge very profitable thing. The logic is simple – not everyone enjoys blowing up friends and enemies when they go online, or obsessively assembling a vast arsenal of ultra-weapons and superhuman skills. While World of

Second Life is many things, but tasteful isn’t one of them

Second Life. (www.secondlife.com) Whereas most games demand smooth and fast performance, Second Life goes against tradition by offering gamers an experience that’s laggy, awkward and slow. Your fellow players’ avatars twitch and jerk around in virtual space like cyber-puppets on springs. When you log in – or res, in game jargon – it can take up to 10 minutes for your surroundings to res around you. Until then, you can find yourself missing essential walls and floors, standing in a void, bumping into nothingness when you try to move and unable to do much at all. With high-end

“It’s possible to live out your fantasies – whatever they may be – much more easily than you can in real life” Warcraft and its medieval and science fiction beat-’em-up and shoot-’em-up siblings have questing and wizarding locked down, the popularity and momentum of social networking suggests that there’s serious money to be made from friends and fans. But is this really gaming? And does it matter? Pride of place in the pantheon of chat-’em-ups goes to 80

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bandwidth and a top spec PC some of these issues are reduced, but no one would ever accuse Second Life of being excessively polished. The political instincts of Linden Labs, Second Life’s creators, are similarly awkward, with regular drama over policy changes and peculiar changes of direction. It doesn’t help that both its client and server software are notoriously bug-ridden and crash

prone. Some users can’t stay logged in for more than an hour without a crash and the server database regularly ignores transactions – none of which inspires confidence. User loyalty is even more remarkable considering how expensive Second Life can be. The cheapest entry-level annual subscription costs an eye-watering $72. But you can’t do much in the game without buying land. Doing so carries a one-off cost of ownership – fees are variable – as well as a monthly payment for ‘tier’, or land tax. A small patch of 1/128th of a sim costs $5 a month in tier and basic land prices can be astronomical. If you want an entire region or island, expect to pay $1000 up front and a blistering $295 per month in tier. And yet, Second Life remains very popular. While the total number of registered players is in the millions, only around 100,000 are active. But 100,000 is still an impressively high number for a game that doesn’t allow much gaming. Although there are combat areas and a healthy trade in virtual weapons, laggy responses and random res times make Second Life a less than ideal place to engage in online sparring. Nevertheless, a number of online entrepreneurs have done surprisingly well for themselves selling combat systems and clothes, and by

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After a series of scams, banking in Second Life is now banned

Clothes for your avatar come at a price, but you can explore in your skivvies

offering other associated services such as bars and chat spaces for after-combat socialising. While Second Life is a bad platform with conventional gaming, it’s popular for people hoping to establish virtual friendships and relationships. There’s no lack of people to meet and no shortage of places to meet them. And because avatars and locations are almost infinitely customisable through a combination of scripting language and simplified 3D design and texturing, it’s possible to live out a fantasy – whatever that might be – much more easily than in real life. Newcomers Kaneva and Multiverse have been quick to jump on this idea and have made it their focus. Kaneva (www.kaneva.com) is more of a shop-’em-up – you can socialise, you can buy things and you can work for money to make it easier to socialise and buy things. There isn’t a lot else to do and, although you can put money into the game to buy virtual items, you can’t build and sell new virtual items in order to make money. If your horizons are broader – or if you’re an antisocial billy-no-mates – you may be less than

thrilled by the experience. But it’s a relatively kid-safe environment and is ideally suited to popular and not so popular teens looking for a wider circle of friends. Multiverse, meanwhile, is still in beta and offers an even more slimmed down experience of virtual loft living, giving you a wall of friends you can fill up and visit. In its current Multiverse Places form it’s more of a virtual chat room than a game space. But it already includes direct links to Facebook, so you can meet your real life friends in a virtual space. In the longer term, it’s pitching itself as a meta-platform for further gaming development – which means that some time in the future you’ll be equally able to blow up your real life friends with the usual impressive variety of super-weapons. Or you can buy them lunch. It’s up to you. At the other extreme, Mindark, makers of Entropia Universe (www. entropiauniverse.com) are pitching their alternative meta-platform as a possible business opportunity for lazy or impatient game developers who don’t want to develop a 3D engine from scratch. EU’s Calypso game planet is now up and running and gives players a fairly conventional science fiction gaming experience, with mining, monster hunting and collaborative questing to pass the time. The interesting part is that in-game profits can be converted into real cash at a

Get it on, with pixels There’s no polite way to say this, but many of Second Life’s most popular areas are those with obvious adult interest. Virtual sex of all kinds might seem like the most pointless thing ever, but it’s almost surreally popular. Avatars go to virtual bars, have a few virtual drinks, do some virtual dancing, one thing leads to another, and the next thing they know they’re virtually married and having a virtual pregnancy at one of the game’s special virtual pregnancy stores. There’s even virtual prostitution, with some players making good money for their erotic typing skills, enhanced by a few props and scripted animations. You can even find kinky sex – surely even more pointless than the plain vanilla kind, but even more inexplicably popular. As a fantasy world you’d expect some exotic fantasy, but Linden Labs have never been quite sure how to handle the erotic monster they’ve created. Although underage users have a teen

grid of their own, which is supposed to be age limited to exclude adults, and likewise the main grid is supposed to exclude teens, Linden Labs have tried to manage what’s allowed and what isn’t, with mixed results. Virtual paedophilia was banned a few years ago and now there are rumours of a plan to merge the teen and mature grids – but only after the adult areas have been cleaned up and anyone who sells or makes erotic content has been moved to a virtual red light district. This may yet prove to be Second Life’s undoing because the popularity of virtual adult entertainment makes it impossible to police, and there are no clear lines between stores that specialise in adult content and traders who include a few naughty extras on the side. And for the future, it’s not hard to imagine a 3D world devoted entirely to virtual sex games becoming as popular as any of today’s more traditional game formats.

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Gone and very nearly forgotten One of the best games to not quite make it was Myst Online. It was originally launched as a pointless version of Myst Uru, which was a follow-up to the legendary (but now very dated) Myst and Riven games of more than a decade ago. Bizarrely, it had much of the same content and puzzles as Uru, which meant that it was never going to be an instant classic. But even so, clever scripting and acting for the non-player characters meant that it developed an enthusiastic following, and as new content was added it expanded far beyond its original limits. Unfortunately for developers Cyan, the original singleplayer Uru failed to sell well and the project was canned. Then it was handed over to a different developer and resurrected. Only to be canned again. You might think that the developers would have given up after two failures, but instead, someone had the bright idea of handing the project over to the open source community. Now client and server software are available for anyone to tinker with and a relaunch is scheduled for the summer. It’s not clear if the resulting game will be a free or paid-for experience, how server costs will be covered or whether the servers will run as open ‘worlds’ for anyone to build and access, but it’s going to be one of the first completely collaborative game projects. If it does well, expect other developers to take notice and offer more of the same.

fixed exchange rate of 10:1 with US dollars. It’s not an easy way to make money, but once you’re skilled and past the noob stage, you may be able to make a respectable £50 a week from your persistent gaming addiction. Looking at all of these games, there are some common weaknesses. The first is that the volume of data needed to generate a 3D world is so high that servers and broadband pipes inevitably choke on it. Entropia gets around this problem by downloading the entire game environment to disk in a massive 1.3GB package. Second Life takes the opposite tack and downloads objects and art only when they’re needed. Kaneva and Multiverse use methods somewhere between these extremes, but none of them are perfect. Both bandwidth and server speed will have to increase by at least a factor of 10 before game performance becomes acceptable – and then just watch how they blast through many ISPs’ bandwidth caps. At 20MB/s, you 82

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Kaneva is simpler than Second Life and focuses on virtual shopping and socialising

can easily reach the top of a 40GB bandwidth cap within a week, so caps will also have to rise by at least a factor of 10. At the server end, these games can make make extreme demands of commercial bandwidth. Kaneva, Entropia and Multiverse are relatively simple and therefore not too demanding, but Second Life’s model thrashes its database servers until they weep and beg for mercy. Until commercial bandwidth prices go down significantly, its subscription fees look set to stay high. There’s a more basic issue that affects playability. Game areas are typically split across servers, or at least run as separate server processes. In Second Life you can’t fly or walk across sim boundaries reliably – turn up the graphics requirements and you can find your avatar coasting along with plenty of momentum but no control. Move fast enough and you’ll crash out altogether. Technically, when a player moves from one sim to the next, their avatar and inventory links have to be copied across and deleted from the old sim. The most popular sims run slowly because they’re busier. Meanwhile, the rest of the grid waits in limbo, wasting most of its processing power. The majority of sims are empty

most of the time, making this an incredibly inefficient way to run a virtual world. Any other game that uses a similar split-sim approach will suffer from the same problem, but help is at hand from a project called Darkstar. Darkstar isn’t a game, so you can’t log in, and it’s still in beta. It’s designed to handle the back end of online gaming – process assignment, asset management and the nuts and bolts of database handling for multiple players with multiple objects in multiple environments. When it’s finished. Darkstar should solve the sim problem, allowing an entire grid to redistribute its processing power evenly wherever it’s needed. Artificial sim boundaries will become a thing of the past and databases and inventories should both scale smoothly. The potential is explosive because Darkstar will make it possible for anyone to add their server to an open gaming grid and contribute both their own world designs and extra processing power, which will be available on demand. So what does it add up to? The state of the art isn’t necessarily impressive today, but there’s huge potential for the future - and it’s not necessarily in the obvious places. If you take Project

“The volume of data needed to create 3D worlds is so high, servers and broadband pipes inevitably choke on it”

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What’s a nice, tracksuit-clad cowgirl like you doing in a place like this?

Second Life’s more popular sims test their database servers to breaking point

The money

Darkstar’s open source approach and combine it with the user generated content and coding of Second Life, along with the social networking and trading features of the other games, you get something that’s completely new and addictive. From the time of Doom WADs onwards, players have been customising their games. What makes multi-user worlds interesting isn’t so much that they’re 3D and multiuser – so are many other games – but that open customisability is an integral part of the experience. For some people, trading and chatting are less interesting pastimes than being able to build new environments from scratch. For others, the opposite is true. So far, game and world developers have defined how a particular world works and hoped that users will like it enough to buy it. But the ultimate game is a blank canvas for gamer-created experiences of every kind. All that’s needed is some server space and a set of rules for linking worlds to one another. And with Darkstar and Second Life’s Open Grid initiative, which allows anyone to run their own server from home, this is already starting to happen. What made the web interesting was what bean counters like to call ‘low cost of entry’ – basic web space was never expensive and only relatively simple and cheap tools are needed for development. Most of the bigger, more popular web apps, including Facebook and MySpace, developed from simple starting points. So the magic formula

for success is a low cost framework that means anyone can join with the minimum of effort, but which can be expanded almost infinitely. That’s the fundamental principle that turned the web into a global phenomenon in just a few years and it’s not hard to see how online worlds could go the same way. Once everyone has high-speed broadband running at 20MB or more, it’s going to be easy to park open source server software on a spare PC and build your own virtual homestead, space station, art installation or night club. It’s also going to be possible to create stores that sell real-world goods and services to complement the virtual goods and services that are already available. The money problem isn’t solved yet, but you can be sure that someone somewhere is already thinking about it. Once bandwidth starts ramping up again and one or more cash-handling interfaces appear for developers to start adding to their projects, expect to see an explosion of interest and a thriving combined virtual and real economy. This might sound unrealistic, but most of the current development cost for gaming goes on developing 3D engines and art. If an open source 3D platform arrives, it will leave developers free to work on art and scripting and there’s no lack of enthusiastic amateur talent for both. So if you’ve written off online 3D worlds as chat rooms with eye candy, watch this space – a few years from now they’re where we’ll all be. ¤

While software artefacts sell for silly money in some of the more familiar virtual beat-’em-ups, it’s not so easy to see the attraction of splashing your cold, hard cash when the only things you can spend it on are virtual furniture and exotic, non-physical consumer goods. But, just as in real life, money measures success and having a lot of it to throw around makes your game experience more enjoyable. As a result, most virtual worlds include some form of cash economy. In Entropia you collect things and trade them for cash. In Kaneva and Multiverse, you can spend real money on toy objects – possibly the least interesting deal, even when you get a free virtual disco ball thrown in. Second Life has gone the whole way and lets you buy and sell money in a virtual exchange called Lindex, which trades Linden Dollars for real dollars. The exchange peaked at around 300 LD$ in 2005 and is down to 250 LD$ now, giving Linden Dollars a spooky parity with the Yen and a better exchange rate than other, weaker real-life currencies. For a while Second Life even had private banks, but after a couple of spectacular failures – at least one of which seems to have been run as a classic fraudulent Ponzi pyramid scheme, paying fake interest of 10 per cent until it crashed and burned – banking is now banned. The difference between Second Life and the other shop-’em-ups is that you can make real money selling scripts, clothes and objects. You probably won’t make a lot of actual income and realistically you’ll be lucky to break even on your land fees. Still, some musicians are making £30 a night from turning up with a guitar and streaming a performance from home and there are other opportunities for quick cash for those imaginative and creative enough to take advantage of them.

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